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Brain anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103265/rabbit-model-of-human-gliomas-implications-for-intra-arterial-drug-delivery
#1
Huamin Qin, Miroslaw Janowski, Monica S Pearl, Izabela Malysz-Cymborska, Shen Li, Charles G Eberhart, Piotr Walczak
The prognosis for malignant brain tumors remains poor despite a combination of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. This is partly due to the blood-brain barrier, a major obstacle that prevents therapeutic agents from effectively reaching the tumor. We have recently developed a method for precise and predictable opening of the blood-brain barrier via the intra-arterial administration of mannitol, a hyperosmolar agent, in a rabbit model, whose vascular anatomy facilitates the use of standard interventional neuroradiology techniques and devices...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095387/mri-of-cerebellar-infarction
#2
Laurens J L De Cocker, Karl-Olof Lövblad, Jeroen Hendrikse
BACKGROUND: MRI is the imaging modality of choice for diagnosing brain infarction. Because of few or atypical clinical symptoms and a relatively low sensitivity of CT scans, many cerebellar infarctions may be detected only with MRI. With adequate recognition of cerebellar infarction on MRI and prompt initiation or optimisation of preventive therapeutic measures, more dramatic strokes may be avoided in selected cases. SUMMARY: We first briefly review the clinical presentation of cerebellar infarctions, followed by a short refresher on cerebellar anatomy and pathophysiological mechanisms of cerebellar infarcts...
January 18, 2017: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092905/endocranial-morphology-of-the-extinct-north-american-lion-panthera-atrox
#3
Andrew R Cuff, Christopher Stockey, Anjali Goswami
The extinct North American lion (Panthera atrox) is one of the largest felids (Mammalia, Carnivora) to have ever lived, and it is known from a plethora of incredibly well-preserved remains. Despite this abundance of material, there has been little research into its endocranial anatomy. CT scans of a skull of P. atrox from the Pleistocene La Brea Tar pits were used to generate the first virtual endocranium for this species and to elucidate previously unknown details of its brain size and gross structure, cranial nerves, and inner-ear morphology...
January 17, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092374/the-movers-and-shapers-in-immune-privilege-of-the-cns
#4
REVIEW
Britta Engelhardt, Peter Vajkoczy, Roy O Weller
Discoveries leading to an improved understanding of immune surveillance of the central nervous system (CNS) have repeatedly provoked dismissal of the existence of immune privilege of the CNS. Recent rediscoveries of lymphatic vessels within the dura mater surrounding the brain, made possible by modern live-cell imaging technologies, have revived this discussion. This review emphasizes the fact that understanding immune privilege of the CNS requires intimate knowledge of its unique anatomy. Endothelial, epithelial and glial brain barriers establish compartments in the CNS that differ strikingly with regard to their accessibility to immune-cell subsets...
February 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089743/multichannel-visual-evoked-potentials-in-the-assessment-of-visual-pathways-in-children-with-marked-brain-abnormalities
#5
Sian E Handley, Alki C Liasis
PURPOSE: To demonstrate how multichannel visual evoked potentials (VEPs) can provide quantitative measures of visual function in in children with marked cortical anatomy abnormalities. METHODS: Four children with marked brain pathology (2 holoprosencephaly, 2 giant interhemispheric cysts with hydrocephalus) underwent pattern reversal and flash VEP recordings from 16 equally distributed electrodes. Voltage maps of the major VEP components were constructed, and their distributions were compared to the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings...
January 9, 2017: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088484/optimal-trajectories-of-brain-state-transitions
#6
Shi Gu, Richard F Betzel, Marcelo G Mattar, Matthew Cieslak, Philip R Delio, Scott T Grafton, Fabio Pasqualetti, Danielle S Bassett
The complexity of neural dynamics stems in part from the complexity of the underlying anatomy. Yet how white matter structure constrains how the brain transitions from one cognitive state to another remains unknown. Here we address this question by drawing on recent advances in network control theory to model the underlying mechanisms of brain state transitions as elicited by the collective control of region sets. We find that previously identified attention and executive control systems are poised to affect a broad array of state transitions that cannot easily be classified by traditional engineering-based notions of control...
January 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080966/active-interoceptive-inference-and-the-emotional-brain
#7
REVIEW
Anil K Seth, Karl J Friston
We review a recent shift in conceptions of interoception and its relationship to hierarchical inference in the brain. The notion of interoceptive inference means that bodily states are regulated by autonomic reflexes that are enslaved by descending predictions from deep generative models of our internal and external milieu. This re-conceptualization illuminates several issues in cognitive and clinical neuroscience with implications for experiences of selfhood and emotion. We first contextualize interoception in terms of active (Bayesian) inference in the brain, highlighting its enactivist (embodied) aspects...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076020/structure-of-the-medullary-veins-of-the-cerebral-hemisphere-and-related-disorders
#8
Toshiaki Taoka, Akio Fukusumi, Toshiteru Miyasaka, Hisashi Kawai, Toshiki Nakane, Kimihiko Kichikawa, Shinji Naganawa
Deep medullary veins drain into subependymal veins with four convergence zones and show parallel distribution patterns adjacent to the body or inferior horn and a radial pattern in the frontal horn or trigon of the lateral ventricle. As white matter imaging develops such as diffusion tensor imaging or susceptibility-weighted imaging, requirements for understanding of white matter structures are increasing, not only for understanding of neuronal tracts but also for that of other structures including the fine anatomy of white matter vessels...
January 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065610/neural-circuit-inference-from-function-to-structure
#9
Esteban Real, Hiroki Asari, Tim Gollisch, Markus Meister
Advances in technology are opening new windows on the structural connectivity and functional dynamics of brain circuits. Quantitative frameworks are needed that integrate these data from anatomy and physiology. Here, we present a modeling approach that creates such a link. The goal is to infer the structure of a neural circuit from sparse neural recordings, using partial knowledge of its anatomy as a regularizing constraint. We recorded visual responses from the output neurons of the retina, the ganglion cells...
December 29, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059650/surgical-benefits-of-combined-awake-craniotomy-and-intraoperative-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-gliomas-associated-with-eloquent-areas
#10
Kazuya Motomura, Atsushi Natsume, Kentaro Iijima, Shunichiro Kuramitsu, Masazumi Fujii, Takashi Yamamoto, Satoshi Maesawa, Junko Sugiura, Toshihiko Wakabayashi
OBJECTIVE Maximum extent of resection (EOR) for lower-grade and high-grade gliomas can increase survival rates of patients. However, these infiltrative gliomas are often observed near or within eloquent regions of the brain. Awake surgery is of known benefit for the treatment of gliomas associated with eloquent regions in that brain function can be preserved. On the other hand, intraoperative MRI (iMRI) has been successfully used to maximize the resection of tumors, which can detect small amounts of residual tumors...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058093/santiago-ram%C3%A3-n-y-cajal-s-advice-for-a-young-investigator
#11
Michael Anderson
Santiago Ramón y Cajal, a mythic figure in science and recognized as the father of modern anatomy and neurobiology, was largely responsible for the modern conception of the brain. The first to publish on the nervous system, he sought to educate the novice scientist about how he thought science should be done. We asked an accomplished young investigator to take a fresh look at this recently rediscovered classic, first published in 1897.
September 2016: Cerebrum: the Dana Forum on Brain Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057458/the-inferior-parietal-lobule-and-temporoparietal-junction-a-network-perspective
#12
Kajsa M Igelström, Michael S A Graziano
Information processing in specialized, spatially distributed brain networks underlies the diversity and complexity of our cognitive and behavioral repertoire. Networks converge at a small number of hubs - highly connected regions that are central for multimodal integration and higher-order cognition. We review one major network hub of the human brain: the inferior parietal lobule and the overlapping temporoparietal junction (IPL/TPJ). The IPL is greatly expanded in humans compared to other primates and matures late in human development, consistent with its importance in higher-order functions...
January 2, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056123/the-interface-of-mechanics-and-nociception-in-joint-pathophysiology-insights-from-the-facet-and-temporomandibular-joints
#13
Megan M Sperry, Meagan E Ita, Sonia Kartha, Sijia Zhang, Ya-Hsin Yu, Beth Winkelstein
Chronic joint pain is a widespread problem that frequently occurs with aging and trauma. Pain occurs most often in synovial joints, the body's load bearing joints. The mechanical and molecular mechanisms contributing to synovial joint pain are reviewed using two examples, the cervical spinal facet joints and the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Although much work has focused on the macroscale mechanics of joints in health and disease, the combined influence of tissue mechanics, molecular processes, and nociception in joint pain has only recently become a focus...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054287/cerebral-ventricular-dimensions-after-decompressive-craniectomy-a-comparison-between-bedside-sonographic-duplex-technique-and-cranial-computed-tomography
#14
Habib Bendella, Marc Maegele, Alexander Hartmann, Joachim Spreer, Nadine Rommel, Rolf Lefering, Makoto Nakamura, Alhadi Igressa
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess and compare ventricle diameters in patients after decompressive craniectomy by using cranial computed tomography (CCT) versus sonographic duplex technique (SDT). METHODS: A total of 102 consecutive patients after decompressive craniectomy following brain infarct, bleeding and trauma were examined by CCT and SDT. SDT was performed within 24 h after repeated postinterventional control CCT and the correlation between both methods was assessed via measurement of dimensions of all four ventricles...
January 4, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052054/a-symmoriiform-chondrichthyan-braincase-and-the-origin-of-chimaeroid-fishes
#15
Michael I Coates, Robert W Gess, John A Finarelli, Katharine E Criswell, Kristen Tietjen
Chimaeroid fishes (Holocephali) are one of the four principal divisions of modern gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates). Despite only 47 described living species, chimaeroids are the focus of resurgent interest as potential archives of genomic data and for the unique perspective they provide on chondrichthyan and gnathostome ancestral conditions. Chimaeroids are also noteworthy for their highly derived body plan. However, like other living groups with distinctive anatomies, fossils have been of limited use in unravelling their evolutionary origin, as the earliest recognized examples already exhibit many of the specializations present in modern forms...
January 4, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050345/functional-mri-vs-navigated-tms-to-optimize-m1-seed-volume-delineation-for-dti-tractography-a-prospective-study-in-patients-with-brain-tumours-adjacent-to-the-corticospinal-tract
#16
Carolin Weiss Lucas, Irada Tursunova, Volker Neuschmelting, Charlotte Nettekoven, Ana-Maria Oros-Peusquens, Gabriele Stoffels, Andrea Maria Faymonville, Shah N Jon, Karl Josef Langen, Hannah Lockau, Roland Goldbrunner, Christian Grefkes
BACKGROUND: DTI-based tractography is an increasingly important tool for planning brain surgery in patients suffering from brain tumours. However, there is an ongoing debate which tracking approaches yield the most valid results. Especially the use of functional localizer data such as navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) seem to improve fibre tracking data in conditions where anatomical landmarks are less informative due to tumour-induced distortions of the gyral anatomy...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049565/adapting-the-concepts-of-brain-and-cognitive-reserve-to-post-stroke-cognitive-deficits-implications-for-understanding-neglect
#17
Roza M Umarova
Advanced lesion mapping and connectivity analyses are currently the main tools used to understand the mechanisms underlying post-stroke cognitive deficits. However, the factors contributing to pre-stroke architecture of cognitive networks are often ignored, even though they reportedly play a decisive role in the manifestation of cognitive impairment in neurodegeneration. The present review on post-stroke cognitive deficits therefore adopts the concept of brain and cognitive reserve, which was originally developed to account for the individual differences in the course of aging and neurodegenerative diseases...
December 16, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048775/mo-fg-campus-tep1-04-pseudo-in-vivo-dose-verification-of-a-new-mono-isocentric-technique-for-the-treatment-of-multiple-brain-metastases
#18
E P Pappas, N Papanikolaou, G Kalaitzakis, T Boursianis, D Makris, V Lahanas, I Genitsarios, S Stathakis, L Watts, T Maris, E Pappas
PURPOSE: To validate dose calculation and delivery accuracy of a recently introduced mono-isocentric technique for the treatment of multiple brain metastases in a realistic clinical case. METHODS: Anonymized CT scans of a patient were used to model a hollow phantom that duplicates anatomy of the skull. A 3D printer was used to construct the phantom of a radiologically bone-equivalent material. The hollow phantom was subsequently filled with a polymer gel 3D dosimeter which also acted as a water-equivalent material...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048682/su-f-t-188-a-robust-treatment-planning-technique-for-proton-pencil-beam-scanning-cranial-spinal-irradiation
#19
M Zhu, M Yam, M Mehta, S Badiyan, K Young, R Malyapa, W Regine, K Langen
PURPOSE: To propose a proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) cranial spinal irradiation (CSI) treatment planning technique robust against patient roll, isocenter offset and proton range uncertainty. METHOD: Proton PBS plans were created (Eclipse V11) for three previously treated CSI patients to 36 Gy (1.8 Gy/fractions). The target volume was separated into three regions: brain, upper spine and lower spine. One posterior-anterior (PA) beam was used for each spine region, and two posterior-oblique beams (15° apart from PA direction, denoted as 2PO_15) for the brain region...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048113/su-f-i-44-using-the-air-signal-to-characterize-image-noise-in-ct
#20
T Szczykutowicz, A Malkus
PURPOSE: With increasing emphasis on CT image quality and low dose, quality activities analyzing noise levels in images will need to be increasingly automated. This work describes a new automated method for characterizing noise in CT. To obviate the need to segment out anatomical structure, this work introduces the use of noise statistics of air to understand the noise in the scanned object. METHODS: Scans of a uniform water phantom were acquired at four dose levels...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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