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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631296/hydrogen-sulphide-as-a-signaling-molecule-regulating-physiopathological-processes-in-gastrointestinal-motility
#1
REVIEW
M Jimenez, V Gil, M Martinez-Cutillas, N Mañé, D Gallego
The biology of H2 S is an emerging area of research since several biological functions have been recently attributed to this gaseous molecule in a vast number of regions including the cardiovascular, urogenital, respiratory, digestive and central nervous system. H2 S exerts anti-inflammatory effects and can be considered an endogenous mediator with potential effects on gastrointestinal motility. During the last years, our research group has investigated the role of H2 S as a regulator of gastrointestinal motility using both animal and human tissues...
June 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625139/targeting-cholinergic-system-to-modulate-liver-injury
#2
Ravirajsinh N Jadeja, Vikrant P Rachakonda, Sandeep Khurana
Over the past few decades, evidence accumulated to indicate that parasympathetic innervation regulates liver injury and regeneration. Liver derives its parasympathetic input via vagus nerve. In animal models, vagus nerve stimulation and transection are frequently used to determine the impact of parasympathetic input on liver injury responses. Such strategies provide limited understanding of post-neuronal mechanisms involved in regulation of liver injury. The hepatic branch of vagus nerve releases acetylcholine (ACh), which activates muscarinic and nicotinic receptors in hepatocytes as well as non-parenchymal cells to modulate cellular functions...
June 18, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611513/brain-changes-detected-by-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-spectroscopy-in-patients-with-crohn-s-disease
#3
REVIEW
Kun Lv, Yi-Hong Fan, Li Xu, Mao-Sheng Xu
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, non-specific granulomatous inflammatory disorder that commonly affects the small intestine and is a phenotype of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). CD is prone to relapse, and its incidence displays a persistent increase in developing countries. However, the pathogenesis of CD is poorly understood, with some studies emphasizing the link between CD and the intestinal microbiota. Specifically, studies point to the brain-gut-enteric microbiota axis as a key player in the occurrence and development of CD...
May 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596466/-clocks-behavior-and-cognition
#4
Akinori Futamura, Azusa Shiromaru, Takeshi Kuroda, Motoyasu Honma, Ryuta Kinno, Kenjiro Ono, Mitsuru Kawamura
The nerve center responsible for controlling our circadian rhythm is located in a cluster of cells known as the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the hypothalamus. Various physiological functions such as sleep, arousal, blood pressure, body temperature, and hormone secretion are regulated in a 24-hour rhythm by this circuit. Somatic cells of other organs have a peripheral clock gene and by synchronizing the rhythm of the central and peripheral clocks, it is possible to live a healthy life. Due to aging and degenerative disease, circadian rhythm gradually collapses...
June 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557996/the-cell-non-autonomous-function-of-atg-18-is-essential-for-neuroendocrine-regulation-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-lifespan
#5
Justin Minnerly, Jiuli Zhang, Thomas Parker, Tiffany Kaul, Kailiang Jia
Dietary restriction (DR) and reduced insulin growth factor (IGF) signaling extend lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans and other eukaryotic organisms. Autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved lysosomal degradation pathway, has emerged as a central pathway regulated by various longevity signals including DR and IGF signaling in promoting longevity in a variety of eukaryotic organisms. However, the mechanism remains unclear. Here we show that the autophagy protein ATG-18 acts cell non-autonomously in neuronal and intestinal tissues to maintain C...
May 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545126/pheromone-sensing-neurons-regulate-peripheral-lipid-metabolism-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#6
Rosalind Hussey, Jon Stieglitz, Jaleh Mesgarzadeh, Tiffany T Locke, Ying K Zhang, Frank C Schroeder, Supriya Srinivasan
It is now established that the central nervous system plays an important role in regulating whole body metabolism and energy balance. However, the extent to which sensory systems relay environmental information to modulate metabolic events in peripheral tissues has remained poorly understood. In addition, it has been challenging to map the molecular mechanisms underlying discrete sensory modalities with respect to their role in lipid metabolism. In previous work our lab has identified instructive roles for serotonin signaling as a surrogate for food availability, as well as oxygen sensing, in the control of whole body metabolism...
May 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526435/the-bidirectional-gut-brain-microbiota-axis-as-a-potential-nexus-between-traumatic-brain-injury-inflammation-and-disease
#7
Mark H Sundman, Nan-Kuei Chen, Vignesh Subbian, Ying-Hui Chou
As head injuries and their sequelae have become an increasingly salient matter of public health, experts in the field have made great progress elucidating the biological processes occurring within the brain at the moment of injury and throughout the recovery thereafter. Given the extraordinary rate at which our collective knowledge of neurotrauma has grown, new insights may be revealed by examining the existing literature across disciplines with a new perspective. This article will aim to expand the scope of this rapidly evolving field of research beyond the confines of the central nervous system (CNS)...
May 17, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526351/docosahexaenoyl-serotonin-emerges-as-most-potent-inhibitor-of-il-17-and-ccl-20-released-by-blood-mononuclear-cells-from-a-series-of-n-acyl-serotonins-identified-in-human-intestinal-tissue
#8
Ya Wang, Michiel G J Balvers, Henk F J Hendriks, Tessa Wilpshaar, Tjarda van Heek, Renger F Witkamp, Jocelijn Meijerink
Fatty acid amides (FAAs), conjugates of fatty acids with ethanolamine, mono-amine neurotransmitters or amino acids are a class of molecules that display diverse functional roles in different cells and tissues. Recently we reported that one of the serotonin-fatty acid conjugates, docosahexaenoyl serotonin (DHA-5-HT), previously found in gut tissue of mouse and pig, attenuates the IL-23-IL-17 signaling axis in LPS-stimulated mice macrophages. However, its presence and effects in humans remained to be elucidated...
May 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487635/vpac-receptor-subtypes-tune-purinergic-neuron-to-glia-communication-in-the-murine-submucosal-plexus
#9
Candice Fung, Werend Boesmans, Carla Cirillo, Jaime P P Foong, Joel C Bornstein, Pieter Vanden Berghe
The enteric nervous system (ENS) situated within the gastrointestinal tract comprises an intricate network of neurons and glia which together regulate intestinal function. The exact neuro-glial circuitry and the signaling molecules involved are yet to be fully elucidated. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is one of the main neurotransmitters in the gut, and is important for regulating intestinal secretion and motility. However, the role of VIP and its VPAC receptors within the enteric circuitry is not well understood...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465562/activation-of-the-ileal-neuroendocrine-tumor-cell-line-p-sts-by-acetylcholine-is-amplified-by-histamine-role-of-h3r-and-h4r
#10
Beatrix Pfanzagl, Diana Mechtcheriakova, Anastasia Meshcheryakova, Stephan W Aberle, Roswitha Pfragner, Erika Jensen-Jarolim
Neuroendocrine tumors may present with pseudoallergic reactions like diarrhea and idiopathic anaphylaxis. Here we present the P-STS human ileal neuroendocrine cell line as a model cell line for these tumors. Neuroendocrine markers and changes in cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in response to several possible activators of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release were analyzed. P-STS cells still expressed chromogranin A and synaptophysin after 2 years of culture. Tryptophan hydroxylase 1 mRNA and a low amount of 5-HT were also detected...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460791/first-study-on-the-peptidergic-innervation-of-the-brain-superior-sagittal-sinus-in-humans
#11
Simone Sampaolo, Giovanna Liguori, Alfredo Vittoria, Filomena Napolitano, Luca Lombardi, Javier Figols, Mariarosa Anna Beatrice Melone, Teresa Esposito, Giuseppe Di Iorio
The superior sagittal sinus (SSS) of the mammalian brain is a pain-sensitive intracranial vessel thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of migraine headaches. Here, we aimed to investigate the presence and the potential co-localization of some neurotransmitters in the human SSS. Immunohistochemical and double-labeling immunofluorescence analyses were applied to paraformaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded, coronal sections of the SSS. Protein extraction and Western blotting technique were performed on the same material to confirm the morphological data...
April 24, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408644/human-derived-gut-microbiota-modulates-colonic-secretion-in-mice-by-regulating-5-ht3-receptor-expression-via-acetate-production
#12
Yogesh Bhattarai, Bradley A Schmidt, David R Linden, Eric D Larson, Madhusudan Grover, Arthur Beyder, Gianrico Farrugia, Purna C Kashyap
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT), an important neurotransmitter and a paracrine messenger in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, regulates intestinal secretion by its action primarily on 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors. Recent studies highlight the role of gut microbiota in 5-HT biosynthesis. In this study we determine if human-derived gut microbiota affect host secretory response to 5-HT and 5-HT receptor expression. We used proximal colonic mucosa-submucosa preparation from age matched Swiss Webster germ free (GF) and humanized (HM; ex-GF colonized with human gut microbiota) mice...
April 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358935/comparison-of-neurovascular-characteristics-of-facial-skin-in-patients-after-primary-and-revision-rhytidectomies
#13
Farhad Ardeshirpour, Elisabeth Hurliman, Gwen Wendelschafer-Crabb, Brian McAdams, Peter A Hilger, William R Kennedy, Amy Anne D Lassig, Michael J Brenner
Importance: Wound healing influences both the cosmetic and functional outcomes of facial surgery. Study of cutaneous innervation may afford insight into patients' preoperative wound healing potential and aid in their selection of appropriate surgical procedures. Objective: To present the quantitative and qualitative differences of epidermal nerve fibers (ENFs), neurotransmitters, vasculature, and mast cells in facial skin among patients after primary and revision rhytidectomies...
March 30, 2017: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244981/the-link-between-inflammation-bugs-the-intestine-and-the-brain-in-alcohol-dependence
#14
REVIEW
S Leclercq, P de Timary, N M Delzenne, P Stärkel
In recent years, some new processes have been proposed to explain how alcohol may influence behavior, psychological symptoms and alcohol seeking in alcohol-dependent subjects. In addition to its important effect on brain and neurotransmitters equilibrium, alcohol abuse also affects peripheral organs including the gut. By yet incompletely understood mechanisms, chronic alcohol abuse increases intestinal permeability and alters the composition of the gut microbiota, allowing bacterial components from the gut lumen to reach the systemic circulation...
February 28, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087321/enteric-nervous-system-development-a-crest-cell-s-journey-from-neural-tube-to-colon
#15
REVIEW
Nandor Nagy, Allan M Goldstein
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is comprised of a network of neurons and glial cells that are responsible for coordinating many aspects of gastrointestinal (GI) function. These cells arise from the neural crest, migrate to the gut, and then continue their journey to colonize the entire length of the GI tract. Our understanding of the molecular and cellular events that regulate these processes has advanced significantly over the past several decades, in large part facilitated by the use of rodents, avians, and zebrafish as model systems to dissect the signals and pathways involved...
June 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035530/serotonergic-mechanisms-regulating-the-gi-tract-experimental-evidence-and-therapeutic-relevance
#16
Natalie Terry, Kara Gross Margolis
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is best known as a neurotransmitter critical for central nervous system (CNS) development and function. 95% of the body's serotonin, however, is produced in the intestine where it has been increasingly recognized for its hormonal, autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine actions. This chapter provides the most current knowledge of the critical autocrine and paracrine roles of 5-HT in intestinal motility and inflammation as well as its function as a hormone in osteocyte homeostasis...
2017: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031243/caenorhabditis-elegans-male-copulation-circuitry-incorporates-sex-shared-defecation-components-to-promote-intromission-and-sperm-transfer
#17
Brigitte LeBoeuf, L Rene Garcia
Sexual dimorphism can be achieved using a variety of mechanisms, including sex-specific circuits and sex-specific function of shared circuits, though how these work together to produce sexually dimorphic behaviors require further investigation. Here, we explore how components of the sex-shared defecation circuitry are incorporated into the sex-specific male mating circuitry in Caenorhabditis elegans to produce successful copulation. Using behavioral studies, calcium imaging, and genetic manipulation, we show that aspects of the defecation system are co-opted by the male copulatory circuitry to facilitate intromission and ejaculation...
December 27, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924137/exercise-induced-stress-behavior-gut-microbiota-brain-axis-and-diet-a-systematic-review-for-athletes
#18
REVIEW
Allison Clark, Núria Mach
Fatigue, mood disturbances, under performance and gastrointestinal distress are common among athletes during training and competition. The psychosocial and physical demands during intense exercise can initiate a stress response activating the sympathetic-adrenomedullary and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes, resulting in the release of stress and catabolic hormones, inflammatory cytokines and microbial molecules. The gut is home to trillions of microorganisms that have fundamental roles in many aspects of human biology, including metabolism, endocrine, neuronal and immune function...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800584/neuroimmune-interactions-dendritic-cell-modulation-by-the-sympathetic-nervous-system
#19
REVIEW
Maisa C Takenaka, Marcia G Guereschi, Alexandre S Basso
Dendritic cells are of paramount importance bridging innate and adaptive immune responses. Depending on the context, after sensing environmental antigens, commensal microorganisms, pathogenic agents, or antigens from the diet, dendritic cells may drive either different effector adaptive immune responses or tolerance, avoiding tissue damage. Although the plasticity of the immune response and the capacity to regulate itself are considered essential to orchestrate appropriate physiological responses, it is known that the nervous system plays a relevant role controlling immune cell function...
October 31, 2016: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647198/gut-microbiota-brain-axis
#20
REVIEW
Hong-Xing Wang, Yu-Ping Wang
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the updated information about the gut microbiota-brain axis. DATA SOURCES: All articles about gut microbiota-brain axis published up to July 18, 2016, were identified through a literature search on PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science, with the keywords of "gut microbiota", "gut-brain axis", and "neuroscience". STUDY SELECTION: All relevant articles on gut microbiota and gut-brain axis were included and carefully reviewed, with no limitation of study design...
October 5, 2016: Chinese Medical Journal
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