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Brain anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636959/the-enteric-network-interactions-between-the-immune-and-nervous-systems-of-the-gut
#1
REVIEW
Bryan B Yoo, Sarkis K Mazmanian
Interactions between the nervous and immune systems enable the gut to respond to the variety of dietary products that it absorbs, the broad spectrum of pathogens that it encounters, and the diverse microbiome that it harbors. The enteric nervous system (ENS) senses and reacts to the dynamic ecosystem of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by translating chemical cues from the environment into neuronal impulses that propagate throughout the gut and into other organs in the body, including the central nervous system (CNS)...
June 20, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634149/a-non-invasive-restraining-system-for-awake-mouse-imaging
#2
Dan Madularu, Axel P Mathieu, Chathura Kumaragamage, Lauren Reynolds, Jamie Near, Cecilia Flores, M Natasha Rajah
BACKGROUND: Preclinical neuroimaging allows for the assessment of brain anatomy, connectivity and function in laboratory animals, such as mice and rats. Most of these studies are performed under anesthesia to avoid movement during the scanning sessions. METHOD: Due to the limitations associated with anesthetized imaging, recent efforts have been made to conduct rodent imaging studies in awake animals, habituated to the restraint systems used in these instances. As of now, only one such system is commercially available for mouse scanning (Animal Imaging Research, Boston, MA, USA) integrating the radiofrequency coil electronics with the restraining element, an approach which, although effective in reducing head motion during awake imaging, has some limitations...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633567/endogenous-bioelectric-signaling-networks-exploiting-voltage-gradients-for-control-of-growth-and-form
#3
Michael Levin, Giovanni Pezzulo, Joshua M Finkelstein
Living systems exhibit remarkable abilities to self-assemble, regenerate, and remodel complex shapes. How cellular networks construct and repair specific anatomical outcomes is an open question at the heart of the next-generation science of bioengineering. Developmental bioelectricity is an exciting emerging discipline that exploits endogenous bioelectric signaling among many cell types to regulate pattern formation. We provide a brief overview of this field, review recent data in which bioelectricity is used to control patterning in a range of model systems, and describe the molecular tools being used to probe the role of bioelectrics in the dynamic control of complex anatomy...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624828/unique-imaging-features-enabling-the-prenatal-diagnosis-of-developmental-venous-anomalies-a-persistent-echogenic-brain-lesion-drained-by-a-collecting-vein-in-contrast-with-normal-brain-parenchyma-on-mri
#4
Karina Krajden Haratz, Alon Peled, Boris Weizman, Liat Gindes, Mordechai Tamarkin, Dorit Lev, Dvora Kidron, Liat Ben-Sira, Gustavo Malinger, Tally Lerman-Sagie, Zvi Leibovitz
OBJECTIVE: To describe the prenatal imaging features enabling diagnosis of developmental venous anomalies (DVA). METHODS: Four fetuses with unexplained persistent echogenic parenchymal brain lesions were studied. The evaluation included dedicated neurosonography, fetal MRI, serology for intrauterine infection, screening for coagulation abnormalities, and chromosomal microarray. Postnatal neurodevelopmental follow-up or autopsy results were assessed. RESULTS: DVA presented as very slowly growing echogenic brain lesions without cystic components, calcifications, or structural changes on otherwise normal neurosonographic scans performed at 2- to 3-week intervals...
June 17, 2017: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624432/zinc-transporter-3-znt3-and-vesicular-zinc-in-central-nervous-system-function
#5
REVIEW
Brendan B McAllister, Richard H Dyck
Zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3) is the sole mechanism responsible for concentrating zinc ions within synaptic vesicles in a subset of the brain's glutamatergic neurons. This vesicular zinc can then be released into the synaptic cleft in an activity-dependent fashion, where it can exert many signaling functions. This review provides a comprehensive discussion of the localization and function of ZnT3 and vesicular zinc in the central nervous system. We begin by reviewing the fundamentals of zinc homeostasis and transport, and the discovery of ZnT3...
June 14, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621462/evidence-for-convergent-evolution-of-a-neocortex-like-structure-in-a-late-permian-therapsid
#6
Michael Laaß, Anders Kaestner
The special sensory, motor, and cognitive capabilities of mammals mainly depend upon the neocortex, which is the six-layered cover of the mammalian forebrain. The origin of the neocortex is still controversial and the current view is that larger brains with neocortex first evolved in late Triassic Mammaliaformes. Here, we report the earliest evidence of a structure analogous to the mammalian neocortex in a forerunner of mammals, the fossorial anomodont Kawingasaurus fossilis from the late Permian of Tanzania...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617222/an-extensive-assessment-of-network-alignment-algorithms-for-comparison-of-brain-connectomes
#7
Marianna Milano, Pietro Hiram Guzzi, Olga Tymofieva, Duan Xu, Christofer Hess, Pierangelo Veltri, Mario Cannataro
BACKGROUND: Recently the study of the complex system of connections in neural systems, i.e. the connectome, has gained a central role in neurosciences. The modeling and analysis of connectomes are therefore a growing area. Here we focus on the representation of connectomes by using graph theory formalisms. Macroscopic human brain connectomes are usually derived from neuroimages; the analyzed brains are co-registered in the image domain and brought to a common anatomical space. An atlas is then applied in order to define anatomically meaningful regions that will serve as the nodes of the network - this process is referred to as parcellation...
June 6, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615334/diffusion-weighted-tractography-in-the-common-marmoset-monkey-at-9-4-t
#8
David J Schaeffer, Ramina Adam, Kyle M Gilbert, Joseph S Gati, Alex X Li, Ravi S Menon, Stefan Everling
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small New World primate that is becoming increasingly popular in the neurosciences as an animal model of preclinical human disease. With several major disorders characterized by alterations in neural white matter (e.g., multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's, schizophrenia) proposed to be transgenically modelled using marmosets, the ability to reliably isolate and characterize major white matter fiber tracts with MRI will be of utility for evaluating structural brain changes related to disease processes and symptomatology...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613391/evaluation-of-five-diffeomorphic-image-registration-algorithms-for-mouse-brain-magnetic-resonance-microscopy
#9
Zhenrong Fu, Lan Lin, Miao Tian, Jingxuan Wang, Baiwen Zhang, Pingping Chu, Shaowu Li, Muhammad Mohsin Pathan, Yulin Deng, Shuicai Wu
The development of genetically engineered mouse models for neuronal diseases and behavioural disorders have generated a growing need for small animal imaging. High-resolution magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) provides powerful capabilities for noninvasive studies of mouse brains, while avoiding some limits associated with the histological procedures. Quantitative comparison of structural images is a critical step in brain imaging analysis, which highly relies on the performance of image registration techniques...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611710/promising-links-between-meditation-and-reduced-brain-aging-an-attempt-to-bridge-some-gaps-between-the-alleged-fountain-of-youth-and-the-youth-of-the-field
#10
REVIEW
Florian Kurth, Nicolas Cherbuin, Eileen Luders
Over the last decade, an increasing number of studies has reported a positive impact of meditation on cerebral aging. However, the underlying mechanisms for these seemingly brain-protecting effects are not well-understood. This may be due to the fact, at least partly, that systematic empirical meditation research has emerged only recently as a field of scientific scrutiny. Thus, on the one hand, critical questions remain largely unanswered; and on the other hand, outcomes of existing research require better integration to build a more comprehensive and holistic picture...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608647/specifying-the-brain-anatomy-underlying-temporo-parietal-junction-activations-for-theory-of-mind-a-review-using-probabilistic-atlases-from-different-imaging-modalities
#11
REVIEW
Matthias Schurz, Matthias G Tholen, Josef Perner, Rogier B Mars, Jerome Sallet
In this quantitative review, we specified the anatomical basis of brain activity reported in the Temporo-Parietal Junction (TPJ) in Theory of Mind (ToM) research. Using probabilistic brain atlases, we labeled TPJ peak coordinates reported in the literature. This was carried out for four different atlas modalities: (i) gyral-parcellation, (ii) sulco-gyral parcellation, (iii) cytoarchitectonic parcellation and (iv) connectivity-based parcellation. In addition, our review distinguished between two ToM task types (false belief and social animations) and a nonsocial task (attention reorienting)...
June 13, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597435/micro-morphological-study-of-evolvulus-spp-convolvulaceae-the-old-world-medicinal-plants
#12
Kanapol Ketjarun, George W Staples, Sasivimon C Swangpol, Paweena Traiperm
BACKGROUND: Several medicinal properties have been reported for plants in the genus Evolvulus, such as a brain tonic and antifungal from Evolvulus alsinoides, and a sedative and an anthelmintic from Evolvulus nummularius. Therefore, the correct identification of the source plants is critically important. The aim of this research was to investigate the micromorphology of two Evolvulus taxa used for herbal medicines compared with one worldwide ornamental species by using peeling, paraffin embedding, acetolysis, and SEM methods in order to support species identification...
December 2016: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597129/transcanal-surgery-for-vestibular-schwannomas-a-pictorial-review-of-radiological-findings-surgical-anatomy-and-comparison-to-the-traditional-translabyrinthine-approach
#13
Matteo Alicandri-Ciufelli, Gaia Federici, Lukas Anschuetz, Giacomo Pavesi, Alessandra Todeschini, Livio Presutti, Daniele Marchioni
The most popular approaches for vestibular schwannoma (VS) removal are retrosigmoid, middle cranial fossa and translabyrinthine (TL). All require a certain degree of invasivity, bone removal, or brain manipulation. Recently, the authors described the transcanal transpromontorial approaches (TTA), which allow the inner ear to be accessed directly through the external auditory canal (EAC), either with a microscopic (Expanded TTA, or ExpTTA) or even an exclusive endoscopic technique (Endoscopic TTA, or EndoTTA)...
June 9, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595827/the-ovine-motor-cortex-a-review-of-functional-mapping-and-cytoarchitecture
#14
REVIEW
Sam E John, Timothy J H Lovell, Nicholas L Opie, Stefan Wilson, Theodore C Scordas, Yan T Wong, Gil S Rind, Stephen Ronayne, Sébastien H Bauquier, Clive N May, David B Grayden, Terence J O'Brien, Thomas J Oxley
In recent years, sheep (Ovis aries) have emerged as a useful animal model for neurological research due to their relatively large brain and blood vessel size, their cortical architecture, and their docile temperament. However, the functional anatomy of sheep brain is not as well studied as that of non-human primates, rodents, and felines. For example, while the location of the sheep motor cortex has been known for many years, there have been few studies of the somatotopy of the motor cortex and there were a range of discrepancies across them...
June 16, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595323/periorbital-and-temporal-anatomy-targeted-fat-grafting-and-how-a-novel-circulatory-system-in-human-peripheral-nerves-and-brain-may-help-avoid-nerve-injury-and-blindness-during-routine-facial-augmentation
#15
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589753/evaluating-the-gray-and-white-matter-energy-budgets-of-human-brain-function
#16
Yuguo Yu, Peter Herman, Douglas L Rothman, Divyansh Agarwal, Fahmeed Hyder
The insatiable appetite for energy to support human brain function is mainly supplied by glucose oxidation (CMRglc(ox)). But how much energy is consumed for signaling and nonsignaling processes in gray/white matter is highly debated. We examined this issue by combining metabolic measurements of gray/white matter and a theoretical calculation of bottom-up energy budget using biophysical properties of neuronal/glial cells in conjunction with species-exclusive electrophysiological and morphological data. We calculated a CMRglc(ox)-derived budget and confirmed it with experimental results measured by PET, autoradiography, (13)C-MRS, and electrophysiology...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588345/neuroanatomic-variations-in-graves-dysthyroid-ophthalmopathy-as-studied-with-mri
#17
Rona Z Silkiss, Alex R Wade
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether patients with Graves' dysthyroid ophthalmopathy (GDO) have changes in brain anatomy that can be assessed by neuroimaging as compared to age-matched controls. METHODS: We examined 10 female, euthyroid patients with GDO and 14 age and gender matched controls using high-resolution structural MRI scanning. An automatic cortical segmentation algorithm was used to estimate the thickness of each subject's gray matter across the brain. The resulting cortical thickness measurements were transferred to a standard reference space via a template-based warping procedure...
August 2016: Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588126/differences-in-subependymal-vein-anatomy-may-predispose-preterm-infants-to-gmh-ivh
#18
Domenico Tortora, Mariasavina Severino, Mariya Malova, Alessandro Parodi, Giovanni Morana, Jan Sedlacik, Paul Govaert, Joseph J Volpe, Andrea Rossi, Luca Antonio Ramenghi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The anatomy of the deep venous system plays an important role in the pathogenesis of brain lesions in the preterm brain as shown by different histological studies. The aims of this study were to compare the subependymal vein anatomy of preterm neonates with germinal matrix haemorrhage-intraventricular haemorrhage (GMH-IVH), as evaluated by susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) venography, with a group of age-matched controls with normal brain MRI, and to explore the relationship between the anatomical features of subependymal veins and clinical risk factors for GMH-IVH...
June 6, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585747/a-biologically-plausible-action-selection-system-for-cognitive-architectures-implications-of-basal-ganglia-anatomy-for-learning-and-decision-making-models
#19
Andrea Stocco
Several attempts have been made previously to provide a biological grounding for cognitive architectures by relating their components to the computations of specific brain circuits. Often, the architecture's action selection system is identified with the basal ganglia. However, this identification overlooks one of the most important features of the basal ganglia-the existence of a direct and an indirect pathway that compete against each other. This characteristic has important consequences in decision-making tasks, which are brought to light by Parkinson's disease as well as genetic differences in dopamine receptors...
June 6, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585295/bioinspired-collagen-scaffolds-in-cranial-bone-regeneration-from-bedside-to-bench
#20
REVIEW
Justine C Lee, Elizabeth J Volpicelli
Calvarial defects are common reconstructive dilemmas secondary to a variety of etiologies including traumatic brain injury, cerebrovascular disease, oncologic resection, and congenital anomalies. Reconstruction of the calvarium is generally undertaken for the purposes of cerebral protection, contour restoration for psychosocial well-being, and normalization of neurological dysfunction frequently found in patients with massive cranial defects. Current methods for reconstruction using autologous grafts, allogeneic grafts, or alloplastic materials have significant drawbacks that are unique to each material...
June 6, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
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