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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155983/meox1-accelerates-myocardial-hypertrophic-decompensation-through-gata4
#1
Dan Lu, Jizheng Wang, Jing Li, Feifei Guan, Xu Zhang, Wei Dong, Ning Liu, Shan Gao, Lianfeng Zhang
Aims: Pathological hypertrophy is the result of gene network regulation, which ultimately leads to adverse cardiac remodelling and heart failure (HF), and is accompanied by the reactivation of a 'foetal gene programme'. The Mesenchyme homeobox 1 (Meox1) gene is one of the foetal programme genes. Meox1 may play a role in embryonic development, but its regulation of pathological hypertrophy is not known. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of Meox1 on pathological hypertrophy, including familial and pressure overload-induced hypertrophy, and its potential mechanism of action...
November 16, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155722/automated-gait-analysis-in-mice-with-chronic-constriction-injury
#2
Dong-Wook Kang, Jae-Gyun Choi, Ji-Young Moon, Suk-Yun Kang, Yeonhee Ryu, Jin Bong Park, Hyun-Woo Kim
The von Frey test is a classical method that has been widely used to examine the sensory function of neuropathic pain animals. However, it has some disadvantages such as subjective data and the requirement of a skilled, experienced experimenter. To date, a variety of modifications have improved the von Frey method, but it still has a few limitations. Recent reports have suggested that gait analysis produces more accurate and objective data from the neuropathic animals. This protocol demonstrates how to perform the automated gait analysis to determine the degree of neuropathic pain in mice...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153187/otoplasty-for-congenital-auricular-malformations
#3
REVIEW
Jiahui Lin, Anthony P Sclafani
Among the less common congenital auricular anomalies are cryptotia, Stahl ear, constricted ear, and macrotia. The vast majority of these occur spontaneously without accompanying syndromes or other deformities. This article provides a comprehensive overview of these anomalies, as well as common techniques to correct these anomalies.
February 2018: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152949/effects-of-valproic-acid-on-sympathetic-activity-and-left-ventricularmyocardial-remodelling-in-rats-during-pressure-overload
#4
Yang Liu, Siyu Li, Zhigang Zhang, Zhanjun Lv, Huijie Jiang, Xiao Tan, Fengquan Liu
Background/aim: Pressure overload induces cardiac remodelling and results in heart failure. Enhanced sympathetic outflow participates in the development of cardiac remodelling for the duration of pressure overload as an independent factor. Valproic acid has recently been shown to reduce neuronal injury and have antiinflammatory and antiapoptotic effects as a histone deacetylase inhibitor. We speculate that the drug plays a specific role in alleviating cardiac remodelling by inhibiting sympathetic activity. Materials and methods: Surgery of partial abdominal aortic constriction was performed on male Sprague-Dawley rats...
November 13, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152668/the-role-of-astrocytic-calcium-and-trpv4-channels-in-neurovascular-coupling
#5
Allanah Kenny, Michael J Plank, Tim David
Neuronal activity evokes a localised change in cerebral blood flow in a response known as neurovascular coupling (NVC). Although NVC has been widely studied the exact mechanisms that mediate this response remain unclear; in particular the role of astrocytic calcium is controversial. Mathematical modelling can be a useful tool for investigating the contribution of various signalling pathways towards NVC and for analysing the underlying cellular mechanisms. The lumped parameter model of a neurovascular unit with both potassium and nitric oxide (NO) signalling pathways and comprised of neurons, astrocytes, and vascular cells has been extended to include the glutamate induced astrocytic calcium pathway with epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) signalling and the stretch dependent TRPV4 calcium channel on the astrocytic endfoot...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152051/%C3%AF-space-screening-of-dermorphin-based-tetrapeptides-through-use-of-constrained-arylazepinone-and-quinolinone-scaffolds
#6
Olivier Van der Poorten, Robin Van Den Hauwe, Emilie Eiselt, Cecilia Betti, Karel Guillemyn, Nga N Chung, François Hallé, Frédéric Bihel, Peter W Schiller, Dirk Tourwé, Philippe Sarret, Louis Gendron, Steven Ballet
Herein, the synthesis of novel conformationally constrained amino acids, 4-amino-8-bromo-2-benzazepin-3-one (8-Br-Aba), 3-amino-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2-one, and regioisomeric 4-amino-naphthoazepinones (1- and 2-Ana), is described. Introduction of these constricted scaffolds into the N-terminal tetrapeptide of dermorphin (i.e., H-Tyr-d-Ala-Phe-Gly-NH2) induced significant shifts in binding affinity, selectivity, and in vitro activity at the μ- and δ-opioid receptors (MOP and DOP, respectively). A reported constrained μ-/δ-opioid lead tetrapeptide H-Dmt-d-Arg-Aba-Gly-NH2 was modified through application of various constrained building blocks to identify optimal spatial orientations in view of activity at the opioid receptors...
November 9, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150958/inhibition-of-mir-200b-mir-429-contributes-to-neuropathic-pain-development-through-targeting-zinc-finger-e-box-binding-protein-1
#7
Xue-Tao Yan, Ying Zhao, Xiao-Li Cheng, Xiang-Hu He, Yu Wang, Wen-Zhong Zheng, Hu Chen, Yan-Lin Wang
Many studies have reported that microRNAs participate in neuropathic pain development. Previously, miR-200b and miR-429 are reported to be involved in various diseases. In our current study, we focused on their roles in neuropathic pain and we found that miR-200b and miR-429 were significantly decreased in chronic constriction injury (CCI) rat spinal cords and isolated microglials. miR-200b and miR-429 overexpression were able to relieve neuropathic pain through modulating PWT and PWL in CCI rats. Meanwhile, we observed that both miR-200b and miR-429 upregulation could repress neuroinflammation via inhibiting inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α in CCI rats...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150614/spatial-regulation-of-contractility-by-neuralized-and-bearded-during-furrow-invagination-in-drosophila
#8
Gantas Perez-Mockus, Khalil Mazouni, Vanessa Roca, Giulia Corradi, Vito Conte, François Schweisguth
Embryo-scale morphogenesis arises from patterned mechanical forces. During Drosophila gastrulation, actomyosin contractility drives apical constriction in ventral cells, leading to furrow formation and mesoderm invagination. It remains unclear whether and how mechanical properties of the ectoderm influence this process. Here, we show that Neuralized (Neur), an E3 ubiquitin ligase active in the mesoderm, regulates collective apical constriction and furrow formation. Conversely, the Bearded (Brd) proteins antagonize maternal Neur and lower medial-apical contractility in the ectoderm: in Brd-mutant embryos, the ventral furrow invaginates properly but rapidly unfolds as medial MyoII levels increase in the ectoderm...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149913/subadditive-responses-to-extremely-short-blue-and-green-pulsed-light-on-visual-evoked-potentials-pupillary-constriction-and-electroretinograms
#9
Soomin Lee, Yuria Uchiyama, Yoshihiro Shimomura, Tetsuo Katsuura
BACKGROUND: The simultaneous exposure to blue and green light was reported to result in less melatonin suppression than monochromatic exposure to blue or green light. Here, we conducted an experiment using extremely short blue- and green-pulsed light to examine their visual and nonvisual effects on visual evoked potentials (VEPs), pupillary constriction, electroretinograms (ERGs), and subjective evaluations. METHODS: Twelve adult male subjects were exposed to three light conditions: blue-pulsed light (2...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149212/mycolactone-displays-anti-inflammatory-effects-on-the-nervous-system
#10
Caroline Isaac, Annie Mauborgne, Alfonso Grimaldi, Kemy Ade, Michel Pohl, Cristina Limatola, Yves Boucher, Caroline Demangel, Laure Guenin-Macé
BACKGROUND: Mycolactone is a macrolide produced by the skin pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans, with cytotoxic, analgesic and immunomodulatory properties. The latter were recently shown to result from mycolactone blocking the Sec61-dependent production of pro-inflammatory mediators by immune cells. Here we investigated whether mycolactone similarly affects the inflammatory responses of the nervous cell subsets involved in pain perception, transmission and maintenance. We also investigated the effects of mycolactone on the neuroinflammation that is associated with chronic pain in vivo...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147919/alterations-to-swallowing-physiology-as-the-result-of-effortful-swallowing-in-healthy-seniors
#11
Sonja M Molfenter, Chuan-Ya Hsu, Ying Lu, Cathy L Lazarus
A significant proportion of healthy seniors report difficulty swallowing, thought to result from age-related decline in muscle bulk/function. Effortful Swallowing (ES) is used both as a compensatory maneuver to improve pharyngeal propulsion/clearance and has been proposed as an exercise to improve pharyngeal strength. This study sought to quantify the immediate kinematic, temporal, and functional changes during an ES maneuver to quantify its exercise potential to combat age-related changes in swallowing. Videofluoroscopy data were collected from 44 healthy seniors (21 male) over 65 years old (mean = 76...
November 17, 2017: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147650/mitochondria-associated-microrna-expression-profiling-of-heart-failure
#12
Xiaoxia Wang, Chun Song, Xiao Zhou, Xiaorui Han, Jun Li, Zengwu Wang, Haibao Shang, Yuli Liu, Huiqing Cao
Heart failure (HF) is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and energy metabolism impairment. MicroRNAs are implicated in the development of heart failure. However, the mitochondria enriched microRNA during heart failure remains elusive. Here, we generated a pressure overload-induced early and late stage heart failure model at 4 weeks and 8 weeks following transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in mice. We found that expression of mitochondrion protein COX4 was highly enriched in isolated mitochondria from cardiac tissues while GAPDH could hardly be detected...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145451/stromal-interaction-molecule-1-haploinsufficiency-causes-maladaptive-response-to-pressure-overload
#13
Takayoshi Ohba, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Manabu Murakami, Kenji Iino, Takeshi Adachi, Yoshihiro Baba, Tomohiro Kurosaki, Kyoichi Ono, Hiroshi Ito
Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), an endo/sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ sensor, has been shown to control a Ca2+-dependent signal that promotes cardiac hypertrophy. However, whether STIM1 has adaptive role that helps to protect against cardiac overload stress remains unknown. We hypothesized that STIM1 deficiency causes a maladaptive response to pressure overload stress. We investigated STIM1 heterozygous KO (STIM1+/-) mice hearts, in which STIM1 protein levels decreased to 27% of wild-type (WT) with no compensatory increase in STIM2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143046/shaping-membrane-vesicles-by-adsorption-of-a-semiflexible-polymer
#14
Bing Li, Steven M Abel
The adsorption of polymers onto fluid membranes is a problem of fundamental interest in biology and soft materials, in part because the flexibility of membranes can lead to nontrivial coupling between polymer and membrane configurations. Here, we use Monte Carlo computer simulations to study the adsorption of a semiflexible polymer onto a fluid membrane vesicle. Polymer adsorption can significantly impact both the vesicle and polymer shapes, and we identify distinct classes of configurations that emerge as a function of polymer persistence length, membrane bending rigidity, adsorption strength, and vesicle size...
November 16, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142242/emergent-patterns-of-collective-cell-migration-under-tubular-confinement
#15
Wang Xi, Surabhi Sonam, Thuan Beng Saw, Benoit Ladoux, Chwee Teck Lim
Collective epithelial behaviors are essential for the development of lumens in organs. However, conventional assays of planar systems fail to replicate cell cohorts of tubular structures that advance in concerted ways on out-of-plane curved and confined surfaces, such as ductal elongation in vivo. Here, we mimic such coordinated tissue migration by forming lumens of epithelial cell sheets inside microtubes of 1-10 cell lengths in diameter. We show that these cell tubes reproduce the physiological apical-basal polarity, and have actin alignment, cell orientation, tissue organization, and migration modes that depend on the extent of tubular confinement and/or curvature...
November 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142021/inf2-mediated-actin-polymerization-at-the-er-stimulates-mitochondrial-calcium-uptake-inner-membrane-constriction-and-division
#16
Rajarshi Chakrabarti, Wei-Ke Ji, Radu V Stan, Jaime de Juan Sanz, Timothy A Ryan, Henry N Higgs
Mitochondrial division requires division of both the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes (IMM and OMM, respectively). Interaction with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) promotes OMM division by recruitment of the dynamin Drp1, but effects on IMM division are not well characterized. We previously showed that actin polymerization through ER-bound inverted formin 2 (INF2) stimulates Drp1 recruitment in mammalian cells. Here, we show that INF2-mediated actin polymerization stimulates a second mitochondrial response independent of Drp1: a rise in mitochondrial matrix calcium through the mitochondrial calcium uniporter...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140904/reconstruction-of-microtias-with-constricted-ear-features-a-22-year-experience
#17
Chul Park, Jung Youl Park
BACKGROUND: The surgical correction of 'microtias with constricted ear features' has remained a challenge due to the variable shape and large volume of the remnant cartilage and skin involved. In order to clarify how this remnant cartilage and skin should be treated, we have reviewed and analyzed cases operated at our Center. METHODS: A total of 167 cases of Microtia with Constricted Ear Features, operated from 1992 to 2014, were included in the study. They were reviewed through medical records and photographs, analysis of surgical methods, and postoperative outcomes...
November 11, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138023/oleanonic-acid-ameliorates-pressure-overload-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-rats-the-role-of-pkc%C3%AE-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#18
Hui Gao, Hui Liu, Tiexin Tang, Xiaofei Huang, Dongxiu Wang, Yan Li, Pan Huang, Yingfu Peng
It has been reported that inflammation is closely related with cardiac hypertrophy. Some inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 directly induce cardiac hypertrophy, which is associated with the activation of nuclear factorkappa B (NF-κB). Thus, NF-κB is an attractive target for cardiac hypertrophy. In the present study, oleanonic acid inhibited the elevation of transcriptional activity of NF-κB and reduced the mRNA expressions of hypertrophic genes such as atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in a concentration-dependent manner in phenylephrine (PE)-treated cardiomyocytes...
November 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136124/what-is-the-clinical-significance-of-ventricular-mural-antagonism
#19
Paul P Lunkenheimer, Peter Niederer, Robert S Stephenson, Klaus Redmann, Randas V Batista, Morten Smerup, Robert H Anderson
Recent morphological studies provide evidence that the ventricular walls are arranged as a 3D meshwork of aggregated cardiomyocyte chains, exhibiting marked local structural variations. In contrary to previous findings, up to two-fifths of the chains are found to have a partially transmural alignment, thus deviating from the prevailing tangential orientation. Upon contraction, they produce, in addition to a tangential force, a radial force component that counteracts ventricular constriction and aids widening of the ventricular cavity...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136112/local-production-of-tenascin-c-acts-as-a-trigger-for-monocyte-macrophage-recruitment-that-provokes-cardiac-dysfunction
#20
Dounia Abbadi, Fanny Laroumanie, Mathilde Bizou, Joffrey Pozzo, Danièle Daviaud, Christine Delage, Denis Calise, Fréderique Gaits-Iacovoni, Marianne Dutaur, Florence Tortosa, Edith Renaud-Gabardos, Victorine Douin-Echinard, Anne-Catherine Prats, Jerome Roncalli, Angelo Parini, Nathalie Pizzinat
Aims: Tenascin-C (TNC) is an endogenous danger signal molecule strongly associated with inflammatory diseases and with poor outcome in patients with cardiomyopathies. Its function within pathological cardiac tissue during pressure overload remains poorly understood. Methods and results: We showed that TNC accumulates after 1 week of transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in the heart of 12-week-old male mice. By cross bone marrow transplantation experiments, we determined that TNC deposition relied on cardiac cells and not on haematopoietic cells...
November 10, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
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