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Neurotransmitters intestine function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353471/a-strategy-for-association-study-on-intestinal-microbiome-and-brain-metabolome-across-lifespan-of-rats
#1
Tianlu Chen, Yijun You, Guoxiang Xie, Xiaojiao Zheng, Aihua Zhao, Jiajian Liu, Qing Zhao, Shouli Wang, Huang Fengjie, Cynthia Rajani, Chongchong Wang, Shaoqiu Chen, Yan Ni, Herbert Yu, Youping Deng, Xiaoyan Wang, Wei Jia
There is increased appreciation for the diverse roles of the microbiome-gut-brain axis on mammalian growth and health throughout the lifespan. Numerous studies demonstrated that gut microbiome and their metabolites were involved extensively in the communication of brain and gut. Association study of brain metabolome and gut microbiome is an active field offering large amount of information on the interaction of microbiome, brain and gut while data size and complicated hierarchical relationships were the major obstacles...
January 21, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313275/microbiome-immunomodulation-and-the-neuronal-system
#2
REVIEW
Eric Marietta, Irina Horwath, Veena Taneja
Vertebrates harbor both symbiotic and pathogenic bacteria on the body and various mucosal surfaces. Of these surfaces, the intestine has the most diverse composition. This composition is dependent upon various environmental and genetic factors, with diet exerting the maximum influence. Significant roles of the intestinal bacteria are to stimulate the development of a competent mucosal immune system and to maintain tolerance within the intestine. One manner in which this is achieved is by the establishment of epithelial integrity by microbiota found in healthy individuals (healthy microbiota); however, in the case of a disrupted intestinal microbiome (dysbiosis), which can be caused by various conditions, the epithelial integrity is compromised...
January 8, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299689/segmental-differences-in-the-non-neuronal-cholinergic-system-in-rat-caecum
#3
Sandra Bader, Martin Diener
Acetylcholine is not only a neurotransmitter but is also produced by several non-neuronal cell types with barrier or defence function. One of the non-neuronal tissues with expression of the key enzyme for production of acetylcholine, the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), is the colonic surface epithelium, which releases acetylcholine after contact with the short-chain fatty acid propionate produced physiologically in the colonic lumen during the microbial fermentation of carbohydrates. Despite the fact that the caecum is the largest fermentation chamber in non-ruminant mammals, nothing is known about the expression and function of a non-neuronal cholinergic system in this part of the large intestine, which was addressed in the present study...
January 3, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280113/-relationship-between-functional-constipation-and-brain-gut-microbiota-axis
#4
Qiyi Chen, Jun Jiang
Although with the higher prevalence, the overall treatment result of functional constipation is still not satisfied at home and abroad. The diagnosis and treatment of functional constipation are still to focus on colon itself. Functional constipation has complex interactions among intestinal flora, intestinal autonomic nerve and central nervous system. Patients with functional constipation have different degrees of mental and psychological dysfunction, and abnormal brain function can result in disorders of colon dynamics, secretion and immune function...
December 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249943/the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-of-the-dromedary-camel-camelus-dromedarius-cytoarchitecture-and-neurochemical-anatomy
#5
Khalid El Allali, Mohamed R Achaâban, Mohammed Piro, Mohammed Ouassat, Etienne Challet, Mohammed Errami, Nouria Lakhdar-Ghazal, André Calas, Paul Pévet
In mammals, biological rhythms are driven by a master circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. Recently, we have demonstrated that in the camel, the daily cycle of environmental temperature is able to entrain the master clock. This raises several questions about the structure and function of the SCN in this species. The current work is the first neuroanatomical investigation of the camel SCN. We carried out a cartography and cytoarchitectural study of the nucleus and then studied its cell types and chemical neuroanatomy...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155851/pac1-and-vpac2-receptors-in-light-regulated-behavior-and-physiology-studies-in-single-and-double-mutant-mice
#6
Jens Hannibal, Birgitte Georg, Jan Fahrenkrug
The two sister peptides, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and their receptors, the PAC1 -and the VPAC2 receptors, are involved in regulation of the circadian timing system. PACAP as a neurotransmitter in the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) and VIP as a neurotransmitter, involved in synchronization of SCN neurons. Behavior and physiology in VPAC2 deficient mice are strongly regulated by light most likely as a result of masking. Consequently, we used VPAC2 and PAC1/VPAC2 double mutant mice in comparison with PAC1 receptor deficient mice to further elucidate the role of PACAP in the light mediated regulation of behavior and physiology of the circadian system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138116/in-silico-identification-of-genes-involved-in-chronic-metabolic-acidosis
#7
Ishfaq A Sheikh, Adeel Malik, Sameera F M AlBasri, Mohd A Beg
AIMS: Chronic metabolic acidosis (CMA) refers to increased plasma acidity due to disturbed acid-base equilibrium in human body. CMA leads to many dysfunctions including disorders of intestinal metabolism and barrier functions. The human body responds to these intestinal dysfunctions by creating a compensatory mechanism at genomic level in intestinal epithelial cells. This study was to identify the molecular pathways involved in metabolic dysfunction and compensatory adaptations in intestinal epithelium during CMA...
January 1, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130504/mass-spectrometry-based-metabolomics-targeting-the-crosstalk-between-gut-microbiota-and-brain-in-neurodegenerative-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Hemi Luan, Xian Wang, Zongwei Cai
Metabolomics seeks to take a "snapshot" in a time of the levels, activities, regulation and interactions of all small molecule metabolites in response to a biological system with genetic or environmental changes. The emerging development in mass spectrometry technologies has shown promise in the discovery and quantitation of neuroactive small molecule metabolites associated with gut microbiota and brain. Significant progress has been made recently in the characterization of intermediate role of small molecule metabolites linked to neural development and neurodegenerative disorder, showing its potential in understanding the crosstalk between gut microbiota and the host brain...
November 12, 2017: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920040/parasympathetic-cholinergic-and-neuropeptide-mechanisms-of-migraine
#9
REVIEW
Nikita Mikhailov, Oleg V Mamontov, Alexei A Kamshilin, Rashid Giniatullin
CONTEXT: Migraine mechanisms remain largely uncovered for various reasons including a very high complexity of the neurophysiological mechanisms implicated in this disorder and a plethora of endogenous biologically active compounds involved in the pathological process. The functional role of parasympathetic innervation of meninges and cholinergic mechanisms of migraine are among little explored issues despite multiple evidence indirectly indicating the role of acetylcholine (ACh) and its analogues in migraine and other types of headache...
February 2017: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912251/neuro-immune-interaction-and-the-regulation-of-intestinal-immune-homeostasis
#10
Simon Verheijden, Guy E Boeckxstaens
Many essential gastrointestinal functions, including motility, secretion and blood flow are regulated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS), both through intrinsic enteric neurons and extrinsic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) innervation. Recently identified neuro-immune mechanisms, in particular the interplay between enteric neurons and muscularis macrophages, are now considered to be essential for fine-tuning peristalsis. These findings shed new light on how intestinal immune cells can support enteric nervous function...
September 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910997/paediatric-nuclear-medicine-imaging
#11
Lorenzo Biassoni, Marina Easty
Background: Nuclear medicine imaging explores tissue viability and function by using radiotracers that are taken up at cellular level with different mechanism. This imaging technique can also be used to assess blood flow and transit through tubular organs. Nuclear medicine imaging has been used in paediatrics for decades and this field is continuously evolving. Sources of data: The data presented comes from clinical experience and some milestone papers on the subject...
September 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814067/neuro-immune-interactions-in-allergic-diseases-novel-targets-for-therapeutics
#12
Tiphaine Voisin, Amélie Bouvier, Isaac M Chiu
Recent studies have highlighted an emerging role for neuro-immune interactions in mediating allergic diseases. Allergies are caused by an overactive immune response to a foreign antigen. The peripheral sensory and autonomic nervous system densely innervates mucosal barrier tissues including the skin, respiratory tract and gastrointestinal (GI) tract that are exposed to allergens. It is increasingly clear that neurons actively communicate with and regulate the function of mast cells, dendritic cells, eosinophils, Th2 cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells in allergic inflammation...
June 1, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716951/a-calcium-and-diacylglycerol-stimulated-protein-kinase-c-pkc-caenorhabditis-elegans-pkc-2-links-thermal-signals-to-learned-behavior-by-acting-in-sensory-neurons-and-intestinal-cells
#13
Marianne Land, Charles S Rubin
Ca(2+)- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-activated protein kinase C (cPKC) promotes learning and behavioral plasticity. However, knowledge of in vivo regulation and exact functions of cPKCs that affect behavior is limited. We show that PKC-2, a Caenorhabditis elegans cPKC, is essential for a complex behavior, thermotaxis. C. elegans memorizes a nutrient-associated cultivation temperature (Tc ) and migrates along the Tc within a 17 to 25°C gradient. pkc-2 gene disruption abrogated thermotaxis; a PKC-2 transgene, driven by endogenous pkc-2 promoters, restored thermotaxis behavior in pkc-2(-/-) animals...
October 1, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631296/hydrogen-sulphide-as-a-signalling-molecule-regulating-physiopathological-processes-in-gastrointestinal-motility
#14
REVIEW
M Jimenez, V Gil, M Martinez-Cutillas, N Mañé, D Gallego
The biology of H2 S is a still developing area of research and several biological functions have been recently attributed to this gaseous molecule in many physiological systems, including the cardiovascular, urogenital, respiratory, digestive and central nervous system (CNS). H2 S exerts anti-inflammatory effects and can be considered an endogenous mediator with potential effects on gastrointestinal motility. During the last few years, we have investigated the role of H2 S as a regulator of gastrointestinal motility using both animal and human tissues...
September 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625139/targeting-cholinergic-system-to-modulate-liver-injury
#15
Ravirajsinh N Jadeja, Vikrant P Rachakonda, Sandeep Khurana
Over the past few decades, evidence accumulated to indicate that parasympathetic innervation regulates liver injury and regeneration. Liver derives its parasympathetic input via vagus nerve. In animal models, vagus nerve stimulation and transection are frequently used to determine the impact of parasympathetic input on liver injury responses. Such strategies provide limited understanding of post-neuronal mechanisms involved in regulation of liver injury. The hepatic branch of vagus nerve releases acetylcholine (ACh), which activates muscarinic and nicotinic receptors in hepatocytes as well as non-parenchymal cells to modulate cellular functions...
June 18, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611513/brain-changes-detected-by-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-spectroscopy-in-patients-with-crohn-s-disease
#16
REVIEW
Kun Lv, Yi-Hong Fan, Li Xu, Mao-Sheng Xu
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, non-specific granulomatous inflammatory disorder that commonly affects the small intestine and is a phenotype of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). CD is prone to relapse, and its incidence displays a persistent increase in developing countries. However, the pathogenesis of CD is poorly understood, with some studies emphasizing the link between CD and the intestinal microbiota. Specifically, studies point to the brain-gut-enteric microbiota axis as a key player in the occurrence and development of CD...
May 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596466/-clocks-behavior-and-cognition
#17
Akinori Futamura, Azusa Shiromaru, Takeshi Kuroda, Motoyasu Honma, Ryuta Kinno, Kenjiro Ono, Mitsuru Kawamura
The nerve center responsible for controlling our circadian rhythm is located in a cluster of cells known as the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus. Various physiological functions such as sleep, arousal, blood pressure, body temperature, and hormone secretion are regulated in a 24-hour rhythm by this circuit. Somatic cells of other organs have a peripheral clock gene and by synchronizing the rhythm of the central and peripheral clocks, it is possible to live a healthy life. Due to aging and degenerative disease, circadian rhythm gradually collapses...
June 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557996/the-cell-non-autonomous-function-of-atg-18-is-essential-for-neuroendocrine-regulation-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-lifespan
#18
Justin Minnerly, Jiuli Zhang, Thomas Parker, Tiffany Kaul, Kailiang Jia
Dietary restriction (DR) and reduced insulin growth factor (IGF) signaling extend lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans and other eukaryotic organisms. Autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved lysosomal degradation pathway, has emerged as a central pathway regulated by various longevity signals including DR and IGF signaling in promoting longevity in a variety of eukaryotic organisms. However, the mechanism remains unclear. Here we show that the autophagy protein ATG-18 acts cell non-autonomously in neuronal and intestinal tissues to maintain C...
May 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545126/pheromone-sensing-neurons-regulate-peripheral-lipid-metabolism-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#19
Rosalind Hussey, Jon Stieglitz, Jaleh Mesgarzadeh, Tiffany T Locke, Ying K Zhang, Frank C Schroeder, Supriya Srinivasan
It is now established that the central nervous system plays an important role in regulating whole body metabolism and energy balance. However, the extent to which sensory systems relay environmental information to modulate metabolic events in peripheral tissues has remained poorly understood. In addition, it has been challenging to map the molecular mechanisms underlying discrete sensory modalities with respect to their role in lipid metabolism. In previous work our lab has identified instructive roles for serotonin signaling as a surrogate for food availability, as well as oxygen sensing, in the control of whole body metabolism...
May 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526435/the-bidirectional-gut-brain-microbiota-axis-as-a-potential-nexus-between-traumatic-brain-injury-inflammation-and-disease
#20
Mark H Sundman, Nan-Kuei Chen, Vignesh Subbian, Ying-Hui Chou
As head injuries and their sequelae have become an increasingly salient matter of public health, experts in the field have made great progress elucidating the biological processes occurring within the brain at the moment of injury and throughout the recovery thereafter. Given the extraordinary rate at which our collective knowledge of neurotrauma has grown, new insights may be revealed by examining the existing literature across disciplines with a new perspective. This article will aim to expand the scope of this rapidly evolving field of research beyond the confines of the central nervous system (CNS)...
November 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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