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Cholestatic liver diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330614/a-predictive-3d-multi-scale-model-of-biliary-fluid-dynamics-in-the-liver-lobule
#1
Kirstin Meyer, Oleksandr Ostrenko, Georgios Bourantas, Hernan Morales-Navarrete, Natalie Porat-Shliom, Fabian Segovia-Miranda, Hidenori Nonaka, Ali Ghaemi, Jean-Marc Verbavatz, Lutz Brusch, Ivo Sbalzarini, Yannis Kalaidzidis, Roberto Weigert, Marino Zerial
Bile, the central metabolic product of the liver, is transported by the bile canaliculi network. The impairment of bile flow in cholestatic liver diseases has urged a demand for insights into its regulation. Here, we developed a predictive 3D multi-scale model that simulates fluid dynamic properties successively from the subcellular to the tissue level. The model integrates the structure of the bile canalicular network in the mouse liver lobule, as determined by high-resolution confocal and serial block-face scanning electron microscopy, with measurements of bile transport by intravital microscopy...
March 15, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326955/a-challenging-case-of-severe-infantile-cholestasis-in-alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficiency
#2
Zahida Khan, Veena L Venkat, Kyle A Soltys, Donna B Stolz, Sarangarajan Ranganathan
Jaundice in the newborn period can be physiologic and is often due to benign causes. Jaundice due to conjugated hyperbilirubinemia extending beyond the second week of life may be an early sign of several cholestatic or metabolic liver diseases, and it requires logical and timely analysis so that specific treatments can be initiated. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is the most common genetic cause of pediatric liver disease and transplantation, and it must be considered when evaluating cholestatic infants. Here, we present an unusual case of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency with severe infantile cholestasis and rapid decompensation in the first 4 months of life, where in-depth but timely diagnosis was crucial for the appropriate intervention to take place...
March 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322867/bile-acid-analysis-in-human-disorders-of-bile-acid-biosynthesis
#3
REVIEW
Frédéric M Vaz, Sacha Ferdinandusse
Bile acids facilitate the absorption of lipids in the gut, but are also needed to maintain cholesterol homeostasis, induce bile flow, excrete toxic substances and regulate energy metabolism by acting as signaling molecules. Bile acid biosynthesis is a complex process distributed across many cellular organelles and requires at least 17 enzymes in addition to different metabolite transport proteins to synthesize the two primary bile acids, cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid. Disorders of bile acid synthesis can present from the neonatal period to adulthood and have very diverse clinical symptoms ranging from cholestatic liver disease to neuropsychiatric symptoms and spastic paraplegias...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315314/nicotine-promotes-cholangiocarcinoma-growth-in-xenograft-mice
#4
Allyson K Martínez, Kendal Jensen, Chad Hall, April O'Brien, Laurent Ehrlich, Tori White, Fanyin Meng, Tianhao Zhou, John Greene, Francesca Bernuzzi, Pietro Invernizzi, David E Dostal, Terry Lairmore, Gianfranco Alpini, Shannon Glaser
Nicotine, the main addictive substance in tobacco, is known to play a role in the development and/or progression of a number of malignant tumors. However, nicotine's involvement in the pathogenesis of cholangiocarcinoma is controversial. Therefore, we studied the effects of nicotine on the growth of cholangiocarcinoma cells in vitro and the progression of cholangiocarcinoma in a mouse xenograft model. The predominant subunit responsible for nicotine-mediated proliferation in normal and cancer cells, the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR), was more highly expressed in human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines compared with normal human cholangiocytes...
March 14, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302211/-sodium-taurocholate-cotransporting-polypeptide-deficiency-manifesting-as-cholestatic-jaundice-in-early-infancy-a-complicated-case-study
#5
Yuan-Zong Song, Mei Deng
Sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) deficiency is caused by SLC10A1 mutations impairing the NTCP function to uptake plasma bile salts into the hepatocyte. Thus far, patients with NTCP deficiency were rarely reported. The patient in this paper was a 5-month-19-day male infant with the complaint of jaundiced skin and sclera for 5.5 months as well as abnormal liver function revealed over 4 months. His jaundice was noticed on the second day after birth, and remained visible till his age of 1 month and 13 days, when a liver function test unveiled markedly elevated total, direct and indirect bilirubin as well as total bile acids (TBA)...
March 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293027/genetics-of-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis-and-pathophysiological-implications
#6
REVIEW
Xiaojun Jiang, Tom H Karlsen
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic disease leading to fibrotic scarring of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts, causing considerable morbidity and mortality via the development of cholestatic liver cirrhosis, concurrent IBD and a high risk of bile duct cancer. Expectations have been high that genetic studies would determine key factors in PSC pathogenesis to support the development of effective medical therapies. Through the application of genome-wide association studies, a large number of disease susceptibility genes have been identified...
March 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289714/bile-acids-initiate-cholestatic-liver-injury-by-triggering-a-hepatocyte-specific-inflammatory-response
#7
Shi-Ying Cai, Xinshou Ouyang, Yonglin Chen, Carol J Soroka, Juxian Wang, Albert Mennone, Yucheng Wang, Wajahat Z Mehal, Dhanpat Jain, James L Boyer
Mechanisms of bile acid-induced (BA-induced) liver injury in cholestasis are controversial, limiting development of new therapies. We examined how BAs initiate liver injury using isolated liver cells from humans and mice and in-vivo mouse models. At pathophysiologic concentrations, BAs induced proinflammatory cytokine expression in mouse and human hepatocytes, but not in nonparenchymal cells or cholangiocytes. These hepatocyte-specific cytokines stimulated neutrophil chemotaxis. Inflammatory injury was mitigated in Ccl2(-/-) mice treated with BA or after bile duct ligation, where less hepatic infiltration of neutrophils was detected...
March 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276829/chronic-cholestatic-liver-diseases
#8
Helge L Waldum, Einar S Björnsson, Eiliv Brenna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 28, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276816/emerging-treatments-for-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#9
Eduardo A Rodriguez, Elizabeth J Carey, Keith D Lindor
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic, cholestatic, idiopathic liver disease that can progress to end-stage liver disease, cirrhosis and cholangiocarcinoma. PSC is an uncommon and highly heterogeneous disease, associated with inflammatory bowel disease and a complex pathophysiology. To date, no medical therapies have proved effective. The only available treatment for end-stage PSC is liver transplant, but recurrence is a significant complication. Areas covered: This review will explore previously tested treatments, discuss current treatment strategies and present viewpoints about future emerging therapies in PSC...
February 22, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271527/the-role-of-lncrna-h19-in-gender-disparity-of-cholestatic-liver-injury-in-mdr2-mice
#10
Xiaojiaoyang Li, Runping Liu, Jing Yang, Lixin Sun, Luyong Zhang, Zhenzhou Jiang, Puneet Puri, Emily C Gurley, Guanhua Lai, Yuping Tang, Zhiming Huang, William M Pandak, Phillip B Hylemon, Huiping Zhou
The multi-drug resistance 2 knockout (Mdr2(-/-) ) mouse is a well-established model of cholestatic cholangiopathies. Female Mdr2(-/-) mice develop more severe hepatobiliary damage than male Mdr2(-/-) mice, which is correlated with a higher proportion of taurocholate (TCA) in bile. Although estrogen has been identified as an important player in intrahepatic cholestasis, the underlying molecular mechanisms of gender-based disparity of cholestatic injury remain unclear. The long non-coding RNA H19 is an imprinted, maternally expressed and estrogen-targeted gene, which is significantly induced in human fibrotic/cirrhotic liver and bile duct ligated mouse liver...
March 8, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267673/paeoniflorin-attenuates-anit-induced-cholestasis-by-inhibiting-apoptosis-in-vivo-via-mitochondria-dependent-pathway
#11
Hou-Qin Zhou, Wei Liu, Jian Wang, Yin-Qiu Huang, Peng-Yan Li, Yun Zhu, Jia-Bo Wang, Xiao Ma, Rui-Sheng Li, Shi-Zhang Wei, Kun Li, Hao-Tian Li, Jian-Yu Li, Xiao-He Xiao, Yan-Ling Zhao
Apoptosis induced by the bile acids in the liver is considered to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of cholestatic disease. Increasing evidence has demonstrated that Paeoniflorin (PF) exerts therapeutic effect on severe cholestatic liver diseases. However, whether PF could protect against alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT)-induced cholestasis by inhibiting apoptosis remains unclear. In this study, we mainly investigated the effect and anti-apoptosis mechanism of PF on cholestasis. Experimental results indicated that PF pretreatment could attenuate liver damage and cholestasis by ANIT in rats, lift the biliary excretion in addition to decrease serum indices (ALT, AST, DBIL, TBIL, TBA, ALP and ϒ-GT) and conspicuous neutrophil infiltration and cell apoptosis in liver evidenced by TUNEL staining...
March 3, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267072/an-attempt-to-determine-the-prevalence-of-two-inborn-errors-of-primary-bile-acid-synthesis-results-of-a-european-survey
#12
Jörg Jahnel, Evelyn Zöhrer, Björn Fischler, Lorenzo D'Antiga, Dominique Debray, Antal Dezsofi, Dorothea Haas, Nedim Hadzic, Emmanuel Jacquemin, Thierry Lamireau, Giuseppe Maggiore, Pat J McKiernan, Pier Luigi Calvo, Henkjan J Verkade, Loreto Hierro, Valerie McLin, Ulrich Baumann, Emmanuel Gonzales
OBJECTIVE: Inborn errors of primary bile acid (BA) synthesis are genetic cholestatic disorders leading to accumulation of atypical BA with deficiency of normal BA. Unless treated with primary BA, chronic liver disease usually progresses to cirrhosis and liver failure before adulthood. We sought to determine the prevalence of two common disorders, 3β-hydroxy-Δ-C27-steroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and Δ-3-oxosteroid-5β-reductase (Δ-3-oxoR) deficiencies and to describe current diagnostic and treatment strategies among different European paediatric hepatology centres...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267037/intravenous-lipid-emulsions-in-pediatric-patients-with-intestinal-failure
#13
Olivier Goulet, Cécile Lambe
The incidence of cholestatic liver disease (CLD) in pediatric patients suffering intestinal failure (IF) is not well established. Due to persistent portal inflammation, about 20% of these patients will progress to end-stage intestinal failure associated liver disease (IFALD) leading to liver transplant or death. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Premature babies as well as infants with short bowel syndrome (SBS) and repeated sepsis (catheter or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth related) are at risk of developing CLD...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255561/genetic-contribution-to-the-pathogenesis-of-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#14
REVIEW
Satoru Joshita, Takeji Umemura, Eiji Tanaka, Masao Ota
Formerly termed primary biliary cirrhosis, primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic and progressive cholestatic liver disease characterized by the presence of antimitochondrial antibodies. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) therapy is the most effective and approved treatment for PBC and leads to a favorable outcome in the vast majority of cases. Although the etiology of PBC has not yet been elucidated, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles have been consistently associated with disease onset for decades...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253873/extended-clinical-features-associated-with-novel-glis3-mutation-a-case-report
#15
K A Alghamdi, A B Alsaedi, A Aljasser, A Altawil, Naglaa M Kamal
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the GLI-similar 3 (GLIS3) gene encoding the transcription factor GLIS3 are a rare cause of neonatal diabetes and congenital hypothyroidism with 12 reported patients to date. Additional features, previously described, include congenital glaucoma, hepatic fibrosis, polycystic kidneys, developmental delay, facial dysmorphism, osteopenia, sensorineural deafness, choanal atresia, craniosynostosis and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a new case for consanguineous parents with homozygous novel mutation in GLIS3 gene who presented with neonatal diabetes mellitus, severe resistant congenital hypothyroidism, cholestatic liver disease, bilateral congenital glaucoma and facial dysmorphism...
March 2, 2017: BMC Endocrine Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249726/hepatobiliary-transport-kinetics-of-the-conjugated-bile-acid-tracer-11-c-csar-quantified-in-healthy-humans-and-patients-by-positron-emission-tomography-pet
#16
Nikolaj Worm Ørntoft, Ole Lajord Munk, Kim Frisch, Peter Ott, Susanne Keiding, Michael Sørensen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatobiliary secretion of bile acids is an important liver function. Here, we quantified the hepatic transport kinetics of conjugated bile acids using the bile acid tracer [N-methyl-(11)C]cholylsarcosine ((11)C-CSar) and PET. METHODS: Nine healthy subjects and eight patients with varying degrees of cholestasis were examined with (11)C-CSar PET and measurement of arterial and hepatic venous blood concentrations of (11)C-CSar. RESULTS: Results are presented as median (range)...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249287/the-role-of-inflammation-in-the-mechanisms-of-bile-acid-induced-liver-damage
#17
Shi-Ying Cai, James L Boyer
BACKGROUND: The mechanism by which bile acids induce liver injury in cholestasis remains controversial. Although high levels of bile acids are toxic when applied to liver cells, the level of toxic bile acids in the liver of most cholestatic animals and patients is <10 μM, indicating there must be alternative mechanisms. Recent studies suggest that the inflammatory response may play an important role in bile acid-induced liver injury, as pro-inflammatory cytokine expression is stimulated by bile acids in mouse hepatocyte cultures...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249266/role-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-in-cholestatic-liver-disease
#18
Nicholas F LaRusso, James H Tabibian, Steven P O'Hara
Hepatobiliary health and disease is influenced by multiple factors including genetics, epigenetics, and the environment. Recently, multiple lines of evidence suggest that the microbiome also plays a central role in the initiation and/or progression of several liver diseases. Our current understanding of the dynamic interplay between microbes, microbial products and liver health and pathophysiology is incomplete. However, exciting insights are continually being made that support both a central role of the microbiome and a need for further interrogation of the microbes or microbe-associated molecules involved in the initiation and progression of select liver diseases...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249265/role-of-the-g-protein-coupled-bile-acid-receptor-tgr5-in-liver-damage
#19
Maria Reich, Caroline Klindt, Kathleen Deutschmann, Lina Spomer, Dieter Häussinger, Verena Keitel
BACKGROUND: TGR5 (G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1, M-Bar) is a G protein-coupled cell surface receptor responsive to bile acids (BA) and different steroid hormones. TGR5 mRNA is detected almost ubiquitious in human and rodent tissues with a very high expression in gallbladder, liver and intestine. In liver, TGR5 is found in sinusoidal endothelial cells, Kupffer cells and cholangiocytes. Activation of TGR5 triggers an elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP and further downstream signalling...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249258/apical-sodium-dependent-transporter-inhibitors-in-primary-biliary-cholangitis-and-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#20
Vinod S Hegade, David E J Jones, Gideon M Hirschfield
Bile acids (BAs) have gained mainstream attention since the discovery of their key role as signalling molecules in health and disease. The apical sodium-dependent transporter (ASBT) protein located in the terminal ileum plays an important physiological role in the enterohepatic circulation of BAs and therefore essential for the BA homeostasis. Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), the 2 most common cholestatic liver diseases are characterised by altered BA flow and BA composition, which contribute to disease progression and symptom (pruritus) development...
2017: Digestive Diseases
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