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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222218/reduced-inflammatory-responses-of-follicular-helper-t-cell-promote-the-development-of-regulatory-b-cells-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#1
Junfang Zhan, Liyu Huang, Haiyong Ma, Huan Chen, Yuan Yang, Sheng Tan, Wendy Song, Weiguo Zhao, Xiaojiang Dai
Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective strategy in treating severe obesity and its comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the mechanism through which bariatric surgery mediates its benefits is not completely understood. Since obesity and T2D represent yet another inflammatory disease, and follicular helper T (Tfh) cells play important roles in inflammatory disorders, we investigated whether the Tfh activity was altered after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), one of the most common bariatric surgery procedures...
February 21, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220245/phosphorylation-of-histone-h3-on-ser-10-by-aurora-b-is-essential-for-chromosome-condensation-in-porcine-embryos-during-the-first-mitotic-division
#2
Changchao Chen, Zixiao Zhang, Panpan Cui, Yaya Liao, Yue Zhang, Lingyun Yao, Rong Rui, Shiqiang Ju
Phosphorylation of histone H3 on Ser-10 (H3S10ph) is involved in regulating mitotic chromosome condensation and decondensation, which plays an important regulatory role during mitotic cell cycle progression in mammalian cells. However, whether H3S10ph plays a similar role in early porcine embryos during the first mitotic division remains uncertain. In this study, the subcellular localization and possible roles of H3S10ph were evaluated in the first mitotic cell cycle progression of porcine embryos using western blot, indirect immunofluorescence and barasertib (H3S10ph upstream regulator Aurora-B inhibitor) treatments...
February 20, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219835/marked-in-vivo-donor-treg-expansion-via-il-2-and-tl1a-ig-stimulation-ameliorates-gvhd-but-preserves-gvl-in-recipients-post-hsct
#3
Dietlinde Wolf, Henry Barreras, Cameron S Bader, Sabrina Copsel, Casey O Lightbourn, Brent J Pfeiffer, Norman H Altman, Eckhard R Podack, Krishna V Komanduri, Robert B Levy
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical for self-tolerance. While adoptive transfer of expanded Tregs limits graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), ex vivo generation of large numbers of functional Tregs remains difficult. Here, we demonstrate that in vivo targeting of the TNF superfamily receptor TNFRSF25 using the TL1A-Ig fusion protein, along with IL-2, resulted in transient but massive Treg expansion in donor mice, which peaked within days and was nontoxic. Tregs increased in multiple compartments, including blood, lymph nodes, spleen and colon (a GVHD target tissue)...
February 17, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219834/incidence-and-outcomes-of-central-nervous-system-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-relapse-after-reduced-intensity-conditioning-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant
#4
Dana T Lounder, Pooja Khandelwal, Sharat Chandra, Michael B Jordan, Ashish R Kumar, Michael Grimley, Stella M Davies, Jack J Bleesing, Rebecca A Marsh
Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an immune regulatory disorder that commonly presents with CNS involvement. The only cure for genetic HLH is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), typically treated with reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens. We sought to estimate the incidence of CNS relapse after RIC HSCT, determine risk factors, and evaluate outcomes. We performed a retrospective chart review of 94 consecutive children and young adults with primary HLH who received RIC HSCT. CNS relapse within 1 year after transplant was diagnosed by review of clinical symptoms, cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), and radiologic findings...
February 17, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219580/use-of-anti-thymocyte-globulin-for-induction-therapy-in-cardiac-transplantation-a-review
#5
V Ruan, L S C Czer, M Awad, M Kittleson, J Patel, F Arabia, F Esmailian, D Ramzy, J Chung, M De Robertis, A Trento, J A Kobashigawa
The most common causes of death after heart transplantation (HTx) include acute rejection and multi-organ failure in the early period and malignancy and cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) in the late period. Polyclonal antibody preparations such as rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) may reduce early acute rejection and the later occurrence of CAV after HTx. ATG therapy depletes T cells, modulates adhesion and cell-signaling molecules, interferes with dendritic cell function, and induces B-cell apoptosis and regulatory and natural killer T-cell expansion...
March 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218425/the-role-of-lipid-raft-translocation-of-prohibitin-in-regulation-of-akt-and-raf-protected-apoptosis-of-hacat-cells-upon-ultraviolet-b-irradiation
#6
Qiong Wu, Shiyong Wu
Prohibitin (PHB) plays a role in regulation of ultraviolet B light (UVB)-induced apoptosis of human keratinocytes, HaCaT cells. The regulatory function of PHB appears to be associated with its lipid raft translocation. However, the detailed mechanism for PHB-mediated apoptosis of these keratinocytes upon UVB irradiation is not clear. In this report, we determined the role of lipid raft translocation of PHB in regulation of UVB-induced apoptosis. Our data show that upon UVB irradiation PHB is translocated from the non-raft membrane to the lipid rafts, which is correlated with a release of both Akt and Raf from membrane...
February 20, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216598/clinical-signs-staphylococcus-and-atopic-eczema-related-seromarkers
#7
Kam Lun Hon, Kathy Yin Ching Tsang, Jeng Sum C Kung, Ting Fan Leung, Christopher W K Lam, Chun Kwok Wong
: Childhood eczema or atopic dermatitis (AD) is a distressing disease associated with pruritus, sleep disturbance, impaired quality of life and Staphylococcus aureus isolation. The pathophysiology of AD is complex and various seromarkers of immunity are involved. We investigated if anti-staphylococcal enterotoxin IgE (anti-SE), selected seromarkers of T regulatory (Treg), T helper (Th) and antigen-presenting cells (APC) are associated with clinical signs of disease severity and quality of life...
February 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216098/potential-influences-of-complement-factor-h-in-autoimmune-inflammatory-and-thrombotic-disorders
#8
Janez Ferluga, Lubna Kouser, Valarmathy Murugaiah, Robert B Sim, Uday Kishore
Complement system homeostasis is important for host self-protection and anti-microbial immune surveillance, and recent research indicates roles in tissue development and remodelling. Complement also appears to have several points of interaction with the blood coagulation system. Deficiency and altered function due to gene mutations and polymorphisms in complement effectors and regulators, including Factor H, have been associated with familial and sporadic autoimmune inflammatory - thrombotic disorders, in which autoantibodies play a part...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215223/the-functional-stability-of-foxp3-and-ror%C3%AE-t-in-treg-and-th17-and-their-therapeutic-applications
#9
J Ren, B Li
The balance of CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) and effector T cells plays a key role in maintaining immune homeostasis, while the imbalance of them is related to many inflammatory diseases in both human and mice. Here we discuss about the plasticity of Tregs and Th17 cells, and the related human diseases resulted from the imbalance of them. Further, we will focus on the mechanisms regulating the plasticity between Tregs and Th17 cells and the potential therapeutic strategies by targeting regulators of the expression and activity of FOXP3 and RORγt or regulators of Treg/Th17 balance in autoimmune diseases, allergy, infection, and cancer...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214833/nogo-b-facilitates-lps-mediated-immune-responses-by-up-regulation-of-tlr4-signaling-in-macrophage-raw264-7
#10
Ying Zhu, Qiang Tong, Jia Ye, Yunye Ning, Ye Xiong, Meng Yang, Hua Xiao, Jian Lu, Wujian Xu, Jiandong Li, Qiang Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Nogo-B, a member of the reticulon family of proteins, is mainly located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, we investigate the function and mechanism of Nogo-B in the regulation of TLR4-associated immune responses in the macrophage cell line of RAW264.7. METHODS: Nogo-B was up- and down-regulated through the use of appropriate adenoviral vectors or siRNA, and the effects of Nogo-B on macrophages under liposaccharide (LPS) stimulation were evaluated via western blotting, immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), flow cytometric analysis, and transwell assay...
January 30, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213540/characterization-of-the-physical-and-functional-interplay-between-mazf1-bif-and-its-noncognate-antitoxins-from-bifidobacterium-longum
#11
Yanxia Wei, Yang Li, Fan Yang, Qiong Wu, Dianbin Liu, Xiangyang Li, Hui Hua, Xiaomei Liu, Yugang Wang, Kuiyang Zheng, Renxian Tang
Bifidobacterium longum strain JDM301, a widely used commercial strain in China, encodes at least two MazEF-like modules and one RelBE-like toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems in its chromosome, designated as MazE1F1(Bif), MazE2F2(Bif) and RelBE(Bif), respectively. Bacterial TA systems play an important role in several stress responses, but the relationship between these TA systems is largely unknown. In this study, the interaction between MazF1(Bif) and MazE2(Bif) or RelB(Bif) was assessed in B. longum strain JDM301...
February 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213130/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-impairs-insulin-signaling-and-promotes-lipid-accumulation-in-hepatocytes
#12
Kerstin Rufinatscha, Bernhard Radlinger, Jochen Dobner, Sabrina Folie, Claudia Bon, Elisabeth Profanter, Claudia Ress, Karin Salzmann, Gabriele Staudacher, Herbert Tilg, Susanne Kaser
Dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 [DPP-4) has evolved into an important target in diabetes therapy due to its role in incretin hormone metabolism. In contrast to its systemic effects, cellular functions of membranous DPP-4 are less clear. Here we studied the role of DPP-4 in hepatic energy metabolism. In order to distinguish systemic from cellular effects we established a cell culture model of DPP-4 knockdown in human hepatoma cell line HepG2. DPP-4 suppression was associated with increased basal glycogen content due to enhanced insulin signaling as shown by increased phosphorylation of insulin-receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), protein kinase B/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)/ERK, respectively...
February 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212788/immunology-of-alveolar-and%C3%A2-cystic-echinococcosis-ae-and-ce
#13
B Gottstein, P Soboslay, E Ortona, J Wang, A Siracusano, D Α Vuitton
Cystic and alveolar echinococcosis are severe chronic helminthic diseases caused by the cystic growth or the intrahepatic tumour-like growth of the metacestode of Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis, respectively. Both parasites have evolved sophisticated strategies to escape host immune responses, mainly by manipulating and directing this immune response towards anergy and/or tolerance. Recent research studies have revealed a number of respective immunoregulatory mechanisms related to macrophages and dendritic cell as well as T cell activities (regulatory T cells, Tregs)...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212627/genome-wide-identification-of-direct-hbx-genomic-targets
#14
Francesca Guerrieri, Laura Belloni, Daniel D'Andrea, Natalia Pediconi, Loredana Le Pera, Barbara Testoni, Cecilia Scisciani, Oceane Floriot, Fabien Zoulim, Anna Tramontano, Massimo Levrero
BACKGROUND: The Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) HBx regulatory protein is required for HBV replication and involved in HBV-related carcinogenesis. HBx interacts with chromatin modifying enzymes and transcription factors to modulate histone post-translational modifications and to regulate viral cccDNA transcription and cellular gene expression. Aiming to identify genes and non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) directly targeted by HBx, we performed a chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) to analyse HBV recruitment on host cell chromatin in cells replicating HBV...
February 17, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211903/activating-killer-immunoglobulin-receptors-and-hla-c-a-successful-combination-providing-hiv-1-control
#15
Mauro S Malnati, Elisabetta Ugolotti, Maria Cristina Monti, Davide De Battista, Irene Vanni, Domenico Bordo, Francesca Sironi, Patrizia Larghero, Eddi Di Marco, Priscilla Biswas, Guido Poli, Elisa Vicenzi, Agostino Riva, Maciej Tarkowski, Giuseppe Tambussi, Silvia Nozza, Gino Tripodi, Francesco Marras, Andrea De Maria, Angela Pistorio, Roberto Biassoni
Several studies demonstrated a relevant role of polymorphisms located within the HLA-B and -C loci and the Killer Immunoglobulin Receptors (KIRs) 3DL1 and 3DS1 in controlling HIV-1 replication. KIRs are regulatory receptors expressed at the surface of NK and CD8+ T-cells that specifically bind HLA-A and -B alleles belonging to the Bw4 supratype and all the -C alleles expressing the C1 or C2 supratype. We here disclose a novel signature associated with the Elite Controller but not with the long-term nonprogressor status concerning 2DS activating KIRs and HLA-C2 alleles insensitive to miRNA148a regulation...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211345/regulatory-t-and-b-cells-in-asthmatic-women-variations-from-pregnancy-to-postpartum
#16
C Martins, J Lima, G Nunes, L M Borrego
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Allergic asthma and rhinitis are common in pregnancy. The immune mechanisms underlying the effects of asthma on pregnancy and vice versa are not completely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in regulatory T and B cells in asthmatic women from late pregnancy to postpartum. METHODS: Four groups of women were enrolled for this study: asthmatic (n=23) and healthy (n=43) third trimester-pregnant women and asthmatic (n=33) and healthy (n=35) nonpregnant women...
2017: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209633/gene-expression-control-by-bacillus-anthracis-purine-riboswitches
#17
Marion Kirchner, Sabine Schneider
In all kingdoms of life, cellular replication relies on the presence of nucleosides and nucleotides, the building blocks of nucleic acids and the main source of energy. In bacteria, the availability of metabolites sometimes directly regulates the expression of enzymes and proteins involved in purine salvage, biosynthesis and uptake through riboswitches. Riboswitches are located in bacterial mRNAs and can control gene expression by conformational changes in response to ligand binding. We have established an inverse reporter gene system in Bacillus subtilis that allows us to monitor riboswitch-controlled gene expression...
February 16, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209293/corrigendum-to-il-10-producing-regulatory-b-cells-are-decreased-in-patients-with-psoriasis-j-dermatol-sci-81-2016-93-100
#18
Mitsuha Hayashi, Koichi Yanaba, Yoshinori Umezawa, Yuki Yoshihara, Sota Kikuchi, Yozo Ishiuji, Hidehisa Saeki, Hidemi Nakagawa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208221/increased-fas-ligand-expression-of-peripheral-b-1-cells-correlated-with-cd4-t-cell-apoptosis-in-filarial-infected-patients
#19
Rashmi Mishra, Santosh K Panda, Prakash K Sahoo, Bal, A K Satapathy
Cellular hypo responsiveness observed during helminth infections are attributed to factors like Antigen presenting cells (APC) dysfunction, increased Interleukin-10(IL-10), regulatory T cells and induction of CD4(+) T (Th) cell apoptosis.. Increased Fas ligand (FasL) expression on the surface of B-1 cells and induction of apoptosis of Th cells by FasL expressing B-1 cells due to helminth infection was demonstrated in murine model of helminth infection where as profile of FasL expression, Th cell apoptosis and correlation between these two populations of cells in clinical filariasis remain unknown...
February 16, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207192/temporal-spatial-establishment-of-initial-niche-for-the-primary-spermatogonial-stem-cell-formation-is-determined-by-an-arid4b-regulatory-network
#20
Ray-Chang Wu, Yang Zeng, Yu-Fang Chen, Rainer B Lanz, Mei-Yi Wu
During neonatal testis development, centrally located gonocytes migrate to basement membrane of the seminiferous cords, where physical contact with a niche established by Sertoli cells is essential for transition of gonocytes into spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). To provide structural support and signaling stimuli for the gonocyte-to-SSC transition that occurs at a specific location during a finite phase, temporal-spatial establishment of the niche is critical. To date, the factors that guide Sertoli cells to establish the initial stem cell niche remain largely unknown...
February 16, 2017: Stem Cells
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