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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938502/-alarming-pregabalin-abuse-in-munich-prevalence-patterns-of-use-and-complications
#1
Nicolas Zellner, Florian Eyer, Tobias Zellner
Background Pregabalin is used e. g. for the treatment of neuropathic pain and anxiety disorder. Recently, its potential for abuse and addiction has become apparent. Methods From 2008 - 2015, we searched our database for the term "Pregabalin", including all patients treated in our department and all calls to the Poison Information Centre (PIC) Munich.From October 2013 to September 2014, all patients were included in a cohort study who either were admitted with a drug intoxication or who presented themselves for a course of detoxification (except ethanol)...
September 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937923/psychological-factors-in-chronic-edema-a-case-control-study
#2
Christine J Moffatt, Aimee Aubeeluck, Peter J Franks, Debra C Doherty, Peter Mortimer, Isabelle Quere
BACKGROUND: To examine psychological health and perceived social support in patients with chronic edema (CE). METHODS AND RESULTS: A random sample of 107 patients with CE was group matched for age and gender with 102 community controls. The cases had swelling of the arm (38%) and leg (61%) and midline swelling (14%). Cases were more likely to be single or divorced/separated (p = 0.041) and have reduced mobility (p < 0.001). They had significantly poorer overall health related quality of life (HRQoL), in particular physical functioning (p = 0...
September 2017: Lymphatic Research and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937693/genome-wide-association-study-of-alcohol-consumption-and-genetic-overlap-with-other-health-related-traits-in-uk-biobank-n-112%C3%A2-117
#3
T-K Clarke, M J Adams, G Davies, D M Howard, L S Hall, S Padmanabhan, A D Murray, B H Smith, A Campbell, C Hayward, D J Porteous, I J Deary, A M McIntosh
Alcohol consumption has been linked to over 200 diseases and is responsible for over 5% of the global disease burden. Well-known genetic variants in alcohol metabolizing genes, for example, ALDH2 and ADH1B, are strongly associated with alcohol consumption but have limited impact in European populations where they are found at low frequency. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of self-reported alcohol consumption in 112 117 individuals in the UK Biobank (UKB) sample of white British individuals...
October 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937249/vagotomy-decreases-the-neuronal-activities-of-medulla-oblongata-and-alleviates-neurogenic-inflammation-of-airways-induced-by-repeated-intra-esophageal-instillation-of-hcl-in-guinea-pigs
#4
Z Chen, H Chen, F Chen, D Gu, L Sun, W Zhang, L Fan, Y Lin, R Dong, K Lai
Neuronal activity in the medulla oblongata and neurogenic inflammation of airways were investigated in a guinea pig model induced by repeated intra-esophageal instillation of hydrochloric acid (HCl) after vagotomy. Unilateral vagotomy was performed in the vagotomy group, while a sham-operation was performed in the sham group. Operation was not conducted in sham control group. Airway inflammation was observed with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. C-fos protein was measured by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot (WB)...
September 22, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935284/are-there-tools-to-screen-children-and-adolescents-in-the-emergency-department-with-mental-health-and-substance-abuse-issues
#5
EDITORIAL
Michael P Wilson, Rawle A Seupaul
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934666/behavioral-approach-and-orbitofrontal-cortical-activity-during-decision-making-in-substance-dependence
#6
Dorothy J Yamamoto, Marie T Banich, Michael F Regner, Joseph T Sakai, Jody Tanabe
Behavioral approach, defined as behavior directed toward a reward or novel stimulus, when elevated, may increase one's vulnerability to substance use disorder. Behavioral approach has been associated with relatively greater left compared to right frontal activity; behavioral inhibition may be associated with relatively greater right compared to left frontal brain activity. We hypothesized that substance dependent individuals (SDI) would have higher behavioral approach than controls and greater prefrontal cortical activity during decision-making involving reward...
September 14, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934186/opioid-overdose-outbreak-west-virginia-august-2016
#7
Joel Massey, Michael Kilkenny, Samantha Batdorf, Sarah K Sanders, Debra Ellison, John Halpin, R Matthew Gladden, Danae Bixler, Loretta Haddy, Rahul Gupta
On August 15, 2016, the Mayor's Office of Drug Control Policy in Huntington, West Virginia, notified the Cabell-Huntington Health Department (CHHD) of multiple calls regarding opioid overdose received by the emergency medical system (EMS) during 3 p.m.-8 p.m. that day. A public health investigation and response conducted by the West Virginia Bureau for Public Health (BPH) and CHHD identified 20 opioid overdose cases within a 53-hour period in Cabell County; all cases included emergency department (ED) encounters...
September 22, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934087/high-risk-behaviours-for-the-f%C3%A5-tus-in-pregnant-women-the-medicolegal-and-judicial-aspects
#8
P Desaunay, A Cerf-Hollender, G Andro, P Gerardin, M Dreyfus, F Guenole
Pregnancy is a period of psychological change which may lead to difficulties of adaptation and psychological suffering and give rise to high-risk behaviours for the fœtus in pregnant women. These risk behaviours, which are defined by certain authors as a form of "maltreatment" of the fœtus, usually spring from the psychological distress of the pregnant woman but are not recognised as a specific medical disorder. We illustrate the difficulties encountered in the identification of, and the specific intervention in, these situations through the clinical case of a pregnant drugs-dependent patient subjected to several stress factors who, in addition to consuming substances, developed high-risk behaviours for herself and her pregnancy: self-endangerment under the influence of substances, falls or refusals of treatment...
May 2017: Journal of gynecology obstetrics and human reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934063/openness-to-adopting-evidence-based-practice-in-public-substance-use-treatment-in-south-africa-using-task-shifting-caseload-size-matters
#9
Jessica F Magidson, Jasper S Lee, Kim Johnson, Warren Burnhams, J Randy Koch, Ron Manderscheid, Bronwyn Myers
BACKGROUND: In response to the lack of coverage for substance use treatment in the Western Cape province of South Africa, the local government expanded funding for evidence-based practices (EBPs) for treating substance use. Yet, little is known about provider and staff attitudes towards adopting EBPs in this setting, which is particularly relevant in this context where task shifting clinical care increases demands on paraprofessional providers. This study aimed to (1) assess attitudes towards adopting EBPs among a range of staff working in substance use treatment in Cape Town using a task shifting model; and (2) evaluate factors associated with openness towards adopting EBPs in this setting...
September 21, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931890/pathogenesis-of-lethal-aspiration-pneumonia-in-mecp2-null-mouse-model-for-rett-syndrome
#10
Hiroshi Kida, Tomoyuki Takahashi, Yuki Nakamura, Takashi Kinoshita, Munetsugu Hara, Masaki Okamoto, Satoko Okayama, Keiichiro Nakamura, Ken-Ichiro Kosai, Takayuki Taniwaki, Yushiro Yamashita, Toyojiro Matsuishi
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder mainly caused by mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional regulator Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2), located on the X chromosome. Many RTT patients have breathing abnormalities, such as apnea and breathing irregularity, and respiratory infection is the most common cause of death in these individuals. Previous studies showed that MeCP2 is highly expressed in the lung, but its role in pulmonary function remains unknown. In this study, we found that MeCP2 deficiency affects pulmonary gene expression and structures...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931832/mediating-role-of-trpv1-ion-channels-in-the-co-exposure-to-pm2-5-and-formaldehyde-of-balb-c-mice-asthma-model
#11
Jing Song, Jun Kang, Bencheng Lin, Jinquan Li, Yuqing Zhu, Junting Du, Xu Yang, Zhuge Xi, Rui Li
Asthma is a complex pulmonary inflammatory disease that can be promoted by air pollutants such as PM2.5 and formaldehyde (FA). However, existent experimental evidence principally focuses on the negative influence of a single air pollutant, neglecting the possible synergistic effect in biological responses to mixture of these pollutants, a more common situation in our daily life. In this study, allergic Balb/c mice were exposed to a mixture of PM2.5 and FA, and their toxicological effects and mechanisms were explored...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931135/rescuing-israeli-travellers-effects-of-substance-abuse-mental-health-geographic-region-of-rescue-gender-and-age-of-rescuees
#12
Hagit Bonny-Noach, Moran Sagiv-Alayoff
Background: Research conducted on young Israeli travellers has pointed to high substance usage rates. For some drug-using backpackers, actual extraction and rescue from their trip abroad is necessary. This study represents a first attempt to explore the influence of geographic region in which rescue occurs, cause for rescue and gender and age differences among Israeli rescuees. Methods: Sub-analysis of all logs of individual rescuees during a 5-year period from 2011 to 2016 ( N  = 86) included 66 men and 20 women, with an average age of 27...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931039/abnormalities-in-substance-p-neurokinin-1-receptor-binding-in-key-brainstem-nuclei-in-sudden-infant-death-syndrome-related-to-prematurity-and-sex
#13
Fiona M Bright, Robert Vink, Roger W Byard, Jhodie R Duncan, Henry F Krous, David S Paterson
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) involves failure of arousal to potentially life threatening events, including hypoxia, during sleep. While neuronal dysfunction and abnormalities in neurotransmitter systems within the medulla oblongata have been implicated, the specific pathways associated with autonomic and cardiorespiratory failure are unknown. The neuropeptide substance P (SP) and its tachykinin neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) have been shown to play an integral role in the modulation of homeostatic function in the medulla, including regulation of respiratory rhythm generation, integration of cardiovascular control, and modulation of the baroreceptor reflex and mediation of the chemoreceptor reflex in response to hypoxia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930768/a-6-month-prospective-trial-of-a-personalized-behavioral-intervention-long-acting-injectable-antipsychotic-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia-at-risk-of-treatment-nonadherence-and-homelessness
#14
Martha Sajatovic, Luis F Ramirez, Edna Fuentes-Casiano, Jamie Cage, Curtis Tatsuoka, Michelle E Aebi, Ashley Bukach, Kristin A Cassidy, Jennifer B Levin
PURPOSE: Long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAI) can optimize adherence for high-risk serious mental illness (SMI). This customized adherence-enhancement approach delivered by social worker interventionists was combined with LAI (CAE-L) of paliperidone palmitate for homeless, poorly adherent individuals with SMI. METHODS: This 6-month prospective, uncontrolled trial of CAE-L in 30 recently homeless individuals with SMI assessed adherence using the Tablets Routine Questionnaire, injection frequency, and SMI symptoms measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and Clinical Global Impressions...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930065/trends-in-perceived-access-to-marijuana-among-adolescents-in-the-united-states-2002-2015
#15
Christopher P Salas-Wright, Sehun Oh, Trenette Clark Goings, Michael G Vaughn
OBJECTIVE: There is concern that changes in marijuana-related policy and public opinion may lead to increased access to marijuana among young people in the United States. However, little research has been conducted on changes in youth's perceptions of marijuana access, and studies have yet to systematically examine trends in perceived access across key sociodemographic and externalizing behavioral subgroups. METHOD: Using population-based data collected between 2002 and 2015 as part of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, we examined trends in perceived marijuana access among non-Hispanic White, African American, and Hispanic adolescents (ages 12-17, n = 221,412)...
September 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929198/-substance-abuse-detection-in-substitution-therapy-oral-fluid-versus-urine-screening
#16
Johannes Stein, Max Geraedts
BACKGROUND: A patient's health in an opioid maintenance program is potentially endangered due to concurrent consumption of drugs. Therefore, the German Medical Association requests evidence of compliant substitute intake while type and frequency of drug screening is chosen by the physician. This study comparatively assessed the feasibility and potential advantage of oral fluid drug testing versus urine screening in day-to-day practice. METHODS: Urine and oral fluid-samples of a randomly chosen third of a total of 361 patients, treated in four different practices in a major German city, were tested...
September 19, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929049/antifungal-effects-of-lactobacillus-species-isolated-from-local-dairy-products
#17
Sahar Karami, Mohammad Roayaei, Elnaz Zahedi, Mahmoud Bahmani, Leila Mahmoodnia, Hosna Hamzavi, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei
OBJECTIVE: The Lactobacillus is a genus of lactic acid bacteria which are regularly rod-shaped, nonspore, Gram-positive, heterogeneous, and are found in a wide range of inhabitants such as dairy products, plants, and gastrointestinal tract. A variety of antimicrobial compounds and molecules such as bacteriocin are produced by these useful bacteria to inhibit the growth of pathogenic microbes in the food products. This paper aims to examine the isolation of Lactobacillus from local dairies as well as to determine their inhibition effect against a number of pathogens, such as two fungi: Penicillium notatum and Aspergillus fulvous...
April 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928721/onion-peel-ethylacetate-fraction-and-its-derived-constituent-quercetin-4-o-%C3%AE-d-glucopyranoside-attenuates-quorum-sensing-regulated-virulence-and-biofilm-formation
#18
Hanan M Al-Yousef, Atallah F Ahmed, Nasser A Al-Shabib, Sameen Laeeq, Rais A Khan, Md T Rehman, Ali Alsalme, Mohamed F Al-Ajmi, Mohammad S Khan, Fohad M Husain
The resistance and pathogenesis of bacteria could be related to their ability to sense and respond to population density, termed quorum sensing (QS). Inhibition of the QS system is considered as a novel strategy for the development of antipathogenic agents, especially for combating drug-resistant bacterial infections. In the present study, the anti-QS activity of Onion peel ethylacetate fraction (ONE) was tested against Chromobacterium violaceum CV12472 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. ONE inhibit the QS-mediated virulence factors production such as violacein in C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928400/inhibiting-p-fluorescens-biofilms-with-fluoropolymer-embedded-silver-nanoparticles-an-in-situ-spectroscopic-study
#19
M C Sportelli, E Tütüncü, R A Picca, M Valentini, A Valentini, C Kranz, B Mizaikoff, H Barth, N Cioffi
Surface colonization by microorganisms leads to the formation of biofilms, i.e. aggregates of bacteria embedded within a matrix of extracellular polymeric substance. This promotes adhesion to the surface and protects bacterial community, providing an antimicrobial-resistant environment. The inhibition of biofilm growth is a crucial issue for preventing bacterial infections. Inorganic nanoparticle/Teflon-like (CFx) composites deposited via ion beam sputtering demonstrated very efficient antimicrobial activity...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927865/a-latent-class-analysis-of-brief-postpartum-psychiatric-hospital-admissions
#20
Inbal Shlomi Polachek, Kinwah Fung, Karen Putnam, Samantha Meltzer Brody, Simone N Vigod
Almost 40% of postpartum psychiatric hospital admissions are brief, lasting 72h or less. We aimed to identify unique subgroups of women within this group to inform better intervention. All women in Ontario, Canada with a brief postpartum psychiatric admission (≤ 72h) (2007-2012)(N = 631) were studied using latent class analysis. We identified distinct subtypes of women and compared women within each subtype on post-discharge mental health indicators: physician visits, emergency department (ED) visits and readmissions...
September 11, 2017: Psychiatry Research
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