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Acetyl-coa synthetase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432553/cardiolipin-deficiency-causes-triacylglycerol-accumulation-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#1
Pradeep Kumar Yadav, Ram Rajasekharan
In yeast, the synthesis of cardiolipin (CL) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) occurs mainly in mitochondria. CL and PE have overlapping functions, and they are required for mitochondrial function. PE is physiologically linked with triacylglycerol (TAG) metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, involving an acyl-CoA-independent pathway through the phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity of the Lro1 protein. There is no report on the physiological link between CL and TAG metabolism. Here we report a metabolic link between CL and TAG accumulation in the S...
April 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407230/acyl-coa-synthetase-short-chain-family-member-2-acss2-is-regulated-by-srebp-1-and-plays-a-role-in-fatty-acid-synthesis-in-caprine-mammary-epithelial-cells
#2
Huifen Xu, Jun Luo, Gongzhen Ma, Xueying Zhang, Dawei Yao, Ming Li, Juan J Loor
Sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) is well-known as the master regulator of lipogenesis in rodents. Acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (ACSS2) plays a key role in lipogenesis by synthesizing acetyl-CoA from acetate for lipogenesis. ATP citrate lyase (ACLY) catalyzes the conversion of citrate and coenzyme A to acetyl-CoA, hence, it is also important for lipogenesis. Although ACSS2 function in cancer cells has been elucidated, its essentiality in ruminant mammary lipogenesis is unknown...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392294/a-systematic-optimization-of-medium-chain-fatty-acid-biosynthesis-via-the-reverse-beta-oxidation-cycle-in-escherichia-coli
#3
Junjun Wu, Xia Zhang, Xiudong Xia, Mingsheng Dong
Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs, 6-10 carbons) are valuable precursors to many industrial biofuels and chemicals, recently engineered reversal of the β-oxidation (r-BOX) cycle has been proposed as a potential platform for efficient synthesis of MCFAs. Previous studies have made many exciting achievements on functionally characterizing four core enzymes of this r-BOX cycle. However, the information about bottleneck nodes in this cycle is elusive. Here, a quantitative assessment of the inherent limitations of this cycle was conducted to capitalize on its potential...
April 7, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374798/dynamic-metabolic-profiling-together-with-transcription-analysis-reveals-salinity-induced-starch-to-lipid-biosynthesis-in-alga-chlamydomonas-sp-jsc4
#4
Shih-Hsin Ho, Akihito Nakanishi, Yuichi Kato, Hiroaki Yamasaki, Jo-Shu Chang, Naomi Misawa, Yuu Hirose, Jun Minagawa, Tomohisa Hasunuma, Akihiko Kondo
Biodiesel production using microalgae would play a pivotal role in satisfying future global energy demands. Understanding of lipid metabolism in microalgae is important to isolate oleaginous strain capable of overproducing lipids. It has been reported that reducing starch biosynthesis can enhance lipid accumulation. However, the metabolic mechanism controlling carbon partitioning from starch to lipids in microalgae remains unclear, thus complicating the genetic engineering of algal strains. We here used "dynamic" metabolic profiling and essential transcription analysis of the oleaginous green alga Chlamydomonas sp...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373292/caloric-restriction-extends-yeast-chronological-lifespan-by-optimizing-the-snf1-ampk-signaling-pathway
#5
Margaret B Wierman, Nazif Maqani, Erika Strickler, Mingguang Li, Jeffrey S Smith
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the homologous yeast SNF1 complex, are key regulators of energy metabolism that counteract nutrient deficiency and ATP depletion by phosphorylating multiple enzymes and transcription factors that maintain energetic homeostasis. AMPK/SNF1 also promotes longevity in several model organisms, including yeast. Here we investigate the role of yeast SNF1 in mediating the extension of chronological lifespan (CLS) by caloric restriction (CR). We find that SNF1 activity is required throughout the log to stationary phase transition (diauxic shift) for effective CLS extension...
April 3, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339712/effect-of-chinese-herbal-medicine-treatment-on-plasma-lipid-profile-and-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-in-hetian-broiler
#6
Z Xie, J Zhang, S Ma, X Huang, Y Huang
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether adding a Chinese herbal hedicine (CHM, including astragalus membranaceus, codonopsis pilosula, poria cocos, bighead atractylodes rhizome, fructus crataegi, folium epimedii, radix saposhnikoviae, and pericarpium citri reticulatae) diet has effects on lipid metabolism in the liver of the broiler. Six-hundred-thirty Hetian broilers were divided into 3 groups including base diet (control), 0.3%, or 1% CHM diets, for 130 days. The results showed that CHM treatment significantly increased the slaughter performance...
February 21, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321934/multi-layered-control-of-peroxisomal-activity-upon-salt-stress-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#7
Sara Manzanares-Estreder, Joan Espí-Bardisa, Benito Alarcón, Amparo Pascual-Ahuir, Markus Proft
Peroxisomes are dynamic organelles and the sole location for fatty acid β-oxidation in yeast cells. Here we report that peroxisomal function is crucial for the adaptation to salt stress, especially upon sugar limitation. Upon stress, multiple layers of control regulate the activity and the number of peroxisomes. Activated Hog1 MAP kinase triggers the induction of genes encoding enzymes for fatty acid activation, peroxisomal import and β-oxidation through the Adr1 transcriptional activator, which transiently associates with genes encoding fatty acid metabolic enzymes in a stress- and Hog1-dependent manner...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284693/the-effects-of-cell-death-inducing-dna-fragmentation-factor-%C3%AE-like-effector-c-cidec-on-milk-lipid-synthesis-in-mammary-glands-of-dairy-cows
#8
Yang Yang, Ye Lin, Xiaoyu Duan, He Lv, Weinan Xing, Qingzhang Li, Xuejun Gao, Xiaoming Hou
Adequate lipid synthesis by the mammary gland during lactation is essential for the survival of mammalian offspring. Cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-α-like effector C (CIDEC) is a lipid droplet-associated protein and functions to promote lipid accumulation and inhibit lipolysis in mice and human adipocytes. However, the function of CIDEC in regulation of milk lipid synthesis in dairy cow mammary gland remains largely unknown. In this study, 6 multiparous Holstein cows (parity = 3) in early lactation were allocated to high-fat milk (milk yield 33...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278108/influence-of-al-3-on-the-titer-of-spiramycin-and-effective-components-in-fermentor
#9
Zhen Li, Fengxian Hu, Ruifang Ye, Heping Lv, Jun Zeng
Spiramycin is a multi-component antibiotic and different components have different antibacterial activities. In Streptomyces spiramyceticus16-10-2, SPMII and SPMIII (spiramycin II and spiramycin III) are the main components, while SPMI (spiramycin I) need to be controlled below 12%. Based on this, the influences of Al(3+) on total spiramycin titer and components were investigated in this work. Those experiments were mainly performed in 15 L fermentor and Al(3+) made a great improvement in spiramycin titer...
February 17, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265263/genome-sequence-of-desulfurella-amilsii-strain-tr1-and-comparative-genomics-of-desulfurellaceae-family
#10
Anna P Florentino, Alfons J M Stams, Irene Sánchez-Andrea
The acidotolerant sulfur reducer Desulfurella amilsii was isolated from sediments of Tinto River, an extremely acidic environment. Its ability to grow in a broad range of pH and to tolerate certain heavy metals offers potential for metal recovery processes. Here we report its high-quality draft genome sequence and compare it to the available genome sequences of other members of Desulfurellaceae family: D. acetivorans. D. multipotens, Hippea maritima. H. alviniae, H. medeae, and H. jasoniae. For most species, pairwise comparisons for average nucleotide identity (ANI) and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) revealed ANI values from 67...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212448/hepatic-transcriptome-analysis-and-identification-of-differentially-expressed-genes-response-to-dietary-oxidized-fish-oil-in-loach-misgurnus-anguillicaudatus
#11
Yin Zhang, Yang Li, Xiao Liang, Xiaojuan Cao, Longfei Huang, Jie Yan, Yanxing Wei, Jian Gao
RNA sequencing and short-read assembly were utilized to produce a transcriptome of livers from loaches (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus) fed with three different diets respectively containing fresh fish oil (FO group), medium oxidized fish oil (MO group) and high oxidized fish oil (HO group). A total of 60,663 unigenes were obtained in this study, with mean length 848.74 bp. 50,814, 49,584 and 49,814 unigenes were respectively obtained from FO, MO and HO groups. There were 2,343 differentially expressed genes between FO and MO, with 855 down- and 1,488 up-regulated genes in the MO group...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167750/acss2-mediated-acetyl-coa-synthesis-from-acetate-is-necessary-for-human-cytomegalovirus-infection
#12
Anna Vysochan, Arjun Sengupta, Aalim M Weljie, James C Alwine, Yongjun Yu
Recent studies have shown that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can induce a robust increase in lipid synthesis which is critical for the success of infection. In mammalian cells the central precursor for lipid biosynthesis, cytosolic acetyl CoA (Ac-CoA), is produced by ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY) from mitochondria-derived citrate or by acetyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family member 2 (ACSS2) from acetate. It has been reported that ACLY is the primary enzyme involved in making cytosolic Ac-CoA in cells with abundant nutrients...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099844/acetate-recapturing-by-nuclear-acetyl-coa-synthetase-2-prevents-loss-of-histone-acetylation-during-oxygen-and-serum-limitation
#13
Vinay Bulusu, Sergey Tumanov, Evdokia Michalopoulou, Niels J van den Broek, Gillian MacKay, Colin Nixon, Sandeep Dhayade, Zachary T Schug, Johan Vande Voorde, Karen Blyth, Eyal Gottlieb, Alexei Vazquez, Jurre J Kamphorst
Acetyl-CoA is a key metabolic intermediate with an important role in transcriptional regulation. The nuclear-cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 (ACSS2) was found to sustain the growth of hypoxic tumor cells. It generates acetyl-CoA from acetate, but exactly which pathways it supports is not fully understood. Here, quantitative analysis of acetate metabolism reveals that ACSS2 fulfills distinct functions depending on its cellular location. Exogenous acetate uptake is controlled by expression of both ACSS2 and the mitochondrial ACSS1, and ACSS2 supports lipogenesis...
January 17, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061399/transcriptome-sequencing-and-metabolic-pathways-of-astaxanthin-accumulated-in-haematococcus-pluvialis-mutant-under-15-co2
#14
Jun Cheng, Ke Li, Yanxia Zhu, Weijuan Yang, Junhu Zhou, Kefa Cen
Transcriptome sequencing and annotation was performed on Haematococcus pluvialis mutant red cells induced with high light under 15% CO2 to demonstrate why astaxanthin yield of the mutant was 1.7 times higher than that of a wild strain. It was found that 56% of 1947 differentially expressed genes were upregulated in mutant cells. Most significant differences were found in unigenes related to photosynthesis, carotenoid biosynthesis and fatty acid biosynthesis pathways. The pyruvate kinase increased by 3.5-fold in mutant cells...
March 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003429/molecular-cloning-of-rat-acss3-and-characterization-of-mammalian-propionyl-coa-synthetase-in-the-liver-mitochondrial-matrix
#15
Yukihiro Yoshimura, Aya Araki, Hitomi Maruta, Yoshitaka Takahashi, Hiromi Yamashita
Among the three acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family members (ACSS), ACSS3 is poorly characterized. To characterize ACSS3, we performed molecular cloning and protein expression of rat acss3 and determined its intracellular localization, tissue distribution, and substrate specificity. Transient expression of rat ACSS3 in HeLa cells resulted in a 10-fold increase of acetyl-CoA synthetase activity compared with that in control cells. The acss3 transcripts are expressed in a wide range of tissues, with the highest levels observed in liver tissue followed by kidney tissue...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987242/acetyl-coa-synthetases-of-saccharopolyspora-erythraea-are-regulated-by-the-nitrogen-response-regulator-glnr-at-both-transcriptional-and-post-translational-levels
#16
Di You, Miao-Miao Wang, Bang-Ce Ye
Saccharopolyspora erythraea has three AMP-forming acetyl-CoA synthetases (Acs) encoded by acsA1, acsA2, and acsA3. In this work, we found that nitrogen response regulator GlnR can directly interact with the promoter regions of all three genes and can activate their transcription in response to nitrogen availability. The typical GlnR-binding boxes were identified in the promoter regions. Moreover, the activities of three Acs enzymes were modulated by the reversible lysine acetylation (RLA) with acetyltransferase AcuA and NAD(+) -dependent deacetylase SrtN...
December 17, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974467/cyclic-amp-inhibits-the-activity-and-promotes-the-acetylation-of-acetyl-coa-synthetase-through-competitive-binding-to-the-atp-amp-pocket
#17
Xiaobiao Han, Liqiang Shen, Qijun Wang, Xufeng Cen, Jin Wang, Meng Wu, Peng Li, Wei Zhao, Yu Zhang, Guoping Zhao
The high-affinity biosynthetic pathway for converting acetate to acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is catalyzed by the central metabolic enzyme acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase (Acs), which is finely regulated both at the transcriptional level via cyclic AMP (cAMP)-driven trans-activation and at the post-translational level via acetylation inhibition. In this study, we discovered that cAMP directly binds to Salmonella enterica Acs (SeAcs) and inhibits its activity in a substrate-competitive manner. In addition, cAMP binding increases SeAcs acetylation by simultaneously promoting Pat-dependent acetylation and inhibiting CobB-dependent deacetylation, resulting in enhanced SeAcs inhibition...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941023/loss-of-cardiolipin-leads-to-perturbation-of-acetyl-coa-synthesis
#18
Vaishnavi Raja, Amit S Joshi, Guiling Li, Krishna Rao Maddipati, Miriam L Greenberg
Cardiolipin (CL), the signature phospholipid of mitochondrial membranes, plays an important role in mitochondrial processes and bioenergetics. CL is synthesized de novo and undergoes remodeling in the mitochondrial membranes. Perturbation of CL remodeling leads to the rare X-linked genetic disorder Barth syndrome, which shows disparities in clinical presentation. To uncover biochemical modifiers that exacerbate CL deficiency, we carried out a synthetic genetic array screen to identify synthetic lethal interactions with the yeast CL synthase mutant crd1Δ...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928680/proteome-wide-identification-of-lysine-propionylation-in-thermophilic-and-mesophilic-bacteria-geobacillus-kaustophilus-thermus-thermophilus-escherichia-coli-bacillus-subtilis-and-rhodothermus-marinus
#19
Hiroki Okanishi, Kwang Kim, Ryoji Masui, Seiki Kuramitsu
Recent studies have revealed the physiological significance of post-translational lysine acylations such as acetylation in the regulation of various cellular processes. Here, we characterized lysine propionylation, a recently discovered post-translational acylation, in five representative bacteria: Geobacillus kaustophilus, Thermus thermophilus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Rhodothermus marinus. Using antibody-based propionyl peptide enrichment followed by identification with nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we showed that proteins were subject to lysine propionylation in all five bacterial species analyzed...
March 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927994/the-acyl-activating-enzyme-phaae13-is-an-alternative-enzymatic-source-of-precursors-for-anthocyanin-biosynthesis-in-petunia-flowers
#20
Guoju Chen, Heping Liu, Qian Wei, Huina Zhao, Juanxu Liu, Yixun Yu
Anthocyanins, a class of flavonoids, are responsible for the orange to blue coloration of flowers and act as visual attractors to aid pollination and seed dispersal. Malonyl-CoA is the precursor for the formation of flavonoids and anthocyanins. Previous studies have suggested that malonyl-CoA is formed almost exclusively by acetyl-CoA carboxylase, which catalyzes the ATP-dependent formation of malonyl-CoA from acetyl-CoA and bicarbonate. In the present study, the full-length cDNA of Petunia hybrida acyl-activating enzyme 13 (PhAAE13), a member of clade VII of the AAE superfamily that encodes malonyl-CoA synthetase, was isolated...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
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