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Danielle Oliveira Dos Anjos, Eliomara Sousa Sobral Alves, Vinicius Tomaz Gonçalves, Sheila Suarez Fontes, Mateus Lima Nogueira, Ana Márcia Suarez-Fontes, João Batista Neves da Costa, Fabricio Rios-Santos, Marcos André Vannier-Santos
Natural products comprise valuable sources for new antiparasitic drugs. Here we tested the effects of a novel β-lapachone derivative on Trypanosoma cruzi parasite survival and proliferation and used microscopy and cytometry techniques to approach the mechanism(s) underlying parasite death. The selectivity index determination indicate that the compound trypanocidal activity was over ten-fold more cytotoxic to epimastigotes than to macrophages or splenocytes. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that the R72 β-lapachone derivative affected the T...
October 12, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Giles Whalen, Mary Sullivan, Louise Maranda, Robert Quinlan, Anne Larkin
BACKGROUND: A short course of potassium iodide (SSKI) has been traditionally used to prepare patients with Graves' disease for thyroidectomy. The rationale for this treatment has evolved over time; from control of hyperthyroidism to facilitating surgery by making the gland less friable and bloody. METHODS: Randomized trial of preoperative SSKI vs no SSKI to test whether that is true. RESULTS: Mean estimated blood loss in the SSKI group (62 mL) was less than in the control group (162 mL) as was the median estimated blood loss (50 vs 140 mL)...
August 4, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
Julia Elisabeth von Oettingen, Tesha Dawn Brathwaite, Christopher Carpenter, Ric Bonnell, Xuemei He, Lewis E Braverman, Elizabeth N Pearce, Philippe Larco, Nancy Charles Larco, Eddy Jean-Baptiste, Rosalind S Brown
CONTEXT: Iodine deficiency is the leading cause of preventable neurodevelopmental delay in children worldwide. It is a possible public health concern in Haiti. OBJECTIVE: To perform a population iodine survey in Haitian young children, and its influence by environmental factors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study, March-June 2015. SETTING: Community churches in 3 geographical regions in Haiti. PARTICIPANTS: 299 healthy Haitian children aged 9 months to 6 years; 100 enrolled in coastal (C) and mountainous (M) regions, and 99 in an urban region (U)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Elizabeth M Dlugosz, Scott C Lenaghan, C Neal Stewart
Over the last decade there has been a resurgence in the use of plant protoplasts that range from model species to crop species, for analysis of signal transduction pathways, transcriptional regulatory networks, gene expression, genome-editing, and gene-silencing. Furthermore, significant progress has been made in the regeneration of plants from protoplasts, which has generated even more interest in the use of these systems for plant genomics. In this work, a protocol has been developed for automation of protoplast isolation and transformation from a 'Bright Yellow' 2 (BY-2) tobacco suspension culture using a robotic platform...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
P S Whitfield, N Herron, W E Guise, K Page, Y Q Cheng, I Milas, M K Crawford
We have examined the crystal structures and structural phase transitions of the deuterated, partially deuterated and hydrogenous organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite methyl ammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) using time-of-flight neutron and synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction. Near 330 K the high temperature cubic phases transformed to a body-centered tetragonal phase. The variation of the order parameter Q for this transition scaled with temperature T as Q ∼ (Tc-T)(β), where Tc is the critical temperature and the exponent β was close to ¼, as predicted for a tricritical phase transition...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Matthieu Teci, Michael Tilley, Michael A McGuire, Michael G Organ
The conversion of commercially available anilines into biaryl and biarylacetylene products was realized by using a telescoped, three-reactor flow diazotization/iododediazotization/cross-coupling process. The segmented flow stream created by off-gassing during the Sandmeyer sequence was restored to a continuous column of reaction solution by using a specially designed continuous-flow unit controlled by custom software created in-house. The resultant aryl iodide was then combined with a stream of cross-coupling solution that fed into the final reactor...
October 21, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Ruth Jakobs, Banafsheh Ahmadi, Sarah Houben, Tara D Gariepy, Brent J Sinclair
Drosophila suzukii is an emerging global pest of soft fruit; although it likely overwinters as an adult, larval cold tolerance is important both for determining performance during spring and autumn, and for the development of temperature-based control methods aimed at larvae. We examined the low temperature biology of third instar feeding and wandering larvae in and out of food. We induced phenotypic plasticity of thermal biology by rearing under short days and fluctuating temperatures (5.5-19 °C). Rearing under fluctuating temperatures led to much slower development (42...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Insect Physiology
Soojong Park, Ahmad Fudhaili, Sang-Seok Oh, Ki Won Lee, Hamadi Madhi, Dong-Hee Kim, Jiyun Yoo, Hyung Won Ryu, Ki-Hun Park, Kwang Dong Kim
BACKGROUND: Broussonetia papyrifera (B. papyrifera), also known as paper mulberry, has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases, including ophthalmic disorders and impotency. However, the biological activity of kazinol A (1) among flavonols isolated from B. papyrifera has not been identified. PURPOSE: We identified a candidate metabolite for anti-human bladder cancer treatment from B. papyrifera and investigated the possible molecular mechanisms underlying its cytotoxic effects in T24 and cisplatin-resistant T24R2 human bladder cancer cells...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Guangxian Zhang, Xiancheng Zeng, Ren Zhang, Juan Liu, Weici Zhang, Yujun Zhao, Xiaoyuan Zhang, Zhixue Wu, Yuhui Tan, Yingya Wu, Biaoyan Du
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy of the liver, occurs frequently in the setting of chronic liver injury. Although multiple therapeutic approaches are available, the prognosis of patients with HCC remains poor. Dioscin is a natural steroid saponin that presents in various plants. The anti-cancer and anti-fibrotic effects have been extensively reported. However, the effect of dioscin on HCC remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the anti-HCC properties of dioscin in vitro and in vivo...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Mohammad Iqbal Lone, Arisa Nabi, Nawab John Dar, Aashiq Hussain, Nazia Nazam, Abid Hamid, Waseem Ahmad
Dichlorophene; a halogenated phenolic compound with wide applications as a fungicide, bactericide and antiprotozoan. Dichlorophene spray also has therapeutic use in the disease digital dermatitis. In guinea pigs, a few studies obtained mixed results in dicholorophene sensitization tests. In consideration of the fact, that the mechanism of its genotoxicity has not been adequately elucidated lead to present study assessing the acute in vivo toxicological impact in Rattus norvegicus. A systematic research has been made encompassing the use of molecular and flow cytometric approaches...
October 17, 2016: Chemosphere
Urszula K Komarnicka, Radosław Starosta, Agnieszka Kyzioł, Michał Płotek, Małgorzata Puchalska, Małgorzata Jeżowska-Bojczuk
In this paper we present lomefloxacin's (HLm, 2nd generation fluoroquinolone antibiotic agent) organic and inorganic derivatives: aminomethyl(diphenyl)phosphine (PLm), its oxide as well as new copper(I) iodide or copper(I) thiocyanate complexes with PLm and 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dmp) or 2,2'-biquinoline (bq) as the auxiliary ligands. The synthesized compounds were fully characterised by NMR, UV-Vis and luminescence spectroscopies. Selected structures were analysed by theoretical DFT (density functional theory) methods...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Lisa Marx-Blümel, Christian Marx, Marie Kühne, Jürgen Sonnemann
The chromatin contains the genetic and the epigenetic information of a eukaryotic organism. Posttranslational modifications of histones, such as acetylation and methylation, regulate their structure and control gene expression. Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) acetylate lysine residues in histones while histone deacetylases (HDACs) remove this modification. HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) can alter gene expression patterns and induce cytotoxicity in cancer cells. Here we provide an overview of methods to determine the cytotoxic effects of HDACi treatment...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Hussein M Ageely, Ahmed E Agag, Syam Mohan, Atef Shehata
BACKGROUND: Khat (Catha edulis) is a controversial plant having a euphoretic effect, at the same time part of culture in many countries such as Africa and Arabian Peninsula. The presence of amphetamine-like substance, cathinone and cathine make this plant banned in many countries. Many neurological and other system related studies have been carried out in this plant, but the lack of toxicity studies are there especially the mechanism. OBJECTIVE: In this study, Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney cell line was used as an in vitro model to study the cell death mechanism...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Ichiro Chihara, Satoshi Nitta, Tomokazu Kimura, Shuya Kandori, Takashi Kawahara, Natsui Waku, Takahiro Kojima, Akira Joraku, Jun Miyazaki, Hitoshi Iwasaki, Hiroaki Suzuki, Koji Kawai, Hiroyuki Nishiyama
We reported two cases of hyperthyroidism that developed during induction chemotherapy for advanced germ cell tumors with high serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels. Case 1 : An 18-year-old man with mediastinal choriocarcinoma complained of tachycardia and tremor. His pretreatment serum hCG level was 1.37 million mIU/ml. The free thyroxine (fT4) level measured on day 2 of the first course of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) was elevated to 7.8 ng/dl (<1.7 ng/dl), whereasthe thyroidstimulating hormone (TSH) level was undetectable...
September 2016: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
Ming Wang, Zhijian Huang
By using a diaryliodonium salt as a benzyne precursor, a transition metal-free approach for N-arylation of secondary amides is developed. This novel benzyne precursor, which can be prepared easily by a one step process from an aryl iodide, shows different reactivities with previous benzyne precursors in the N-arylation reaction. Mechanistic studies confirm the involvement of benzyne species (generated in situ from the diaryliodonium salts) as key intermediates.
October 19, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Constanza Morén, Ingrid González-Casacuberta, Carmen Álvarez-Fernández, Maria Bañó, Marc Catalán-Garcia, Mariona Guitart-Mampel, Diana Luz Juárez-Flores, Ester Tobías, José Milisenda, Francesc Cardellach, Josep Maria Gatell, Sonsoles Sánchez-Palomino, Glòria Garrabou
To characterize mitochondrial/apoptotic parameters in chronically human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)-infected promonocytic and lymphoid cells which could be further used as therapeutic targets to test pro-mitochondrial or anti-apoptotic strategies as in vitro cell platforms to deal with HIV-infection. Mitochondrial/apoptotic parameters of U1 promonocytic and ACH2 lymphoid cell lines were compared to those of their uninfected U937 and CEM counterparts. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was quantified by rt-PCR while mitochondrial complex IV (CIV) function was measured by spectrophotometry...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Narayan Dolai, Aminul Islam, Pallab Kanti Haldar
OBJECTIVE: Anthocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Miq. (Family: Rubiaceae), a folk medicine commonly known as "Kadam" in Bengali, has been used for the treatment of tumor. The methanolic extract of A. cadamba (MEAC) showing antitumor activity on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells treated mice was already reported. This study was designed to study the apoptosis-inducing property of MEAC and its mechanism in EAC cells in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Apoptogenic morphology was determined by fluorescent DNA-binding double staining method using dyes acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB)...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Ivyna Bong Pau Ni, Ng Ching Ching, Shaik Kamal Fakiruddin, Lim Moon Nian, Zubaidah Zakaria
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of B lymphocytes or plasma cells. Our array-based comparative genomic hybridization findings revealed chromosomal gains at 7q22.3 and 1q42.3, where nicotinamide (NAM) phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and lysosomal trafficking regulator (LYST) genes are localized, respectively. This led us to further study the functions of these genes in myeloma cells. NAMPT is a key enzyme involved in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide salvage pathway, and it is frequently overexpressed in human cancers...
October 18, 2016: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
María Karina Manzo-Valencia, Laura Valdés-Santiago, Lino Sanchez-Segura, Doralinda Guzman-de-Pena
The response to exogenous addition of Naphthalene Acetic Acid potassium salt (NAA-K+ ) to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp radici-lycopersici ATCC 60095 and F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense isolated from Michoacan Mexico soil is reported. The in vitro study showed that NAA-K+ might be effective in the control of Fusarium oxysporum. Exogenous application of NAA-K+ affected both, spores and mycelium stages of the fungi. Viability testing using acridine orange and propidium iodide showed that NAA-K+ possess fungal killing properties, doing it effective in the destruction of conidia of this phytopathogenic fungi...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Saleh A Mohamed, Mohamed F Elshal, Taha A Kumosani, Alia M Aldahlawi, Tasneem A Basbrain, Fauziah A Alshehri, Hani Choudhry
Escherichia coli-derived L-asparaginases have been used in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), however, clinical hypersensitivity reactions and silent inactivation due to antibodies against E. coli-asparaginase, lead to inactivation of these preparations in most cases.Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the cytotoxicity and antitumor effects ofa novel L-asparaginaseenzyme, isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris seeds (P-Asp) on the ALL cell line (Jurkat). The immunogenicity of the enzyme was also evaluated in-vivo and results were compared to commercially available enzymes of microbial sources...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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