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February 15, 2018: Nature
Ambika Vishnu Kadammattil, Shyama Prasad Sajankila, Suma Prabhu, Bhuvanagiri Nageshwar Rao, Bola Sadashiva Satish Rao
Acceleration in development of metallic nanoparticles for their utility in medical and technological applications due to their unique physicochemical properties has concurrently raised a matter of concern due to their potential toxicity. Of the enormous metallic nanostructures, copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) having optical and electrochemical properties are scrutinized for theranostic applications. Therefore, their safety profile is of a major concern in optimizing a safe dose for its clinical utility...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Zhongnan Xi, Chunyan Zheng, Zheng Wen
Recently, complementary resistive switches (CRS) have attracted considerable attention due to the effective suppression of the sneak leakage that is an inherent problem of crossbar memory arrays. In this work, we propose a new CRS device enabling non-destructive readout based on back-to-back in series Pt/BaTiO3/Nb:SrTiO3 ferroelectric tunnel junctions (FTJs). The FTJ elements exhibit not only a non-volatile resistance switching but also a typical diode-like transport in the high resistance state (HRS), due to the ferroelectric-enhancement on the Schottky barrier of the BaTiO3/Nb:SrTiO3 interface...
January 25, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jessica D Sims, Jan Michael Taguiam, Felix Alonso-Valenteen, Janet Markman, Hasmik Agadjanian, David Chu, Jay Lubow, Ravinder Abrol, Dustin Srinivas, Anjali Jain, Bingchen Han, Ying Qu, Parisa Mirzadehgan, Jae-Youn Hwang, Altan Rentsendorj, Alice Chung, Jenny Lester, Beth Y Karlan, Harry B Gray, Zeev Gross, Armando Giuliano, Xiaojiang Cui, Lali K Medina-Kauwe
Resistance to anti-tumor therapeutics is an important clinical problem. Tumor-targeted therapies currently used in the clinic are derived from antibodies or small molecules that mitigate growth factor activity. These have improved therapeutic efficacy and safety compared to traditional treatment modalities but resistance arises in the majority of clinical cases. Targeting such resistance could improve tumor abatement and patient survival. A growing number of such tumors are characterized by prominent expression of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3) on the cell surface...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Tae Sung Lee, Nam Joo Lee, Haider Abbas, Quanli Hu, Tae-Sik Yoon, Hyun Ho Lee, Ee Le Shim, Chi Jung Kang
The resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices with heterostuctures have been investigated due to cycling stability, nonlinear switching, complementary resistive switching and self-compliance. The heterostructured devices can modulate the resistive switching (RS) behavior appropriately by bilayer structure with a variety of materials. In this study, the bipolar resistive switching characteristics of the bilayer structures composed of Ta2O5 and Ag2Se, which are transition-metal oxide (TMO) and silver chalcogenide, were investigated...
December 18, 2017: Nanotechnology
Armando Hernandez-Jimenez, Oscar Rios-Cardenas
There is extensive morphological variation of male genitalia across animals with internal fertilization, even among closely related species. Most studies attempting to explain this extraordinary diversity have focused on processes that occur post-copula (e.g. sperm competition, cryptic female choice). Only a few studies have focused on the pre-copula process of female preference. In addition, the extent to which this variation could be associated with the use of different reproductive tactics has yet to be explored...
December 6, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Writam Banerjee, Wu Fa Cai, Xiaolong Zhao, Qi Liu, Hangbing Lv, Shibing Long, Ming Liu
The sneak path problem is one of the major hindrances to the application of high-density crossbar resistive random access memory; however, complementary resistive switching (CRS) is an effective solution to this problem. The co-existence of resistive switching (RS) and CRS is possible within the same device. Therefore, a precise control is highly required for the successful utilization of different modes. In this study, we have demonstrated an effective way to control both switching modes in a simple HfO2 -based crossbar device...
December 7, 2017: Nanoscale
Ju Hyun Park, Dong Su Jeon, Tae Geun Kim
Crossbar arrays (CBAs) with resistive random access memory (ReRAM) constitute an established architecture for high-density memory. However, sneak paths via unselected cells increase the total power consumption of these devices and limit the array size. To eliminate such sneak-path problems, we propose a Ti/GaOx /NbOx /Pt structure with a self-rectifying resistive-switching (RS) behavior. In this structure, to reduce the operating voltage, we used a Ti/GaOx stack to increase the number of trap sites in the RS GaOx layer through interfacial reactions between the Ti and GaOx layers...
December 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kalyani Dhusia, Archana Bajpai, P W Ramteke
Comparative study of siderophore biosynthesis pathway in pathogens provides potential targets for antibiotics and host drug delivery as a part of computationally feasible microbial therapy. Iron acquisition using siderophore models is an essential and well established model in all microorganisms and microbial infections a known to cause great havoc to both plant and animal. Rapid development of antibiotic resistance in bacterial as well as fungal pathogens has drawn us at a verge where one has to get rid of the traditional way of obstructing pathogen using single or multiple antibiotic/chemical inhibitors or drugs...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Yaxi Hu, Liang Zou, Xiaolin Huang, Xiaonan Lu
As less consumed animal by-product, beef and pork offal have chances to sneak into the authentic ground beef meat products, and thus a rapid and accurate detection and quantification technique is highly required. In this study, Fourier transformed-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was investigated to develop an optimized protocol for analyzing ground beef meat potentially adulterated with six types of beef and pork offal. Various chemometric models for classification and quantification were constructed for the collected FT-IR spectra...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sara D Cardoso, David Gonçalves, Alexander Goesmann, Adelino V M Canário, Rui F Oliveira
Distinct patterns of gene expression often underlie intra- and intersexual differences, and the study of this set of coregulated genes is essential to understand the emergence of complex behavioural phenotypes. Here, we describe the development of a de novo transcriptome and brain gene expression profiles of wild-caught peacock blenny, Salaria pavo, an intertidal fish with sex-role reversal in courtship behaviour (i.e., females are the courting sex) and sequential alternative reproductive tactics in males (i...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Ecology
Soonbang Kwon, Tae-Wook Kim, Seonghoon Jang, Jae-Hwang Lee, Nam Dong Kim, Yongsung Ji, Chul-Ho Lee, James M Tour, Gunuk Wang
A memristor architecture based on metal-oxide materials would have great promise in achieving exceptional energy efficiency and higher scalability in next-generation electronic memory systems. Here, we propose a facile method for fabricating selector-less memristor arrays using an engineered nanoporous Ta2O5-x architecture. The device was fabricated in the form of crossbar arrays, and it functions as a switchable rectifier with a self-embedded nonlinear switching behavior and ultralow power consumption (∼2...
October 4, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Bettina Sehnert, Harald Burkhardt, Stephanie Finzel, Stefan Dübel, Reinhard E Voll
Small molecules interfering with intracellular signalling pathways are used in the treatment of multiple diseases including RA. However, small molecules usually affect signalling in most cell types, not only in those which need to be targeted. This general inhibition of signalling pathways causes often adverse effects, which could be avoided by cell type-specific inhibitors. For cell-type specific modulation of signal transduction, we developed the sneaking ligand fusion proteins (SLFPs). SLFPs contain three domains: (1) the binding domain mediating cell type-specific targeting and endocytosis; (2) the endosomal release sequence releasing the effector domain into the cytoplasm; (3) the effector domain modulating signalling...
August 31, 2017: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Patrick Tomkins, Minna Saaristo, Michael G Bertram, Raymond B Tomkins, Mayumi Allinson, Bob B M Wong
Despite a growing literature highlighting the potential impact of human-induced environmental change on mechanisms of sexual selection, relatively little is known about the effects of chemical pollutants on male-male competition. One class of environmental pollutant likely to impact male competitive interactions is the endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), a large and heterogeneous group of chemical contaminants with the potential to influence morphology, physiology and behaviour at minute concentrations. One EDC of increasing concern is the synthetic, androgenic steroid 17β-trenbolone, which is used globally to promote growth in beef cattle...
August 27, 2017: Chemosphere
Yukie Sato, Peter T Rühr, Helmut Schmitz, Martijn Egas, Alexander Blanke
Males often fight with rival males for access to females. However, some males display nonfighting tactics such as sneaking, satellite behavior, or female mimicking. When these mating tactics comprise a conditional strategy, they are often thought to be explained by resource holding potential (RHP), that is, nonfighting tactics are displayed by less competitive males who are more likely to lose a fight. The alternative mating tactics, however, can also be explained by life-history theory, which predicts that young males avoid fighting, regardless of their RHP, if it pays off to wait for future reproduction...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Sela Ferdman, Einat Minkov, Ron Bekkerman, David Gefen
Contrary to the assumption that web browsers are designed to support the user, an examination of a 900,000 distinct PCs shows that web browsers comprise a complex ecosystem with millions of addons collaborating and competing with each other. It is possible for addons to "sneak in" through third party installations or to get "kicked out" by their competitors without user involvement. This study examines that ecosystem quantitatively by constructing a large-scale graph with nodes corresponding to users, addons, and words (terms) that describe addon functionality...
2017: PloS One
Can Li, Lili Han, Hao Jiang, Moon-Hyung Jang, Peng Lin, Qing Wu, Mark Barnell, J Joshua Yang, Huolin L Xin, Qiangfei Xia
Memristors are promising building blocks for the next-generation memory and neuromorphic computing systems. Most memristors use materials that are incompatible with the silicon dominant complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology, and require external selectors in order for large memristor arrays to function properly. Here we demonstrate a fully foundry-compatible, all-silicon-based and self-rectifying memristor that negates the need for external selectors in large arrays. With a p-Si/SiO2/n-Si structure, our memristor exhibits repeatable unipolar resistance switching behaviour (10(5) rectifying ratio, 10(4) ON/OFF) and excellent retention at 300 °C...
June 5, 2017: Nature Communications
Chi-Hsin Huang, Ta-Shun Chou, Jian-Shiou Huang, Shih-Ming Lin, Yu-Lun Chueh
In this study, the resistive switching scheme using TiO2 nanorod arrays synthesized by a large-scale and low-cost hydrothermal process was reported. Especially, the nonlinear I-V characteristics of TiO2 nanorod arrays with a nonlinearity of up to ~10, which suppress the leakage current less than 10(-4) Acm(-2), were demonstrated, exhibiting a self-selecting resistive switching behavior. It provides a simple pathway for integration of RRAM crossbar arrays without additional stacking of active devices. The mechanisms of the nonlinear resistive switching behaviors were discussed in detail...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jackie Crowe
Mental health leaders, policy makers and successive national and state governments have tried countless incremental reforms. Yet, for decades in Australia, independent inquiries and reports have concluded that our mental health 'system of care' is a misnomer. It is fragmented, ineffective, inefficient and unfair. For far too long, people, families and communities have paid a heavy price for this. Reform in itself will not be the solution that we can hang all our hopes on. Disruptive innovations are now sneaking into the mental health sector and beginning to be taken up en masse...
April 27, 2017: Public Health Research & Practice
Megan L Auld, Leanne M Johnston
PURPOSE: Many children with cerebral palsy (CP) are known to experience tactile impairments. Research evaluating specific interventions to manage this is, however, minimal. This paper seeks to consolidate current literature and provide a framework to help clinicians and researchers think strategically about tactile treatment selection and future research planning. METHOD: The framework is described via a novel analogy - "The Apartment Block Theory". The theory describes the relative effectiveness of three intervention strategies aimed at overcoming a poorly responsive tactile system: (1) Pressing the buzzer - providing repeated passive tactile stimulation at the periphery; (2) Sneaking in the door - providing active tactile-enhanced motor training that capitalises on the opportunity to provide high-dose tactile input during motor interventions; and (3) Connecting another way - providing visually enhanced touch strategies with the aim of enhancing tactile function, which can be compared to phoning the apartment as an alternative to using the buzzer...
April 14, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
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