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Acetyl-coa synthetase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776932/-cg-med3-affects-cell-size-and-budding-index-to-coordinate-candida-glabrata-cell-growth
#1
Hui Liu, Lulin Kong, Yanli Qi, Xiulai Chen, Liming Liu
Candida glabrata is a promising microorganism for the production of organic acids. Here, we report deletion and quantitative expression approaches to elucidate the role of Cg Med3AB, a subunit of the mediator transcriptional co-activator, in regulating cell growth. Deletion of Cg Med3AB caused an 8.6% decrease in final biomass based on growth curve plots and 10.5% lower cell viability. Based on transcriptomics data, the reason for this growth defect was attributable to changes in expression of genes involved in pyruvate and acetyl-CoA-related metabolism in the Cgmed3abΔ strain...
May 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754768/mutations-in-ppcs-encoding-phosphopantothenoylcystein-synthetase-cause-autosomal-recessive-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#2
Arcangela Iuso, Marit Wiersma, Hans-Joachim Schüller, Ben Pode-Shakked, Dina Marek-Yagel, Mathias Grigat, Thomas Schwarzmayr, Riccardo Berutti, Bader Alhaddad, Bart Kanon, Nicola A Grzeschik, Jürgen G Okun, Zeev Perles, Yishay Salem, Ortal Barel, Amir Vardi, Marina Rubinshtein, Tal Tirosh, Gal Dubnov-Raz, Ana C Messias, Caterina Terrile, Iris Barshack, Alex Volkov, Camilla Avivi, Eran Eyal, Elisa Mastantuono, Muhamad Kumbar, Shachar Abudi, Matthias Braunisch, Tim M Strom, Thomas Meitinger, Georg F Hoffmann, Holger Prokisch, Tobias B Haack, Bianca J J M Brundel, Dorothea Haas, Ody C M Sibon, Yair Anikster
Coenzyme A (CoA) is an essential metabolic cofactor used by around 4% of cellular enzymes. Its role is to carry and transfer acetyl and acyl groups to other molecules. Cells can synthesize CoA de novo from vitamin B5 (pantothenate) through five consecutive enzymatic steps. Phosphopantothenoylcystein synthetase (PPCS) catalyzes the second step of the pathway during which phosphopantothenate reacts with ATP and cysteine to form phosphopantothenoylcystein. Inborn errors of CoA biosynthesis have been implicated in neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA), a group of rare neurological disorders characterized by accumulation of iron in the basal ganglia and progressive neurodegeneration...
May 3, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737409/butyrate-based-n-butanol-production-from-an-engineered-shewanella-oneidensis-mr-1
#3
Jong-Min Jeon, Hun-Suk Song, Doo-Geun Lee, Ju Won Hong, Yoon Gi Hong, Yu-Mi Moon, Shashi Kant Bhatia, Jeong-Jun Yoon, Wooseong Kim, Yung-Hun Yang
n-Butanol is considered as the next-generation biofuel, because its physiochemical properties are very similar to fossil fuels and it could be produced by Clostridia under anaerobic culture. Due to the difficulties of strict anaerobic culture, a host which can be used with facultative environment was being searched for n-butanol production. As an alternative, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, which is known as facultative bacteria, was selected as a host and studied. A plasmid containing adhE2 encoding alcohol dehydrogenase, various CoA transferases (ctfAB, atoAD, pct, and ACT), and acs encoding acetyl-CoA synthetase were introduced and examined to S...
May 8, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686136/the-gntr-family-regulator-dasr-controls-acetate-assimilation-by-directly-repressing-acsa-gene-in-saccharopolyspora-erythraea
#4
Di You, Bai-Qing Zhang, Bang-Ce Ye
The GntR-family regulator DasR controls the transcription of genes involved in chitin and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) metabolism in actinobacteria. GlcNAc is catabolized to ammonia, fructose-6-phosphate (Fru-6P), and acetate, which are nitrogen and carbon sources. In this work, a DasR-responsive element ( dre ) was observed in the upstream region of acsA1 in Saccharopolyspora erythraea. This gene encodes acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs), an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of acetate into acetyl-CoA (Ac-CoA)...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678960/toxoplasma-gondii-acetyl-coa-synthetase-is-involved-in-fatty-acid-elongation-of-long-fatty-acid-chains-during-tachyzoite-life-stages
#5
David Dubois, Stella Fernandes, Souad Amiar, Sheena Dass, Nicholas J Katris, Cyrille Y Botte, Yoshiki Yamaryo-Botte
Apicomplexan parasites are pathogens responsible for major human diseases such as toxoplasmosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii and malaria caused by Plasmodium spp.. Throughout their intracellular division cycle, the parasites require vast and specific amounts of lipids to divide and survive. This demand for lipids relies on a fine balance between de novo synthesized lipids and scavenged lipids from the host. Acetyl-CoA is a major and central precursor for many metabolic pathways especially for lipid biosynthesis...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663332/enhanced-isobutanol-production-from-acetate-by-combinatorial-overexpression-of-acetyl-coa-synthetase-and-anaplerotic-enzymes-in-engineered-escherichia-coli
#6
Hun-Suk Song, Hyung-Min Seo, Jong-Min Jeon, Yu-Mi Moon, Ju Won Hong, Yoon Gi Hong, Shashi Kant Bhatia, Jungoh Ahn, Hongweon Lee, Wooseong Kim, Yong-Cheol Park, Kwon Young Choi, Yun-Gon Kim, Yung-Hun Yang
Acetic acid is an abundant material that can be used as a carbon source by microorganisms. Despite its abundance, its toxicity and low energy content make it hard to utilize as a sole carbon source for biochemical production. To increase acetate utilization and isobutanol production with engineered Escherichia coli, the feasibility of utilizing acetate and metabolic engineering was investigated. The expression of acs, pckA, and maeB increased isobutanol production by up to 26%, and the addition of TCA cycle intermediates indicated that the intermediates can enhance isobutanol production...
April 17, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644657/enhanced-isobutanol-production-from-acetate-by-combinatorial-overexpression-of-acetyl-coa-synthetase-and-anaplerotic-enzymes-in-engineered-escherichia-coli
#7
Hun-Suk Song, Hyung-Min Seo, Jong-Min Jeon, Yu-Mi Moon, Ju Won Hong, Yoon Gi Hong, Shashi Kant Bhatia, Jungoh Ahn, Hongweon Lee, Wooseong Kim, Yong-Cheol Park, Kwon Young Choi, Yun-Gon Kim, Yung-Hun Yang
Acetic acid is an abundant material that can be used as a carbon source by microorganisms. Despite its abundance, its toxicity and low energy content make it hard to utilize as a sole carbon source for biochemical production. To increase acetate utilization and isobutanol production with engineered Escherichia coli, the feasibility of utilizing acetate and metabolic engineering was investigated. The expression of acs, pckA, and maeB increased isobutanol production by up to 26%, and the addition of TCA cycle intermediates indicated that the intermediates can enhance isobutanol production...
April 12, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568353/reprogrammed-lipid-metabolism-in-bladder-cancer-with-cisplatin-resistance
#8
Min Young Lee, Austin Yeon, Muhammad Shahid, Eunho Cho, Vikram Sairam, Robert Figlin, Khae-Hwan Kim, Jayoung Kim
Due to its tendency to recur and acquire chemoresistance quickly, bladder cancer (BC) remains to be an elusive and difficult disease. Patients with recurrent and chemoresistant BC have an extremely poor prognosis. One possible approach that may provide insightful and valuable information regarding resistance mechanisms is looking into the lipid metabolism of BC cells. Metabolism of lipids is essential for cancer cells and is associated with the regulation of a variety of key cellular processes and functions...
March 2, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551309/mitochondrial-%C3%AE-oxidation-of-saturated-fatty-acids-in-humans
#9
REVIEW
María M Adeva-Andany, Natalia Carneiro-Freire, Mónica Seco-Filgueira, Carlos Fernández-Fernández, David Mouriño-Bayolo
Mitochondrial β-oxidation of fatty acids generates acetyl-coA, NADH and FADH2 . Acyl-coA synthetases catalyze the binding of fatty acids to coenzyme A to form fatty acyl-coA thioesters, the first step in the intracellular metabolism of fatty acids. l-carnitine system facilitates the transport of fatty acyl-coA esters across the mitochondrial membrane. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 transfers acyl groups from coenzyme A to l-carnitine, forming acyl-carnitine esters at the outer mitochondrial membrane. Carnitine acyl-carnitine translocase exchanges acyl-carnitine esters that enter the mitochondria, by free l-carnitine...
March 15, 2018: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503142/acetyl-coa-synthetase-2-enhances-tumorigenesis-and-is-indicative-of-a-poor-prognosis-for-patients-with-renal-cell-carcinoma
#10
Shaojin Zhang, Juanjuan He, Zhankui Jia, Zechen Yan, Jinjian Yang
BACKGROUND: Acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 (ACSS2) is highly expressed in various cancers, whereas ACSS2 expression and function in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are unknown. METHODS: We investigated ACSS2 expression in 198 human RCC tissues using immunohistochemistry, and analyzed its clinicopathological correlation and prognostic relevance. Overexpression and knockdown of ACSS2 were used to investigate the proliferation, migration and invasion of human RCC 786-O, 769-P, and ACHN cell lines...
May 2018: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493120/mitochondrial-acetyl-coa-synthetase-3-is-biosignature-of-gastric-cancer-progression
#11
Wei-Chun Chang, Wei-Chung Cheng, Bi-Hua Cheng, Lumin Chen, Li-Jing Ju, Yu-Jer Ou, Long-Bin Jeng, Mei-Due Yang, Yao-Ching Hung, Wen-Lung Ma
Cholesterol affects cancer progression, and acetyl-CoA is the primary cholesterogenesis substrate. The previous work has defined cholesterol bioflux via lipoprotein/receptor route is the gastric cancer (GCa) prognosis biosignature. The prognosis importance of acetyl-CoA to cholesterogenesis (mevalonate pathway) in GCa is yet to be defined. Using Kaplan-Meier Plotter web-based gene survival analyzer and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)-database analyzed with DBdriver.v2 platform, we revealed acetyl-CoA production and the mevalonate pathway are associated with GCa prognosis...
April 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468302/identification-of-major-enzymes-involved-in-the-synthesis-of-diadenosine-tetraphosphate-and-or-adenosine-tetraphosphate-in-myxococcus-xanthus
#12
Yoshio Kimura, Chihiro Tanaka, Manami Oka
Myxococcus xanthus generates diadenosine tetraphosphates (Ap4 A) and diadenosine pentaphosphates (Ap5 A) under various stress conditions. M. xanthus lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysS) efficiently synthesizes Ap4 A from ATP, Ap5 A from ATP and adenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4 ), and Ap4 from ATP and triphosphate. To identify other M. xanthus enzymes that can catalyze Ap4 A and Ap4 synthesis, 15 M. xanthus aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs), four acyl-CoA synthetases (Acys), three acetyl-CoA synthetases (Aces), phosphoglycerate kinase (Pgk), and adenylate kinase (Adk) were expressed in Escherichia coli and examined for Ap4 A or Ap4 synthetase activity using ATP or ATP and triphosphate as substrates...
February 21, 2018: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458450/transcriptomic-and-metabolomic-responses-induced-in-the-livers-of-growing-pigs-by-a-short-term-intravenous-infusion-of-sodium-butyrate
#13
E Ren, X Chen, S Yu, J Xu, Y Su, W Zhu
Previous studies showed that butyrate played benefit roles in the health and metabolism of animals. However, little information on the effects of butyrate on the metabolism of piglets at the extraintestinal level is available. The present study investigated transcriptomic and metabolomic responses in the livers of pigs to evaluate the effects of intravenous sodium butyrate (SB) on the body's metabolism at the extraintestinal level. A total of 12 Duroc×Landrace×Large White growing barrows (60 days of age) fitted with jugular vein cannula were randomly allocated to either the SB group or the control (CO) group...
February 20, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457784/hiv-latency-is-reversed-by-acss2-driven-histone-crotonylation
#14
Guochun Jiang, Don Nguyen, Nancie M Archin, Steven A Yukl, Gema Méndez-Lagares, Yuyang Tang, Maher M Elsheikh, George R Thompson, Dennis J Hartigan-O'Connor, David M Margolis, Joseph K Wong, Satya Dandekar
Eradication of HIV-1 (HIV) is hindered by stable viral reservoirs. Viral latency is epigenetically regulated. While the effects of histone acetylation and methylation at the HIV long-terminal repeat (LTR) have been described, our knowledge of the proviral epigenetic landscape is incomplete. We report that a previously unrecognized epigenetic modification of the HIV LTR, histone crotonylation, is a regulator of HIV latency. Reactivation of latent HIV was achieved following the induction of histone crotonylation through increased expression of the crotonyl-CoA-producing enzyme acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (ACSS2)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454998/a-cell-death-assay-for-assessing-the-mitochondrial-targeting-of-proteins
#15
Daniel Camara Teixeira, Elizabeth L Cordonier, Subhashinee S K Wijeratne, Patricia Huebbe, Augusta Jamin, Sarah Jarecke, Matthew Wiebe, Janos Zempleni
The mitochondrial proteome comprises 1000 to 1500 proteins, in addition to proteins for which the mitochondrial localization is uncertain. About 800 diseases have been linked with mutations in mitochondrial proteins. We devised a cell survival assay for assessing the mitochondrial localization in a high-throughput format. This protocol allows us to assess the mitochondrial localization of proteins and their mutants, and to identify drugs and nutrients that modulate the mitochondrial targeting of proteins. The assay works equally well for proteins directed to the outer mitochondrial membrane, inner mitochondrial membrane mitochondrial and mitochondrial matrix, as demonstrated by assessing the mitochondrial targeting of the following proteins: carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (consensus sequence and R123C mutant), acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2, uncoupling protein 1 and holocarboxylase synthetase...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444517/acetyl-coa-synthetase-2-promotes-cell-migration-and-invasion-of-renal-cell-carcinoma-by-upregulating-lysosomal-associated-membrane-protein-1-expression
#16
Lv Yao, Xiaoqiang Guo, Yaoting Gui
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Reprogramming energy metabolism is an emerging hallmark of many cancers, and this alteration is especially evident in renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). However, few studies have been conducted on lipid metabolism. This study investigated the function and mechanism of lipid metabolism-related acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 (ACSS2) in RCC development, cell migration and invasion. METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to determine the expression of ACSS2 in cancer tissue and adjacent tissue...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377237/drosophila-melanogaster-a-model-to-study-obesity-effects-on-genes-expression-and-developmental-changes-on-descendants
#17
Mariane T de Paula, Márcia R P Silva, Stífani M Araújo, Vandreza C Bortolotto, Illana K Martins, Giulianna E Macedo, Jeferson L Franco, Thaís Posser, Marina Prigol
Maternal obesity and metabolic diseases are two of the most important potential dangers to offspring, given that impaired offspring may cause deficiencies that impair the adult life and health. This study evaluated the oxidative damage, the enzymatic antioxidant defenses, and the enzymes of fatty acid metabolism, such as Acyl-CoA Synthetase and Acetyl-CoA Synthetase (mRNA expression levels), as well as the modulation of cell stress signaling pathway, as Hsp83, and gene expression and insulin-like peptide DILP6 in Drosophila melanogaster models that received a high fat diet (HFD) (10% and 20% of coconut oil) throughout their development period...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340843/phytoene-production-utilizing-the-isoprenoid-biosynthesis-capacity-of-thermococcus-kodakarensis
#18
Tsubasa Fuke, Takaaki Sato, Savyasachee Jha, Myra L Tansengco, Haruyuki Atomi
Phytoene (C40H64) is an isoprenoid and a precursor of various carotenoids which are of industrial value. Archaea can be considered to exhibit a relatively large capacity to produce isoprenoids, as they are components of their membrane lipids. Here, we aimed to produce isoprenoids such as phytoene in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis. T. kodakarensis harbors a prenyltransferase gene involved in the biosynthesis of farnesyl pyrophosphate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, which are precursors of squalene and phytoene, respectively...
January 16, 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339464/propionate-enters-gabaergic-neurons-inhibits-gaba-transaminase-causes-gaba-accumulation-and-lethargy-in-a-model-of-propionic-acidemia
#19
Cecilie Morland, Anne-Sofie Frøland, Mi Nguyen Pettersen, Jon Storm-Mathisen, Vidar Gundersen, Frode Rise, Bjørnar Hassel
Propionic acidemia is the accumulation of propionate in blood due to dysfunction of propionyl-CoA carboxylase. The condition causes lethargy and striatal degeneration with motor impairment in humans. How propionate exerts its toxic effect is unclear. Here, we show that intravenous administration of propionate causes dose-dependent propionate accumulation in the brain and transient lethargy in mice. Propionate, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, entered GABAergic neurons, as could be seen from increased neuronal histone H4 acetylation in the striatum and neocortex...
February 16, 2018: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296215/cell-surface-grp78-promotes-tumor-cell-histone-acetylation-through-metabolic-reprogramming-a-mechanism-which-modulates-the-warburg-effect
#20
Udhayakumar Gopal, Salvatore V Pizzo
Acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is essential for histone acetylation, to promote cell proliferation by regulating gene expression. However, the underlying mechanism(s) governing acetylation remains poorly understood. Activated α2 -Macroglobulin (α2 M* ) signals through tumor Cell Surface GRP78 (CS-GRP78) to regulate tumor cell proliferation through multiple signaling pathway. Here, we demonstrate that the α2 M* /CS-GRP78 axis regulates acetyl-CoA synthesis and thus functions as an epigenetic modulator by enhancing histone acetylation in cancer cells...
December 8, 2017: Oncotarget
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