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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214892/baicalin-attenuates-cardiac-dysfunction-and-myocardial-remodeling-in-a-chronic-pressure-overload-mice-model
#1
Yanqing Zhang, Pingping Liao, Meng'en Zhu, Wei Li, Dan Hu, Siming Guan, Long Chen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Baicalin has been shown to be effective for various animal models of cardiovascular diseases, such as pulmonary hypertension, atherosclerosis and myocardial ischaemic injury. However, whether baicalin plays a role in cardiac hypertrophy remains unknown. Here we investigated the protective effects of baicalin on cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload and explored the potential mechanisms involved. METHODS: C57BL/6J-mice were treated with baicalin or vehicle following transverse aortic constriction or Sham surgery for up to 8 weeks, and at different time points, cardiac function and heart size measurement and histological and biochemical examination were performed...
February 16, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214688/h2s-causes-contraction-and-relaxation-of-major-arteries-of-the-rabbit
#2
Martin Caprnda, Tawar Qaradakhi, Joanne L Hart, Nazarii Kobyliak, Radka Opatrilova, Peter Kruzliak, Anthony Zulli
OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) caused by atherosclerosis remains a worldwide burden. Hydrogen sulfide is a promising new therapeutic avenue for the treatment of CVD, however reports show exogenous H2S has both vasodilator and vasoconstrictor effects depending on organ examined, and in vitro studies in animal models which are not resistant to developing atherosclerosis are limited. We sought to determine if rabbit arteries constricted or dilated to hydrogen sulfide. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The aorta, carotid, renal and iliac arteries were harvested from New Zealand White rabbits (n=4) and subjected to a concentration response curve to the fast H2S releaser NaHS...
February 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214508/surgical-management-of-pericardial-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Douglas R Johnston
Disease of the pericardium represents a relatively rare indication for cardiac surgery, and there exist no widely accepted guidelines for surgical management. As such, the surgical approach to the pericardium has relied largely on institutional experience with a slow evolution based on published studies. In particular, management of pericardial constriction has varied widely from surgeon to surgeon and institution to institution, in large part due to a perception of inherent high risk to the procedure. This review covers the current practice of surgery for disease of the pericardium, with particular focus on the evolution of indications for pericardiectomy, new applications in inflammatory or relapsing pericarditis, and the progressive refinement in surgical technique and operative planning which have led to significantly improved outcomes in experienced centers...
January 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213948/hourglass-shaped-right-ventricle-and-localized-constrictive-pericarditis
#4
Alper Karakus, Hasan Ari, Sencer Camci, Selma Ari, Ahmet Tutuncu, Mehmet Melek
Constrictive pericarditis is characterized by thick pericardial fibrosis and frequent calcification that progressively impairs diastolic filling of the heart. The diagnosis of constrictive pericarditis has been challenging even though multiple diagnostic modalities have been developed. The diagnosis of constructive pericarditis is especially difficult in localized constrictive pericarditis which is extremely rare. We report a case of localized constrictive pericarditis with a 3D multislice cardiac computed tomography (CT) finding of the constrictive band causing strangulation and hourglass shaping of the right ventricle...
February 18, 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213069/a-pilot-study-of-cell-mediated-gene-therapy-for-spinal-cord-injury-in-mini-pigs
#5
Islamov Rustem Robertovich, Sokolov Mikhail Evgenyevich, Bashirov Farid Vagizovich, Fadeev Filip Olegovich, Shmarov Maxim Michaylovich, Naroditskiy Boris Savelyevich, Povysheva Tatyana Vyacheslavovna, Shaymardanova Gulnara Ferdinantovna, Yakupov Radik Albertovich, Chelyshev Yuri Aleksandrovich, Lavrov Igor Aleksandrovich
Currently, in clinical practice there is no efficient way to overcome the sequences of neurodegeneration after spinal cord traumatic injury. Using a new experimental model of spinal cord contusion injury on miniature pigs, we proposed to deliver therapeutic genes encoding vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) to the damaged area, using umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (UCBC). In this study, genetically engineered UCBC (2×10(6) cells in 200 ml of saline) were injected intrathecally to mini-pigs 10days after SCI...
February 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212053/transthoracic-echocardiography-pitfalls-and-limitations-as-delineated-at-cardiac-ct-and-mr-imaging
#6
Sachin B Malik, Natalie Chen, Rex A Parker, Joe Y Hsu
Transthoracic echocardiography ( TTE transthoracic echocardiography ) is a critical tool in the field of clinical cardiology. It often serves as one of the first-line imaging modalities in the evaluation of cardiac disease owing to its low cost, portability, widespread availability, lack of ionizing radiation, and ability to evaluate both anatomy and function of the heart. Consequently, a large majority of patients undergoing a cardiac computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging examination will have a TTE transthoracic echocardiography available for review...
February 17, 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209899/gtpase-activity-coupled-treadmilling-of-the-bacterial-tubulin-ftsz-organizes-septal-cell-wall-synthesis
#7
Xinxing Yang, Zhixin Lyu, Amanda Miguel, Ryan McQuillen, Kerwyn Casey Huang, Jie Xiao
The bacterial tubulin FtsZ is the central component of the cell division machinery, coordinating an ensemble of proteins involved in septal cell wall synthesis to ensure successful constriction. How cells achieve this coordination is unknown. We found that in Escherichia coli cells, FtsZ exhibits dynamic treadmilling predominantly determined by its guanosine triphosphatase activity. The treadmilling dynamics direct the processive movement of the septal cell wall synthesis machinery but do not limit the rate of septal synthesis...
February 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205629/mechanisms-of-chinese-medicine-xinmailong-s-protection-against-heart-failure-in-pressure-overloaded-mice-and-cultured-cardiomyocytes
#8
Jianyong Qi, Juan Yu, Yafang Tan, Renshan Chen, Wen Xu, Yanfen Chen, Jun Lu, Qin Liu, Jiashin Wu, Weiwang Gu, Minzhou Zhang
Patients with heart failure (HF) have high mortality and mobility. Xinmailong (XML) injection, a Chinese Medicine, is clinically effective in treating HF. However, the mechanism of XML's effectiveness on HF was unclear, and thus, was the target of the present study. We created a mouse model of pressure-overload-induced HF with transverse aortic constriction (TAC) surgery and compared among 4 study groups: SHAM (n = 10), TAC (n = 12), MET (metoprolol, positive drug treatment, n = 7) and XML (XML treatment, n = 14)...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204979/one-year-swallowing-outcomes-in-patients-treated-with-prophylactic-gabapentin-during-radiation-based-treatment-for-oropharyngeal-cancer
#9
Heather M Starmer, WuYang Yang, Christine G Gourin, Rachit Kumar, Bronwyn Jones, Todd McNutt, Sierra Cheng, Harry Quon
Recent investigations by our study team have demonstrated patients using gabapentin for pain management during chemoradiotherapy (CRT) do well maintaining swallowing during treatment with less need for narcotic pain medication, PEG dependence, weight loss, and short-term swallowing morbidity. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the long-term swallowing function of these patients 1-year following treatment. Sequential patients receiving CRT for oropharyngeal cancer and concurrent gabapentin were evaluated 1-year following treatment for swallowing outcomes...
February 15, 2017: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202417/triptolide-attenuates-pressure-overload-induced-myocardial-remodeling-in-mice-via-the-inhibition-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-expression
#10
Rujun Li, Kuiying Lu, Yao Wang, Mingxing Chen, Fengyu Zhang, Hui Shen, Deshan Yao, Kaizheng Gong, Zhengang Zhang
Triptolide is the predominant active component of the Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F (TwHF) that has been widely used to treat several chronic inflammatory diseases due to its immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties. In the present study, we elucidated the cardioprotective effects of triptolide against cardiac dysfunction and myocardial remodeling in chronic pressure-overloaded hearts. Furthermore, the potential mechanisms of triptolide were investigated. For this purpose, C57/BL6 mice were anesthetized and subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or sham operation...
February 12, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196803/neural-tube-closure-cellular-molecular-and-biomechanical-mechanisms
#11
REVIEW
Evanthia Nikolopoulou, Gabriel L Galea, Ana Rolo, Nicholas D E Greene, Andrew J Copp
Neural tube closure has been studied for many decades, across a range of vertebrates, as a paradigm of embryonic morphogenesis. Neurulation is of particular interest in view of the severe congenital malformations - 'neural tube defects' - that result when closure fails. The process of neural tube closure is complex and involves cellular events such as convergent extension, apical constriction and interkinetic nuclear migration, as well as precise molecular control via the non-canonical Wnt/planar cell polarity pathway, Shh/BMP signalling, and the transcription factors Grhl2/3, Pax3, Cdx2 and Zic2...
February 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195753/subjective-assessment-of-videofluoroscopic-swallow-studies
#12
Janet W Lee, Derrick R Randall, Lisa M Evangelista, Maggie A Kuhn, Peter C Belafsky
Objective The videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) is the gold standard diagnostic tool to evaluate oropharyngeal dysphagia. Although objective measurements on VFSS have been described, there is no universal method of analysis, and the majority of clinicians use subjective interpretation alone. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the accuracy of subjective VFSS analysis. Study Design Double-blinded experiment. Setting Tertiary care laryngology center. Subjects and Methods Seventy-six de-identified videos from VFSS evaluations of patients with dysphagia were presented to blinded, experienced speech-language pathologists and laryngologists individually...
February 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195578/specific-membrane-capacitance-cytoplasm-conductivity-and-instantaneous-young-s-modulus-of-single-tumour-cells
#13
Ke Wang, Yang Zhao, Deyong Chen, Beiyuan Fan, Yulan Lu, Lianhong Chen, Rong Long, Junbo Wang, Jian Chen
As label-free biomarkers, biophysical properties of cells are widely used for cell type classification. However, intrinsic biophysical markers, e.g., specific membrane capacitance (Cspecific membrane), cytoplasm conductivity (σconductivity) and instantaneous Young's modulus (Einstantaneous) measured for hundreds of single cells were not yet reported. In this study, single cells in suspension (adherent cells treated with trypsin) were aspirated through a microfluidic constriction channel at 25 °C, and the entry processes and impedance profiles were recorded and translated to Cspecific membrane, σconductivity and Einstantaneous...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193695/cortical-spreading-depression-closes-the-paravascular-space-and-impairs-glymphatic-flow-implications-for-migraine-headache
#14
Aaron J Schain, Agustin Melo, Andrew M Strassman, Rami Burstein
Functioning of the glymphatic system, a network of paravascular tunnels through which cortical interstitial solutes are cleared from the brain, has recently been linked to sleep and traumatic brain injury, both of which can affect the progression of migraine. This led us to investigate the connection between migraine and the glymphatic system. Taking advantage of a novel in vivo method we developed to visualize the PVS in naïve uninjected mice using 2-photon microscopy, we show that a single wave of cortical spreading depression (CSD), an animal model of migraine aura, induces a rapid and nearly complete closure of the paravascular space (PVS) around surface as well as penetrating cortical arteries and veins lasting several minutes, and gradually recovering over 30 min...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192150/effect-of-artemisinin-on-neuropathic-pain-mediated-by-p2x4-receptor-in-dorsal-root-ganglia
#15
Mofeng Ying, Hui Liu, Tengling Zhang, Chenxu Jiang, Yingxin Gong, Bing Wu, Lifang Zou, Zhihua Yi, Shenqiang Rao, Guilin Li, Chunping Zhang, Tianyu Jia, Shanhong Zhao, Huilong Yua, Liran Shi, Lin Li, Shangdong Liang, Shuangmei Liu
Neuropathic pain is a type of chronic pain caused by nervous system damage and dysfunction. The pathogenesis of chronic pain is complicated, and there are no effective therapies for neuropathic pain. Studies show that the P2X4 receptor expressed in the satellite glial cells (SGCs) of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) is related to neuropathic pain. Artemisinin is a monomeric component extracted from traditional Chinese medicine and has a variety of important pharmacological effects and potential applications. This study observed the effect of artemisinin on neuropathic pain and delineated its possible mechanism...
February 9, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188684/atypical-pupillary-light-reflex-in-2-6-year-old-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#16
Dinalankara M R Dinalankara, Judith H Miles, T Nicole Takahashi, Gang Yao
The purpose of this study was to investigate pupillary light reflex (PLR) in 2-6-years-old children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A total of 117 medication-free 2-6-year-old boys participated in this study. Sixty participants were diagnosed with ASD (the "ASD group") and the other 57 were in the control group of typical development (the "TD group"). A questionnaire was completed by the parent/guardian for assessing potential dysfunctions in the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The base pupil radius, PLR latency, and constriction time showed a significant age-related trend in both the ASD and TD groups...
February 11, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186522/effect-of-internal-architecture-on-microgel-deformation-in-microfluidic-constrictions
#17
Lynna Chen, Kai Xi Wang, Patrick S Doyle
The study of how soft particles deform to pass through narrow openings is important for understanding the transit of biological cells, as well as for designing deformable drug delivery carriers. In this work, we systematically explore how soft microparticles with various internal architectures deform during passage through microfluidic constrictions. We synthesize hydrogel particles with well-defined internal structure using lithography-based UV polymerization in microfluidic channels (stop-flow lithography)...
February 10, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185680/recurrent-pericarditis
#18
M Imazio, A Battaglia, L Gaido, F Gaita
Recurrent pericarditis is the most troublesome complication of pericarditis occurring in 15 to 30% of cases. The pathogenesis is often presumed to be immune-mediated although a specific rheumatologic diagnosis is commonly difficult to find. The clinical diagnosis is based on recurrent pericarditis chest pain and additional objective evidence of disease activity (e.g. pericardial rub, ECG changes, pericardial effusion, elevation of markers of inflammation, and/or imaging evidence of pericardial inflammation by CT or cardiac MR)...
February 6, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184201/long-term-high-fat-diet-treatment-an-appropriate-approach-to-study-the-sex-specificity-of-the-autonomic-and-cardiovascular-responses-to-obesity-in-mice
#19
Thiago Bruder-Nascimento, Obioma J Ekeledo, Ruchi Anderson, Huy B Le, Eric J Belin de Chantemèle
Obesity-related cardiovascular disease (CVD) involves increased sympathetic activity in men and male animals. Although women exhibit increased visceral fat, metabolic disorders, inflammation and CVD with obesity, whether body weight gain affects autonomic control of cardiovascular function in females remain unknown. Due to the lack of adequate model to mimic the human pathology, this study aimed to develop a murine model, which would allow studying the sex-specificity of the response of the autonomic nervous system to obesity and identifying the origin of potential sex-differences...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184169/differential-drug-effects-on-spontaneous-and-evoked-pain-behavior-in-a-model-of-trigeminal-neuropathic-pain
#20
K Deseure, G H Hans
PURPOSE: Baclofen and morphine have shown efficacy against mechanical allodynia after infraorbital nerve chronic constriction injury (IoN-CCI). No drug effects have yet been reported on spontaneous trigeminal neuropathic pain. It has been proposed that the directed face grooming behavior that also develops following IoN-CCI offers a measure of spontaneous trigeminal neuropathic pain. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We examined the effects of a continuous 1-week infusion of 30 mg/day carbamazepine (the first-line drug treatment for trigeminal neuralgia), 1...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
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