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Acetyl-coa synthetase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212448/hepatic-transcriptome-analysis-and-identification-of-differentially-expressed-genes-response-to-dietary-oxidized-fish-oil-in-loach-misgurnus-anguillicaudatus
#1
Yin Zhang, Yang Li, Xiao Liang, Xiaojuan Cao, Longfei Huang, Jie Yan, Yanxing Wei, Jian Gao
RNA sequencing and short-read assembly were utilized to produce a transcriptome of livers from loaches (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) fed with three different diets respectively containing fresh fish oil (FO group), medium oxidized fish oil (MO group) and high oxidized fish oil (HO group). A total of 60,663 unigenes were obtained in this study, with mean length 848.74 bp. 50,814, 49,584 and 49,814 unigenes were respectively obtained from FO, MO and HO groups. There were 2,343 differentially expressed genes between FO and MO, with 855 down- and 1,488 up-regulated genes in the MO group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167750/acss2-mediated-acetyl-coa-synthesis-from-acetate-is-necessary-for-human-cytomegalovirus-infection
#2
Anna Vysochan, Arjun Sengupta, Aalim M Weljie, James C Alwine, Yongjun Yu
Recent studies have shown that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can induce a robust increase in lipid synthesis which is critical for the success of infection. In mammalian cells the central precursor for lipid biosynthesis, cytosolic acetyl CoA (Ac-CoA), is produced by ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY) from mitochondria-derived citrate or by acetyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (ACSS2) from acetate. It has been reported that ACLY is the primary enzyme involved in making cytosolic Ac-CoA in cells with abundant nutrients...
February 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099844/acetate-recapturing-by-nuclear-acetyl-coa-synthetase-2-prevents-loss-of-histone-acetylation-during-oxygen-and-serum-limitation
#3
Vinay Bulusu, Sergey Tumanov, Evdokia Michalopoulou, Niels J van den Broek, Gillian MacKay, Colin Nixon, Sandeep Dhayade, Zachary T Schug, Johan Vande Voorde, Karen Blyth, Eyal Gottlieb, Alexei Vazquez, Jurre J Kamphorst
Acetyl-CoA is a key metabolic intermediate with an important role in transcriptional regulation. The nuclear-cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 (ACSS2) was found to sustain the growth of hypoxic tumor cells. It generates acetyl-CoA from acetate, but exactly which pathways it supports is not fully understood. Here, quantitative analysis of acetate metabolism reveals that ACSS2 fulfills distinct functions depending on its cellular location. Exogenous acetate uptake is controlled by expression of both ACSS2 and the mitochondrial ACSS1, and ACSS2 supports lipogenesis...
January 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061399/transcriptome-sequencing-and-metabolic-pathways-of-astaxanthin-accumulated-in-haematococcus-pluvialis-mutant-under-15-co2
#4
Jun Cheng, Ke Li, Yanxia Zhu, Weijuan Yang, Junhu Zhou, Kefa Cen
Transcriptome sequencing and annotation was performed on Haematococcus pluvialis mutant red cells induced with high light under 15% CO2 to demonstrate why astaxanthin yield of the mutant was 1.7 times higher than that of a wild strain. It was found that 56% of 1947 differentially expressed genes were upregulated in mutant cells. Most significant differences were found in unigenes related to photosynthesis, carotenoid biosynthesis and fatty acid biosynthesis pathways. The pyruvate kinase increased by 3.5-fold in mutant cells...
March 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003429/molecular-cloning-of-rat-acss3-and-characterization-of-mammalian-propionyl-coa-synthetase-in-the-liver-mitochondrial-matrix
#5
Yukihiro Yoshimura, Aya Araki, Hitomi Maruta, Yoshitaka Takahashi, Hiromi Yamashita
Among the three acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family members (ACSS), ACSS3 is poorly characterized. To characterize ACSS3, we performed molecular cloning and protein expression of rat acss3 and determined its intracellular localization, tissue distribution, and substrate specificity. Transient expression of rat ACSS3 in HeLa cells resulted in a 10-fold increase of acetyl-CoA synthetase activity compared with that in control cells. The acss3 transcripts are expressed in a wide range of tissues, with the highest levels observed in liver tissue followed by kidney tissue...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987242/acetyl-coa-synthetases-of-saccharopolyspora-erythraea-are-regulated-by-the-nitrogen-response-regulator-glnr-at-both-transcriptional-and-post-translational-levels
#6
Di You, Miao-Miao Wang, Bang-Ce Ye
Saccharopolyspora erythraea has three AMP-forming acetyl-CoA synthetases (Acs) encoded by acsA1, acsA2, and acsA3. In this work, we found that nitrogen response regulator GlnR can directly interact with the promoter regions of all three genes and can activate their transcription in response to nitrogen availability. The typical GlnR-binding boxes were identified in the promoter regions. Moreover, the activities of three Acs enzymes were modulated by the reversible lysine acetylation (RLA) with acetyltransferase AcuA and NAD(+) -dependent deacetylase SrtN...
December 17, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974467/cyclic-amp-inhibits-the-activity-and-promotes-the-acetylation-of-acetyl-coa-synthetase-through-competitive-binding-to-the-atp-amp-pocket
#7
Xiaobiao Han, Liqiang Shen, Qijun Wang, Xufeng Cen, Jin Wang, Meng Wu, Peng Li, Wei Zhao, Yu Zhang, Guoping Zhao
The high-affinity biosynthetic pathway for converting acetate to acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is catalyzed by the central metabolic enzyme acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase (Acs), which is finely regulated both at the transcriptional level via cyclic AMP (cAMP)-driven trans-activation and at the post-translational level via acetylation inhibition. In this study, we discovered that cAMP directly binds to Salmonella enterica Acs (SeAcs) and inhibits its activity in a substrate-competitive manner. In addition, cAMP binding increases SeAcs acetylation by simultaneously promoting Pat-dependent acetylation and inhibiting CobB-dependent deacetylation, resulting in enhanced SeAcs inhibition...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941023/loss-of-cardiolipin-leads-to-perturbation-of-acetyl-coa-synthesis
#8
Vaishnavi Raja, Amit S Joshi, Guiling Li, Krishna Rao Maddipati, Miriam L Greenberg
Cardiolipin (CL), the signature phospholipid of mitochondrial membranes, plays an important role in mitochondrial processes and bioenergetics. CL is synthesized de novo and undergoes remodeling in the mitochondrial membranes. Perturbation of CL remodeling leads to the rare X-linked genetic disorder Barth syndrome, which shows disparities in clinical presentation. To uncover biochemical modifiers that exacerbate CL deficiency, we carried out a synthetic genetic array screen to identify synthetic lethal interactions with the yeast CL synthase mutant crd1Δ...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928680/proteome-wide-identification-of-lysine-propionylation-in-thermophilic-and-mesophilic-bacteria-geobacillus-kaustophilus-thermus-thermophilus-escherichia-coli-bacillus-subtilis-and-rhodothermus-marinus
#9
Hiroki Okanishi, Kwang Kim, Ryoji Masui, Seiki Kuramitsu
Recent studies have revealed the physiological significance of post-translational lysine acylations such as acetylation in the regulation of various cellular processes. Here, we characterized lysine propionylation, a recently discovered post-translational acylation, in five representative bacteria: Geobacillus kaustophilus, Thermus thermophilus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Rhodothermus marinus. Using antibody-based propionyl peptide enrichment followed by identification with nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we showed that proteins were subject to lysine propionylation in all five bacterial species analyzed...
December 7, 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927994/the-acyl-activating-enzyme-phaae13-is-an-alternative-enzymatic-source-of-precursors-for-anthocyanin-biosynthesis-in-petunia-flowers
#10
Guoju Chen, Heping Liu, Qian Wei, Huina Zhao, Juanxu Liu, Yixun Yu
Anthocyanins, a class of flavonoids, are responsible for the orange to blue coloration of flowers and act as visual attractors to aid pollination and seed dispersal. Malonyl-CoA is the precursor for the formation of flavonoids and anthocyanins. Previous studies have suggested that malonyl-CoA is formed almost exclusively by acetyl-CoA carboxylase, which catalyzes the ATP-dependent formation of malonyl-CoA from acetyl-CoA and bicarbonate. In the present study, the full-length cDNA of Petunia hybrida acyl-activating enzyme 13 (PhAAE13), a member of clade VII of the AAE superfamily that encodes malonyl-CoA synthetase, was isolated...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925207/acetate-metabolism-does-not-reflect-astrocytic-activity-contributes-directly-to-gaba-synthesis-and-is-increased-by-silent-information-regulator-1-activation
#11
Benjamin D Rowlands, Matthias Klugmann, Caroline D Rae
[(13) C]acetate is known to label metabolites preferentially in astrocytes rather than neurons and it has consequently been used as a marker for astrocytic activity. Recent discoveries suggest that control of acetate metabolism and its contributions to the synthesis of metabolites in brain is not as simple as first thought. Here, using a Guinea pig brain cortical tissue slice model metabolizing [1-(13) C]D-glucose and [1,2-(13) C]acetate, we investigated control of acetate metabolism and the degree to which it reflects astrocytic activity...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825908/functional-analysis-of-an-amp-forming-acetyl-coa-synthetase-from-leishmania-donovani-by-gene-overexpression-and-targeted-gene-disruption-approaches
#12
Neelagiri Soumya, Mitesh N Panara, Kishore Babu Neerupudi, Sushma Singh
Leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease is endemic in 98 countries and >350 million people are at risk of getting the infection. The existing chemotherapy of Leishmaniasis is limited due to adverse effects, resistance to existing drugs and increasing cases of HIV-Leishmaniasis co-infection. Hence, there is a need to identify novel metabolic pathways for design of new chemical entities. Acetyl-CoA synthetase (AceCS) is an enzyme of acetate metabolic pathway whose functions are unknown in Leishmania parasite...
February 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801907/geographic-distribution-at-subspecies-resolution-level-closely-related-rhodopirellula-species-in-european-coastal-sediments
#13
Marina Žure, Antonio Fernandez-Guerra, Colin B Munn, Jens Harder
Members of the marine genus Rhodopirellula are attached living bacteria and studies based on cultured Rhodopirellula strains suggested that three closely related species R. baltica, 'R. europaea' and 'R. islandica' have a limited geographic distribution in Europe. To address this hypothesis, we developed a nested PCR for a single gene copy detection of a partial acetyl CoA synthetase (acsA) from intertidal sediments collected all around Europe. Furthermore, we performed growth experiments in a range of temperature, salinity and light conditions...
February 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771364/reaction-kinetic-analysis-of-the-3-hydroxypropionate-4-hydroxybutyrate-co2-fixation-cycle-in-extremely-thermoacidophilic-archaea
#14
Andrew J Loder, Yejun Han, Aaron B Hawkins, Hong Lian, Gina L Lipscomb, Gerrit J Schut, Matthew W Keller, Michael W W Adams, Robert M Kelly
The 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate (3HP/4HB) cycle fixes CO2 in extremely thermoacidophilic archaea and holds promise for metabolic engineering because of its thermostability and potentially rapid pathway kinetics. A reaction kinetics model was developed to examine the biological and biotechnological attributes of the 3HP/4HB cycle as it operates in Metallosphaera sedula, based on previous information as well as on kinetic parameters determined here for recombinant versions of five of the cycle enzymes (malonyl-CoA/succinyl-CoA reductase, 3-hydroxypropionyl-CoA synthetase, 3-hydroxypropionyl-CoA dehydratase, acryloyl-CoA reductase, and succinic semialdehyde reductase)...
November 2016: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771289/a-novel-uplc-ms-ms-based-method-to-determine-the-activity-of-n-acetylglutamate-synthase-in-liver-tissue
#15
Marli Dercksen, Marinus Duran, Lodewijk IJlst, Wim Kulik, Jos P N Ruiter, Arno van Cruchten, Mendel Tuchman, Ronald J A Wanders
BACKGROUND: N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) plays a key role in the removal of ammonia via the urea cycle by catalyzing the synthesis of N-acetylglutamate (NAG), the obligatory cofactor in the carbamyl phosphate synthetase 1 reaction. Enzymatic analysis of NAGS in liver homogenates has remained insensitive and inaccurate, which prompted the development of a novel method. METHODS: UPLC-MS/MS was used in conjunction with stable isotope (N-acetylglutamic-2,3,3,4,4-d5 acid) dilution for the quantitative detection of NAG produced by the NAGS enzyme...
December 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746810/comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-of-two-brassica-napus-near-isogenic-lines-reveals-a-network-of-genes-that-influences-seed-oil-accumulation
#16
Jingxue Wang, Sanjay K Singh, Chunfang Du, Chen Li, Jianchun Fan, Sitakanta Pattanaik, Ling Yuan
Rapeseed (Brassica napus) is an important oil seed crop, providing more than 13% of the world's supply of edible oils. An in-depth knowledge of the gene network involved in biosynthesis and accumulation of seed oil is critical for the improvement of B. napus. Using available genomic and transcriptomic resources, we identified 1,750 acyl-lipid metabolism (ALM) genes that are distributed over 19 chromosomes in the B. napus genome. B. rapa and B. oleracea, two diploid progenitors of B. napus, contributed almost equally to the ALM genes...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746797/elucidation-of-complex-nature-of-peg-induced-drought-stress-response-in-rice-root-using-comparative-proteomics-approach
#17
Lalit Agrawal, Swati Gupta, Shashank K Mishra, Garima Pandey, Susheel Kumar, Puneet S Chauhan, Debasis Chakrabarty, Chandra S Nautiyal
Along with many adaptive strategies, dynamic changes in protein abundance seem to be the common strategy to cope up with abiotic stresses which can be best explored through proteomics. Understanding of drought response is the key to decipher regulatory mechanism of better adaptation. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) proteome represents a phenomenal source of proteins that govern traits of agronomic importance, such as drought tolerance. In this study, a comparison of root cytoplasmic proteome was done for a drought tolerant rice (Heena) cultivar in PEG induced drought conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742886/oil-biosynthesis-in-underground-oil-rich-storage-vegetative-tissue-comparison-of-cyperus-esculentus-tuber-with-oil-seeds-and-fruits
#18
Zhenle Yang, Hongying Ji, Dantong Liu
Cyperus esculentus is unique in that it can accumulate rich oil in its tubers. However, the underlying mechanism of tuber oil biosynthesis is still unclear. Our transcriptional analyses of the pathways from pyruvate production up to triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in tubers revealed many distinct species-specific lipid expression patterns from oil seeds and fruits, indicating that in C. esculentus tuber: (i) carbon flux from sucrose toward plastid pyruvate could be produced mostly through the cytosolic glycolytic pathway; (ii) acetyl-CoA synthetase might be an important contributor to acetyl-CoA formation for plastid fatty acid biosynthesis; (iii) the expression pattern for stearoyl-ACP desaturase was associated with high oleic acid composition; (iv) it was most likely that endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated acyl-CoA synthetase played a significant role in the export of fatty acids between the plastid and ER; (v) lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP)-δ was most probably related to the formation of the diacylglycerol (DAG) pool in the Kennedy pathway; and (vi) diacylglyceroltransacylase 2 (DGAT2) and phospholipid:diacylglycerolacyltransferase 1 (PDAT1) might play crucial roles in tuber oil biosynthesis...
December 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731335/amide-compound-synthesis-by-adenylation-domain-of-bacillibactin-synthetase
#19
Tomoko Abe, Yoshiteru Hashimoto, Sayaka Sugimoto, Kenta Kobayashi, Takuto Kumano, Michihiko Kobayashi
The adenylation domain of nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) is responsible for the selective substrate recognition and its activation (as an acyl-O-AMP intermediate) during ATP consumption. DhbE, a stand-alone adenylation domain, acts on an aromatic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB). This activation is the initial step of the synthesis of bacillibactin that is a high-affinity small-molecule iron chelator also termed siderophore. Subsequently, the activated DHB is transferred and attached covalently to a peptidyl carrier protein domain via a thioester bond...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713423/downregulation-of-acetyl-coa-synthetase-2-is-a-metabolic-hallmark-of-tumor-progression-and-aggressiveness-in-colorectal-carcinoma
#20
Jeong Mo Bae, Jung Ho Kim, Hyeon Jeong Oh, Hye Eun Park, Tae Hun Lee, Nam-Yun Cho, Gyeong Hoon Kang
Acetyl-CoA synthetase-2 is an emerging key enzyme for cancer metabolism, which supplies acetyl-CoA for tumor cells by capturing acetate as a carbon source under stressed conditions. However, implications of acetyl-CoA synthetase-2 in colorectal carcinoma may differ from other malignancies, because normal colonocytes use short-chain fatty acids as an energy source, which are supplied by fermentation of the intestinal flora. Here we analyzed acetyl-CoA synthetase-2 mRNA expression by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR in paired normal mucosa and tumor tissues of 12 colorectal carcinomas, and subsequently evaluated acetyl-CoA synthetase-2 protein expression by immunohistochemistry in 157 premalignant colorectal lesions, including 60 conventional adenomas and 97 serrated polyps, 1,106 surgically resected primary colorectal carcinomas, and 23 metastatic colorectal carcinomas in the liver...
February 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
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