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Neurotransmitters intestine function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651236/substrates-for-neuronal-cotransmission-with-neuropeptides-and-small-molecule-neurotransmitters-in-drosophila
#1
REVIEW
Dick R Nässel
It has been known for more than 40 years that individual neurons can produce more than one neurotransmitter and that neuropeptides often are colocalized with small molecule neurotransmitters (SMNs). Over the years much progress has been made in understanding the functional consequences of cotransmission in the nervous system of mammals. There are also some excellent invertebrate models that have revealed roles of coexpressed neuropeptides and SMNs in increasing complexity, flexibility, and dynamics in neuronal signaling...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570391/deletion-of-choline-acetyltransferase-in-enteric-neurons-results-in-postnatal-intestinal-dysmotility-and-dysbiosis
#2
Carl D Johnson, Amanda J Barlow-Anacker, Joseph F Pierre, Ketrija Touw, Christopher S Erickson, John B Furness, Miles L Epstein, Ankush Gosain
Acetylcholine (ACh)-synthesizing neurons are major components of the enteric nervous system (ENS). They release ACh and peptidergic neurotransmitters onto enteric neurons and muscle. However, pharmacological interrogation has proven inadequate to demonstrate an essential role for ACh. Our objective was to determine whether elimination of ACh synthesis during embryogenesis alters prenatal viability, intestinal function, the neurotransmitter complement, and the microbiome. Conditional deletion of choline acetyltransferase ( ChAT), the ACh synthetic enzyme, in neural crest-derived neurons ( ChAT-Null) was performed...
March 23, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543651/early-signs-of-colonic-inflammation-intestinal-dysfunction-and-olfactory-impairments-in-the-rotenone-induced-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Lívia H Morais, Daniela B Hara, Maíra A Bicca, Anicleto Poli, Reinaldo N Takahashi
The factors that trigger the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) are unknown. However, it is suggested that environmental factors, such as exposure to pesticides, play an important role, in addition to genetic predisposition and aging. Early signs of PD can appear in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and in the olfactory system, preceding the onset of motor impairments by many years. The present study assessed the effects of oral rotenone administration (30 mg/kg) in inducing GI and olfactory dysfunctions associated with PD in mice...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524228/antibiotics-induced-modulation-of-large-intestinal-microbiota-altered-aromatic-amino-acid-profile-and-expression-of-neurotransmitters-in-the-hypothalamus-of-piglets
#4
Kan Gao, Yu Pi, Chun-Long Mu, Yu Peng, Zan Huang, Wei-Yun Zhu
The evidence of gut microbiota-mediated modulation of brain function has been widely recognized from studies using germ-free rodents or animals with oral antibiotic-induced microbiota depletion. Since the number of bacteria in the large intestine greatly exceeds that found within the small intestine, large intestinal microbiota may play a crucial role in the modulation of brain function. In the present study, twelve piglets (12.08 ± 0.28 kg) fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum were fed a standard diet and randomly assigned to two groups (n=6) for ileal infusion of either saline (control group) or antibiotics (antibiotic group)...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517926/the-multiple-faces-of-inflammatory-enteric-glial-cells-is-crohn-s-disease-a-gliopathy
#5
Camille Pochard, Sabrina Coquenlorge, Marie Freyssinet, Philippe Naveilhan, Arnaud Bourreille, Michel Neunlist, Malvyne Rolli-Derkinderen
Gone are the days when enteric glial cells (EGC) were considered merely as satellites of enteric neurons. Like their brain counterpart astrocytes, EGC express an impressive number of receptors for neurotransmitters and intercellular messengers, thereby contributing to neuroprotection and to the regulation of neuronal activity. EGC also produce different soluble factors that regulate neighboring cells among which are intestinal epithelial cells. A better understanding of EGC response to an inflammatory environment, often referred to as enteric glial reactivity, could help define the physiological role of EGC and the importance of this reactivity in maintaining gut functions...
March 8, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353471/strategy-for-an-association-study-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-and-brain-metabolome-across-the-lifespan-of-rats
#6
Tianlu Chen, Yijun You, Guoxiang Xie, Xiaojiao Zheng, Aihua Zhao, Jiajian Liu, Qing Zhao, Shouli Wang, Fengjie Huang, Cynthia Rajani, Congcong Wang, Shaoqiu Chen, Yan Ni, Herbert Yu, Youping Deng, Xiaoyan Wang, Wei Jia
There is increased appreciation for the diverse roles of the microbiome-gut-brain axis on mammalian growth and health throughout the lifespan. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the gut microbiome and their metabolites are extensively involved in the communication between brain and gut. Association study of brain metabolome and gut microbiome is an active field offering large amounts of information on the interaction of microbiome, brain and gut but data size and complicated hierarchical relationships were found to be major obstacles to the formation of significant, reproducible conclusions...
February 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313275/microbiome-immunomodulation-and-the-neuronal-system
#7
REVIEW
Eric Marietta, Irina Horwath, Veena Taneja
Vertebrates harbor both symbiotic and pathogenic bacteria on the body and various mucosal surfaces. Of these surfaces, the intestine has the most diverse composition. This composition is dependent upon various environmental and genetic factors, with diet exerting the maximum influence. Significant roles of the intestinal bacteria are to stimulate the development of a competent mucosal immune system and to maintain tolerance within the intestine. One manner in which this is achieved is by the establishment of epithelial integrity by microbiota found in healthy individuals (healthy microbiota); however, in the case of a disrupted intestinal microbiome (dysbiosis), which can be caused by various conditions, the epithelial integrity is compromised...
January 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299689/segmental-differences-in-the-non-neuronal-cholinergic-system-in-rat-caecum
#8
Sandra Bader, Martin Diener
Acetylcholine is not only a neurotransmitter but is also produced by several non-neuronal cell types with barrier or defence function. One of the non-neuronal tissues with expression of the key enzyme for production of acetylcholine, the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), is the colonic surface epithelium, which releases acetylcholine after contact with the short-chain fatty acid propionate produced physiologically in the colonic lumen during the microbial fermentation of carbohydrates. Despite the fact that the caecum is the largest fermentation chamber in non-ruminant mammals, nothing is known about the expression and function of a non-neuronal cholinergic system in this part of the large intestine, which was addressed in the present study...
April 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280113/-relationship-between-functional-constipation-and-brain-gut-microbiota-axis
#9
Qiyi Chen, Jun Jiang
Although with the higher prevalence, the overall treatment result of functional constipation is still not satisfied at home and abroad. The diagnosis and treatment of functional constipation are still to focus on colon itself. Functional constipation has complex interactions among intestinal flora, intestinal autonomic nerve and central nervous system. Patients with functional constipation have different degrees of mental and psychological dysfunction, and abnormal brain function can result in disorders of colon dynamics, secretion and immune function...
December 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249943/the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-of-the-dromedary-camel-camelus-dromedarius-cytoarchitecture-and-neurochemical-anatomy
#10
Khalid El Allali, Mohamed R Achaâban, Mohammed Piro, Mohammed Ouassat, Etienne Challet, Mohammed Errami, Nouria Lakhdar-Ghazal, André Calas, Paul Pévet
In mammals, biological rhythms are driven by a master circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. Recently, we have demonstrated that in the camel, the daily cycle of environmental temperature is able to entrain the master clock. This raises several questions about the structure and function of the SCN in this species. The current work is the first neuroanatomical investigation of the camel SCN. We carried out a cartography and cytoarchitectural study of the nucleus and then studied its cell types and chemical neuroanatomy...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155851/pac1-and-vpac2-receptors-in-light-regulated-behavior-and-physiology-studies-in-single-and-double-mutant-mice
#11
Jens Hannibal, Birgitte Georg, Jan Fahrenkrug
The two sister peptides, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and their receptors, the PAC1 -and the VPAC2 receptors, are involved in regulation of the circadian timing system. PACAP as a neurotransmitter in the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) and VIP as a neurotransmitter, involved in synchronization of SCN neurons. Behavior and physiology in VPAC2 deficient mice are strongly regulated by light most likely as a result of masking. Consequently, we used VPAC2 and PAC1/VPAC2 double mutant mice in comparison with PAC1 receptor deficient mice to further elucidate the role of PACAP in the light mediated regulation of behavior and physiology of the circadian system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138116/in-silico-identification-of-genes-involved-in-chronic-metabolic-acidosis
#12
Ishfaq A Sheikh, Adeel Malik, Sameera F M AlBasri, Mohd A Beg
AIMS: Chronic metabolic acidosis (CMA) refers to increased plasma acidity due to disturbed acid-base equilibrium in human body. CMA leads to many dysfunctions including disorders of intestinal metabolism and barrier functions. The human body responds to these intestinal dysfunctions by creating a compensatory mechanism at genomic level in intestinal epithelial cells. This study was to identify the molecular pathways involved in metabolic dysfunction and compensatory adaptations in intestinal epithelium during CMA...
January 1, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130504/mass-spectrometry-based-metabolomics-targeting-the-crosstalk-between-gut-microbiota-and-brain-in-neurodegenerative-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Hemi Luan, Xian Wang, Zongwei Cai
Metabolomics seeks to take a "snapshot" in a time of the levels, activities, regulation and interactions of all small molecule metabolites in response to a biological system with genetic or environmental changes. The emerging development in mass spectrometry technologies has shown promise in the discovery and quantitation of neuroactive small molecule metabolites associated with gut microbiota and brain. Significant progress has been made recently in the characterization of intermediate role of small molecule metabolites linked to neural development and neurodegenerative disorder, showing its potential in understanding the crosstalk between gut microbiota and the host brain...
November 12, 2017: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920040/parasympathetic-cholinergic-and-neuropeptide-mechanisms-of-migraine
#14
REVIEW
Nikita Mikhailov, Oleg V Mamontov, Alexei A Kamshilin, Rashid Giniatullin
CONTEXT: Migraine mechanisms remain largely uncovered for various reasons including a very high complexity of the neurophysiological mechanisms implicated in this disorder and a plethora of endogenous biologically active compounds involved in the pathological process. The functional role of parasympathetic innervation of meninges and cholinergic mechanisms of migraine are among little explored issues despite multiple evidence indirectly indicating the role of acetylcholine (ACh) and its analogues in migraine and other types of headache...
February 2017: Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912251/neuroimmune-interaction-and-the-regulation-of-intestinal-immune-homeostasis
#15
Simon Verheijden, Guy E Boeckxstaens
Many essential gastrointestinal functions, including motility, secretion, and blood flow, are regulated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS), both through intrinsic enteric neurons and extrinsic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) innervation. Recently identified neuroimmune mechanisms, in particular the interplay between enteric neurons and muscularis macrophages, are now considered to be essential for fine-tuning peristalsis. These findings shed new light on how intestinal immune cells can support enteric nervous function...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910997/paediatric-nuclear-medicine-imaging
#16
Lorenzo Biassoni, Marina Easty
Background: Nuclear medicine imaging explores tissue viability and function by using radiotracers that are taken up at cellular level with different mechanism. This imaging technique can also be used to assess blood flow and transit through tubular organs. Nuclear medicine imaging has been used in paediatrics for decades and this field is continuously evolving. Sources of data: The data presented comes from clinical experience and some milestone papers on the subject...
September 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814067/neuro-immune-interactions-in-allergic-diseases-novel-targets-for-therapeutics
#17
Tiphaine Voisin, Amélie Bouvier, Isaac M Chiu
Recent studies have highlighted an emerging role for neuro-immune interactions in mediating allergic diseases. Allergies are caused by an overactive immune response to a foreign antigen. The peripheral sensory and autonomic nervous system densely innervates mucosal barrier tissues including the skin, respiratory tract and gastrointestinal (GI) tract that are exposed to allergens. It is increasingly clear that neurons actively communicate with and regulate the function of mast cells, dendritic cells, eosinophils, Th2 cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells in allergic inflammation...
June 1, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716951/a-calcium-and-diacylglycerol-stimulated-protein-kinase-c-pkc-caenorhabditis-elegans-pkc-2-links-thermal-signals-to-learned-behavior-by-acting-in-sensory-neurons-and-intestinal-cells
#18
Marianne Land, Charles S Rubin
Ca(2+)- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-activated protein kinase C (cPKC) promotes learning and behavioral plasticity. However, knowledge of in vivo regulation and exact functions of cPKCs that affect behavior is limited. We show that PKC-2, a Caenorhabditis elegans cPKC, is essential for a complex behavior, thermotaxis. C. elegans memorizes a nutrient-associated cultivation temperature (Tc ) and migrates along the Tc within a 17 to 25°C gradient. pkc-2 gene disruption abrogated thermotaxis; a PKC-2 transgene, driven by endogenous pkc-2 promoters, restored thermotaxis behavior in pkc-2(-/-) animals...
October 1, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631296/hydrogen-sulphide-as-a-signalling-molecule-regulating-physiopathological-processes-in-gastrointestinal-motility
#19
REVIEW
M Jimenez, V Gil, M Martinez-Cutillas, N Mañé, D Gallego
The biology of H2 S is a still developing area of research and several biological functions have been recently attributed to this gaseous molecule in many physiological systems, including the cardiovascular, urogenital, respiratory, digestive and central nervous system (CNS). H2 S exerts anti-inflammatory effects and can be considered an endogenous mediator with potential effects on gastrointestinal motility. During the last few years, we have investigated the role of H2 S as a regulator of gastrointestinal motility using both animal and human tissues...
September 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625139/targeting-cholinergic-system-to-modulate-liver-injury
#20
Ravirajsinh N Jadeja, Vikrant P Rachakonda, Sandeep Khurana
Over the past few decades, evidence accumulated to indicate that parasympathetic innervation regulates liver injury and regeneration. Liver derives its parasympathetic input via vagus nerve. In animal models, vagus nerve stimulation and transection are frequently used to determine the impact of parasympathetic input on liver injury responses. Such strategies provide limited understanding of post-neuronal mechanisms involved in regulation of liver injury. The hepatic branch of vagus nerve releases acetylcholine (ACh), which activates muscarinic and nicotinic receptors in hepatocytes as well as non-parenchymal cells to modulate cellular functions...
June 18, 2017: Current Drug Targets
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