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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780197/trafic-fiber-tract-classification-using-deep-learning
#1
Prince D Ngattai Lam, Gaetan Belhomme, Jessica Ferrall, Billie Patterson, Martin Styner, Juan C Prieto
We present TRAFIC, a fully automated tool for the labeling and classification of brain fiber tracts. TRAFIC classifies new fibers using a neural network trained using shape features computed from previously traced and manually corrected fiber tracts. It is independent from a DTI Atlas as it is applied to already traced fibers. This work is motivated by medical applications where the process of extracting fibers from a DTI atlas, or classifying fibers manually is time consuming and requires knowledge about brain anatomy...
February 2018: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777319/what-does-sex-have-to-do-with-it-the-role-of-sex-as-a-biological-variable-in-the-development-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#2
REVIEW
Sara L Kornfield, Liisa Hantsoo, C Neill Epperson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights the neurobiological aspects of sex differences in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), specifically focusing on the physiological responses to trauma and presents evidence supporting hormone and neurosteroid/peptide differences from both preclinical and clinical research. RECENT FINDINGS: While others have suggested that trauma type or acute emotional reaction are responsible for women's disproportionate risk to PTSD, neither of these explanations fully accounts for the sex differences in PTSD...
May 18, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776018/voxel-based-morphometry-in-creative-writers-gray-matter-increase-in-a-prefronto-thalamic-cerebellar-network
#3
Nicola Neumann, Martin Domin, Katharina Erhard, Martin Lotze
Continuous practice modulates those features of brain anatomy specifically associated with requirements of the respective training task. The current study aimed to highlight brain structural changes going along with long-term experience in creative writing. To this end, we investigated the gray-matter volume of 23 expert writers with voxel-based morphometry and compared it to 28 matched non-expert controls. Expert writers had higher gray-matter volume in the right superior frontal and middle frontal gyri (BA 9,10) as well as left middle frontal gyrus (BA 9, 10, 46), the bilateral medial dorsal nuclei of the thalamus and left posterior cerebellum...
May 18, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775150/computer-aided-analysis-of-middle-cerebral-artery-tortuosity-association-with-aneurysm-development
#4
Kornelia M Kliś, Roger M Krzyżewski, Borys M Kwinta, Krzysztof Stachura, Marek Moskała, Krzysztof A Tomaszewski
OBJECTIVE Blood vessel tortuosity may play an important role in the development of vessel abnormalities such as aneurysms. Currently, however, there are no studies analyzing the impact of brain blood vessel tortuosity on the risk of aneurysm formation. Therefore, the authors performed a computer-aided analysis of middle cerebral artery (MCA) tortuosity, especially among patients diagnosed with MCA aneurysms. METHODS Anatomy of the MCAs of 54 patients with unruptured MCA aneurysms was retrospectively analyzed, as was that of 54 sex-, age-, and vessel side-matched control patients without MCA aneurysms...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768273/subcaudate-tractotomy-white-matter-anatomy-and-variability-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#5
Kartik D Bhatia, Luke A Henderson, Eugene Hsu, Mark Yim
BACKGROUND: Subcaudate tractotomy is a functional ablative procedure performed for treatment-resistant psychiatric disease, targeting the white matter tracts ventral to the head of the caudate nucleus. The white matter anatomy of this region has extensive interindividual variability, and this is thought to impact upon the treatment response to ablative and deep brain stimulation procedures. OBJECTIVE: We aim to assess in detail the white matter tract anatomy and topographic variability underlying subcaudate tractotomy...
May 16, 2018: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766613/cortical-thickness-estimations-of-freesurfer-and-the-cat12-toolbox-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-and-healthy-controls
#6
Rene Seiger, Sebastian Ganger, Georg S Kranz, Andreas Hahn, Rupert Lanzenberger
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Automated cortical thickness (CT) measurements are often used to assess gray matter changes in the healthy and diseased human brain. The FreeSurfer software is frequently applied for this type of analysis. The computational anatomy toolbox (CAT12) for SPM, which offers a fast and easy-to-use alternative approach, was recently made available. METHODS: In this study, we compared region of interest (ROI)-wise CT estimations of the surface-based FreeSurfer 6 (FS6) software and the volume-based CAT12 toolbox for SPM using 44 elderly healthy female control subjects (HC)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766384/increased-functional-meg-connectivity-as-a-hallmark-of-mri-negative-focal-and-generalized-epilepsy
#7
Yiwen Li Hegner, Justus Marquetand, Adham Elshahabi, Silke Klamer, Holger Lerche, Christoph Braun, Niels K Focke
Epilepsy is one of the most prevalent neurological diseases with a high morbidity. Accumulating evidence has shown that epilepsy is an archetypical neural network disorder. Here we developed a non-invasive cortical functional connectivity analysis based on magnetoencephalography (MEG) to assess commonalities and differences in the network phenotype in different epilepsy syndromes (non-lesional/cryptogenic focal and idiopathic/genetic generalized epilepsy). Thirty-seven epilepsy patients with normal structural brain anatomy underwent a 30-min resting state MEG measurement with eyes closed...
May 15, 2018: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763748/right-hemisphere-cognitive-functions-from-clinical-and-anatomical-bases-to-brain-mapping-during-awake-craniotomy-part-i-clinical-and-functional-anatomy
#8
REVIEW
Florian Bernard, Jean-Michel Lemée, Aram Ter Minassian, Philippe Menei
The non-dominant hemisphere (usually the right) is responsible for primary cognitive functions such as visuo-spatial and social cognition. Awake surgery using direct electrical stimulation for right cerebral tumor removal remains challenging due to the complexity of the functional anatomy and difficulties in adapting standard bedside tasks to awake surgery conditions. An understanding of semiology and anatomical bases, along with an analysis of the available cognitive tasks for visuo-spatial and social cognition per operative mapping will allow neurosurgeons to better appreciate the functional anatomy of the right hemisphere and its relevance to tumor surgery...
May 12, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761998/functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-glioma-patients-from-clinical-applications-to-future-perspectives
#9
Lukas J Volz, Martin Kocher, Philipp Lohmann, Nadim J Shah, Gereon R Fink, Norbert Galldiks
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allows the non-invasive assessment of human brain activity in-vivo. In glioma patients, fMRI is frequently used to determine the individual functional anatomy of the motor and language network in a pre-surgical setting to optimize surgical procedures and prevent extensive damage to functionally eloquent areas. Novel developments based on resting- state fMRI may help to improve pre-surgical planning for patients which are unable to perform structured tasks and might extend pre-surgical mapping to include additional functional networks...
May 14, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760068/endocast-morphology-of-homo-naledi-from-the-dinaledi-chamber-south-africa
#10
Ralph L Holloway, Shawn D Hurst, Heather M Garvin, P Thomas Schoenemann, William B Vanti, Lee R Berger, John Hawks
Hominin cranial remains from the Dinaledi Chamber, South Africa, represent multiple individuals of the species Homo naledi This species exhibits a small endocranial volume comparable to Australopithecus , combined with several aspects of external cranial anatomy similar to larger-brained species of Homo such as Homo habilis and Homo erectus Here, we describe the endocast anatomy of this recently discovered species. Despite the small size of the H. naledi endocasts, they share several aspects of structure in common with other species of Homo , not found in other hominins or great apes, notably in the organization of the inferior frontal and lateral orbital gyri...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760066/socioeconomic-status-moderates-age-related-differences-in-the-brain-s-functional-network-organization-and-anatomy-across-the-adult-lifespan
#11
Micaela Y Chan, Jinkyung Na, Phillip F Agres, Neil K Savalia, Denise C Park, Gagan S Wig
An individual's environmental surroundings interact with the development and maturation of their brain. An important aspect of an individual's environment is his or her socioeconomic status (SES), which estimates access to material resources and social prestige. Previous characterizations of the relation between SES and the brain have primarily focused on earlier or later epochs of the lifespan (i.e., childhood, older age). We broaden this work to examine the relationship between SES and the brain across a wide range of human adulthood (20-89 years), including individuals from the less studied middle-age range...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759822/multivariate-relationships-between-cognition-and-brain-anatomy-across-the-psychosis-spectrum
#12
Amanda L Rodrigue, Jennifer E McDowell, Neeraj Tandon, Matcheri S Keshavan, Carol A Tamminga, Godfrey D Pearlson, John A Sweeney, Robert D Gibbons, Brett A Clementz
BACKGROUND: Cognitive and structural brain abnormalities range from mild to severe in psychosis. The relation of specific cognitive functions to specific brain structures across the psychosis spectrum is less certain. METHODS: Participants (n = 678) with bipolar, schizoaffective, or schizophrenia psychoses and healthy control subjects were recruited via the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network for Intermediate Phenotypes. The Schizo-Bipolar Scale was used to create a psychosis continuum (from purely affective to purely nonaffective)...
March 31, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750708/endometrioid-adenocarcinoma-with-solitary-metastasis-to-the-appendix-mimicking-primary-appendiceal-adenocarcinoma-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#13
Qiujie Ma, Jianshe Wu
Metastatic tumors of the appendix are rare. Endometrial cancer tends to metastasize by directly invading neighboring structures; the lung, liver, bones, and brain are common sites of distant metastasis. Herein, we present a case of a solitary endometrial metastatic tumor in the appendiceal mucosa without serosal involvement that mimicked a primary adenocarcinoma of the appendix. The patient who had undergone a radical hysterectomy for an endometrioid adenocarcinoma 3 years earlier presented to the hospital with a history of persistent right-lower abdominal pain...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749930/whole-brain-comparative-anatomy-using-connectivity-blueprints
#14
Rogier B Mars, Stamatios N Sotiropoulos, Richard E Passingham, Jerome Sallet, Lennart M Verhagen, Alexandre A Khrapitchev, Nicola Sibson, Saad Jbabdi
Comparing the brains of related species faces the challenges of establishing homologies whilst accommodating evolutionary specializations. Here we propose a general framework for understanding similarities and differences between the brains of primates. The approach uses white matter blueprints of the whole cortex based on a set of white matter tracts that can be anatomically matched across species. The blueprints provide a common reference space that allows us to navigate between brains of different species, identify homologous cortical areas, or to transform whole cortical maps from one species to the other...
May 11, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743884/exploring-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-and-delirium-in-noncardiac-surgery-using-mri-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Chenxi Huang, Johan Mårtensson, Ismail Gögenur, Mohammad Sohail Asghar
Surgical patients are at high risk of developing postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) and postoperative delirium (POD). POCD and POD are associated with increased morbidity and mortality and worsening functional outcomes leading to severe socioeconomic consequences for the patient and the society in general. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a unique opportunity to study the anatomy and function of the brain. MRI thus plays an important role in elucidating the neuronal component of POCD and POD...
2018: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742889/intraoperative-neurophysiological-monitoring-a-review-of-techniques-used-for-brain-tumor-surgery-in-children
#16
REVIEW
Keewon Kim, Charles Cho, Moon-Suk Bang, Hyung-Ik Shin, Ji-Hoon Phi, Seung-Ki Kim
Intraoperative monitoring (IOM) utilizes electrophysiological techniques as a surrogate test and evaluation of nervous function while a patient is under general anesthesia. They are increasingly used for procedures, both surgical and endovascular, to avoid injury during an operation, examine neurological tissue to guide the surgery, or to test electrophysiological function to allow for more complete resection or corrections. The application of IOM during pediatric brain tumor resections encompasses a unique set of technical issues...
May 2018: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739727/topographic-anatomy-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-localized-by-high-resolution-human-brain-atlas-superimposing-digital-images-of-cross-sectioned-surfaces-and-histological-images-of-microscopic-sections-from-frozen-cadaveric-brains
#17
Takashi Kawasaki, Masahiro Shin, Yuiko Kimura, Yoshitomo Umitsu, George Matsumura, Fusako Yokochi, Ryoichi Okiyama, Makoto Taniguchi, Nobutaka Arai
Despite the recent advent of neuro-radiographic techniques, creating a 'perfect' human brain atlas providing precise and consistent images with minimal distortion is practically difficult. In this study, we created a new human brain atlas from cadaveric brains with serial sections of 50 μm thickness covering the entire basal ganglia. Human cerebral hemispheres were obtained from 10 donated cadavers and fixed in 10% formalin solution, cut in a block measuring 50 mm × 30 mm × 50 mm around the midpoint of the anterior and posterior commissures and frozen at -40 °C...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736800/automatic-segmentation-of-stereoelectroencephalography-seeg-electrodes-post-implantation-considering-bending
#18
Alejandro Granados, Vejay Vakharia, Roman Rodionov, Martin Schweiger, Sjoerd B Vos, Aidan G O'Keeffe, Kuo Li, Chengyuan Wu, Anna Miserocchi, Andrew W McEvoy, Matthew J Clarkson, John S Duncan, Rachel Sparks, Sébastien Ourselin
PURPOSE: The accurate and automatic localisation of SEEG electrodes is crucial for determining the location of epileptic seizure onset. We propose an algorithm for the automatic segmentation of electrode bolts and contacts that accounts for electrode bending in relation to regional brain anatomy. METHODS: Co-registered post-implantation CT, pre-implantation MRI, and brain parcellation images are used to create regions of interest to automatically segment bolts and contacts...
May 7, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726781/microsurgical-anatomy-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-correlating-fiber-dissection-results-with-3-t-magnetic-resonance-imaging-using-neuronavigation
#19
Abuzer Güngör, Şevki Serhat Baydın, Vanessa M Holanda, Erik H Middlebrooks, Cihan Isler, Bekir Tugcu, Kelly Foote, Necmettin Tanriover
OBJECTIVE Despite the extensive use of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) as a deep brain stimulation (DBS) target, unveiling the extensive functional connectivity of the nucleus, relating its structural connectivity to the stimulation-induced adverse effects, and thus optimizing the STN targeting still remain challenging. Mastering the 3D anatomy of the STN region should be the fundamental goal to achieve ideal surgical results, due to the deep-seated and obscure position of the nucleus, variable shape and relatively small size, oblique orientation, and extensive structural connectivity...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723637/multidimensional-co-segmentation-of-longitudinal-brain-mri-ensembles-in-the-presence-of-a-neurodegenerative-process
#20
Shiri Gordon, Irit Dolgopyat, Itamar Kahn, Tammy Riklin Raviv
MRI Segmentation of a pathological brain poses a significant challenge, as the available anatomical priors that provide top-down information to aid segmentation are inadequate in the presence of abnormalities. This problem is further complicated for longitudinal data capturing impaired brain development or neurodegenerative conditions, since the dynamic of brain atrophies has to be considered as well. For these cases, the absence of compatible annotated training examples renders the commonly used multi-atlas or machine-learning approaches impractical...
April 30, 2018: NeuroImage
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