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Nutrition cancer

Aurélie Moskal, Heinz Freisling, Graham Byrnes, Nada Assi, Michael T Fahey, Mazda Jenab, Pietro Ferrari, Anne Tjønneland, Kristina En Petersen, Christina C Dahm, Camilla Plambeck Hansen, Aurélie Affret, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Claire Cadeau, Tilman Kühn, Verena Katzke, Khalid Iqbal, Heiner Boeing, Antonia Trichopoulou, Christina Bamia, Androniki Naska, Giovanna Masala, Maria Santucci de Magistris, Sabina Sieri, Rosario Tumino, Carlotta Sacerdote, Petra H Peeters, Bas H Bueno-de-Mesquita, Dagrun Engeset, Idlir Licaj, Guri Skeie, Eva Ardanaz, Genevieve Buckland, José M Huerta Castaño, José R Quirós, Pilar Amiano, Elena Molina-Portillo, Anna Winkvist, Robin Myte, Ulrika Ericson, Emily Sonestedt, Aurora Perez-Cornago, Nick Wareham, Kay-Tee Khaw, Inge Huybrechts, Konstantinos K Tsilidis, Heather Ward, Marc J Gunter, Nadia Slimani
BACKGROUND: Much of the current literature on diet-colorectal cancer (CRC) associations focused on studies of single foods/nutrients, whereas less is known about nutrient patterns. We investigated the association between major nutrient patterns and CRC risk in participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. METHODS: Among 477 312 participants, intakes of 23 nutrients were estimated from validated dietary questionnaires...
October 20, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
Masano Sagawa, Hirokazu Yagawa, Souichi Konno, Atsuko Usuda, Hiroyuki Maeda, Kanu Kim, Toshifumi Watanabe, Emiko Yamaya, Takebumi Usui, Hajime Yokomizo, Kazuhiko Yoshimatsu, Takeshi Shimakawa, Takao Katsube, Yoshihiko Naritaka
BACKGROUND: We examined the significance of neutrophil lymphocyte ratio(NLR)in gastric cancer and colon cancer in the perioperative period. METHOD: There were 46 patients(21 with gastric cancer and 25 with colon cancer). We examined the association between preoperative NLR and other indicators of nutritional status, as well as the relationship between preoperative NLR and the incidence of postoperative complications(all complications/infectious complications). RESULT: NLR was higher in those with zinc<65 mg, prognostic nutritional index(PNI)≤40, and modified Glasgow prognostic score(mGPS)of 2 (p<0...
October 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Kuba Marciniak, Mirosław Kiedrowski, Danuta Gajewska, Andrzej Deptała, Dariusz Włodarek
The development of colorectal carcinoma is a multistep process of accumulation of mutations and epigenetic changes associated with DNA repair, proliferation, apoptosis, intra- and extracellular signaling, adhesion and other physiological functions of cells and tissues. A long period of development, high colorectal carcinoma-related mortality as well as significant social and economic costs due to this condition are prerequisites for seeking efficient methods of cancer prevention, including nutritional approach...
October 19, 2016: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
N Sawada, M Inoue, M Iwasaki, T Yamaji, T Shimazu, S Sasazuki, S Tsugane
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although vitamin D has been experimentally reported to inhibit tumorigenesis, cell growth and prostate cancer invasion, epidemiologic data regarding prostate cancer risk are inconsistent, and some studies have suggested positive but nonsignificant associations. Further, the impact of vitamin D on prostate cancer between Western and Japanese populations may differ due to different plasma vitamin D levels. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study within the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective (JPHC) Study in 14,203 men (40-69 years) who answered a self-administered questionnaire at baseline (1990-1994) and gave blood samples, and were followed until 2005...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Cong Ming-Hua, Zou Bao-Hua, Yu Lei
Anorexia cancer cachexia syndrome is prevalent in advanced cancer patients, which is featured by anorexia, decreased dietary intake, body weight loss (skeletal muscle mass loss), and unable to be reversed by routine nutritional support therapy. Up to now, the main mechanisms involved in cancer cachexia include excessive systemic inflammation, which is represented by increased plasma levels of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, tumor-induced factors, such as PIF and LMF. These factors eventually act on orexigenic and anorexigenic neurons located in hypothalamus or protein and lipid metabolism of peripheral tissues, which lead to anorexia, decreased dietary intake, enhanced basic metabolism rate and hyper catabolism...
October 18, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Masaharu Tsubokura, Shuhei Nomura, Hajime Watanobe, Yoshitaka Nishikawa, Chiaki Suzuki, Sae Ochi, Claire Leppold, Hirokatsu Kinoshita, Shigeaki Kato, Yasutoshi Saito
Background Iodine deficiency is an important modifier of the risk of thyroid cancer following irradiation; however, little information is available on a prevalence of iodine deficiency in Fukushima and its surroundings after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident that occurred in March, 2011. Methods To assess urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) and a prevalence of iodine deficiency and to elucidate any associations between demographic characteristics and UIC levels among children and adolescents aged 18 or younger at the time of the accident in Fukushima Prefecture and its surroundings, we evaluated the data on voluntary UIC testing conducted by Hirata Central Hospital, Fukushima...
October 19, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Petra Rust, Cem Ekmekcioglu
Excessive dietary salt (sodium chloride) intake is associated with an increased risk for hypertension, which in turn is especially a major risk factor for stroke and other cardiovascular pathologies, but also kidney diseases. Besides, high salt intake or preference for salty food is discussed to be positive associated with stomach cancer, and according to recent studies probably also obesity risk. On the other hand a reduction of dietary salt intake leads to a considerable reduction in blood pressure, especially in hypertensive patients but to a lesser extent also in normotensives as several meta-analyses of interventional studies have shown...
October 19, 2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Mandi M Hopkins, Kathryn E Meier
The effects of fatty acids on cancer cells have been studied for decades. The roles of dietary long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and of microbiome-generated short-chain butyric acid, have been of particular interest over the years. However, the roles of free fatty acid receptors (FFARs) in mediating effects of fatty acids in tumor cells have only recently been examined. In reviewing the literature, the data obtained to date indicate that the long-chain FFARs (FFA1 and FFA4) play different roles than the short-chain FFARs (FFA2 and FFA3)...
October 19, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Yu Ohkura, Shusuke Haruta, Tsuyoshi Tanaka, Masaki Ueno, Harushi Udagawa
BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the efficacy of postoperative early intervention with an elemental diet to reduce weight loss and enhance recovery after gastrectomy. Nutritional status and gastrointestinal immune function tend to worsen, and postoperative weight loss is inevitable in these patients; therefore, improvement in their postoperative condition is important, especially in gastric cancer patients aged ≥80 years. METHODS: Clinical outcomes and postoperative nutritional status were compared between 21 and 22 consecutive elderly patients aged ≥80 years who underwent distal gastrectomy before and after the introduction of postoperative oral elemental diet (Elental®, 300 kcal/day), respectively, between October 2011 and June 2016...
October 19, 2016: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Christian Cadeddu, Valentina Mercurio, Paolo Spallarossa, Savina Nodari, Marco Triggiani, Ines Monte, Roberta Piras, Rosalinda Madonna, Pasquale Pagliaro, Carlo G Tocchetti, Giuseppe Mercuro
Because of the recent advances in chemotherapeutic protocols, cancer survival has improved significantly, although cardiovascular disease has become a major cause of morbidity and mortality among cancer survivors: in addition to the well-known cardiotoxicity (CTX) from anthracyclines, biologic drugs that target molecules that are active in cancer biology also interfere with cardiovascular homeostasis.Pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies to protect the cardiovascular structure and function are the best approaches to reducing the prevalence of cardiomyopathy linked to anticancer drugs...
May 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
Kalina Biernacka, Raj A Persad, Amit Bahl, David Gillatt, Jeff M P Holly, Claire M Perks
The incidence of many common cancers varies between different populations and appears to be affected by a Western lifestyle. Highly proliferative malignant cells require sufficient levels of nutrients for their anabolic activity. Therefore targeting genes and pathways involved in metabolic pathways could yield future therapeutics. A common pathway implicated in energetic and nutritional requirements of a cell is the LKB1/AMPK pathway. Metformin is a widely studied anti-diabetic drug, which improves glycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes via targeting this pathway...
October 17, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Derong Lin, Mengshi Xiao, Jingjing Zhao, Zhuohao Li, Baoshan Xing, Xindan Li, Maozhu Kong, Liangyu Li, Qing Zhang, Yaowen Liu, Hong Chen, Wen Qin, Hejun Wu, Saiyan Chen
In this paper, the biosynthesis process of phenolic compounds in plants is summarized, which include the shikimate, pentose phosphate and phenylpropanoid pathways. Plant phenolic compounds can act as antioxidants, structural polymers (lignin), attractants (flavonoids and carotenoids), UV screens (flavonoids), signal compounds (salicylic acid, flavonoids) and defense response chemicals (tannins, phytoalexins). From a human physiological standpoint, phenolic compounds are vital in defense responses, such as anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-proliferative activities...
October 15, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Masau Sekiguchi, Ichiro Oda, Haruhisa Suzuki, Seiichiro Abe, Satoru Nonaka, Shigetaka Yoshinaga, Hirokazu Taniguchi, Shigeki Sekine, Yutaka Saito
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although the number of gastric cancer patients aged ≥85 years indicated for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has increased, little is known about their outcomes and prognostic factors. This study aimed to investigate the clinical outcomes and factors prognostic of overall survival (OS) of patients aged ≥85 years who underwent ESD for gastric cancer. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 108 patients aged ≥85 years with 149 gastric cancers treated by ESD between 1999 and 2014 at our institution...
October 14, 2016: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Lorena Arribas, Laura Hurtós, Maria José Sendrós, Inmaculada Peiró, Neus Salleras, Eduard Fort, Jose Manuel Sánchez-Migallón
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to design a new nutritional screening tool (NUTRISCORE) to detect nutritional risk in outpatients with cancer. METHODS: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted. We randomly selected outpatients receiving onco-specific, palliative, or symptomatic treatment for malignant neoplasms (including solid tumors and hematologic malignancies). These patients were assessed using the NUTRISCORE tool, the Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST), and the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) to detect risk for malnutrition...
August 13, 2016: Nutrition
Alessandro Laviano, Gianluca Di Lazzaro Giraldi, Angela Koverech
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cachexia is a negative prognostic factor in cancer patients. The pathogenesis is related to a variable combination of reduced food intake and metabolic changes. However, whether nutritional support may contribute to effectively prevent and treat cachexia remains a debated issue. RECENT FINDINGS: Consistent evidence demonstrates that anabolic windows of opportunity occur during the clinical trajectory of cancer patients. Also, the use of specific nutrients, namely omega-3 fatty acids, may enhance the efficacy of nutritional support when tumor-driven inflammatory response is high...
October 7, 2016: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Jiansong Ren, Gwen Murphy, Jinhu Fan, Sanford M Dawsey, Philip R Taylor, Jacob Selhub, Youlin Qiao, Christian C Abnet
B vitamins play an essential role in DNA synthesis and methylation, and may protect against oesophageal and gastric cancers. In this case-cohort study, subjects were enrolled from the General Population Nutrition Intervention Trial in Linxian, China. Subjects included 498 oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs), 255 gastric cardia adenocarcinomas (GCAs), and an age- and sex-matched sub-cohort of 947 individuals. Baseline serum riboflavin, pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), folate, vitamin B12, and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) were measured for all subjects...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
V Coothankandaswamy, S Cao, Y Xu, P D Prasad, P K Singh, C P Reynolds, S Yang, J Ogura, V Ganapathy, Y D Bhutia
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pancreatic cancer is an often lethal solid tumor. There is an urgent need to identify new drug targets for this disease. Highly proliferating cancer cells have an increased demand for nutrients and hence need to upregulate selective amino acid transporters. Here we wanted to find out which amino acid transporters are upregulated in pancreatic cancer and whether any of these transporters has potential as a drug target for this deadly disease. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Expression of amino acid transporters in pancreatic cancer was analyzed using publicly available microarray datasets, and the findings with the transporter SLC6A14 were validated by mRNA and protein analysis...
October 17, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
David Heber, Zhaoping Li
Nutrition intervention supports the patient with malnutrition secondary to cancer and its treatment and has been used in the primary and secondary prevention of common forms of cancer. During the emotional stress of dealing with cancer at any stage, patients derive increased quality of life and a sense of control over their lives as the result of receiving supportive advice on diet and lifestyle. Therefore, the use of nutrition intervention in cancer patients is justified in the absence of absolute proof of efficacy as long as it is done safely and with the consent of the cancer patient...
November 2016: Medical Clinics of North America
Małgorzata Czerwonka, Andrzej Tokarz
In developed countries, due to high content and bioavailability, red and processed meats are the main sources of iron in the diet. Adequate intake of this nutrient is essential for the proper development and functioning of the human body, and its deficiencies are associated mainly with the occurrence of anemia, which is one of the most widespread nutritional problems in the world. However, excessive intake of iron can be detrimental to health. Studies have shown that high consumption of red meat and its products, and thereby iron, particularly in the form of heme, increases the risk of non-communicable diseases, including cancers, type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease...
October 2, 2016: Meat Science
Ryuta Shintakuya, Kenichiro Uemura, Yoshiaki Murakami, Naru Kondo, Naoya Nakagawa, Kazuhide Urabe, Keisuke Okano, Kazuo Awai, Toru Higaki, Taijiro Sueda
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The loss of skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) is associated with the poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer. It has been reported pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) is associated with serum nutritional markers in chronic pancreatitis. However, there has been no report about the relationship between sarcopenia and PEI. The aim of this study is to determine whether body composition, including skeletal muscle (SM), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), intramuscular adipose tissue content (IMAC), and serum nutritional markers are associated with pancreatic exocrine function in patients with pancreatic disease...
October 11, 2016: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
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