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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719087/mri-guided-stereotactic-neurosurgical-procedures-in-a-diagnostic-mri-suite-background-and-safe-practice-recommendations
#1
Paul S Larson, Jon T Willie, Sudhakar Vadivelu, Hooman Azmi-Ghadimi, Amy Nichols, Loretta Litz Fauerbach, Helen Boehm Johnson, Denise Graham
The development of navigation technology facilitating MRI-guided stereotactic neurosurgery has enabled neurosurgeons to perform a variety of procedures ranging from deep brain stimulation to laser ablation entirely within an intraoperative or diagnostic MRI suite while having real-time visualization of brain anatomy. Prior to this technology, some of these procedures required multisite workflow patterns that presented significant risk to the patient during transport. For those facilities with access to this technology, safe practice guidelines exist only for procedures performed within an intraoperative MRI...
July 2017: Journal of Healthcare Risk Management: the Journal of the American Society for Healthcare Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712994/recognition-of-white-matter-bundles-using-local-and-global-streamline-based-registration-and-clustering
#2
REVIEW
Eleftherios Garyfallidis, Marc-Alexandre Côté, Francois Rheault, Jasmeen Sidhu, Janice Hau, Laurent Petit, David Fortin, Stephen Cunanne, Maxime Descoteaux
Virtual dissection of diffusion MRI tractograms is cumbersome and needs extensive knowledge of white matter anatomy. This virtual dissection often requires several inclusion and exclusion regions-of-interest that make it a process that is very hard to reproduce across experts. Having automated tools that can extract white matter bundles for tract-based studies of large numbers of people is of great interest for neuroscience and neurosurgical planning. The purpose of our proposed method, named RecoBundles, is to segment white matter bundles and make virtual dissection easier to perform...
July 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710000/the-perisylvian-language-network-and-language-analytical-abilities
#3
Olga Kepinska, Egbert A J F Lakke, Eleanor M Dutton, Johanneke Caspers, Niels O Schiller
Aiming at exploring the brain's structural organisation underlying successful second language learning, we investigate the anatomy of the perisylvian language network in a group of healthy adults, consisting of participants with high and average language analytical abilities. Utilising deterministic tractography, six tracts per participant (left and right long direct segment, left and right indirect anterior segment and left and right indirect posterior segment) were virtually dissected and measurements pertaining to their microstructural organisation were collected...
July 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709004/mapping-the-neural-substrates-of-behavior
#4
Alice A Robie, Jonathan Hirokawa, Austin W Edwards, Lowell A Umayam, Allen Lee, Mary L Phillips, Gwyneth M Card, Wyatt Korff, Gerald M Rubin, Julie H Simpson, Michael B Reiser, Kristin Branson
Assigning behavioral functions to neural structures has long been a central goal in neuroscience and is a necessary first step toward a circuit-level understanding of how the brain generates behavior. Here, we map the neural substrates of locomotion and social behaviors for Drosophila melanogaster using automated machine-vision and machine-learning techniques. From videos of 400,000 flies, we quantified the behavioral effects of activating 2,204 genetically targeted populations of neurons. We combined a novel quantification of anatomy with our behavioral analysis to create brain-behavior correlation maps, which are shared as browsable web pages and interactive software...
July 13, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707197/quantum-like-behavior-without-quantum-physics-i-kinematics-of-neural-like-systems
#5
S A Selesnick, J P Rawling, Gualtiero Piccinini
Recently there has been much interest in the possible quantum-like behavior of the human brain in such functions as cognition, the mental lexicon, memory, etc., producing a vast literature. These studies are both empirical and theoretical, the tenets of the theory in question being mainly, and apparently inevitably, those of quantum physics itself, for lack of other arenas in which quantum-like properties are presumed to obtain. However, attempts to explain this behavior on the basis of actual quantum physics going on at the atomic or molecular level within some element of brain or neuronal anatomy (other than the ordinary quantum physics that underlies everything), do not seem to survive much scrutiny...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706760/bactericidal-effect-of-different-anti-microbial-agents-on-fusobacterium-nucleatum-biofilm
#6
Rupa Ashok, Arathi Ganesh, Kandaswamy Deivanayagam
INTRODUCTION: The root canal anatomy of the teeth is very complex. Complete debridement of the root canals is a challenge and is very important for the success of the root canal treatment. Hence, this study was done to find an effective irrigant which can be used during root canal treatment. OBJECTIVE: The bactericidal effect of a potential root canal irrigant was compared with two commonly used root canal irrigants against monoculture biofilm of a commercially available isolate of Fusobacterium nucleatum...
June 11, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701481/place-and-grid-cells-in-a-loop-implications-for-memory-function-and-spatial-coding
#7
César Rennó-Costa, Adriano B L Tort
Place cells in the hippocampus and grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex have different codes for space. However, how one code relates to the other is ill understood. Based on the anatomy of the entorhinal-hippocampal circuitry, we constructed a model of place and grid cells organized in a loop to investigate their mutual influence in the establishment of their codes for space. Using computer simulations, we first replicated experiments in rats that measured place and grid cell activity in different environments, and then assessed which features of the model account for different phenomena observed in neurophysiological data, such as pattern completion and pattern separation, global and rate remapping of place cells and realignment of grid cells...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698108/imaging-at-ultrahigh-magnetic-fields-history-challenges-and-solutions
#8
Kamil Uğurbil
Following early efforts in applying nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to study biological processes in intact systems, and particularly since the introduction of 4 T human scanners circa 1990, rapid progress was made in imaging and spectroscopy studies of humans at 4 T and animal models at 9.4 T, leading to the introduction of 7 T and higher magnetic fields for human investigation at about the turn of the century. Work conducted on these platforms has provided numerous technological solutions to challenges posed at these ultrahigh fields, and demonstrated the existence of significant advantages in signal-to-noise ratio and biological information content...
July 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698090/the-superior-frontal-transsulcal-approach-to-the-anterior-ventricular-system-exploring-the-sulcal-and-subcortical-anatomy-using-anatomic-dissections-and-dti-tractography
#9
Christos Koutsarnakis, Faidon Liakos, Aristotelis V Kalyvas, Georgios P Skandalakis, Spyros Komaitis, Fotini Christidi, Efstratios Karavasilis, Evangellia Liouta, George Stranjalis
OBJECTIVE: To explore the superior frontal sulcus morphology, trajectory of the applied surgical corridor and white matter bundles that are traversed during the superior frontal transsulcal transventricular approach METHODS: Twenty (20) normal, adult, formalin-fixed cerebral hemispheres and two (2) cadaveric heads were included in the study. The superior frontal sulcus (SFS) topography, morphology and dimensions were recorded in all specimens. Fourteen (14) hemispheres were investigated through the fiber dissection technique while the remaining six (6) were explored using coronal cuts...
July 8, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696013/the-role-of-diffusion-mri-in-neuroscience
#10
Yaniv Assaf, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Michel Thiebaut de Schotten
Diffusion-weighted imaging has pushed the boundaries of neuroscience by allowing us to examine the white matter microstructure of the living human brain. By doing so, it has provided answers to fundamental neuroscientific questions, launching a new field of research that had been largely inaccessible. We briefly summarize key questions that have historically been raised in neuroscience concerning the brain's white matter. We then expand on the benefits of diffusion-weighted imaging and its contribution to the fields of brain anatomy, functional models and plasticity...
July 11, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695209/comment-on-monkey-vocal-tracts-are-speech-ready
#11
Philip Lieberman
Monkey vocal tracts are capable of producing monkey speech, not the full range of articulate human speech. The evolution of human speech entailed both anatomy and brains. Fitch, de Boer, Mathur, and Ghazanfar in Science Advances claim that "monkey vocal tracts are speech-ready," and conclude that "…the evolution of human speech capabilities required neural change rather than modifications of vocal anatomy." Neither premise is consistent either with the data presented and the conclusions reached by de Boer and Fitch themselves in their own published papers on the role of anatomy in the evolution of human speech or with the body of independent studies published since the 1950s...
July 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691238/structure-and-ultrastructure-of-eyes-and-brains-of-thalia-democratica-thaliacea-tunicata-chordata
#12
Katrin Braun, Thomas Stach
Salps are marine planktonic chordates that possess an obligatory alternation of reproductive modes in subsequent generations. Within tunicates, salps represent a derived life cycle and are of interest in considerations of the evolutionary origin of complex anatomical structures and life history strategies. In the present study, the eyes and brains of both the sexual, aggregate blastozooid and the asexual, solitary oozooid stage of Thalia democratica (Forskål, ) were digitally reconstructed in detail based on serial sectioning for light and transmission electron microscopy...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690511/neurotessmesh-a-tool-for-the-generation-and-visualization-of-neuron-meshes-and-adaptive-on-the-fly-refinement
#13
Juan J Garcia-Cantero, Juan P Brito, Susana Mata, Sofia Bayona, Luis Pastor
Gaining a better understanding of the human brain continues to be one of the greatest challenges for science, largely because of the overwhelming complexity of the brain and the difficulty of analyzing the features and behavior of dense neural networks. Regarding analysis, 3D visualization has proven to be a useful tool for the evaluation of complex systems. However, the large number of neurons in non-trivial circuits, together with their intricate geometry, makes the visualization of a neuronal scenario an extremely challenging computational problem...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689673/the-anatomy-of-apathy-a-neurocognitive-framework-for-amotivated-behavior
#14
C Le Heron, M A J Apps, M Husain
Apathy is a debilitating syndrome associated with many neurological disorders, including several common neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, and focal lesion syndromes such as stroke. Here, we review neuroimaging studies to identify anatomical correlates of apathy, across brain disorders. Our analysis reveals that apathy is strongly associated with disruption particularly of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), ventral striatum (VS) and connected brain regions...
July 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687516/reconstructing-anatomy-from-electro-physiological-data
#15
J D López, F Valencia, G Flandin, W Penny, G R Barnes
Here we show how it is possible to make estimates of brain structure based on MEG data. We do this by reconstructing functional estimates onto distorted cortical manifolds parameterised in terms of their spherical harmonics. We demonstrate that both empirical and simulated MEG data give rise to consistent and plausible anatomical estimates. Importantly, the estimation of structure from MEG data can be quantified in terms of millimetres from the true brain structure. We show, for simulated data, that the functional assumptions which are closer to the functional ground-truth give rise to anatomical estimates that are closer to the true anatomy...
July 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686810/self-calibrated-correlation-imaging-with-k-space-variant-correlation-functions
#16
Yu Li, Masoud Edalati, Xingfu Du, Hui Wang, Jie J Cao
PURPOSE: Correlation imaging is a previously developed high-speed MRI framework that converts parallel imaging reconstruction into the estimate of correlation functions. The presented work aims to demonstrate this framework can provide a speed gain over parallel imaging by estimating k-space variant correlation functions. METHODS: Because of Fourier encoding with gradients, outer k-space data contain higher spatial-frequency image components arising primarily from tissue boundaries...
July 7, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684458/influence-of-carotid-siphon-anatomy-on-brain-aneurysm-presentation
#17
E Waihrich, P Clavel, G A C Mendes, C Iosif, I Moraes Kessler, C Mounayer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intracranial aneurysm is a devastating disease of complex etiology that is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the implications of carotid siphon anatomy for the formation and development of intracranial aneurysms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2007 and May 2015, lateral view digital subtraction angiographic images of 692 consecutive patients with intracranial aneurysms treated in our department of interventional neuroradiology were reviewed and had their angles measured...
July 6, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683072/volume-versus-surface-based-cortical-thickness-measurements-a-comparative-study-with-healthy-controls-and-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#18
R Righart, P Schmidt, R Dahnke, V Biberacher, A Beer, D Buck, B Hemmer, J S Kirschke, C Zimmer, C Gaser, M Mühlau
The cerebral cortex is a highly folded outer layer of grey matter tissue that plays a key role in cognitive functions. In part, alterations of the cortex during development and disease can be captured by measuring the cortical thickness across the whole brain. Available software tools differ with regard to labor intensity and computational demands. In this study, we compared the computational anatomy toolbox (CAT), a recently proposed volume-based tool, with the well-established surface-based tool FreeSurfer...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681960/the-anatomical-scaffold-underlying-the-functional-centrality-of-known-cortical-hubs
#19
Francesco de Pasquale, Stefania Della Penna, Umberto Sabatini, Chiara Caravasso Falletta, Patrice Peran
Cortical hubs play a fundamental role in the functional architecture of brain connectivity at rest. However, the anatomical scaffold underlying their centrality is still under debate. Certainly, the brain function and anatomy are significantly entwined through synaptogenesis and pruning mechanisms that continuously reshape structural and functional connections. Thus, if hubs are expected to exhibit a large number of direct anatomical connections with the rest of the brain, such a dense wiring is extremely inefficient in energetic terms...
July 6, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678704/auto-context-convolutional-neural-network-auto-net-for-brain-extraction-in-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#20
Seyed Sadegh Mohseni Salehi, Deniz Erdogmus, Ali Gholipour
Brain extraction or whole brain segmentation is an important first step in many of the neuroimage analysis pipelines. The accuracy and robustness of brain extraction, therefore, is crucial for the accuracy of the entire brain analysis process. State-of-the-art brain extraction techniques rely heavily on the accuracy of alignment or registration between brain atlases and query brain anatomy, and/or make assumptions about the image geometry; therefore have limited success when these assumptions do not hold or image registration fails...
June 28, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
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