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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350687/intraocular-currents-bernoulli-s-principle-and-non-drainage-scleral-buckling-for-rhegmatogenous-retinal-detachment
#1
D Wong, Y K Chan, T Bek, I Wilson, E Stefánsson
For many years, it is not fully understood how non-drainage scleral buckling surgery brings about spontaneous reattachment of the detached retina when retinal breaks remain open at the end of surgery. Various explanations have been put forward, but none more interesting than the effect of fluid currents associated with eye movements. One such explanation involved the physics of the Bernoulli's principle. Daniel Bernoulli was an eighteenth century Swiss mathematician and he described an equation based on the conservation of energy...
January 19, 2018: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350685/re-orchestration-of-blood-flow-by-micro-circulations
#2
P A R Meyer
Haemoglobin Video Imaging (HVI) demonstrates conjunctival and episcleral blood flow in man with the resolution of a single erythrocyte. A new method for establishing vessel hierarchy in micro-circulations is described, which recognises either delivery or drainage vessels and references vessel order to the capillary. These tools have been used to characterise blood flow.Anterior ciliary arteries show pulsatile variation in diameter. The episcleral arterial circle that they supply has functional apices with pulsatile flow reversal...
January 19, 2018: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350681/aav-9-mediated-phosphatase-1-inhibitor-1-overexpression-improves-cardiac-contractility-in-unchallenged-mice-but-is-deleterious-in-pressure-overload
#3
D M Schwab, L Tilemann, R Bauer, M Heckmann, A Jungmann, M Wagner, J Burgis, C Vettel, H A Katus, A El-Armouche, O J Müller
The downregulation of β-adrenergic receptors (β-AR) and decreased cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity in failing hearts results in decreased phosphorylation and inactivation of phosphatase-inhibitor-1 (I-1), a distal amplifier element of β-adrenergic signaling, leading to increased protein phosphatase 1 activity and dephosphorylation of key phosphoproteins, including phospholamban. Downregulated and hypophosphorylated I-1 likely contributes to β-AR desensitization; therefore its modulation is a promising approach in heart failure treatment...
January 19, 2018: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350446/differential-gene-expression-in-trigeminal-ganglia-of-male-and-female-rats-following-chronic-constriction-of-the-infraorbital-nerve
#4
O A Korczeniewska, S Husain, J Khan, E Eliav, P Soteropoulos, R Benoliel
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying sex-based differences in pain and analgesia are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated gene expression changes in trigeminal ganglia (TG) of male and female rats exposed to infraorbital nerve chronic constriction injury (IoN-CCI). METHODS: Somatosensory assessments were performed prior to IoN-CCI and at selected time points postsurgery. Selected gene expression changes were examined with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in ipsilateral TG at 21 days postsurgery...
January 19, 2018: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349692/ascites-due-to-constrictive-pericardial-disease-not-appreciated-on-echocardiogram-a-report-of-three-cases
#5
Steven-Huy B Han, Celia Yau, Eva E Chin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349661/pkm2-is-involved-in-neuropathic-pain-by-regulating-erk-and-stat3-activation-in-rat-spinal-cord
#6
Binbin Wang, Siyuan Liu, Bingbing Fan, Xingguo Xu, Yonglin Chen, Rongxiang Lu, Zhongling Xu, Xiaojuan Liu
BACKGROUND: Pyruvate kinase isozymes M2 (PKM2), as a member of pyruvate kinase family, plays a role of glycolytic enzyme in glucose metabolism. It also functions as protein kinase in cell proliferation, signaling, immunity, and gene transcription. In this study, the role of PKM2 in neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) was investigated. METHODS: Rats were randomly grouped to establish CCI models. PKM2, extracellular regulated protein kinases (EKR), p-ERK, signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT3), p-STAT3, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) and p-PI3K/AKT proteins expression in spinal cord was examined by Western blot analysis...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348660/generation-and-characterization-of-alloantigen-specific-regulatory-t-cells-for-clinical-transplant-tolerance
#7
James M Mathew, Jessica H Voss, Scott T McEwen, Iwona Konieczna, Arjun Chakraborty, Xuemei Huang, Jie He, Lorenzo Gallon, Richard S Kornbluth, Joseph R Leventhal
Donor-specific CD4+CD127-CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (AgTregs) have the potential to induce clinical transplant tolerance; however, their expansion ex vivo remains challenging. We optimized a novel expansion protocol to stimulate donor-specific Tregs using soluble 4-trimer CD40 ligand (CD40L)-activated donor B cells that expressed mature antigen-presenting cell markers. This avoided the use of CD40L-expressing stimulator cells that might otherwise result in potential cellular contamination. Purified allogeneic "recipient" CD4+CD25+ Tregs were stimulated on days 0 and 7 with expanded "donor" B cells in the presence of IL-2, TGFβ and sirolimus (SRL)...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348205/structure-of-the-fission-yeast-actomyosin-ring-during-constriction
#8
Matthew T Swulius, Lam T Nguyen, Mark S Ladinsky, Davi R Ortega, Samya Aich, Mithilesh Mishra, Grant J Jensen
Cell division in many eukaryotes is driven by a ring containing actin and myosin. While much is known about the main proteins involved, the precise arrangement of actin filaments within the contractile machinery, and how force is transmitted to the membrane, remains unclear. Here we use cryosectioning and cryofocused ion beam milling to gain access to cryopreserved actomyosin rings in Schizosaccharomyces pombe for direct 3D imaging by electron cryotomography. Our results show that straight, overlapping actin filaments, running nearly parallel to each other and to the membrane, form a loose bundle of ∼150 nm in diameter that "saddles" the inward-bending membrane at the leading edge of the division septum...
January 18, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346496/melanopsin-system-dysfunction-in-smith-magenis-syndrome-patients
#9
Mirella Telles Salgueiro Barboni, Clarissa Bueno, Balázs Vince Nagy, Patrícia Lobo Maia, Kallene Summer Moreira Vidal, Rosana Cardoso Alves, Russel J Reiter, Fernanda Gaspar do Amaral, José Cipolla-Neto, Dora Fix Ventura
Purpose: Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) causes sleep disturbance that is related to an abnormal melatonin profile. It is not clear how the genomic disorder leads to a disturbed synchronization of the sleep/wake rhythm in SMS patients. To evaluate the integrity of the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell (ipRGC)/melanopsin system, the transducers of the light-inhibitory effect on pineal melatonin synthesis, we recorded pupillary light responses (PLR) in SMS patients. Methods: Subjects were SMS patients (n = 5), with molecular diagnosis and melatonin levels measured for 24 hours and healthy controls (n = 4)...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345717/vasoconstrictive-responses-of-the-cephalic-vein-during-first-time-cardiac-implantable-electronic-device-placement
#10
Roman Steckiewicz, Elżbieta Barbara Świętoń, Magdalena Bogdańska, Przemysław Stolarz
BACKGROUND: During cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) implantation procedures cardiac leads have been mostly introduced transvenously. The associated injury to the selected vessel and adjacent tissues may induce reflex vasoconstriction. PURPOSE: To assess the incidence of cephalic vein (CV) vasoconstriction during first-time CIED implantation. METHODS: Of the 146 evaluated first-time CIED implantation procedures conducted in our center in 2016, we selected those during which CV vasoconstriction was recorded...
January 18, 2018: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345019/a-vascular-mechanism-to-explain-thermally-mediated-variations-in-deep-body-cooling-rates-during-the-immersion-of-profoundly-hyperthermic-individuals
#11
Joanne N Caldwell, Anne M J van den Heuvel, Pete Kerry, Mitchell J Clark, Gregory E Peoples, Nigel A S Taylor
Physiologically trivial time differences for cooling the intrathoracic viscera of hyperthermic individuals have been reported between cold- and temperate-water immersion treatments. One explanation for that observation is reduced convective heat delivery to the skin during cold immersion, and this experiment was designed to test both the validity of that observation, and its underlying hypothesis. Eight healthy males participated in four head-out, water immersions: two when normothermic, and two following exercise-induced, moderate-profound hyperthermia...
January 18, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343985/bioactive-chromone-constituents-from-vitex-negundo-alleviate-pain-and-inflammation
#12
Ajmal Khan, Sadia Naz, Umar Farooq, Muhammad Shahid, Irfan Ullah, Iftikhar Ali, Abdur Rauf, Yahia Nasser Mabkhot
Background: Vitex negundo L. has been widely studied for its beneficial effect in inflammatory and pain conditions. The present study describes the isolation of two new bioactive chromone constituents from V. negundo and their in vivo evaluation for anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. Methods: Two new chromone derivatives, namely, methyl 3-(2-(5-hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-oxo-4H-chromen-2-yl)ethyl)benzoate (1) and 3-(1-hydroxy-2-(5-hydroxy-6-methoxy-4-oxo-4H-chromen-2-yl)ethyl)benzoic acid (2) were isolated from V...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343689/a-novel-%C3%AE-conopeptide-eu1-6-inhibits-n-type-cav2-2-calcium-channels-and-exhibits-potent-analgesic-activity
#13
Zhuguo Liu, Peter Bartels, Mahsa Sadeghi, Tianpeng Du, Qing Dai, Cui Zhu, Shuo Yu, Shuo Wang, Mingxin Dong, Ting Sun, Jiabin Guo, Shuangqing Peng, Ling Jiang, David J Adams, Qiuyun Dai
We here describe a novel α-conopeptide, Eu1.6 from Conus eburneus, which exhibits strong anti-nociceptive activity by an unexpected mechanism of action. Unlike other α-conopeptides that largely target nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), Eu1.6 displayed only weak inhibitory activity at the α3β4 and α7 nAChR subtypes and TTX-resistant sodium channels, and no activity at TTX-sensitive sodium channels in rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, or opiate receptors, VR1, KCNQ1, L- and T-type calcium channels expressed in HEK293 cells...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343586/a-case-of-cardiomyopathy-due-to-premature-ductus-arteriosus-closure-the-flip-side-of-paracetamol
#14
Ingrid Anne Mandy Schierz, Mario Giuffrè, Ettore Piro, Simona La Placa, Giovanni Corsello
Paracetamol (acetaminophen or N-acetyl-p-aminophenol) is considered a safe analgesic and antipyretic nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug commonly used during pediatric ages and during pregnancy. We report on a term neonate with closed ductus arteriosus, severe cardiomyopathy, right ventricular dysfunction, and functional stenosis of pulmonary arteries at birth after maternal self-medication with paracetamol and consumption of polyphenol-rich foods in late pregnancy. This drug, especially when associated with other vasoconstrictors (such as polyphenols), interferes with prostaglandin metabolism, which seriously accentuates the intrauterine ductus arteriosus constriction and leads to pharmacologic adverse events...
January 17, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343550/cdk1-dependent-phospho-inhibition-of-a-formin-f-bar-interaction-opposes-cytokinetic-contractile-ring-formation
#15
Alaina H Willet, K Adam Bohnert, Kathleen L Gould
In Schizosaccharomyces pombe, cytokinesis requires the assembly and constriction of an actomyosin-based contractile ring (CR). A single essential formin, Cdc12, localizes to the cell middle upon mitotic onset and nucleates the F-actin of the CR. Cdc12 medial recruitment is mediated in part by its direct binding to the F-BAR scaffold Cdc15. Given that Cdc12 is hyper-phosphorylated in M phase, we explored whether Cdc12 phospho-regulation impacts its association with Cdc15 during mitosis. We found that Cdk1, a major mitotic kinase, phosphorylates Cdc12 on six N-terminal residues near the Cdc15-binding site...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341457/different-effects-of-dexmedetomidine-and-midazolam-on-the-expression-of-nr2b-and-gabaa-%C3%AE-1-following-peripheral-nerve-injury-in-rats
#16
Jiayu Chen, Hanjun Li, Grewo Lim, Michael F McCabe, Wei Zhao, Yunli Yang, Weiqing Ma, Na Li
Neuropathic pain is a complex, chronic pain condition and the treatment is a major clinical challenge. Recent studies have shown that two FDA approved drugs dexmedetomidine (DEX) and midazolam (MZL), may be useful in treating neuropathic pain, but the mechanism is not fully dementated. Here, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of DEX and MZL treatment in the peripheral nerve injury model. Intramuscular injection with DEX and MZL attenuated the development of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in rats with chronic constriction injury (CCI)...
January 17, 2018: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336649/severe-craniofacial-involvement-due-to-amniotic-band-sequence
#17
Luis Eduardo Becerra-Solano, Gema Castañeda-Cisneros, Jorge Roman Corona-Rivera, Manuel Díaz-Rodríguez, Luis Eduardo Figuera, Eunice López-Muñoz, José Antonio Nastasi-Catanese, José Jesús Toscano-Flores, María de Lourdes Ramírez-Dueñas, José Elias García-Ortíz
BACKGROUND: Disruptive amniotic band sequence (DABS) is a sporadic, non-familial disorder with unclear etiology. Diagnosis is based on clinical features because there is currently no reliable laboratory diagnostic tests. OBJECTIVE: We describe six cases of DABS with severe craniofacial deformations, three with and three without classical constrictive limb deformation. RESULTS: The craniofacial deformities were delimited by peripheral sharply demarcated scarring...
January 16, 2018: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336629/pupillary-manifestations-of-marfan-syndrome-from-the-marfan-eye-consortium-of-chicago
#18
Sanket S Shah, Sudhi P Kurup, Hantamalala Ralay Ranaivo, Rebecca B Mets-Halgrimson, Marilyn B Mets
BACKGROUND: Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a genetic disorder that affects multiple organ systems, including the eye. The most common ocular manifestations include ectopia lentis and retinal detachment. The current literature qualitatively cites that MFS patients have miotic or "poorly dilating" pupils. This study was the first to quantitatively assess pupillary function in MFS patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 57 eyes from 29 MFS patients, 36 eyes from 18 pediatric age- and gender-matched controls, and 44 eyes from 22 adult age-matched controls were measured in a clinic-based cross sectional study...
January 16, 2018: Ophthalmic Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334670/genetic-ablation-of-trpv1-exacerbates-pressure-overload-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy
#19
Beihua Zhong, Jack Rubinstein, Shuangtao Ma, Donna H Wang
Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels expressed in sensory nerves may regulate vascular tone and cardiovascular function via their anti-inflammatory effects by releasing neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Inflammation plays a role in the progression of cardiac hypertrophy and TRPV1 activation may be key to cardiac inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that TRPV1 modulates inflammatory processes to protect the heart from pressure overload-induced hypertrophy and inflammatory responses...
January 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333204/aggressive-prostate-cancer-cell-nuclei-have-reduced-stiffness
#20
Zeina S Khan, Julianna M Santos, Fazle Hussain
It has been hypothesized that highly metastatic cancer cells have softer nuclei and hence would travel faster through confining environments. Our goal was to prove this untested hypothesis for prostate cells. Our nuclear creep experiments using a microfluidic channel with a narrow constriction show that stiffness of aggressive immortalized prostate cancer nuclei is significantly lower than that of immortalized normal cell nuclei and hence can be a convenient malignancy marker. Nuclear stiffness is found to be the highest for cells expressing high levels of lamin A/C but lowest for cells expressing low lamin A/C levels...
January 2018: Biomicrofluidics
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