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Christian Brix Folsted Andersen, Kristian Stødkilde, Kirstine Lindhart Sæderup, Anne Kuhlee, Stefan Raunser, Jonas Heilskov Graversen, Søren Kragh Moestrup
SIGNIFICANCE: Haptoglobin (Hp) is an abundant human plasma protein that tightly captures hemoglobin (Hb) during hemolysis. The Hb-Hp complex formation reduces the oxidative properties of heme/Hb and promotes recognition by the macrophage receptor CD163. This leads to Hb-Hp breakdown and heme catabolism by heme oxygenase. Gene duplications of a part of or the entire Hp gene in the primate evolution has led to variant Hp gene products that collectively may be designated 'the haptoglobins' as they all bind Hb...
September 21, 2016: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Frederic Michard
Many mobile phone or tablet applications have been designed to control cardiovascular risk factors (obesity, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, diabetes and hypertension) or to optimize treatment adherence. Some have been shown to be useful but the long-term benefits remain to be demonstrated. Digital stethoscopes make easier the interpretation of abnormal heart sounds, and the development of pocket-sized echo machines may quickly and significantly expand the use of ultrasounds. Daily home monitoring of pulmonary artery pressures with wireless implantable sensors has been shown to be associated with a significant decrease in hospital readmissions for heart failure...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Yuya Makiguchi, Mitsuru Torao, Takahito Kojima, Trevor E Pitcher
In most teleost fish species, sperm competition is a key factor in determining male reproductive success, leading to selection on males to increase their reproductive investment in gonads and ejaculate competitiveness. In this study, reproductive investment patterns were assayed by examining the relative investment in gonads and sperm quality metrics (in river water and in the presence of ovarian fluid) of masu salmon, Oncorhynchus masou, representing two fixed male alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs; small sneaking parr males and large dominant anadromous males)...
July 21, 2016: Theriogenology
Ah Rahm Lee, Gwang Ho Baek, Tae Yoon Kim, Won Bae Ko, Seung Mo Yang, Jongmin Kim, Hyun Sik Im, Jin Pyo Hong
Three-dimensional (3D) stackable memory frames, including nano-scaled crossbar arrays, are one of the most reliable building blocks to meet the demand of high-density non-volatile memory electronics. However, their utilization has the disadvantage of introducing issues related to sneak paths, which can negatively impact device performance. We address the enhancement of complementary resistive switching (CRS) features via the incorporation of insulating frames as a generic approach to extend their use; here, a Pt/Ta2O5-x/Ta/Ta2O5-x/Pt frame is chosen as the basic CRS cell...
2016: Scientific Reports
Nancy Northup
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Health Matrix
Hong-Sub Lee, Hyung-Ho Park
Cross-point memory architecture (CPMA) by using memristors has attracted considerable attention because of its high-density integration. However, a common and significant drawback of the CPMA is related to crosstalk issues between cells by sneak currents. This study demonstrated the sneak current free resistive switching characteristic of a ferroelectric tunnel diode (FTD) memristor for a CPMA by utilizing a novel concept of a ferroelectric quadrangle and triangle barrier switch. A FTD of Au/BaTiO3 (5 nm)/Nb-doped SrTiO3 (100) was used to obtain a desirable memristive effect for the CPMA...
June 22, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Pierre J C Chuard, Grant E Brown, James W A Grant
When competing for mates, males typically exhibit higher rates of intrasexual aggression and courtship than females. Operational sex ratio, represented here by adult sex ratio (ASR) as a proxy, is likely the best predictor of this competition, which typically increases between members of one sex as members of the opposite sex become rarer. Moreover, in populations subject to high predation, males often decrease mating competitive behaviour due to predation risk. We explored the combined effects of ASR and population of origin (low vs...
August 2016: Behavioural Processes
Muchu Zhou, Rebecca C Fuller
Elaborate, sexually dimorphic traits are widely thought to evolve under sexual selection through female preference, male-male competition, or both. The orangethroat darter (Etheostoma spectabile) is a sexually dichromatic fish in which females exhibit no preferences for male size or coloration. We tested whether these traits affect individual reproductive success in E. spectabile when multiple males are allowed to freely compete for a female. The quality and quantity of male coloration were associated with greater success in maintaining access to the female and in spawning as the primary male (first male to participate)...
April 20, 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Shu Yamaguchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 18, 2016: Science
Robert L Hunter
Lack of access to human tissues with untreated tuberculosis (TB) has forced generations of researchers to use animal models and to adopt a paradigm that granulomas are the characteristic lesion of both primary and post primary TB. An extended search of studies of human lung tissues failed to find any reports that support this paradigm. We found scores of publications from gross pathology in 1804 through high resolution CT scans in 2015 that identify obstructive lobular pneumonia, not granulomas, as the characteristic lesion of developing post-primary TB...
March 2016: Tuberculosis
Yao-Feng Chang, Burt Fowler, Ying-Chen Chen, Fei Zhou, Chih-Hung Pan, Ting-Chang Chang, Jack C Lee
We realize a device with biological synaptic behaviors by integrating silicon oxide (SiO(x)) resistive switching memory with Si diodes. Minimal synaptic power consumption due to sneak-path current is achieved and the capability for spike-induced synaptic behaviors is demonstrated, representing critical milestones for the use of SiO2-based materials in future neuromorphic computing applications. Biological synaptic behaviors such as long-term potentiation (LTP), long-term depression (LTD) and spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) are demonstrated systematically using a comprehensive analysis of spike-induced waveforms, and represent interesting potential applications for SiO(x)-based resistive switching materials...
2016: Scientific Reports
Caleb Anderson, Alexandra Werdenig, Stephan Koblmüller, Kristina M Sefc
Mating system variability is known to exist between and within species, often due to environmental influences. An open question is whether, vice versa, similar environmental conditions entail congruent mating behavior, for example in terms of multiple paternity, in species or populations sharing largely comparable breeding modes. This study employed microsatellite markers to investigate the incidence of multiple paternity in Cyprichromis coloratus and Cyprichromis leptosoma, two sympatric, closely related, mouthbrooding Lake Tanganyika cichlids with similar ecological and behavioral characteristics including the formation of open-water schools...
January 2016: Ecology and Evolution
M A Zidan, H Omran, R Naous, A Sultan, H A H Fahmy, W D Lu, K N Salama
High-density memristor-crossbar architecture is a very promising technology for future computing systems. The simplicity of the gateless-crossbar structure is both its principal advantage and the source of undesired sneak-paths of current. This parasitic current could consume an enormous amount of energy and ruin the readout process. We introduce new adaptive-threshold readout techniques that utilize the locality and hierarchy properties of the computer-memory system to address the sneak-paths problem. The proposed methods require a single memory access per pixel for an array readout...
2016: Scientific Reports
Frank G Huisman
Is it true that haste is sneaking into medicine? In this article, it is argued that it mainly concerns the perception of being rushed, which is caused by a loss of autonomy of the modern physician. In the fifties, physicians were busy as well, but because they enjoyed a greater degree of autonomy compared to their contemporary colleagues, they did not experience this in a negative way. Due to increased bureaucracy and the introduction of market dynamics, the medical profession has lost autonomy, which in turn led to a loss of job satisfaction...
2015: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Hannah Holtkamp, Gerlinde Grabmann, Christian G Hartinger
Electrophoretic methods have been widely applied in research on the roles of metal complexes in biological systems. In particular, CE, often hyphenated to a sensitive MS detector, has provided valuable information on the modes of action of metal-based pharmaceuticals, and more recently new methods have been added to the electrophoretic toolbox. The range of applications continues to expand as a result of enhanced CE-to-MS interfacing, with sensitivity often at picomolar level, and evolved separation modes allowing for innovative sample analysis...
April 2016: Electrophoresis
Shibani Das, Sadhana Shenoy
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use in various forms, including with Areca nut, causes several potentially malignant disorders. Many lesions may transform into oral squamous cell carcinoma. Although patients may be aware of the hazards of tobacco habits, the lesions by themselves are insidious in nature resulting in failure of patients to present to general dentists/specialists at early stages. Our aim was to study the types of habits prevalent in the region of Rourkela in Orissa and to assess the insidious nature of the lesions associated with these habits...
2015: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Marco Dadda
Sexual harassment is common among poeciliid fish. In some fishes, males show a high frequency of sneak copulation; such sexual activity is costly to the females in terms of foraging efficiency. In mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki), when males are present, the distance between females tends to decrease, and this behavior has been interpreted as an adaptive strategy to dilute the costs of male sexual activity. In this study, the tendency to reduce distance in the presence of a male has been investigated in females of six poeciliid species (Girardinus metallicus, Girardinus falcatus, G...
2015: Frontiers in Psychology
Brett M Collins, Jennifer L Martin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2015: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Thomas Breuer, Anne Siemon, Eike Linn, Stephan Menzel, Rainer Waser, Vikas Rana
Complementary resistive switches (CRS), which consist of two anti-serially connected bipolar switching ReRAM cells, can reduce sneak path currents in passive crossbar arrays. However, the high operation current restrains the implementation of the CRS device. In this article, we present low current operation (<300 μA) of vertically stacked, 4F(2)-compatible Ta2O5-based CRS devices exhibiting two terminals. Two types of devices, either offering a nano- or a micrometer scale bottom cell (BC), are considered...
October 16, 2015: Nanotechnology
Hong-Sub Lee, Wooje Han, Hee-Yoon Chung, Marcelo Rozenberg, Kangsik Kim, Zonghoon Lee, Geun Young Yeom, Hyung-Ho Park
Cross-point array (CPA) structure memories using a memristor are attracting a great deal of attention due to their high density integration with a 4F2 cell. However, a common significant drawback of the CPA configuration is crosstalk between cells. To date, the CPA structure using a redox-based memristor has restrictions to minimize the operating current level due to their resistive switching mechanism. This study demonstrates suitable characteristics of a ferroelectric tunnel junction (FTJ) for the memristor of the CPA structure using an electrostatic model...
October 14, 2015: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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