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Brain anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534721/evaluation-of-3d-additively-manufactured-canine-brain-models-for-teaching-veterinary-neuroanatomy
#1
Regina M Schoenfeld-Tacher, Timothy J Horn, Tyler A Scheviak, Kenneth D Royal, Lola C Hudson
Physical specimens are essential to the teaching of veterinary anatomy. While fresh and fixed cadavers have long been the medium of choice, plastinated specimens have gained widespread acceptance as adjuncts to dissection materials. Even though the plastination process increases the durability of specimens, these are still derived from animal tissues and they require periodic replacement if used by students on a regular basis. This study investigated the use of three-dimensional additively manufactured (3D AM) models (colloquially referred to as 3D-printed models) of the canine brain as a replacement for plastinated or formalin-fixed brains...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531897/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-brain-of-a-monotreme-the-short-beaked-echidna-tachyglossus-aculeatus
#2
Sandilya Cherupalli, Craig D Hardman, Andre Bongers, Ken W S Ashwell
We used magnetic resonance imaging to study the anatomy of cortical regions, nuclear groups, and major tracts in the brain of a monotreme, i.e., the short-beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus). Our specimens were from a collection held at the Australian Museum in Sydney and had been stored in formaldehyde solution for at least 70 years. Despite this, we were able to detect fine detail in the nuclear divisions of structures as well as in fiber tracts. In particular, we could detect the medial lemniscus as it approached the ventral posterior thalamic nucleus, subdivisions within the ventral posterior thalamic nucleus, lamination and subdivisions within the hippocampal formation, components of the olfactory pathways, and nuclei within the temporal amygdala...
May 23, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523540/rubinstein-taybi-syndrome-and-epigenetic-alterations
#3
Edward Korzus
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is a rare genetic disorder in humans characterized by growth and psychomotor delay, abnormal gross anatomy, and mild to severe mental retardation (Rubinstein and Taybi, Am J Dis Child 105:588-608, 1963, Hennekam et al., Am J Med Genet Suppl 6:56-64, 1990). RSTS is caused by de novo mutations in epigenetics-associated genes, including the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREBBP), the gene-encoding protein referred to as CBP, and the EP300 gene, which encodes the p300 protein, a CBP homologue...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521670/intranasal-drug-delivery-a-non-invasive-approach-for-the-better-delivery-of-neurotherapeutics
#4
Umesh Gupta, Hitesh Kumar, Gaurav Mishra, Ashok Kumar Sharma, Avinash Gothwal, Prashant Kesharwani
BACKGROUND: The convoluted pathophysiology of brain disorders along with penetration issue of drugs to brain represents major hurdle that requires some novel therapies. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) denotes a rigid barrier for delivery of therapeutics in vivo, to overcome this barrier intranasal delivery is an excellent strategy to deliver the drug directly to brain via olfactory and trigeminal nerve pathways that originate as olfactory neuro-epithelium in the nasal cavity and terminate in brain...
May 14, 2017: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516241/innate-immunity-in-alzheimer-s-disease-the-relevance-of-animal-models
#5
REVIEW
Diana K Franco Bocanegra, James A R Nicoll, Delphine Boche
The mouse is one of the organisms most widely used as an animal model in biomedical research, due to the particular ease with which it can be handled and reproduced in laboratory. As a member of the mammalian class, mice share with humans many features regarding metabolic pathways, cell morphology and anatomy. However, important biological differences between mice and humans exist and must be taken into consideration when interpreting research results, to properly translate evidence from experimental studies into information that can be useful for human disease prevention and/or treatment...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514668/concurrent-white-matter-bundles-and-grey-matter-networks-using-independent-component-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Jonathan O'Muircheartaigh, Saad Jbabdi
Developments in non-invasive diffusion MRI tractography techniques have permitted the investigation of both the anatomy of white matter pathways connecting grey matter regions and their structural integrity. In parallel, there has been an expansion in automated techniques aimed at parcellating grey matter into distinct regions based on functional imaging. Here we apply independent component analysis to whole-brain tractography data to automatically extract brain networks based on their associated white matter pathways...
May 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512008/3d-printing-and-modelling-of-customized-implants-and-surgical-guides-for-non-human-primates
#7
Xing Chen, Jessy K Possel, Catherine Wacongne, Anne F van Ham, P Christiaan Klink, Pieter R Roelfsema
BACKGROUND: Primate neurobiologists use chronically implanted devices such as pedestals for head stabilization and chambers to gain access to the brain and study its activity. Such implants are skull-mounted, and made from a hard, durable material, such as titanium. NEW METHOD: Here we present a low-cost method of creating customized 3D-printed cranial implants that are tailored to the anatomy of individual animals. We performed pre-surgical computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) scans to generate three-dimensional (3D) models of the skull and brain...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509324/three-dimensional-neurosonography-a-novel-field-in-fetal-medicine
#8
Michał Lipa, Ritsuko Kimata Pooh, Mirosław Wielgoś
Neurosonography is a promising technique for prenatal diagnosis, combining features of ultrasound imaging with fetal neurology. The brain is a three-dimensional structure, therefore observing brain structure in the three basic planes (sagittal, coronal and axial) is mandatory. The anterior fontanelle and sagittal suture may serve as acoustic ultrasound windows in the transvaginal brain scan, allowing to obtain high-resolution neuroimages of the intracranial structures. Furthermore, three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound combined with the transvaginal brain approach provides detailed and sophisticated neuroimages...
2017: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506874/impact-of-acquisition-and-analysis-strategies-on-cortical-depth-dependent-fmri
#9
Sriranga Kashyap, Dimo Ivanov, Martin Havlicek, Benedikt A Poser, Kâmil Uludağ
Functional MRI at ultra-high magnetic fields (≥ 7T) provides the opportunity to probe columnar and laminar processing in the human brain in vivo at submillimeter spatial scales. However, fMRI data only indirectly reflects the neuronal laminar profile, due to a bias to ascending and pial veins inherent in gradient- and spin-echo BOLD fMRI. In addition, accurate delineation of the cortical depths is difficult, due to the relatively large voxel sizes and lack of sufficient tissue contrast in the functional images...
May 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505166/brain-activation-of-semantic-category-based-grouping-in-multiple-identity-tracking-task
#10
Liuqing Wei, Xuemin Zhang, Chuang Lyu, Siyuan Hu, Zhen Li
Using Multiple Identity Tracking task and the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology, the present study aimed to isolate and visualize the functional anatomy of neural systems involved in the semantic category-based grouping process. Three experiment conditions were selected and compared: the category-based targets grouping (TG) condition, the targets-distractors grouping (TDG) condition and the homogenous condition. In the TG condition, observers could utilize the categorical distinction between targets and distractors, to construct a uniform presentation of targets, that is, to form a group of the targets to facilitate tracking...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500771/large-animal-models-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#11
REVIEW
Robert Vink
Animal models are essential to gain a deeper understanding of the pathophysiology associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Rodent models of TBI have proven highly valuable with respect to the information they have provided over the years, particularly when it comes to the molecular understanding of injury mechanisms. However, there has been a failure to translate the successes in therapeutic treatment of TBI in rodents, which many believe may be related to their different brain anatomy compared with humans...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494642/normal-anatomy-and-variations-in-the-confluence-of-sinuses-using-digital-subtraction-angiography
#12
Yaqin Cheng, William A Li, Xingjuan Fan, Xiaohua Li, Jian Chen, Yan Wu, Ran Meng, Xunming Ji
OBJECTIVES: The configuration of the confluence of sinuses differs not only between individuals, but also between the two brain hemispheres, making the anatomical classification of this region difficult. In this study, we evaluated the anatomy of the confluence of sinuses and ascertained the accuracy and usefulness of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in the evaluation of cerebral veins. METHODS: Bilateral carotid and vertebral artery angiographies were performed in 500 adult patients to evaluate the anatomy of the confluence of sinuses and contributory venous sinuses...
June 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491942/a-dataset-of-multi-contrast-population-averaged-brain-mri-atlases-of-a-parkinson-s-disease-cohort
#13
Yiming Xiao, Vladimir Fonov, M Mallar Chakravarty, Silvain Beriault, Fahd Al Subaie, Abbas Sadikot, G Bruce Pike, Gilles Bertrand, D Louis Collins
Parkinson׳s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease that primarily affects the motor functions of the patients. Research and surgical treatment of PD (e.g., deep brain stimulation) often require human brain atlases for structural identification or as references for anatomical normalization. However, two pitfalls exist for many current atlases used for PD. First, most atlases do not represent the disease-specific anatomy as they are based on healthy young subjects. Second, subcortical structures, such as the subthalamic nucleus (STN) used in deep brain stimulation procedures, are often not well visualized...
June 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479527/-understanding-voxel-based-morphometry
#14
Kiyotaka Nemoto
Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) is a neuroimaging technique that investigates focal differences in brain anatomy. The core process of VBM is segmenting the brain into grey matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid, warping the segmented images to a template space and smoothing. Thereafter, statistical analysis is performed on the basis of the general linear model. Although the basis of VBM is constant, the algorithm has been changed. Classical VBM simply employed anatomical normalization, segmentation, and smoothing...
May 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468552/accelerated-age-dependent-hippocampal-volume-loss-in-parkinson-disease-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#15
Christine B Schneider, Markus Donix, Katharina Linse, Annett Werner, Mareike Fauser, Lisa Klingelhoefer, Matthias Löhle, Rüdiger von Kummer, Heinz Reichmann, Alexander Storch
BACKGROUND: Patients with Parkinson disease are at high risk of developing dementia. During the course of the disease, a substantial number of patients will experience a cognitive decline, indicating the dynamics of the underlying neuropathology. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become increasingly useful for identifying structural characteristics in radiological brain anatomy existing prior to clinical symptoms. Whether these changes reflect pathology, whether they are aging related, or both often remains unclear...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466758/the-glymphatic-pathway
#16
Helene Benveniste, Hedok Lee, Nora D Volkow
The overall premise of this review is that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is transported within a dedicated peri-vascular network facilitating metabolic waste clearance from the central nervous system while we sleep. The anatomical profile of the network is complex and has been defined as a peri-arterial CSF influx pathway and peri-venous clearance routes, which are functionally coupled by interstitial bulk flow supported by astrocytic aquaporin 4 water channels. The role of the newly discovered system in the brain is equivalent to the lymphatic system present in other body organs and has been termed the "glymphatic pathway" or "(g)lymphatics" because of its dependence on glial cells...
January 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465334/development-of-the-hypothalamus-conservation-modification-and-innovation
#17
REVIEW
Yuanyuan Xie, Richard I Dorsky
The hypothalamus, which regulates fundamental aspects of physiological homeostasis and behavior, is a brain region that exhibits highly conserved anatomy across vertebrate species. Its development involves conserved basic mechanisms of induction and patterning, combined with a more plastic process of neuronal fate specification, to produce brain circuits that mediate physiology and behavior according to the needs of each species. Here, we review the factors involved in the induction, patterning and neuronal differentiation of the hypothalamus, highlighting recent evidence that illustrates how changes in Wnt/β-catenin signaling during development may lead to species-specific form and function of this important brain structure...
May 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463617/robot-assisted-procedures-in-pediatric-neurosurgery
#18
Alessandro De Benedictis, Andrea Trezza, Andrea Carai, Elisabetta Genovese, Emidio Procaccini, Raffaella Messina, Franco Randi, Silvia Cossu, Giacomo Esposito, Paolo Palma, Paolina Amante, Michele Rizzi, Carlo Efisio Marras
OBJECTIVE During the last 3 decades, robotic technology has rapidly spread across several surgical fields due to the continuous evolution of its versatility, stability, dexterity, and haptic properties. Neurosurgery pioneered the development of robotics, with the aim of improving the quality of several procedures requiring a high degree of accuracy and safety. Moreover, robot-guided approaches are of special interest in pediatric patients, who often have altered anatomy and challenging relationships between the diseased and eloquent structures...
May 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462034/virtual-reconstruction-of-the-endocranial-anatomy-of-the-early-jurassic-marine-crocodylomorph-pelagosaurus-typus-thalattosuchia
#19
Stephanie E Pierce, Megan Williams, Roger B J Benson
Thalattosuchians were highly specialised aquatic archosaurs of the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, and represent a peak of aquatic adaptation among crocodylomorphs. Relatively little is known of their endocranial anatomy or its relevance for the evolution of sensory systems, physiology, and other aspects of biology. Nevertheless, such data have significance for two reasons: (1) thalattosuchians represent an important data point regarding adaptation to marine life in tetrapods; and (2) as early-diverging members of the crocodylian stem-lineage, thalattosuchians provide information on the evolutionary assembly of the brain and other endocranial structures in crocodylomorphs...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460822/beyond-the-anatomy-based-representation-of-brain-function-comment-on-topodynamics-of-metastable-brains-by-arturo-tozzi-et-al
#20
David Papo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2017: Physics of Life Reviews
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