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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814067/neuro-immune-interactions-in-allergic-diseases-novel-targets-for-therapeutics
#1
Tiphaine Voisin, Amélie Bouvier, Isaac M Chiu
Recent studies have highlighted an emerging role for neuro-immune interactions in mediating allergic diseases. Allergies are caused by an overactive immune response to a foreign antigen. The peripheral sensory and autonomic nervous system densely innervates mucosal barrier tissues including the skin, respiratory tract and gastrointestinal (GI) tract that are exposed to allergens. It is increasingly clear that neurons actively communicate with and regulate the function of mast cells, dendritic cells, eosinophils, Th2 cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells in allergic inflammation...
June 1, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813562/polygenic-scores-for-major-depressive-disorder-and-risk-of-alcohol-dependence
#2
Allan M Andersen, Robert H Pietrzak, Henry R Kranzler, Li Ma, Hang Zhou, Xiaoming Liu, John Kramer, Samuel Kuperman, Howard J Edenberg, John I Nurnberger, John P Rice, Jay A Tischfield, Alison Goate, Tatiana M Foroud, Jacquelyn L Meyers, Bernice Porjesz, Danielle M Dick, Victor Hesselbrock, Eric Boerwinkle, Steven M Southwick, John H Krystal, Myrna M Weissman, Douglas F Levinson, James B Potash, Joel Gelernter, Shizhong Han
Importance: Major depressive disorder (MDD) and alcohol dependence (AD) are heritable disorders with significant public health burdens, and they are frequently comorbid. Common genetic factors that influence the co-occurrence of MDD and AD have been sought in family, twin, and adoption studies, and results to date have been promising but inconclusive. Objective: To examine whether AD and MDD overlap genetically, using a polygenic score approach. Design, Settings, and Participants: Association analyses were conducted between MDD polygenic risk score (PRS) and AD case-control status in European ancestry samples from 4 independent genome-wide association study (GWAS) data sets: the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA); the Study of Addiction, Genetics, and Environment (SAGE); the Yale-Penn genetic study of substance dependence; and the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study (NHRVS)...
August 16, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813209/galangin-a-natural-flavonoid-reduces-mitochondrial-oxidative-damage-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#3
Amal A Aloud, Chinnadurai Veeramani, Chandramohan Govindasamy, Mohammed A Alsaif, Khalid S Al-Numair
OBJECTIVE: We designed this study to observe the effect of galangin on damaged mitochondria in the liver of diabetic rats. METHODS: Male albino Wistar rats were made diabetic by injecting streptozotocin (STZ) intraperitoneally (40 mg kg(-1) body weight (BW)). Galangin (8 mg kg(-1) BW) or glibenclamide (600 µg kg(-1) BW) was given orally daily once for 45 days to both healthy and diabetic rats. RESULTS: Diabetic rats showed significant (P < 0...
August 16, 2017: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813208/substance-use-and-dependence-among-current-reserve-and-former-military-members-cross-sectional-findings-from-the-national-survey-on-drug-use-and-health-2010-2014
#4
Rachel A Hoopsick, Jennifer Fillo, Bonnie M Vest, D Lynn Homish, Gregory G Homish
BACKGROUND: Maladjustment after leaving the military may contribute to poor health outcomes, including increased risk for substance use and dependence. AIMS: We aimed to examine differences in substance use and dependence on the basis of military involvement in a large nationally representative sample. METHODS: Data are from a subset of the 2010-2014 waves of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (N = 5,608). Our sample included men and women aged 20-49 years who had either separated/retired from the military (n = 4,862) or were a current reserve soldier (n = 746)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Addictive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813207/examination-of-synthetic-cannabinoid-and-cathinone-use-among-a-drug-using-offender-sample-2013-2015
#5
Kirsten Elin Smith, Amanda M Bunting, Michele Staton, Robert Walker, Sara Shalash, Erin Winston, Kevin Pangburn
Use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) such as synthetic cannabinoids (e.g., "Spice," "Serenity") and cathinones (e.g., "bath salts") has proliferated in recent years; however, there is a gap in research examining prevalence among offender samples. This study examined demographics, drug use, mental health characteristics, and criminal histories of NPS users compared to non-NPS users within an offender sample entering drug treatment. Using logistic regression analysis, combined 2013-2015 assessment data were examined (N = 8,791)...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812324/parents-adverse-childhood-experiences-and-mental-health-screening-using-home-visiting-programs-a-pilot-study
#6
Katie Johnson, Alicia Woodward, Sadie Swenson, Christine Weis, Margene Gunderson, Marilyn Deling, Valeria Cristiani, Brian Lynch
BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with adult high-risk behaviors and diseases. There is value in screening parents for ACEs given the repercussions parental ACEs may have on parenting behaviors and child development. The primary aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of parental ACE screening in the home setting. A secondary aim was to evaluate whether or not maternal ACEs correlated with maternal mental health measures. METHODS: Two home visiting programs that support early childhood development and conduct parental mental health screening implemented ACE screening for parents of infants <1 year of age...
August 15, 2017: Public Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812082/a-broader-view-on-ion-heating-in-traveling-wave-devices-using-fragmentation-of-csi-clusters-and-extent-of-h%C3%AB-migration-as-molecular-thermometers
#7
Frederik Lermyte, Frank Sobott
Electron transfer dissociation (ETD) is becoming increasingly important in mass spectrometry-based analysis of peptides and proteins. Supplemental collisional activation of undissociated electron transfer products can significantly increase fragmentation yield and sequence coverage, but hydrogen rearrangements - specifically, transfer of a hydrogen radical from a c to a z fragment - lead to distorted isotope distributions and increased potential for signal overlap. Concomitant collisional activation during the ion/ion reaction significantly reduces these rearrangements, but, in ion traps, also leads to lower reaction rates and reduced overlap of anion and cation clouds...
August 16, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811826/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-piper-attenuatum-methanol-extract-in-lps-stimulated-inflammatory-responses
#8
You Jin Kim, Jeong Deok, Sunggyu Kim, Deok Hyo Yoon, Gi-Ho Sung, Adithan Aravinthan, Seungihm Lee, Mi-Nam Lee, Suntaek Hong, Jong-Hoon Kim, Young-Jin Son, Jae Youl Cho
Piper attenuatum is used as a traditional medicinal plant in India. One of the substances in P. attenuatum has been suggested to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, there is insufficient research about the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of action of P. attenuatum. The effects of P. attenuatum methanol extract (Pa-ME) on the production of inflammatory mediators nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), the expression of proinflammatory genes, the translocation level of transcription factors, and intracellular signaling activities were investigated using macrophages...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811704/gastrointestinal-neuroendocrine-peptides-amines-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#9
REVIEW
Magdy El-Salhy, Tefera Solomon, Trygve Hausken, Odd Helge Gilja, Jan Gunnar Hatlebakk
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic recurrent condition whose etiology is unknown, and it includes ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and microscopic colitis. These three diseases differ in clinical manifestations, courses, and prognoses. IBD reduces the patients' quality of life and is an economic burden to both the patients and society. Interactions between the gastrointestinal (GI) neuroendocrine peptides/amines (NEPA) and the immune system are believed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of IBD...
July 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810400/an-event-level-examination-of-successful-condom-negotiation-strategies-among-young-women
#10
Courtney Peasant, Erika A Montanaro, Trace S Kershaw, Gilbert R Parra, Nicole H Weiss, Jaimie P Meyer, James G Murphy, Tiarney D Ritchwood, Tami P Sullivan
This study examines the effect of condom negotiation strategies on condom use and partner type and substance use before sex as moderators of strategy effectiveness. Women reported their daily sexual behavior during the last month. Withholding sex was more strongly associated with condom use when utilized with a non-casual sex partner. Directly requesting condom use was more strongly and using deceptive reasons to influence condom use was less strongly related to condom use during substance use. Results underscore the importance of understanding the contexts in which condom negotiation strategies are successful in order to improve HIV/sexually transmitted infection prevention efforts among women...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810156/more-inflammation-but-less-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-antisocial-personality-disorder
#11
Tzu-Yun Wang, Sheng-Yu Lee, Ming-Chuan Hu, Shiou-Lan Chen, Yun-Hsuan Chang, Chun-Hsien Chu, Shih-Hsien Lin, Chia-Ling Li, Liang-Jen Wang, Po See Chen, Shih-Heng Chen, San-Yuan Huang, Nian-Sheng Tzeng, I Hui Lee, Kao Chin Chen, Yen Kuang Yang, Jau-Shyong Hong, Ru-Band Lu
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is highly comorbid with substance use disorders (SUDs). We hypothesize that chronic neuroinflammation and the loss of neurotrophic factors prompts the pathogenesis of both disorders. We used ELISA to measure plasma levels of proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], C-reactive protein [CRP]) and anti-inflammatory factors (transforming growth factor-β1 [TGF-β1] and interleukin-10 [IL-10]), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in male patients with ASPD (n=74), SUDs (n=168), ASPD comorbid with SUDs (ASPD+SUDs) (n=438), and Healthy Controls (HCs) (n=81)...
August 5, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810036/evaluation-of-macular-perfusion-in-healthy-smokers-by-using-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography
#12
Ziya Ayhan, Mahmut Kaya, Taylan Ozturk, Omer Karti, F Hakan Oner
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To investigate the macular perfusion changes in healthy smokers by using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: OCTA measurements were taken for the right eyes of 40 smokers (Group 1) and age- and sex-matched control cases (Group 2). Group 1 underwent OCTA scanning with the XR Avanti AngioVue OCTA (Optovue, Fremont, CA) at baseline and at 5 minutes, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes after one standard cigarette smoking...
August 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809844/the-4-vessel-sampling-approach-to-integrative-studies-of-human-placental-physiology-in-vivo
#13
Ane M Holme, Maia B Holm, Marie C P Roland, Hildegunn Horne, Trond M Michelsen, Guttorm Haugen, Tore Henriksen
The human placenta is highly inaccessible for research while still in utero. The current understanding of human placental physiology in vivo is therefore largely based on animal studies, despite the high diversity among species in placental anatomy, hemodynamics and duration of the pregnancy. The vast majority of human placenta studies are ex vivo perfusion studies or in vitro trophoblast studies. Although in vitro studies and animal models are essential, extrapolation of the results from such studies to the human placenta in vivo is uncertain...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809799/update-on-monoterpenes-as-antimicrobial-agents-a-particular-focus-on-p-cymene
#14
REVIEW
Anna Marchese, Carla Renata Arciola, Ramona Barbieri, Ana Sanches Silva, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Arold Jorel Tsetegho Sokeng, Morteza Izadi, Nematollah Jonaidi Jafari, Ipek Suntar, Maria Daglia, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
p-Cymene [1-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-benzene] is a monoterpene found in over 100 plant species used for medicine and food purposes. It shows a range of biological activity including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, anxiolytic, anticancer and antimicrobial effects. This last property has been widely investigated due to the urgent need for new substances with antimicrobial properties, to be used to treat communicable diseases whose diffusion in developed countries has been facilitated by globalization and the evolution of antimicrobial resistance...
August 15, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809128/real-world-adherence-and-economic-outcomes-associated-with-paliperidone-palmitate-versus-oral-atypical-antipsychotics-in-schizophrenia-patients-with-substance-related-disorders-using-medicaid-benefits
#15
Kruti Joshi, Marie-Hélène Lafeuille, Rhiannon Kamstra, Sean Tiggelaar, Patrick Lefebvre, Edward Kim, Yong Yue, Neeta Tandon
AIM: Compare medication utilization, costs and healthcare resource use in schizophrenia patients with substance-related disorders initiated on once-monthly paliperidone palmitate (PP1M) or an oral atypical antipsychotic (OAA). MATERIALS & METHODS: Data from six Medicaid states (07/2009-03/2015) were used to compare outcomes between PP1M and OAA patients. RESULTS: PP1M patients had higher 12-month antipsychotic adherence and persistence than OAA patients...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808862/a-pilot-study-comparing-t-regulatory-cell-function-among-healthy-children-in-different-areas-of-gansu-china
#16
Panhong Gou, Xiaoru Chang, Zhonghui Ye, Yueli Yao, Patton Khuu Nguyen, Sally Katharine Hammond, Junling Wang, Sa Liu
Immune system is critical to protecting human health from toxic substances. Our previously published research had found an important link between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air and changes at the DNA level in immune cells that led to impaired function of regulatory T (Treg) cells in children living in California, USA. But molecular and cellular pathways of these changes remain unclear. The present study aims to explore whether exposure to PAHs leads to changes in Treg cells functions of children living in Gansu, China, where ambient air pollution levels are much higher than those in California, and to explore potential mechanisms of PAH-induced immunological dysfunctions...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808842/colonic-motor-dysfunctions-in-a-mouse-model-of-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-an-involvement-of-a2b-adenosine-receptors
#17
Luca Antonioli, Carolina Pellegrini, Matteo Fornai, Erika Tirotta, Daniela Gentile, Laura Benvenuti, Maria Cecilia Giron, Valentina Caputi, Ilaria Marsilio, Genny Orso, Nunzia Bernardini, Cristina Segnani, Chiara Ippolito, Balázs Csóka, Zoltán H Németh, György Haskó, Carmelo Scarpignato, Corrado Blandizzi, Rocchina Colucci
Adenosine A2B receptors (A2BR) regulate several enteric functions. However, their implication in the pathophysiology of intestinal dysmotility associated with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity has not been elucidated. We investigated the expression of A2BR in mouse colon and their role in the mechanisms underlying the development of enteric dysmotility associated with obesity. Wild-type C57BL/6J mice were fed with HFD (60% kcal from fat) or normocaloric diet (NCD; 18% kcal from fat) for 8 weeks. Colonic A2BR localization was examined by immunofluorescence...
August 14, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808741/stable-isotope-raman-microspectroscopy-for-the-analysis-of-soil-organic-matter
#18
Alexandra C Wiesheu, Ramona Brejcha, Carsten W Mueller, Ingrid Kögel-Knabner, Martin Elsner, Reinhard Niessner, Natalia P Ivleva
We examined the potential of stable-isotope Raman microspectroscopy (SIRM) for the evaluation of differently enriched (13)C-labeled humic acids as model substances for soil organic matter (SOM). The SOM itself can be linked to the soil water holding capacity. Therefore, artificial humic acids (HA) with known isotopic compositions were synthesized and analyzed by means of SIRM. By performing a pregraphitization, a suitable analysis method was developed to cope with the high fluorescence background. Results were verified against isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS)...
August 14, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808461/the-effect-of-calcium-chloride-on-push-out-bond-strength-of-calcium-enriched-mixture-cement-and-mineral-trioxide-aggregate
#19
Mohammad Mehdi Shokouhi, Abbas Abbaszadegan, Amin Ameri, Seyed Masih Sharifian, Mohammadreza Nabavizadeh
INTRODUCTION: This in vitro study investigated the effect of adding 10% calcium chloride (CaCl2) on push out bond strength of calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) to root canal dentin. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 120 root dentin slices with 2 mm thickness were prepared from sixty single-rooted human teeth. Dentinal discs were enlarged to achieve 1.3 mm diameter. The specimens were randomly allocated into eight groups (n=15)...
2017: Iranian Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808407/in-vitro-cell-viability-by-cellprofiler-%C3%A2-software-as-equivalent-to-mtt-assay
#20
Luciana S Gasparini, Nayana D Macedo, Elisângela F Pimentel, Marcio Fronza, Valdemar L Junior, Warley S Borges, Eduardo R Cole, Tadeu U Andrade, Denise C Endringer, Dominik Lenz
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated in vitro cell viability by the colorimetric MTT stands for 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay compared to image analysis by CellProfiler(®) software. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hepatoma (Hepa-1c1c7) and fibroblast (L929) cells were exposed to isolated substances, camptothecin, lycorine, tazettine, albomaculine, 3-epimacronine, trispheridine, galanthine and Padina gymnospora, Sargassum sp...
July 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
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