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Ebola ppe

Romain Palich, Leonid M Irenge, Eric Barte de Sainte Fare, Augustin Augier, Denis Malvy, Jean-Luc Gala
OBJECTIVE: Health care workers (HCWs) in contact with patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) are exposed to a risk of viral contamination. Fomites contaminated with the patient's blood or body fluids represents this risk. Our study aims to detect Ebola virus (EBOV) RNA within the high- and low-risk areas of an Ebola treatment unit (ETU) located in inland Guinea during the 2014-2015 West African Ebola epidemics. For samples from patients' immediate vicinity, we aim to seek an association between viral RNA detectability and level of plasma viral load of patients (intermediate to high, or very high)...
2017: PloS One
P Reidy, T Fletcher, C Shieber, J Shallcross, H Towler, M Ping, L Kenworthy, N Silman, E Aarons
The combination of personal protective equipment (PPE) together with donning and doffing protocols was designed to protect British and Canadian military medical personnel in the Kerry Town Ebola Treatment Unit (ETU) in Sierra Leone. The PPE solution was selected to protect medical staff from infectious risks, notably Ebola virus, and chemical (hypochlorite) exposure. PPE maximized dexterity, enabled personnel to work in hot temperatures for periods of up to 2h, protected mucosal membranes when doffing outer layers, and minimized potential contamination of the doffing area with infectious material by reducing the requirement to spray PPE with hypochlorite...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
Aitor Coca, Tyler Quinn, Jung-Hyun Kim, Tianzhou Wu, Jeff Powell, Raymond Roberge, Ronald Shaffer
OBJECTIVE: Personal protective equipment (PPE) provides health care workers with a barrier to prevent human contact with viruses like Ebola and potential transmission of the disease. However, PPE can also introduce an additional physiological burden from potentially increased heat stress. This study evaluated the human physiological and subjective responses to continuous light exercise within environmental conditions similar to those in West Africa while wearing 3 different, commonly used PPE ensembles (E1, E2, and E3)...
March 17, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Tyler Quinn, Jung-Hyun Kim, Amanda Strauch, Tianzhou Wu, Jeffery Powell, Raymond Roberge, Ronald Shaffer, Aitor Coca
OBJECTIVE: Cooling devices (CDs) worn under personal protective equipment (PPE) can alleviate some of the heat stress faced by health care workers responding to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. METHODS: Six healthy, young individuals were tested while wearing 4 different CDs or no cooling (control) under PPE in an environmental chamber (32°C/92% relative humidity) while walking (3 METs, 2.5 mph, 0% grade) on a treadmill for 60 minutes. Exercise was preceded by a 15-minute stabilization period and a 15-minute donning period...
March 17, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Adewale L Alli, Maxwell M Nwegbu, Perpetua U Ibekwe, Titus S Ibekwe
BACKGROUND: Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a viral hemorrhagic illness with great propensity for spread across international borders. The latest outbreak in the West African region, which involved Nigeria, was the worst among previously documented 25 outbreaks since discovery in 1976. The Nigerian response toward attaining Ebola free status was phenomenal and a case study for most nations. However, the persistence of EVD in West Africa is still a risk to recurrence, hence, the need to assess the level of consciousness of Nigerian physicians towards this...
October 2016: Annals of African Medicine
Lisa M Casanova, Lisa J Teal, Emily E Sickbert-Bennett, Deverick J Anderson, Daniel J Sexton, William A Rutala, David J Weber
OBJECTIVE Ebola virus disease (EVD) places healthcare personnel (HCP) at high risk for infection during patient care, and personal protective equipment (PPE) is critical. Protocols for EVD PPE doffing have not been validated for prevention of viral self-contamination. Using surrogate viruses (non-enveloped MS2 and enveloped Φ6), we assessed self-contamination of skin and clothes when trained HCP doffed EVD PPE using a standardized protocol. METHODS A total of 15 HCP donned EVD PPE for this study. Virus was applied to PPE, and a trained monitor guided them through the doffing protocol...
October 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Qin Wang, Wei-Min Zhou, Yong Zhang, Huan-Yu Wang, Hai-Jun Du, Kai Nie, Jing-Dong Song, Kang Xiao, Wen-Wen Lei, Jian-Qiang Guo, He-Jiang Wei, Kun Cai, Yan-Hai Wang, Jiang Wu, Gerard Kamara, Idrissa Kamara, Qiang Wei, Mi-Fang Liang, Gui-Zhen Wu, Xiao-Ping Dong
BACKGROUND: The outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa between 2014 and 2015 was the largest EDV epidemic since the identification of Ebola virus (EBOV) in 1976, and the countries most strongly affected were Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Liberia. FINDINGS: The Sierra Leone-China Friendship Biological Safety Laboratory (SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab), a fixed Biosafety Level 3 laboratory in the capital city of Sierra Leone, was established by the Chinese government and has been active in EBOV detection since 11 March 2015...
June 23, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Hitoshi Honda, Kentaro Iwata
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Personal protective equipment (PPE) protects healthcare workers (HCWs) from infection by highly virulent pathogens via exposure to body fluids and respiratory droplets. Given the recent outbreaks of contagious infectious diseases worldwide, including Ebola virus and Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome, there is urgent need for further research to determine optimal PPE use in high-risk settings. This review intends to provide a general understanding of PPE and to provide guidelines for appropriate use based on current evidence...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Pengfei Gao, Matthew Horvatin, George Niezgoda, Robyn Weible, Ronald Shaffer
Current CDC guidance for the disinfection of gloved hands during the doffing of personal protective equipment (PPE) following the care of a patient with Ebola recommends for multiple applications of alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) on medical exam gloves. To evaluate possible effects of ABHR applications on glove integrity, thirteen brands of nitrile and latex medical exam gloves from five manufacturers and two different ABHRs were included in this study. A pair of gloves were worn by a test operator and the outside surfaces of the gloves were separately treated with an ABHR for 1 to 6 applications...
May 25, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Kristin J Cummings, Mary J Choi, Eric J Esswein, Marie A de Perio, Joshua M Harney, Wendy M Chung, David L Lakey, Allison M Liddell, Pierre E Rollin
Health care personnel (HCP) caring for patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) are at increased risk for infection with the virus. In 2014, a Texas hospital became the first U.S. community hospital to care for a patient with EVD; 2 nurses were infected while providing care. This article describes infection control measures developed to strengthen the hospital's capacity to safely diagnose and treat patients with EVD. After admission of the first patient with EVD, a multidisciplinary team from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) joined the hospital's infection preventionists to implement a system of occupational safety and health controls for direct patient care, handling of clinical specimens, and managing regulated medical waste...
May 10, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
Jos H Verbeek, Sharea Ijaz, Christina Mischke, Jani H Ruotsalainen, Erja Mäkelä, Kaisa Neuvonen, Michael B Edmond, Riitta Sauni, F Selcen Kilinc Balci, Raluca C Mihalache
BACKGROUND: In epidemics of highly infectious diseases, such as Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) or SARS, healthcare workers (HCW) are at much greater risk of infection than the general population, due to their contact with patients' contaminated body fluids. Contact precautions by means of personal protective equipment (PPE) can reduce the risk. It is unclear which type of PPE protects best, what is the best way to remove PPE, and how to make sure HCWs use PPE as instructed. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate which type or component of full-body PPE and which method of donning or removing (doffing) PPE have the least risk of self-contamination or infection for HCWs, and which training methods most increase compliance with PPE protocols...
April 19, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jonathan L Drew, Joseph Turner, Joshua Mugele, Greg Hasty, Taylor Duncan, Rebekah Zaiser, Dylan Cooper
INTRODUCTION: Effective models simulating the spread of contagion from provider to other patients, visitors, and rooms in a physically simulated emergency department setting have not been reported, and the effect of personal protective equipment (PPE) on reducing such spread in a simulated emergency department environment has not been quantified. METHODS: We developed a physical model for the spread of an Ebola-like virus. The scenario involved 3 computerized mannequins...
April 2016: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
F Selcen Kilinc
The threat of emerging infectious diseases including Ebola hemorrhagic fever, pandemic influenza, avian influenza, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and SARS has highlighted the need for effective personal protective equipment (PPE) to protect healthcare workers (HCWs), patients, and visitors. PPE is a critical component in the hierarchy of controls used to protect HCWs from infectious hazards. HCW PPE may include gowns, respirators, face masks, gloves, eye protection, face shields, and head and shoe coverings. Important research has been conducted in certain areas, such as respirators and protective masks, but studies in other areas, particularly gowns, are scarce...
September 2015: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
Sativa Michelle Franklin
PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to discuss the variance in requirements for personal protective equipment (PPE) used among healthcare workers to treat patients actively infected with the Ebola virus in West Africa. BACKGROUND: The Ebola virus is a highly contagious disease, which has killed 11020 people within the past year. In order to combat the disease and treat those with active infections, healthcare workers are required to use PPE. The guidelines for the PPE, in addition to the requirements of what should be worn, are varied between the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...
March 2016: Clinical Nurse Specialist CNS
Laurent Grélot, Fassou Koulibaly, Nancy Maugey, Frédéric Janvier, Vincent Foissaud, Marc Aletti, Hélène Savini, Jean Cotte, Henry Dampierre, Hervé Granier, Thierry Carmoi, Emmanuel Sagui
The extent of thermal strain while wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) during care activities for Ebola virus disease patients has not yet been characterized. From January to March 2015, 25 French healthcare workers (HCWs) in Conakry, Guinea, volunteered to be monitored while wearing PPE using an ingestible thermal sensor. The mean (standard deviation) working ambient temperature and relative humidity were 29.6 °C (2.0 °C) and 65.4% (10.3%), respectively; the mean time wearing PPE was 65.7 (13.5) minutes; and the mean core body temperature increased by 0...
May 1, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Angela C Dunn, Tiffany A Walker, John Redd, David Sugerman, Jevon McFadden, Tushar Singh, Joseph Jasperse, Brima Osaio Kamara, Tom Sesay, James McAuley, Peter H Kilmarx
BACKGROUND: In the largest Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in history, nosocomial transmission of EVD increased spread of the disease. We report on 2 instances in Sierra Leone where patients unknowingly infected with EVD were admitted to a general hospital ward (1 pediatric ward and 1 maternity ward), exposing health care workers, caregivers, and other patients to EVD. Both patients died on the general wards, and were later confirmed as being infected with EVD. We initiated contact tracing and assessed risk factors for secondary infections to guide containment recommendations...
March 1, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Shelly Lyn Maynard, R Kao, D G Craig
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Safe clinical care within Ebola Virus Disease Treatment Units (EVDTUs) mandate the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), comprising a fluid impermeable hooded suit, visor, gloves and rubber boots. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of this PPE on clinical personnel's performance in the EVDTU, Kerry Town, Sierra Leone. METHODS: An anonymous questionnaire was administered to healthcare professionals (HCPs) entering the EVDTU ward area (Red Zone (RZ)), during a 2-week period to assess perceived exertion using the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale...
June 2016: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Karen Gabel Speroni, Dorothy J Seibert, R Kevin Mallinson
OBJECTIVE: This study examined qualitative comments from an online survey of nurses' perceptions regarding care of persons under investigation and patients with confirmed Ebola virus disease (EVD) in the United States. BACKGROUND: Additional insight into nurses' perceptions regarding EVD was warranted. METHODS: Survey design used convenience sampling of RNs, licensed practical nurses, and nurse technicians, who responded to 8 open-ended survey questions...
November 2015: Journal of Nursing Administration
William A Fischer, David J Weber, David A Wohl
PURPOSE: The recent Ebola epidemic that devastated West Africa has infected and killed more health care providers than any other outbreak in the history of this virus. An improved understanding of pathogen transmission and the institution of strategies to protect health care providers against infection are needed in infectious disease outbreaks. This review connects what is known about Ebola virus transmission with personal protective equipment (PPE) designed to arrest nosocomial transmission...
November 1, 2015: Clinical Therapeutics
Mona Hersi, Adrienne Stevens, Pauline Quach, Candyce Hamel, Kednapa Thavorn, Chantelle Garritty, Becky Skidmore, Constanza Vallenas, Susan L Norris, Matthias Egger, Sergey Eremin, Mauricio Ferri, Nahoko Shindo, David Moher
BACKGROUND: A rapid review, guided by a protocol, was conducted to inform development of the World Health Organization's guideline on personal protective equipment in the context of the ongoing (2013-present) Western African filovirus disease outbreak, with a focus on health care workers directly caring for patients with Ebola or Marburg virus diseases. METHODS: Electronic databases and grey literature sources were searched. Eligibility criteria initially included comparative studies on Ebola and Marburg virus diseases reported in English or French, but criteria were expanded to studies on other viral hemorrhagic fevers and non-comparative designs due to the paucity of studies...
2015: PloS One
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