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Transcranial doppler children brain injury

Kerri L LaRovere, Kush Kapur, Doff B McElhinney, Alexander Razumovsky, Barry D Kussman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral emboli are one potential cause of acute brain injury in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) undergoing cardiac catheterization. In this pilot study using transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography, we sought to evaluate the incidence, burden, and circumstances of cerebral high-intensity transient signals (HITS), presumably representing emboli, during pediatric cardiac catheterization. METHODS: Emboli monitoring of the right middle cerebral artery was performed in five children...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
Antonello D'Andrea, Marianna Conte, Massimo Cavallaro, Raffaella Scarafile, Lucia Riegler, Rosangela Cocchia, Enrica Pezzullo, Andreina Carbone, Francesco Natale, Giuseppe Santoro, Pio Caso, Maria Giovanna Russo, Eduardo Bossone, Raffaele Calabrò
Non-invasive Doppler ultrasonographic study of cerebral arteries [transcranial Doppler (TCD)] has been extensively applied on both outpatient and inpatient settings. It is performed placing a low-frequency (≤ 2 MHz) transducer on the scalp of the patient over specific acoustic windows, in order to visualize the intracranial arterial vessels and to evaluate the cerebral blood flow velocity and its alteration in many different conditions. Nowadays the most widespread indication for TCD in outpatient setting is the research of right to left shunting, responsable of so called "paradoxical embolism", most often due to patency of foramen ovale which is responsable of the majority of cryptogenic strokes occuring in patients younger than 55 years old...
July 26, 2016: World Journal of Cardiology
Lori E Crosby, Naomi E Joffe, Blair Davis, Charles T Quinn, Lisa Shook, Darice Morgan, Kenya Simmons, Karen A Kalinyak
Stroke, a devastating complication of sickle cell anemia (SCA), can cause irreversible brain injury with physical and cognitive deficits. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) is a non-invasive tool for identifying children with SCA at highest risk of stroke. National guidelines recommend that TCD screening begin at age 2 years, yet there is research to suggest less than half of young children undergo screening. The purpose of this project was to use quality improvement methods to improve the proportion of patients aged 24-27 months who successfully completed their initial TCD from 25% to 75% by December 31, 2013...
July 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Tensing Maa, Keith Owen Yeates, Melissa Moore-Clingenpeel, Nicole F O'Brien
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to assess carbon dioxide reactivity (CO2R) in children following traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS This prospective observational study enrolled children younger than 18 years old following moderate and severe TBI. Thirty-eight mechanically ventilated children had daily CO2R testing performed by measuring changes in their bilateral middle cerebral artery flow velocities using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) after a transient increase in minute ventilation...
July 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Kerri L LaRovere, Nicole F O'Brien, Robert C Tasker
The purpose of this study was to identify and review clinical studies using transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography in children with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). We identified 16 articles from January 2005 to July 2015 that met inclusion (TBI, five or more cases in case series, subjects <18 years old, TCD performed in PICU) and exclusion criteria (age not stated, data from subjects <18 years not separated from adult data, <85% study population <18 years in mixed population with adults)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Kerri L LaRovere, Nicole F O'Brien
Transcranial Doppler sonography is a noninvasive, real-time physiologic monitor that can detect altered cerebral hemodynamics during catastrophic brain injury. Recent data suggest that transcranial Doppler sonography may provide important information about cerebrovascular hemodynamics in children with traumatic brain injury, intracranial hypertension, vasospasm, stroke, cerebrovascular disorders, central nervous system infections, and brain death. Information derived from transcranial Doppler sonography in these disorders may elucidate underlying pathophysiologic characteristics, predict outcomes, monitor responses to treatment, and prompt a change in management...
December 2015: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Nicole F O'Brien, Tensing Maa, Karin Reuter-Rice
OBJECT: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between transcranial Doppler (TCD) derived pulsatility index (PI), end diastolic flow velocity (Vd), and intracranial pressure (ICP). The subjects in this study were 36 children admitted after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) (postresuscitation Glasgow Coma Scale ≤ 8) undergoing invasive ICP monitoring. METHODS: Subjects underwent a total of 148 TCD studies. TCD measurements of systolic flow velocity (Vs), Vd, and mean flow velocity (Vm) were performed on the middle cerebral artery (MCA) ipsilateral to the ICP monitor...
October 2015: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Nicole F O'Brien, Tensing Maa, Keith O Yeates
OBJECTIVE: To gain a description of the prevalence and time course of vasospasm in children suffering moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury. DESIGN: A prospective, observational study was performed. Children with a diagnosis of traumatic brain injury, a Glasgow Coma Score less than or equal to 12, and abnormal head imaging were enrolled. Transcranial Doppler ultrasound was performed to identify and follow vasospasm. Diagnostic criteria included flow velocity elevation more than or equal to 2 sd above age and gender normal values for the middle cerebral and basilar arteries...
March 2015: Critical Care Medicine
Eboni I Lance, James F Casella, Allen D Everett, Emily Barron-Casella
Biomarker analysis and proteomic discovery in pediatric sickle cell disease has the potential to lead to important discoveries and improve care. The aim of this review article is to describe proteomic and biomarker articles involving neurological and developmental complications in this population. A systematic review was conducted to identify relevant research publications. Articles were selected for children under the age of 21 years with the most common subtypes of sickle cell disease. Included articles focused on growth factors (platelet-derived growth factor), intra and extracellular brain proteins (glial fibrillary acidic protein, brain-derived neurotrophic factor), and inflammatory and coagulation markers (interleukin-1β, l-selectin, thrombospondin-1, erythrocyte, and platelet-derived microparticles)...
December 2014: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
Kathleen J Helton, Robert J Adams, Karen L Kesler, Alex Lockhart, Banu Aygun, Catherine Driscoll, Matthew M Heeney, Sherron M Jackson, Lakshmanan Krishnamurti, Scott T Miller, Sharada A Sarnaik, William H Schultz, Russell E Ware
The Stroke With Transfusions Changing to Hydroxyurea (SWiTCH) trial compared standard (transfusions/chelation) to alternative (hydroxyurea/phlebotomy) treatment to prevent recurrent stroke and manage iron overload in children chronically transfused over 7 years before enrollment. Standardized brain magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and transcranial Doppler (TCD) exams were performed at entry and exit, with a central blinded review. A novel MRA vasculopathy grading scale demonstrated frequent severe baseline left/right vessel stenosis (53%/41% ≥Grade 4); 31% had no vessel stenosis on either side...
August 7, 2014: Blood
Michal Arkuszewski, Jaroslaw Krejza, Rong Chen, Rebecca Ichord, Janet L Kwiatkowski, Michel Bilello, Robert Zimmerman, Kwaku Ohene-Frempong, Elias R Melhem
PURPOSE: Children with sickle cell anemia (SCA), who have mean blood flow velocities <170 cm/s in the terminal internal carotid (tICA) or middle cerebral (MCA) arteries on transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD), are considered to be at low risk of stroke. The prevalence of intracranial stenosis, which raises the risk of stroke, is not known in these children. Here, we estimated the prevalence of stenosis and explored its association with silent cerebral infarcts determined based on Magnetic Resonance (MR) scans...
March 2014: Advances in Medical Sciences
M Arkuszewski, J Krejza, R Chen, E R Melhem
Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a chronic illness associated with progressive deterioration in patients' quality of life. The major complications of SCA are cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) such as asymptomatic cerebral infarct or overt stroke. The risk of CVA may be related to chronic disturbances in cerebral blood flow (CBF), but the thresholds of "normal" steady-state CBF are not well established. The reference tolerance limits of CBF can be useful to estimate the risk of CVA in asymptomatic children with SCA, who are negative for hyperemia or evidence of arterial narrowing...
April 2013: Neuroradiology Journal
Nicole F O'Brien, Mark W Hall
OBJECTIVE: To determine how extracorporeal membrane oxygenation affects cerebral blood flow velocity and to determine whether specific changes in cerebral blood flow velocity may be associated with neurologic injury. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. SETTING: PICU in a tertiary care academic center. PATIENTS: Children (age less than or equal to 18 yr) requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. INTERVENTIONS: None...
March 2013: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Charles T Quinn, Michael M Dowling
BACKGROUND: Desaturation of hemoglobin (Hb) in cerebral tissue, a physiologic marker of brain vulnerable to ischemic injury, can be detected non-invasively by transcranial oximetry. Absolute cerebral oximetry has not been studied in sickle cell disease (SCD), a group at very high risk of cerebral infarction in whom prevention of brain injury is key. PROCEDURE: We measured absolute Hb saturation in cerebral tissue (S(CT)O(2)) in children with SCD using near-infrared spectrophotometry and investigated the contributions of peripheral Hb saturation (S(P)O(2)), hematologic measures, cerebral arterial blood flow velocity, and cerebral arterial stenosis to S(CT)O(2)...
November 2012: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Samir H Haddad, Yaseen M Arabi
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major medical and socio-economic problem, and is the leading cause of death in children and young adults. The critical care management of severe TBI is largely derived from the "Guidelines for the Management of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury" that have been published by the Brain Trauma Foundation. The main objectives are prevention and treatment of intracranial hypertension and secondary brain insults, preservation of cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and optimization of cerebral oxygenation...
2012: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Lori C Jordan, James F Casella, Michael R DeBaun
This review will focus on the strengths and limitations associated with the current standard of care for primary prevention of ischaemic strokes in children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) - transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) screening followed by regular blood transfusion therapy when TCD measurement is above a threshold defined by a randomized clinical trial (RCT). The theoretical basis for potential alternative strategies for primary prevention of neurological injury in SCA is also discussed. These strategies will include, but will not be limited to: immunizations to prevent bacterial infections, particularly in low income countries; management of elevated blood pressure; and targeted strategies to increase baseline haemoglobin levels with therapies such as hyroxycarbamide or potentially definitive haematopoietic stem cell transplant...
April 2012: British Journal of Haematology
D Blanco, A García-Alix, E Valverde, V Tenorio, M Vento, F Cabañas
Standardisation of hypothermia as a treatment for perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy is supported by current scientific evidence. The following document was prepared by the authors on request of the Spanish Society of Neonatology and is intended to be a guide for the proper implementation of this therapy. We discuss the difficulties that may arise when moving from the strict framework of clinical trials to clinical daily care: early recognition of clinical encephalopathy, inclusion and exclusion criteria, hypothermia during transport, type of hypothermia (selective head or systemic cooling) and side effects of therapy...
November 2011: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
Jeffrey D Lebensburger, Lee M Hilliard, Tony M McGrath, Naomi S Fineberg, Thomas H Howard
Children with sickle cell anemia are at risk for brain injury. Physicians obtain brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for clinical indications to determine if a patient has developed a brain injury. Controversy exists whether all children with sickle cell anemia should undergo MRI screening. This retrospective study evaluates the clinical and laboratory correlates for brain injury in 124 MRIs obtained for a variety of clinical indications. Seizure, sensory, or motor events were statistically associated with the highest risk for brain injury while less specific neurologic complaints of headache or poor school performance were not associated...
October 2011: Journal of Child Neurology
Patrick C Drayna, Thomas J Abramo, Cristina Estrada
Near-infrared spectroscopy is a noninvasive means of determining real-time changes in regional oxygen saturation of cerebral and somatic tissues. Hypoxic neurologic injuries not only involve devastating effects on patients and their families but also increase health care costs to the society. At present, monitors of cerebral function such as electroencephalograms, transcranial Doppler, jugular bulb mixed venous oximetry, and brain tissue oxygenation monitoring involve an invasive procedure, are operator-dependent, and/or lack the sensitivity required to identify patients at risk for cerebral hypoxia...
May 2011: Pediatric Emergency Care
Suzanne Verlhac
Transcranial Doppler US, a non-invasive tool for evaluating the cerebral arteries, has evolved significantly during the last two decades. This review describes the practical procedure, and summarises and illustrates its established and "work-in-progress" indications in children. Indications for a transcranial Doppler US examination include, but are not limited to: (1) evaluation of cerebral blood flow velocities in the circle of Willis in patients with sickle cell anaemia to guide transfusion therapy; (2) diagnosis and follow-up of vasculopathy, such as moyamoya disease; (3) diagnosis and monitoring of acute cerebrovascular disorders in intensive care patients, in particular following traumatic brain injury, and during cardiovascular surgery; and (4) confirmation of a clinical diagnosis of brain death by documentation of cerebral circulatory arrest...
May 2011: Pediatric Radiology
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