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Brain anatomy

Harry Whitaker, Gonia Jarema
An acerbic footnote in Volume 3 (1818) of the five-volume great work of Franz Joseph Gall and Johann Gaspar Spurzheim, Anatomy and Physiology of the Nervous System in General and of the Brain in Particular with Observations on the Possibility of Understanding the Many Moral and Intellectual Dispositions of Man and Animals by the Configuration of Their Heads, marked the end of the collaboration between Gall, the founder of organologie, and Spurzheim, promoter of phrenology. We discuss the background of this note and the nature of the rift that marked the end of Gall and Spurzheim's collaboration...
October 21, 2016: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
Britta Wandschneider, Matthias J Koepp
Functional MRI studies have helped to elucidate underlying mechanisms in complex neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Disease processes often involve complex large-scale network interactions, extending beyond the presumed main disease focus. Given both the complexity of the clinical phenotype and the underlying dysfunctional brain circuits, so called pharmaco-fMRI (ph-MRI) studies probe pharmacological effects on functional neuro-anatomy, and can help to determine early treatment response, mechanisms of drug efficacy and side effects, and potentially advance CNS drug development...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Hasmet Yazici, Sedat Doğan, Mehmet Akif Sönmez, Olcay Eser
INTRODUCTION: Pituitary surgery involving different techniques is often applied to the excision of benign adenomas. Operative interventions involved various approaches and techniques. Endoscopic transsphenoidal approach is the less traumatic route to the sella turcica, avoiding brain retraction, and also permitting good visualization, with lower rates of morbidity and mortality. Although mortality of pituitary surgery decreased by advances in surgical techniques morbidities such as synechiae formation, anosmia, bleeding, nasal septal perforations, drying, and incrustation due to traumatization of the nasal structures such as septum, nasal mucosa, and middle concha are the current problems in pituitary surgery...
October 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Tilman Schubert, Yijing Wu, Kevin M Johnson, Oliver Wieben, Jane Maksimovic, Charles Mistretta, Patrick Turski
OBJECTIVES: Time-of-arrival (TOA) maps can be derived from high-resolution 4-dimensional (4D) contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) data sets to provide a quantitative description of contrast material arrival time in each voxel. This information can further be processed to create a compressed time evolution curve that virtually shortens the contrast bolus (virtual bolus [VB]). The purpose of this project was to determine whether TOA-enhanced 4D MRA and/or VB imaging improve the display of contrast kinetics in patients with vascular disease...
November 2016: Investigative Radiology
Ceren Kizmazoglu, Joung H Lee, Burak Sade
BACKGROUND: This paper describes a case of 4th ventricular mass, whose management had to be modified due to a rare variation of the occipital sinus (OS). CLINICAL DESCRIPTION: 32 year-old female presented with persistent headache and nausea. MRI showed a 4th ventricular mass and hydrocephalus. Venous sinus anatomy appeared unusual, thus an MRV was performed. MRV revealed the OS as the main drainage pathway for the whole brain, providing the only drainage between the superior sagittal sinus and the jugular veins through the marginal sinus (MS)...
October 15, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Su Lui, Xiaohong Joe Zhou, John A Sweeney, Qiyong Gong
Unlike neurologic conditions, such as brain tumors, dementia, and stroke, the neural mechanisms for all psychiatric disorders remain unclear. A large body of research obtained with structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography/single photon emission computed tomography, and optical imaging has demonstrated regional and illness-specific brain changes at the onset of psychiatric disorders and in individuals at risk for such disorders. Many studies have shown that psychiatric medications induce specific measurable changes in brain anatomy and function that are related to clinical outcomes...
November 2016: Radiology
Christopher S Medina, Octavian Biris, Tomas L Falzone, Xiaowei Zhang, Amber J Zimmerman, Elaine L Bearer
Microtubule-based motors carry cargo back and forth between the synaptic region and the cell body. Defects in axonal transport result in peripheral neuropathies, some of which are caused by mutations in KIF5A, a gene encoding one of the heavy chain isoforms of conventional kinesin-1. Some mutations in KIF5A also cause severe central nervous system defects in humans. While transport dynamics in the peripheral nervous system have been well characterized experimentally, transport in the central nervous system is less experimentally accessible and until now not well described...
October 14, 2016: NeuroImage
Ahmad Chaddad, Camel Tanougast
To isolate the brain from non-brain tissues using a fully automatic method may be affected by the presence of radio frequency non-homogeneity of MR images (MRI), regional anatomy, MR sequences, and the subjects of the study. In order to automate the brain tumor (Glioblastoma) detection, we proposed a novel approach of skull stripping for axial slices derived from MRI. Then, the brain tumor was detected using multi-level threshold segmentation based on histogram analysis. Skull-stripping method, was applied by adaptive morphological operations approach...
March 2016: Brain Informatics
Qian Zhao, Xueqi Chen, Yun Zhou
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, causing changes in memory, thinking, and other dysfunction of brain functions. More and more people are suffering from the disease. Early neuroimaging techniques of AD are needed to develop. This review provides a preliminary summary of the various neuroimaging techniques that have been explored for in vivo imaging of AD. Recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) techniques, such as functional MR imaging (fMRI) and diffusion MRI, give opportunities to display not only anatomy and atrophy of the medial temporal lobe, but also at microstructural alterations or perfusion disturbance within the AD lesions...
March 2016: Brain Informatics
Neda Sadeghi, John H Gilmore, Guido Gerig
Twin studies provide valuable insights into the analysis of genetic and environmental factors influencing human brain development. However, these findings may not generalize to singletons due to differences in pre- and postnatal environments. One would expect the effect of these differences to be greater during the early years of life. To address this concern, we compare longitudinal diffusion data of white matter regions for 26 singletons and 76 twins (monozygotic and dizygotic) from birth to 2 years of age...
October 14, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Clement Hamani, Andres M Lozano, Paolo A M Mazzone, Elena Moro, William Hutchison, Peter A Silburn, Ludvic Zrinzo, Mesbah Alam, Laurent Goetz, Erlick Pereira, Anand Rughani, Wesley Thevathasan, Tipu Aziz, Bastiaan R Bloem, Peter Brown, Stephan Chabardes, Terry Coyne, Kelly Foote, Edgar Garcia-Rill, Etienne C Hirsch, Michael S Okun, Joachim K Krauss
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) region has received considerable attention in clinical studies as a target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson disease. These studies have yielded variable results with an overall impression of improvement in falls and freezing in many but not all patients treated. We evaluated the available data on the surgical anatomy and terminology of the PPN region in a companion paper. Here we focus on issues concerning surgical technique, imaging, and early side effects of surgery...
October 12, 2016: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
Bruce A Berkowitz, Tiffany Schmidt, Robert H Podolsky, Robin Roberts
Purpose: In humans, rodents, and pigeons, the dark → light transition signals nonretinal brain tissue to increase choroidal thickness, a major control element of choroidal blood flow, and thus of photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium function. However, it is unclear which photopigments in the retina relay the light signal to the brain. Here, we test the hypothesis that melanopsin (Opn4)-regulated phototransduction modulates light-evoked choroidal thickness expansion in mice. Methods: Two-month-old C57Bl/6 wild-type (B6), 4- to 5-month-old C57Bl/6/129S6 wild-type (B6 + S6), and 2-month-old melanopsin knockout (Opn4-/-) on a B6 + S6 background were studied...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
P H Lee, J T Baker, A J Holmes, N Jahanshad, T Ge, J-Y Jung, Y Cruz, D S Manoach, D P Hibar, J Faskowitz, K L McMahon, G I de Zubicaray, N H Martin, M J Wright, D Öngür, R Buckner, J Roffman, P M Thompson, J W Smoller
Schizophrenia is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder with a complex genetic etiology. Widespread cortical gray matter loss has been observed in patients and prodromal samples. However, it remains unresolved whether schizophrenia-associated cortical structure variations arise due to disease etiology or secondary to the illness. Here we address this question using a partitioning-based heritability analysis of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and neuroimaging data from 1750 healthy individuals...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Carlo Serra, Uğur Türe, Niklaus Krayenbühl, Gülgün Şengül, Dianne C H Yaşargil, M Gazi Yaşargil
OBJECT: To describe the topographic anatomy of the surgically accessible surfaces of the human thalamus as a guide to surgical exploration of this sensitive area. METHODS: Using the operating microscope, we applied the fiber microdissection technique to study 10 brain specimens. Step by step dissections in superior-inferior, medial-lateral and posterior-anterior directions were conducted in order to expose the surfaces and nuclei of the thalamus and to investigate the relevant anatomic relationships and visible connections...
October 7, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Clement Hamani, Tipu Aziz, Bastiaan R Bloem, Peter Brown, Stephan Chabardes, Terry Coyne, Kelly Foote, Edgar Garcia-Rill, Etienne C Hirsch, Andres M Lozano, Paolo A M Mazzone, Michael S Okun, William Hutchison, Peter Silburn, Ludvic Zrinzo, Mesbah Alam, Laurent Goetz, Erlick Pereira, Anand Rughani, Wesley Thevathasan, Elena Moro, Joachim K Krauss
Several lines of evidence over the last few years have been important in ascertaining that the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) region could be considered as a potential target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) to treat freezing and other problems as part of a spectrum of gait disorders in Parkinson disease and other akinetic movement disorders. Since the introduction of PPN DBS, a variety of clinical studies have been published. Most indicate improvements in freezing and falls in patients who are severely affected by these problems...
October 11, 2016: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
Li Zhao, Weiying Dai, Salil Soman, David Hackney, Eric Wong, Philip Robson, David Alsop
Functional imaging provides hemodynamic and metabolic information and is increasingly being incorporated into clinical diagnostic and research studies. Typically functional images have reduced signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution compared to other non-functional cross sectional images obtained as part of a routine clinical protocol. We hypothesized that enhancing visualization and interpretation of functional images with anatomic information could provide preferable quality and superior diagnostic value...
October 6, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Iris Asllani, Pamelia Slattery, Alexander Fafard, Marykay Pavol, Ronald M Lazar, Randolph S Marshall
Despite being considered an important anatomical parameter directly related to neuronal density, cortical thickness is not routinely assessed in studies of the human brain in vivo. This paucity has been largely due to the size and convoluted shape of the human cortex, which has made it difficult to develop automated algorithms that can measure cortical thickness efficiently and reliably. Since the development of such an algorithm by Fischl and Dale in 2000, the number of studies investigating the relationship between cortical thickness and other physiological parameters in the brain has been on the rise...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Lauren E Salminen, Thomas E Conturo, Jacob D Bolzenius, Ryan P Cabeen, Erbil Akbudak, Robert H Paul
Technological advances over recent decades now allow for in vivo observation of human brain tissue through the use of neuroimaging methods. While this field originated with techniques capable of capturing macrostructural details of brain anatomy, modern methods such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) that are now regularly implemented in research protocols have the ability to characterize brain microstructure. DTI has been used to reveal subtle micro-anatomical abnormalities in the prodromal phase ofº various diseases and also to delineate "normal" age-related changes in brain tissue across the lifespan...
April 2016: Technology and Innovation
Reshanne R Reeder
Visually perceiving a stimulus activates a pictorial representation of that item in the brain, but how pictorial is the representation of a stimulus in the absence of visual stimulation? Here I address this question with a review of the literatures on visual imagery (VI), visual working memory (VWM), and visual preparatory templates, all of which require activating visual information in the absence of sensory stimulation. These processes have historically been studied separately, but I propose that they can provide complimentary evidence for the pictorial nature of their contents...
October 7, 2016: Vision Research
Benjamin De Leener, Simon Lévy, Sara M Dupont, Vladimir S Fonov, Nikola Stikov, D Louis Collins, Virginie Callot, Julien Cohen-Adad
For the past 25 years, the field of neuroimaging has witnessed the development of several software packages for processing multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) to study the brain. These software packages are now routinely used by researchers and clinicians, and have contributed to important breakthroughs for the understanding of brain anatomy and function. However, no software package exists to process mpMRI data of the spinal cord. Despite the numerous clinical needs for such advanced mpMRI protocols (multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, cervical spondylotic myelopathy, etc...
October 5, 2016: NeuroImage
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