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Acetyl-coa synthetase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061399/transcriptome-sequencing-and-metabolic-pathways-of-astaxanthin-accumulated-in-haematococcus-pluvialis-mutant-under-15-co2
#1
Jun Cheng, Ke Li, Yanxia Zhu, Weijuan Yang, Junhu Zhou, Kefa Cen
Transcriptome sequencing and annotation was performed on Haematococcus pluvialis mutant red cells induced with high light under 15% CO2 to demonstrate why astaxanthin yield of the mutant was 1.7 times higher than that of a wild strain. It was found that 56% of 1947 differentially expressed genes were upregulated in mutant cells. Most significant differences were found in unigenes related to photosynthesis, carotenoid biosynthesis and fatty acid biosynthesis pathways. The pyruvate kinase increased by 3.5-fold in mutant cells...
December 24, 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003429/molecular-cloning-of-rat-acss3-and-characterization-of-mammalian-propionyl-coa-synthetase-in-the-liver-mitochondrial-matrix
#2
Yukihiro Yoshimura, Aya Araki, Hitomi Maruta, Yoshitaka Takahashi, Hiromi Yamashita
Among the three acyl-CoA synthetase short-chain family members (ACSS), ACSS3 is poorly characterized. To characterize ACSS3, we performed molecular cloning and protein expression of rat acss3 and determined its intracellular localization, tissue distribution, and substrate specificity. Transient expression of rat ACSS3 in HeLa cells resulted in a 10-fold increase of acetyl-CoA synthetase activity compared with that in control cells. The acss3 transcripts are expressed in a wide range of tissues, with the highest levels observed in liver tissue followed by kidney tissue...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987242/acetyl-coa-synthetases-of-saccharopolyspora-erythraea-are-regulated-by-the-nitrogen-response-regulator-glnr-at-both-transcriptional-and-post-translational-levels
#3
Di You, Miao-Miao Wang, Bang-Ce Ye
Saccharopolyspora erythraea has three AMP-forming acetyl-CoA synthetases (Acs) encoded by acsA1, acsA2 and acsA3. In this work, we found that nitrogen response regulator GlnR can directly interact with the promoter regions of all three genes and can activate their transcription in response to nitrogen availability. The typical GlnR-binding boxes were identified in the promoter regions. Moreover, the activities of three Acs enzymes were modulated by the reversible lysine acetylation (RLA) with acetyltransferase AcuA and NAD(+) -dependent deacetylase SrtN...
December 17, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974467/cyclic-amp-inhibits-the-activity-and-promotes-the-acetylation-of-acetyl-coa-synthetase-through-competitive-binding-to-the-atp-amp-pocket
#4
Xiaobiao Han, Liqiang Shen, Qijun Wang, Xufeng Cen, Jin Wang, Meng Wu, Peng Li, Wei Zhao, Yu Zhang, Guoping Zhao
The high-affinity biosynthetic pathway for converting acetate to acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is catalyzed by the central metabolic enzyme acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase (Acs), which is finely regulated both at the transcriptional level via cyclic AMP (cAMP)-driven trans-activation and at the post-translational level via acetylation inhibition. In this study, we discovered that cAMP directly binds to Salmonella enteric Acs (SeAcs) and inhibits its activity in a substrate-competitive manner. In addition, cAMP binding increases SeAcs acetylation by simultaneously promoting Pat-dependent acetylation and inhibiting CobB-dependent deacetylation, resulting in enhanced SeAcs inhibition...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941023/loss-of-cardiolipin-leads-to-perturbation-of-acetyl-coa-synthesis
#5
Vaishnavi Raja, Amit S Joshi, Guiling Li, Krishna Rao Maddipati, Miriam L Greenberg
Cardiolipin (CL), the signature phospholipid of mitochondrial membranes, plays an important role in mitochondrial processes and bioenergetics. CL is synthesized de novo and undergoes remodeling in the mitochondrial membranes. Perturbation of CL remodeling leads to the rare X-linked genetic disorder Barth syndrome (BTHS), which shows disparities in clinical presentation. In order to uncover biochemical modifiers that exacerbate CL deficiency, we carried out a Synthetic Genetic Array (SGA) screen to identify synthetic lethal interactions with the yeast CL synthase mutant crd1Δ...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928680/proteome-wide-identification-of-lysine-propionylation-in-thermophilic-and-mesophilic-bacteria-geobacillus-kaustophilus-thermus-thermophilus-escherichia-coli-bacillus-subtilis-and-rhodothermus-marinus
#6
Hiroki Okanishi, Kwang Kim, Ryoji Masui, Seiki Kuramitsu
Recent studies have revealed the physiological significance of post-translational lysine acylations such as acetylation in the regulation of various cellular processes. Here, we characterized lysine propionylation, a recently discovered post-translational acylation, in five representative bacteria: Geobacillus kaustophilus, Thermus thermophilus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Rhodothermus marinus. Using antibody-based propionyl peptide enrichment followed by identification with nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we showed that proteins were subject to lysine propionylation in all five bacterial species analyzed...
December 7, 2016: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927994/the-acyl-activating-enzyme-phaae13-is-an-alternative-enzymatic-source-of-precursors-for-anthocyanin-biosynthesis-in-petunia-flowers
#7
Guoju Chen, Heping Liu, Qian Wei, Huina Zhao, Juanxu Liu, Yixun Yu
Anthocyanins, a class of flavonoids, are responsible for the orange to blue coloration of flowers and act as visual attractors to aid pollination and seed dispersal. Malonyl-CoA is the precursor for the formation of flavonoids and anthocyanins. Previous studies have suggested that malonyl-CoA is formed almost exclusively by acetyl-CoA carboxylase, which catalyzes the ATP-dependent formation of malonyl-CoA from acetyl-CoA and bicarbonate. In the present study, the full-length cDNA of Petunia hybrida acyl-activating enzyme 13 (PhAAE13), a member of clade VII of the AAE superfamily that encodes malonyl-CoA synthetase, was isolated...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925207/acetate-metabolism-does-not-reflect-astrocytic-activity-contributes-directly-to-gaba-synthesis-and-is-increased-by-silent-information-regulator-1-activation
#8
Benjamin D Rowlands, Matthias Klugmann, Caroline D Rae
[(13) C]acetate is known to label metabolites preferentially in astrocytes rather than neurons and it has consequently been used as a marker for astrocytic activity. Recent discoveries suggest that control of acetate metabolism and its contributions to the synthesis of metabolites in brain is not as simple as first thought. Here, using a Guinea pig brain cortical tissue slice model metabolizing [1-(13) C]D-glucose and [1,2-(13) C]acetate, we investigated control of acetate metabolism and the degree to which it reflects astrocytic activity...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825908/functional-analysis-of-an-amp-forming-acetyl-coa-synthetase-from-leishmania-donovani-by-gene-overexpression-and-targeted-gene-disruption-approaches
#9
Neelagiri Soumya, Mitesh N Panara, Kishore Babu Neerupudi, Sushma Singh
Leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease is endemic in 98 countries and >350 million people are at risk of getting the infection. The existing chemotherapy of Leishmaniasis is limited due to adverse effects, resistance to existing drugs and increasing cases of HIV-Leishmaniasis co-infection. Hence, there is a need to identify novel metabolic pathways for design of new chemical entities. Acetyl-CoA synthetase (AceCS) is an enzyme of acetate metabolic pathway whose functions are unknown in Leishmania parasite...
February 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801907/geographic-distribution-at-subspecies-resolution-level-closely-related-rhodopirellula-species-in-european-coastal-sediments
#10
Marina Žure, Antonio Fernandez-Guerra, Colin B Munn, Jens Harder
Members of the marine genus Rhodopirellula are attached living bacteria and studies based on cultured Rhodopirellula strains suggested that three closely related species R. baltica, 'R. europaea' and 'R. islandica' have a limited geographic distribution in Europe. To address this hypothesis, we developed a nested PCR for a single gene copy detection of a partial acetyl CoA synthetase (acsA) from intertidal sediments collected all around Europe. Furthermore, we performed growth experiments in a range of temperature, salinity and light conditions...
November 1, 2016: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771364/reaction-kinetic-analysis-of-the-3-hydroxypropionate-4-hydroxybutyrate-co2-fixation-cycle-in-extremely-thermoacidophilic-archaea
#11
Andrew J Loder, Yejun Han, Aaron B Hawkins, Hong Lian, Gina L Lipscomb, Gerrit J Schut, Matthew W Keller, Michael W W Adams, Robert M Kelly
The 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate (3HP/4HB) cycle fixes CO2 in extremely thermoacidophilic archaea and holds promise for metabolic engineering because of its thermostability and potentially rapid pathway kinetics. A reaction kinetics model was developed to examine the biological and biotechnological attributes of the 3HP/4HB cycle as it operates in Metallosphaera sedula, based on previous information as well as on kinetic parameters determined here for recombinant versions of five of the cycle enzymes (malonyl-CoA/succinyl-CoA reductase, 3-hydroxypropionyl-CoA synthetase, 3-hydroxypropionyl-CoA dehydratase, acryloyl-CoA reductase, and succinic semialdehyde reductase)...
November 2016: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771289/a-novel-uplc-ms-ms-based-method-to-determine-the-activity-of-n-acetylglutamate-synthase-in-liver-tissue
#12
Marli Dercksen, Marinus Duran, Lodewijk IJlst, Wim Kulik, Jos P N Ruiter, Arno van Cruchten, Mendel Tuchman, Ronald J A Wanders
BACKGROUND: N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) plays a key role in the removal of ammonia via the urea cycle by catalyzing the synthesis of N-acetylglutamate (NAG), the obligatory cofactor in the carbamyl phosphate synthetase 1 reaction. Enzymatic analysis of NAGS in liver homogenates has remained insensitive and inaccurate, which prompted the development of a novel method. METHODS: UPLC-MS/MS was used in conjunction with stable isotope (N-acetylglutamic-2,3,3,4,4-d5 acid) dilution for the quantitative detection of NAG produced by the NAGS enzyme...
December 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746810/comparative-transcriptomic-analysis-of-two-brassica-napus-near-isogenic-lines-reveals-a-network-of-genes-that-influences-seed-oil-accumulation
#13
Jingxue Wang, Sanjay K Singh, Chunfang Du, Chen Li, Jianchun Fan, Sitakanta Pattanaik, Ling Yuan
Rapeseed (Brassica napus) is an important oil seed crop, providing more than 13% of the world's supply of edible oils. An in-depth knowledge of the gene network involved in biosynthesis and accumulation of seed oil is critical for the improvement of B. napus. Using available genomic and transcriptomic resources, we identified 1,750 acyl-lipid metabolism (ALM) genes that are distributed over 19 chromosomes in the B. napus genome. B. rapa and B. oleracea, two diploid progenitors of B. napus, contributed almost equally to the ALM genes...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746797/elucidation-of-complex-nature-of-peg-induced-drought-stress-response-in-rice-root-using-comparative-proteomics-approach
#14
Lalit Agrawal, Swati Gupta, Shashank K Mishra, Garima Pandey, Susheel Kumar, Puneet S Chauhan, Debasis Chakrabarty, Chandra S Nautiyal
Along with many adaptive strategies, dynamic changes in protein abundance seem to be the common strategy to cope up with abiotic stresses which can be best explored through proteomics. Understanding of drought response is the key to decipher regulatory mechanism of better adaptation. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) proteome represents a phenomenal source of proteins that govern traits of agronomic importance, such as drought tolerance. In this study, a comparison of root cytoplasmic proteome was done for a drought tolerant rice (Heena) cultivar in PEG induced drought conditions...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742886/oil-biosynthesis-in-underground-oil-rich-storage-vegetative-tissue-comparison-of-cyperus-esculentus-tuber-with-oil-seeds-and-fruits
#15
Zhenle Yang, Hongying Ji, Dantong Liu
Cyperus esculentus is unique in that it can accumulate rich oil in its tubers. However, the underlying mechanism of tuber oil biosynthesis is still unclear. Our transcriptional analyses of the pathways from pyruvate production up to triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in tubers revealed many distinct species-specific lipid expression patterns from oil seeds and fruits, indicating that in C. esculentus tuber: (i) carbon flux from sucrose toward plastid pyruvate could be produced mostly through the cytosolic glycolytic pathway; (ii) acetyl-CoA synthetase might be an important contributor to acetyl-CoA formation for plastid fatty acid biosynthesis; (iii) the expression pattern for stearoyl-ACP desaturase was associated with high oleic acid composition; (iv) it was most likely that endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated acyl-CoA synthetase played a significant role in the export of fatty acids between the plastid and ER; (v) lipid phosphate phosphatase (LPP)-δ was most probably related to the formation of the diacylglycerol (DAG) pool in the Kennedy pathway; and (vi) diacylglyceroltransacylase 2 (DGAT2) and phospholipid:diacylglycerolacyltransferase 1 (PDAT1) might play crucial roles in tuber oil biosynthesis...
December 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731335/amide-compound-synthesis-by-adenylation-domain-of-bacillibactin-synthetase
#16
Tomoko Abe, Yoshiteru Hashimoto, Sayaka Sugimoto, Kenta Kobayashi, Takuto Kumano, Michihiko Kobayashi
The adenylation domain of nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) is responsible for the selective substrate recognition and its activation (as an acyl-O-AMP intermediate) during ATP consumption. DhbE, a stand-alone adenylation domain, acts on an aromatic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB). This activation is the initial step of the synthesis of bacillibactin that is a high-affinity small-molecule iron chelator also termed siderophore. Subsequently, the activated DHB is transferred and attached covalently to a peptidyl carrier protein domain via a thioester bond...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713423/downregulation-of-acetyl-coa-synthetase-2-is-a-metabolic-hallmark-of-tumor-progression-and-aggressiveness-in-colorectal-carcinoma
#17
Jeong Mo Bae, Jung Ho Kim, Hyeon Jeong Oh, Hye Eun Park, Tae Hun Lee, Nam-Yun Cho, Gyeong Hoon Kang
Acetyl-CoA synthetase-2 is an emerging key enzyme for cancer metabolism, which supplies acetyl-CoA for tumor cells by capturing acetate as a carbon source under stressed conditions. However, implications of acetyl-CoA synthetase-2 in colorectal carcinoma may differ from other malignancies, because normal colonocytes use short-chain fatty acids as an energy source, which are supplied by fermentation of the intestinal flora. Here we analyzed acetyl-CoA synthetase-2 mRNA expression by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR in paired normal mucosa and tumor tissues of 12 colorectal carcinomas, and subsequently evaluated acetyl-CoA synthetase-2 protein expression by immunohistochemistry in 157 premalignant colorectal lesions, including 60 conventional adenomas and 97 serrated polyps, 1,106 surgically resected primary colorectal carcinomas, and 23 metastatic colorectal carcinomas in the liver...
October 7, 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708683/microarray-analysis-of-gene-expression-in-liver-adipose-tissue-and-skeletal-muscle-in-response-to-chronic-dietary-administration-of-ndga-to-high-fructose-fed-dyslipidemic-rats
#18
Haiyan Zhang, Wen-Jun Shen, Yihang Li, Alex Bittner, Stefanie Bittner, Juveria Tabassum, Yuan F Cortez, Fredric B Kraemer, Salman Azhar
Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), the main metabolite of Creosote Bush, has been shown to have profound effects on the core components of metabolic syndrome, including lowering of blood glucose, free fatty acids and triglyceride levels, attenuating elevated blood pressure in several rodent models of dyslipidemia, and improving body weight, insulin resistance, diabetes and hypertension. In the present study, a high-fructose diet fed rat model of hypertriglyceridemia, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis was employed to investigate the global transcriptional changes in the lipid metabolizing pathways in three insulin sensitive tissues: liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in response to chronic dietary administration of NDGA...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665016/effect-of-white-striping-myopathy-on-breast-muscle-pectoralis-major-protein-turnover-and-gene-expression-in-broilers
#19
Karen Vignale, Justina V Caldas, Judy A England, Nirun Boonsinchai, Andrew Magnuson, Erik D Pollock, Sami Dridi, Casey M Owens, Craig N Coon
A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of white striping ( WS: ) of broiler breast muscle (Pectoralis major) on protein turnover and gene expression of genes related to protein degradation and fatty acid synthesis. A total of 560 day-old male broiler chicks Cobb 500 were allocated in a total of 16 pens, 35 chicks per pen. A completely randomized design was conducted with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (2 scores: severe and normal, and 3 breast meat samples sites). At d 60, 20 birds were randomly selected, euthanized, and scored for white striping...
September 24, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27645246/the-celecoxib-derivative-ar-12-has-broad-spectrum-antifungal-activity-in-vitro-and-improves-the-activity-of-fluconazole-in-a-murine-model-of-cryptococcosis
#20
Kristy Koselny, Julianne Green, Louis DiDone, Justin P Halterman, Annette W Fothergill, Nathan P Wiederhold, Thomas F Patterson, Melanie T Cushion, Chad Rappelye, Melanie Wellington, Damian J Krysan
Only one new class of antifungal drugs has been introduced into clinical practice in the last 30 years, and thus the identification of small molecules with novel mechanisms of action is an important goal of current anti-infective research. Here, we describe the characterization of the spectrum of in vitro activity and in vivo activity of AR-12, a celecoxib derivative which has been tested in a phase I clinical trial as an anticancer agent. AR-12 inhibits fungal acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthetase in vitro and is fungicidal at concentrations similar to those achieved in human plasma...
December 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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