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Brain anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161362/the-hierarchical-organization-of-the-default-dorsal-attention-and-salience-networks-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#1
Yuan Zhou, Karl J Friston, Peter Zeidman, Jie Chen, Shu Li, Adeel Razi
An important characteristic of spontaneous brain activity is the anticorrelation between the core default network (cDN) and the dorsal attention network (DAN) and the salience network (SN). This anticorrelation may constitute a key aspect of functional anatomy and is implicated in several brain disorders. We used dynamic causal modeling to assess the hypothesis that a causal hierarchy underlies this anticorrelation structure, using resting-state fMRI of healthy adolescent and young adults (N = 404). Our analysis revealed an asymmetric effective connectivity, such that the regions in the SN and DAN exerted an inhibitory influence on the cDN regions; whereas the cDN exerted an excitatory influence on the SN and DAN regions...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157936/short-parietal-lobe-connections-of-the-human-and-monkey-brain
#2
Marco Catani, Naianna Robertsson, Ahmad Beyh, Vincent Huynh, Francisco de Santiago Requejo, Henrietta Howells, Rachel L C Barrett, Marco Aiello, Carlo Cavaliere, Tim B Dyrby, Kristine Krug, Maurice Ptito, Helen D'Arceuil, Stephanie J Forkel, Flavio Dell'Acqua
The parietal lobe has a unique place in the human brain. Anatomically, it is at the crossroad between the frontal, occipital, and temporal lobes, thus providing a middle ground for multimodal sensory integration. Functionally, it supports higher cognitive functions that are characteristic of the human species, such as mathematical cognition, semantic and pragmatic aspects of language, and abstract thinking. Despite its importance, a comprehensive comparison of human and simian intraparietal networks is missing...
November 2, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155719/exploring-deep-space-uncovering-the-anatomy-of-periventricular-structures-to-reveal-the-lateral-ventricles-of-the-human-brain
#3
Alexandru S Colibaba, Aicee Dawn B Calma, Alexandra L Webb, Krisztina Valter
Anatomy students are typically provided with two-dimensional (2D) sections and images when studying cerebral ventricular anatomy and students find this challenging. Because the ventricles are negative spaces located deep within the brain, the only way to understand their anatomy is by appreciating their boundaries formed by related structures. Looking at a 2D representation of these spaces, in any of the cardinal planes, will not enable visualisation of all of the structures that form the boundaries of the ventricles...
October 22, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149371/imaging-patterns-of-venous-related-brain-injury-in-children
#4
Luke L Linscott, James L Leach, Blaise V Jones, Todd A Abruzzo
Venous-related brain injury is a common form of cerebrovascular injury in children and encompasses a diverse group of cerebrovascular diagnoses. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to introduce the relevant anatomy, pathophysiology and various imaging patterns of venous-related cerebral injury in children. Unifying concepts to better understand the effects of venous hypertension in the developing brain will be emphasized. These unifying concepts will provide the imaging professional with a conceptual framework to better understand and confidently identify imaging patterns of venous-related cerebral injury...
December 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149245/high-dimensional-therapeutic-inference-in-the-focally-damaged-human-brain
#5
Tianbo Xu, Hans Rolf Jäger, Masud Husain, Geraint Rees, Parashkev Nachev
Though consistency across the population renders the extraordinarily complex functional anatomy of the human brain surveyable, the inverse inference-from common functional maps to individual behaviour-is constrained by marked individual deviation from the population mean. Such inference is fundamental to the evaluation of therapeutic interventions in focal brain injury, where the impact of an induced structural change in the brain is quantified by its behavioural consequences, inevitably refracted through the lens of lesion-outcome relations...
November 15, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146048/cerebellar-volume-in-autism-literature-meta-analysis-and-analysis-of-the-autism-brain%C3%A2-imaging-data-exchange-cohort
#6
Nicolas Traut, Anita Beggiato, Thomas Bourgeron, Richard Delorme, Laure Rondi-Reig, Anne-Lise Paradis, Roberto Toro
BACKGROUND: The neuroanatomical bases of autism spectrum disorder remain largely unknown. Among the most widely discussed candidate endophenotypes, differences in cerebellar volume have been often reported as statistically significant. METHODS: We aimed at objectifying this possible alteration by performing a systematic meta-analysis of the literature and an analysis of the ABIDE (Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange) cohort. Our meta-analysis sought to determine a combined effect size of autism spectrum disorder diagnosis on different measures of the cerebellar anatomy as well as the effect of possible factors of variability across studies...
October 10, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136105/same-genes-different-brains-neuroanatomical-differences-between-monozygotic-twins-discordant-for-musical-training
#7
Örjan de Manzano, Fredrik Ullén
Numerous cross-sectional and observational longitudinal studies show associations between expertise and regional brain anatomy. However, since these designs confound training with genetic predisposition, the causal role of training remains unclear. Here, we use a discordant monozygotic (identical) twin design to study expertise-dependent effects on neuroanatomy using musical training as model behavior, while essentially controlling for genetic factors and shared environment of upbringing. From a larger cohort of monozygotic twins, we were able to recruit 18 individuals (9 pairs) that were highly discordant for piano practice...
November 9, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132507/management-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
REVIEW
Justin R Davanzo, Emily P Sieg, Shelly D Timmons
Traumatic brain injury remains a serious public health problem, causing death and disability for millions. In order to maximize outcomes in the face of a complex injury to a complex organ, a variety of advanced neuromonitoring techniques may be used to guide surgical and medical decision-making. Because of the heterogeneity of injury types and the plethora of treatment confounders present in this patient population, the scientific study of specific interventions is challenging. This challenge highlights the need for a firm understanding of the anatomy and pathophysiology of brain injuries when making clinical decisions in the intensive care unit...
December 2017: Surgical Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130551/a-localized-pallidal-physiomarker-in-cervical-dystonia
#9
Wolf-Julian Neumann, Andreas Horn, Siobhan Ewert, Julius Huebl, Christof Brücke, Colleen Slentz, Gerd-Helge Schneider, Andrea A Kühn
OBJECTIVE: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) allows for direct recordings of neuronal activity from the human basal ganglia. In Parkinson's disease, a disease-specific physiomarker was identified that is now used to investigate adaptive closed-loop stimulation in first studies. In dystonia such a physiomarker is missing. METHODS: Pallidal oscillations were recorded from 153 contact pairs in 27 patients. We investigated whether power amplitudes in theta and beta bands correlate with dystonic symptom severity across patients...
November 11, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129763/mammillothalamic-and-mammillotegmental-tracts-as-new-targets-for-dementia-and-epilepsy-treatment
#10
REVIEW
Naci Balak, Ece Balkuv, Ali Karadag, Recep Basaran, Huseyin Biceroglu, Buruç Erkan, Necmettin Tanriover
Very recently, neuromodulation through deep brain stimulation (DBS) has appeared as a new surgical procedure in the treatment of some types of dementia and epilepsy. The mammillothalamic and the mammillotegmental tracts are involved among the new targets. To our knowledge, a review article focused specifically on these mammillary body efferents is lacking in the medical literature. Their contribution to memory is, regrettably, often overlooked. There is evidence that mammillary bodies can contribute to memory independently from hippocampal formation, but the mechanism is not yet known...
November 9, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123400/comparison-of-spontaneous-brain-activity-revealed-by-regional-homogeneity-in-aqp4-igg-neuromyelitis-optica-optic-neuritis-versus-mog-igg-optic-neuritis-patients-a-resting-state-functional-mri-study
#11
Junqing Wang, Yuan Tian, Yi Shao, Hui Feng, Limin Qin, Weiwei Xu, Hongjuan Liu, Quangang Xu, Shihui Wei, Lin Ma
Objective: Many previous studies have demonstrated that neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients have abnormalities of brain anatomy and function. However, differences in spontaneous brain activity between myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-IgG ON and aquaporin 4(AQP4)-neuromyelitis optica-optic neuritis (ON) remain unknown. In the current study, we investigated the brain neural homogeneity in MOG-IgG ON versus AQP4-IgG NMO-ON subjects by regional homogeneity (ReHo) method using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117197/new-records-of-the-dolphin-albertocetus-meffordorum-odontoceti-xenorophidae-from-the-lower-oligocene-of-south-carolina-encephalization-sensory-anatomy-postcranial-morphology-and-ontogeny-of-early-odontocetes
#12
Robert W Boessenecker, Erum Ahmed, Jonathan H Geisler
We report five new specimens of xenorophid dolphins from North and South Carolina. Four of the specimens represent the xenorophid Albertocetus meffordorum, previously only known from the holotype skull. The other is a fragmentary petrosal from the upper Oligocene Belgrade Formation that we refer to Echovenator sp, indicating at least two xenorophids from that unit. Two of the Albertocetus meffordorum specimens are from the lower Oligocene Ashley Formation: 1) a partial skeleton with neurocranium, fragmentary mandible, ribs, vertebrae, and chevrons, and 2) an isolated braincase...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116158/optical-mapping-of-the-dominant-frequency-of-brain-signal-oscillations-in-motor-systems
#13
Feng-Mei Lu, Yi-Feng Wang, Juan Zhang, Hua-Fu Chen, Zhen Yuan
Recent neuroimaging studies revealed that the dominant frequency of neural oscillations is brain-region-specific and can vary with frequency-specific reorganization of brain networks during cognition. In this study, we examined the dominant frequency in low-frequency neural oscillations represented by oxygenated hemoglobin measurements after the hemodynamic response function (HRF) deconvolution. Twenty-nine healthy college subjects were recruited to perform a serial finger tapping task at the frequency of 0...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112719/a-lesion-model-of-envy-and-schadenfreude-legal-deservingness-and-moral-dimensions-as-revealed-by-neurodegeneration
#14
Hernando Santamaría-García, Sandra Baez, Pablo Reyes, José A Santamaría-García, José M Santacruz-Escudero, Diana Matallana, Analía Arévalo, Mariano Sigman, Adolfo M García, Agustín Ibáñez
The study of moral emotions (i.e. Schadenfreude and envy) is critical to understand the ecological complexity of everyday interactions between cognitive, affective, and social cognition processes. Most previous studies in this area have used correlational imaging techniques and framed Schadenfreude and envy as unified and monolithic emotional domains. Here, we profit from a relevant neurodegeneration model to disentangle the brain regions engaged in three dimensions of Schadenfreude and envy: deservingness, morality, and legality...
November 2, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111383/disturbed-glutathione-antioxidative-defense-is-associated-with-structural-brain-changes-in-neuroleptic-na%C3%A3-ve-first-episode-psychosis-patients
#15
K Langbein, J Hesse, A Gussew, B Milleit, S Lavoie, G P Amminger, C Gaser, G Wagner, J R Reichenbach, U-C Hipler, D Winter, S Smesny
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defense are reported in schizophrenia and are thought to be associated with disturbed neurodevelopment, brain structural alterations, glutamatergic imbalance, negative symptomatology, and cognitive impairment. To test some of these assumptions we investigated the glutathione (GSH) antioxidant defense system (AODS) and brain structural abnormalities in drug-naïve individuals with first acute episode of psychosis (FEP). METHOD: The study involved 27 drug-naïve FEP patients and 31 healthy controls (HC)...
October 18, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111178/dose-dependent-neurocognitive-deficits-following-postnatal-day-10-hiv-1-viral-protein-exposure-relationship-to-hippocampal-anatomy-parameters
#16
Sylvia Fitting, Kristen A McLaurin, Rosemarie M Booze, Charles F Mactutus
Despite the availability of antiretroviral prophylactic treatment, pediatric human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) continues to be a significant risk factor in the post-cART era. The time of infection (i.e., during pregnancy, delivery or breastfeeding) may play a role in the development of neurocognitive deficits in pediatric HIV-1. HIV-1 viral protein exposure on postnatal day (P)1, preceding the postnatal brain growth spurt in rats, had deleterious effects on neurocognitive development and anatomical parameters of the hippocampus (Fitting et al...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110344/current-technical-approaches-to-brain-energy-metabolism
#17
REVIEW
L Felipe Barros, Juan P Bolaños, Gilles Bonvento, Anne-Karine Bouzier-Sore, Angus Brown, Johannes Hirrlinger, Sergey Kasparov, Frank Kirchhoff, Anne N Murphy, Luc Pellerin, Michael B Robinson, Bruno Weber
Neuroscience is a technology-driven discipline and brain energy metabolism is no exception. Once satisfied with mapping metabolic pathways at organ level, we are now looking to learn what it is exactly that metabolic enzymes and transporters do and when, where do they reside, how are they regulated, and how do they relate to the specific functions of neurons, glial cells, and their subcellular domains and organelles, in different areas of the brain. Moreover, we aim to quantify the fluxes of metabolites within and between cells...
November 7, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109352/mapping-of-kndy-neurons-and-immunohistochemical-analysis-of-the-interaction-between-kndy-and-substance-p-neural-systems-in-goat
#18
Hiroaki Okamura, Takashi Yamamura, Yoshihiro Wakabayashi
A population of neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) coexpresses kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB), and dynorphin, and therefore they are referred to as KNDy neurons. It has been suggested that KNDy neurons participate in several brain functions, including the control of reproduction. The present study aimed to advance our understanding of the anatomy of the KNDy neural system. We first produced an antiserum against goat kisspeptin. After confirming its specificity, the antiserum was used to histochemically detect kisspeptin-positive signals...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107121/longitudinally-and-inter-site-consistent-multi-atlas-based-parcellation-of-brain-anatomy-using-harmonized-atlases
#19
Guray Erus, Jimit Doshi, Yang An, Dimitris Verganelakis, Susan M Resnick, Christos Davatzikos
As longitudinal and multi-site studies become increasingly frequent in neuroimaging, maintaining longitudinal and inter-scanner consistency of brain parcellation has become a major challenge due to variation in scanner models and/or image acquisition protocols across scanners and sites. We present a new automated segmentation method specifically designed to achieve a consistent parcellation of anatomical brain structures in such heterogeneous datasets. Our method combines a site-specific atlas creation strategy with a state-of-the-art multi-atlas anatomical label fusion framework...
November 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104678/influence-of-gender-and-age-on-average-dimensions-of-arteries-forming-the-circle-of-willis-study-by-magnetic-resonance-angiography-on-kosovo-s-population
#20
Jeton Shatri, Dorentina Bexheti, Sadi Bexheti, Serbeze Kabashi, Shaip Krasniqi, Ilir Ahmetgjekaj, Valbona Zhjeqi
BACKGROUND: Circulus arteriosus cerebri is the main source of blood supply to the brain; it connects the left and right hemispheres with anterior and posterior parts. Located at the interpenducular fossa at the base of the brain the circle of Willis is the most important source of collateral circulation in the presence of the disease in the carotid or vertebral artery. AIM: The purpose of the research is to study the diameter and length of arteries and provide an important source of reference on Kosovo's population...
October 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
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