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Neurotransmitters intestine function

Hong-Xing Wang, Yu-Ping Wang
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis. DATA SOURCES: All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18, 2016, were identified through a literature search on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, with the keywords of "gut microbiota", "gut-brain axis", and "neuroscience". STUDY SELECTION: All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed, with no limitation of study design...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Viviana Filpa, Elisabetta Moro, Marina Protasoni, Francesca Crema, Gianmario Frigo, Cristina Giaroni
Several studies have been carried out in the last 30 years in the attempt to clarify the possible role of glutamate as a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator in the gastrointestinal tract. Such effort has provided immunohistochemical, biomolecular and functional data suggesting that the entire glutamatergic neurotransmitter machinery is present in the complex circuitries of the enteric nervous system (ENS), which participates to the local coordination of gastrointestinal functions. Glutamate is also involved in the regulation of the brain-gut axis, a bi-directional connection pathway between the central nervous system (CNS) and the gut...
December 2016: Neuropharmacology
Raeesah Maqsood, Trevor W Stone
Gastro-intestinal (GI) microbiota and the 'gut-brain axis' are proving to be increasingly relevant to early brain development and the emergence of psychiatric disorders. This review focuses on the influence of the GI tract on Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and its relationship with receptors for N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDAR), as these are believed to be involved in synaptic plasticity and cognitive function. NMDAR may be associated with the development of schizophrenia and a range of other psychopathologies including neurodegenerative disorders, depression and dementias...
August 23, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Toshio Takahashi
Acetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter that is present in central, parasympathetic, and neuromuscular synapses of mammals. However, non-neuronal ACh is also predicted to function as a local cell signaling molecule. The physiological significance of the presence of non-neuronal ACh in the intestine remains unclear. Here, experiments using cultured crypt-villus organoids that lack nerve and immune cells led us to suggest that endogenous ACh is synthesized in the intestinal epithelium to evoke growth and differentiation of the organoids through activation of muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs)...
August 19, 2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Dieter Groneberg, Barbara Voussen, Andreas Friebe
In the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, nitric oxide (NO) has been shown over the last 25 years to exert a prominent function as inhibitory neurotransmitter. Apart from the regulation of secretion and resorption, NO from nitrergic neurons has been demonstrated to be crucial for GI smooth muscle relaxation and motility. In fact, several human diseases such as achalasia, gastroparesis, slow transit constipation or Hirschsprung's disease may involve dysfunctional nitrergic signaling. Most of NO's effects as neurotransmitter are mediated by NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (NO-GC) and further transduced by cGMP-dependent mechanisms...
August 12, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Borja Sánchez, Susana Delgado, Aitor Blanco-Míguez, Anália Lourenço, Miguel Gueimonde, Abelardo Margolles
The gastrointestinal tract of mammals hosts a high and diverse number of different microorganisms, known as intestinal microbiota. Many probiotics were originally isolated from the gastrointestinal tract, and they were defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/WHO as "live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host." Probiotics exert their beneficial effects on the host through four main mechanisms: interference with potential pathogens, improvement of barrier function, immunomodulation and production of neurotransmitters, and their host targets vary from the resident microbiota to cellular components of the gut-brain axis...
August 8, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Feiye Zhu, Shan Xu, Yongsheng Zhang, Fangming Chen, Jinjun Ji, Guanqun Xie
OBJECTIVES: Using an atropine-diphenoxylate-induced slow transit constipation (STC) model, this study explored the effects of the total glucosides of paeony (TGP) in the treatment of STC and the possible mechanisms. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective experimental animal study. METHODS: The constipation model was set up in rats with an oral gavage of atropine-diphenoxylate and then treated with the TGP. The volume and moisture content of the faeces were observed and the intestinal kinetic power was evaluated...
2016: PloS One
K Pokusaeva, C Johnson, B Luk, G Uribe, Y Fu, N Oezguen, R K Matsunami, M Lugo, A Major, Y Mori-Akiyama, E B Hollister, S M Dann, X Z Shi, D A Engler, T Savidge, J Versalovic
BACKGROUND: Recurrent abdominal pain is a common and costly health-care problem attributed, in part, to visceral hypersensitivity. Increasing evidence suggests that gut bacteria contribute to abdominal pain perception by modulating the microbiome-gut-brain axis. However, specific microbial signals remain poorly defined. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a principal inhibitory neurotransmitter and a key regulator of abdominal and central pain perception from peripheral afferent neurons. Although gut bacteria are reported to produce GABA, it is not known whether the microbial-derived neurotransmitter modulates abdominal pain...
July 25, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Kari A Duck, James R Connor
Iron is an essential element for human development. It is a major requirement for cellular processes such as oxygen transport, energy metabolism, neurotransmitter synthesis, and myelin synthesis. Despite its crucial role in these processes, iron in the ferric form can also produce toxic reactive oxygen species. The duality of iron's function highlights the importance of maintaining a strict balance of iron levels in the body. As a result, organisms have developed elegant mechanisms of iron uptake, transport, and storage...
August 2016: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
Rebecca E Conway, Camilo Rojas, Jesse Alt, Zora Nováková, Spencer M Richardson, Tori C Rodrick, Julio L Fuentes, Noah H Richardson, Jonathan Attalla, Samantha Stewart, Beshoy Fahmy, Cyril Barinka, Mallika Ghosh, Linda H Shapiro, Barbara S Slusher
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a membrane-bound glutamate carboxypeptidase expressed in a number of tissues. PSMA participates in various biological functions depending on the substrate available in the particular tissue; in the brain, PSMA cleaves the abundant neuropeptide N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate to regulate release of key neurotransmitters, while intestinal PSMA cleaves polyglutamated peptides to supply dietary folate. PSMA expression is also progressively upregulated in prostate cancer where it correlates with tumor progression as well as in tumor vasculature, where it regulates angiogenesis...
October 2016: Angiogenesis
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
There is now a large volume of evidence to support the view that the immune system is a key communication pathway between the gut and brain, which plays an important role in stress-related psychopathologies and thus provides a potentially fruitful target for psychotropic intervention. The gut microbiota is a complex ecosystem with a diverse range of organisms and a sophisticated genomic structure. Bacteria within the gut are estimated to weigh in excess of 1 kg in the adult human and the microbes within not only produce antimicrobial peptides, short chain fatty acids, and vitamins, but also most of the common neurotransmitters found in the human brain...
July 13, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Chun-hong Bai, Xin-long Ma
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of sacral nerve root electrostimulation (SNS) on the colon function and its mechanisms in rats with spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: One hundred and four Wistar rats were divided into three groups: A, B and C. A group ( n = 24) was divided into three subgroups (n = 8) for studying the bioelectricity: Normal group (NG), SCI group (SCI) and SCI group with SNS(SNS); B group( n = 24) was divided into three subgroups( n = 8) for studying the colon motility: NG, SCI and SNS...
January 2016: Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology
K I Taborskaya, M Yu Frolova, N V Kuleva
Serotonin functions as neurotransmitter in central nervous system and is involved in the regulation of vascular tone, gastro-intestinal motility and blood coagulation in the periphery. The appearance of new data on the significant correlation between serotonin levels in platelets and cerebrospinal fluid (Audhya et al., 2012) renewed interest in the hypothesis in which the platelet is seen as a model of cerotoninergic neuron. In our study, the levels of serotonin in platelets, serum and various brain regions of rats aged 6 and 24 months have been determined and comparatively analyzed...
2016: Tsitologiia
N S Tropskaya, E A Kislyakova, T S Popova
Studying the mechanisms of the small intestine motor function disorders during endotoxemia and searching ways to mitigate them remain relevant. The article discusses the role of inflammatory mediators, in particular nitric oxide as a key factor in the generation of inflammatory response and brake the main neurotransmitter in the gut in the pathogenesis of the small intestine motor disorders during endotoxemia. Also discusses anti-inflammatory cholinergic path, which is realized with the participation of the autonomic nervous system...
January 2016: Anesteziologiia i Reanimatologiia
Kenichi Katsurada, Toshihiko Yada
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is derived from both the enteroendocrine L cells and preproglucagon-expressing neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) of the brain stem. As GLP-1 is cleaved by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 yielding a half-life of less than 2 min, it is plausible that the gut-derived GLP-1, released postprandially, exerts its effects on the brain mainly by interacting with vagal afferent neurons located at the intestinal or hepatic portal area. GLP-1 neurons in the NTS widely project in the central nervous system and act as a neurotransmitter...
April 2016: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Kazuhisa Honda
The regulatory mechanisms underlying food intake in chickens have been a focus of research in recent decades to improve production efficiency when raising chickens. Lines of evidence have revealed that a number of brain-gut peptides function as a neurotransmitter or peripheral satiety hormone in the regulation of food intake both in mammals and chickens. Glucagon, a 29 amino acid peptide hormone, has long been known to play important roles in maintaining glucose homeostasis in mammals and birds. However, the glucagon gene encodes various peptides that are produced by tissue-specific proglucagon processing: glucagon is produced in the pancreas, whereas oxyntomodulin (OXM), glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and GLP-2 are produced in the intestine and brain...
September 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Kirsten Berding, Mei Wang, Marcia H Monaco, Lindsey S Alexander, Austin T Mudd, Maciej Chichlowski, Rosaline V Waworuntu, Brian M Berg, Michael J Miller, Ryan N Dilger, Sharon M Donovan
OBJECTIVE: This study tested the hypothesis that the addition of prebiotics and two functional milk ingredients to infant formula would maintain normal growth and gut development and modify microbiota composition and neurotransmitter gene expression in neonatal piglets. METHODS: Two-day-old male piglets (n = 24) were fed formula (CONT) or formula with polydextrose (PDX; 1.2 g/100 g diet), galactooligosaccharides (GOS; 3.5 g/100 g diet), bovine lactoferrin (Lf; 0...
March 23, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Thilo Wedel, Martina Barrenschee, Christina Lange, François Cossais, Martina Böttner
Diverticula of the colon are pseudodiverticula defined by multiple outpouchings of the mucosal and submucosal layers penetrating through weak spots of the muscle coat along intramural blood vessels. A complete prolapse consists of a diverticular opening, a narrowed neck, and a thinned diverticular dome underneath the serosal covering. The susceptibility of diverticula to inflammation is explained by local ischemia, translocation of pathogens due to retained stool, stercoral trauma by fecaliths, and microperforations...
April 2015: Viszeralmedizin
Nathaniel J Kingsbury, Stephanie R Taylor, Michael A Henson
Neuronal coupling contributes to circadian rhythms formation in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). While the neurotransmitter vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is considered essential for synchronizing the oscillations of individual neurons, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) does not have a clear functional role despite being highly concentrated in the SCN. While most studies have examined the role of either GABA or VIP, our mathematical modeling approach explored their interplay on networks of SCN neurons...
May 21, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
J-G Shin, D-Y Kim, J-M Seo, J-T Oh, K-W Park, H-Y Kim, B L Park, J-H Kim, H D Shin
BACKGROUND: Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a congenital bowel disease caused by the absence of nerve cells in portions of the intestine. Our recent genome-wide association study has identified a variant (rs1254900) of vesicle-associated membrane protein 5 (VAMP5) as a potential risk locus for total colonic aganglionosis (TCA) in HSCR. In addition, VAMP5 is a member of the VAMP/synaptobrevin protein complex, which participates in nerve signal transduction by regulating the vesicular fusion of the neurotransmitter in synaptic transmission...
July 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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