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Brain anatomy

Rajani Singh, Rajnish Arora, Raj Kumar
Chiari malformations (CMs) are variant structural setup of cerebellum and brain stem at the craniovertebral junction. Normally the cerebellum and parts of the brain stem lie above the foramen magnum. When the part of the cerebellum and/or brainstem protrudes into the upper spinal canal through foramen magnum, it is defined as CM. Chiari malformations may develop when part of the skull is smaller than normal or misshapen, due to which the cerebellum herniates into spinal canal through foramen magnum. This compresses the cerebellum and brainstem affecting functions controlled by these parts and blocks the flow of cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds and cushions the brain and spinal cord...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Ruobing Huang, Ana Namburete, Alison Noble
We present a general framework for automatic segmentation of fetal brain structures in ultrasound images inspired by recent advances in machine learning. The approach is based on a region descriptor that characterizes the shape and local intensity context of different neurological structures without explicit models. To validate our framework, we present experiments to segment two fetal brain structures of clinical importance that have quite different ultrasonic appearances-the corpus callosum (CC) and the choroid plexus (CP)...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Cordell M Baker, Joshua D Burks, Robert G Briggs, Adam D Smitherman, Chad A Glenn, Andrew K Conner, Dee H Wu, Michael E Sughrue
Introduction: Supplementary motor area (SMA) syndrome is a constellation of temporary symptoms that may occur following tumors of the frontal lobe. Affected patients develop akinesia and mutism but often recover within weeks to months. With our own case examples and with correlations to fiber tracking validated by gross anatomical dissection as ground truth, we describe a white matter pathway through which recovery may occur. Methods: Diffusion spectrum imaging from the Human Connectome Project was used for tractography analysis...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Ken Kazumata, Haruto Uchino, Kikutaro Tokairin, Masaki Ito, Tohru Shiga, Toshiya Osanai, Masahito Kawabori
BACKGROUND: Cerebral hyperperfusion complicates the postoperative course of patients with moyamoya disease (MMD) following direct revascularization surgery. There is no clear distinction between cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome and benign postoperative increase in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to determine clinically relevant changes in rCBF, anatomical correlations, and factors associated with transient neurological symptoms following revascularization surgery in MMD...
March 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Cloélia Tissier, Adriano Linzarini, Geneviève Allaire-Duquette, Katell Mevel, Nicolas Poirel, Sonia Dollfus, Olivier Etard, François Orliac, Carole Peyrin, Sylvain Charron, Armin Raznahan, Olivier Houdé, Grégoire Borst, Arnaud Cachia
Inhibitory control (IC) is a core executive function that enables humans to resist habits, temptations, or distractions. IC efficiency in childhood is a strong predictor of academic and professional success later in life. Based on analysis of the sulcal pattern, a qualitative feature of cortex anatomy determined during fetal life and stable during development, we searched for evidence that interindividual differences in IC partly trace back to prenatal processes. Using anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we analyzed the sulcal pattern of two key regions of the IC neural network, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the inferior frontal cortex (IFC), which limits the inferior frontal gyrus...
January 2018: ENeuro
Evangelia Tsolaki, Angela Downes, William Speier, W Jeff Elias, Nader Pouratian
Magnetic Resonance-guided Focused UltraSound (MRgFUS) offers an incisionless approach to treat essential tremor (ET). Due to lack of evident internal anatomy on traditional structural imaging, indirect targeting must still be used to localize the lesion. Here, we investigate the potential predictive value of probabilistic tractography guided thalamic targeting by defining how tractography-defined targets, lesion size and location, and clinical outcomes interrelate. MR imaging and clinical outcomes from 12 ET patients that underwent MRgFUS thalamotomy in a pilot study at the University of Virginia were evaluated in this analysis...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Prasanna Parvathaneni, Vishwesh Nath, Justin A Blaber, Kurt G Schilling, Allison E Hainline, Ed Mojahed, Adam W Anderson, Bennett A Landman
Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging (NODDI) has been gaining prominence for estimating multiple diffusion compartments from MRI data acquired in a clinically feasible time. To establish a pathway for adoption of NODDI in clinical studies, it is important to understand the sensitivity and reproducibility of NODDI metrics on empirical data in the context of acquisition protocol and brain anatomy. Previous studies addressed reproducibility across the 3 T scanners and within session and between subject reproducibility at 1...
March 8, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Cormac Norton
Concussion in sport is a common presentation in urgent and emergency care settings, so it is essential that nurses have a full understanding of the condition. Most patients who attend an emergency department with concussion are discharged and discharge advice must be well-informed and evidence based. This article outlines the normal anatomy of the brain and the pathophysiology of concussion, and discusses the guidelines on returning to sport following this injury.
March 9, 2018: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
Qian Du, Chi Zhang, Xiaofeng Zhu, Xiaoying Liang, Chi Zhang, Vivek Verma, Kenneth Follet, Shuo Wang, Qiyong Fan, Rongtao Ma, Sumin Zhou, Dandan Zheng
OBJECTIVES: To apply advanced statistical and computational methodology in evaluating the impact of anatomical and technical variables on normal tissue dosimetry of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). METHODS: Forty patients treated with LINAC-based TN SRS with 90 Gy maximum dose were randomly selected for the study. Parameters extracted from the treatment plans for the study included three dosimetric output variables: the maximum dose to the brainstem (BSmax), the volume of brainstem that received at least 10 Gy (V10BS), and the volume of normal brain that received at least 12 Gy (V12)...
March 9, 2018: Medical Physics
G Conte, S Milani, G Palumbo, G Talenti, S Boito, M Rustico, F Triulzi, A Righini, G Izzo, C Doneda, A Zolin, C Parazzini
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Evaluation of biometry is a fundamental step in prenatal brain MR imaging. While different studies have reported reference centiles for MR imaging biometric data of fetuses in the late second and third trimesters of gestation, no one has reported them in fetuses in the early second trimester. We report centiles of normal MR imaging linear biometric data of a large cohort of fetal brains within 24 weeks of gestation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From the data bases of 2 referral centers of fetal medicine, accounting for 3850 examinations, we retrospectively collected 169 prenatal brain MR imaging examinations of singleton pregnancies, between 20 and 24 weeks of gestational age, with normal brain anatomy at MR imaging and normal postnatal neurologic development...
March 8, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Carsten M Klingner, Otto W Witte
The analysis and interpretation of somatosensory information are performed by a complex network of brain areas located mainly in the parietal cortex. Somatosensory deficits are therefore a common impairment following lesions of the parietal lobe. This chapter summarizes the clinical presentation, examination, prognosis, and therapy of sensory deficits, along with current knowledge about the anatomy and function of the somatosensory system. We start by reviewing how somatosensory signals are transmitted to and processed by the parietal lobe, along with the anatomic and functional features of the somatosensory system...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Li Wang, Gang Li, Ehsan Adeli, Mingxia Liu, Zhengwang Wu, Yu Meng, Weili Lin, Dinggang Shen
Tissue segmentation of infant brain MRIs with risk of autism is critically important for characterizing early brain development and identifying biomarkers. However, it is challenging due to low tissue contrast caused by inherent ongoing myelination and maturation. In particular, at around 6 months of age, the voxel intensities in both gray matter and white matter are within similar ranges, thus leading to the lowest image contrast in the first postnatal year. Previous studies typically employed intensity images and tentatively estimated tissue probabilities to train a sequence of classifiers for tissue segmentation...
March 8, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Fei-Fei Zhang, Wei Peng, John A Sweeney, Zhi-Yun Jia, Qi-Yong Gong
Depression is the leading cause of disability around the world, but little is known about its pathology. Currently, the diagnosis of depression is made based on clinical manifestations, with little objective evidence. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used to investigate the pathological changes in brain anatomy associated with this disorder. MRI can identify structural alterations in depressive patients in vivo, which could make considerable contributions to clinical diagnosis and treatment. Numerous studies that focused on gray and white matter have found significant brain region alterations in major depressive disorder patients, such as in the frontal lobe, hippocampus, temporal lobe, thalamus, striatum, and amygdala...
March 5, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Sio Hang Pun, Yuanyu Yu, Jian Zhang, Jiujiang Wang, Ching-Hsiang Cheng, Kin Fong Lei, Zhen Yuan, Peng Un Mak
Among the biomedical imaging modalities, photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) was one of the emerging hybrid techniques in recent years. In designing the PACT imaging system, a finite-bandwidth transducer is one of the limited factors for the overall performance. As the target size is inversely proportional to the dominant frequency components of the generated photoacoustic (PA) signal, a broad bandwidth transducer is desired for different scales' imaging. In this paper, a monolithic multiband capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) array was designed and fabricated for the reception of the wideband PA signals so as to provide high-resolution images with high-frequency CMUT arrays and present the high signal-to-noise-ratio major structure with low-frequency CMUT arrays...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Payam Dadvand, Jesus Pujol, Dídac Macià, Gerard Martínez-Vilavella, Laura Blanco-Hinojo, Marion Mortamais, Mar Alvarez-Pedrerol, Raquel Fenoll, Mikel Esnaola, Albert Dalmau-Bueno, Mónica López-Vicente, Xavier Basagaña, Michael Jerrett, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Jordi Sunyer
BACKGROUND: Proponents of the biophilia hypothesis believe that contact with nature, including green spaces, has a crucial role in brain development in children. Currently, however, we are not aware of evidence linking such exposure with potential effects on brain structure. OBJECTIVE: We determined whether lifelong exposure to residential surrounding greenness is associated with regional differences in brain volume based on 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D MRI) among children attending primary school...
February 23, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Dulcie A Vousden, Christina Corre, Shoshana Spring, Lily R Qiu, Ariane Metcalf, Elizabeth Cox, Jason P Lerch, Mark R Palmert
Biological sex influences brain anatomy across many species. Sex differences in brain anatomy have classically been attributed to differences in sex chromosome complement (XX versus XY) and/or in levels of gonadal sex steroids released from ovaries and testes. Using the four core genotype (4CG) mouse model in which gonadal sex and sex chromosome complement are decoupled, we previously found that sex hormones and chromosomes influence the volume of distinct brain regions. However, recent studies suggest there may be more complex interactions between hormones and chromosomes, and that circulating steroids can compensate for and/or mask underlying chromosomal effects...
March 1, 2018: NeuroImage
Raluca Pascalau, Roxana Popa Stănilă, Silviu Sfrângeu, Bianca Szabo
BACKGROUND: The limbic tracts are involved in crucial cerebral functions such as memory, emotion and behavior. The complex architecture of the limbic circuit makes it harder to approach compared to other white matter networks. Our study aims to describe the three-dimensional anatomy of the limbic white matter by use of two complementary study methods, namely ex vivo fiber dissection and in vivo MRI based tractography. METHODS: Three fiber dissection protocols were performed using blunt wooden instruments and a surgical microscope on formalin fixed brains prepared according to the Klingler method...
February 28, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Biljana Milatović, Jovica Saponjski, Haris Huseinagić, Mirza Moranjkić, Svetlana Milošević Medenica, Ivan Marinković, Igor Nikolić, Slobodan Marinkovic
BACKGROUND: Identification and anatomic features of the feeding arteries of the arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is very important due to neurologic, radiologic, and surgical reasons. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-seven patients with AVMs were examined by using a digital subtraction angiographic (DSA) and computerized tomographic (CT) examination, including 3D reconstruction of the brain vessels. In addition, the arteries of 4 human brain stems and 8 cerebral hemispheres were microdissected...
March 3, 2018: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
Ana I L Namburete, Weidi Xie, Mohammad Yaqub, Andrew Zisserman, J Alison Noble
Methods for aligning 3D fetal neurosonography images must be robust to (i) intensity variations, (ii) anatomical and age-specific differences within the fetal population, and (iii) the variations in fetal position. To this end, we propose a multi-task fully convolutional neural network (FCN) architecture to address the problem of 3D fetal brain localization, structural segmentation, and alignment to a referential coordinate system. Instead of treating these tasks as independent problems, we optimize the network by simultaneously learning features shared within the input data pertaining to the correlated tasks, and later branching out into task-specific output streams...
February 21, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
Elson L So, Abdulrahman Alwaki
Electrical stimulation mapping (ESM) of the brain remains a major procedure for guiding epilepsy and tumor surgeries. This article collates available experiences and data in ESM to develop a guide for conducting the procedure. There are many factors that influence the yield of ESM. The stimulation parameters offered in this article need to be adjusted within safe limits to address the factors. Each ESM procedure should be tailored to the patient's age and baseline mental or psychological capacity. Stimulation-induced seizures and EEG afterdischarges disrupt ESM procedure and render the interpretation of the results difficult...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
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