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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673681/the-association-between-self-perceived-proficiency-of-personal-protective-equipment-and-objective-performance-an-observational-study-during-a-bioterrorism-simulation-drill
#1
Itay Fogel, Osant David, Chaya H Balik, Arik Eisenkraft, Lion Poles, Omri Shental, Michael Kassirer, Tal Brosh-Nissimov
BACKGROUND: The recent Ebola virus disease outbreak emphasized the potential misuse of personal protective equipment (PPE) by health care workers (HCWs) during such an event. We aimed to compare self-perceived proficiency of PPE use and objective performance, and identify predictors of low compliance and PPE misuse. METHODS: An observational study combined with subjective questionnaires were carried out during a bioterror simulation drill. Forty-two observers evaluated performance under PPE...
June 30, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663587/challenge-of-liquid-stressed-protective-materials-and-environmental-persistence-of-ebola-virus
#2
Aidan M Nikiforuk, Todd A Cutts, Steven S Theriault, Bradley W M Cook
After the largest Ebola virus outbreak in history, experts have attempted to answer how the Zaire ebolavirus species emerged in West Africa and caused chains of human-to-human transmission. The widespread and untimely infection of Health Care Workers (HCW) in the affected countries accelerated spread of the virus within the community. Among the reasons attributed to this trend, it must be considered that HCW were exposed to the virus in their occupational environment. The contribution of environmental conditions to the spread of Ebola in West Africa was examined by investigating the effect of temperature/humidity on the virus's environmental persistence and by modeling if saturation (liquid stress) allows for penetration of Ebola virus through personal protective equipment (PPE)...
June 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636443/personal-protective-equipment-supply-chain-lessons-learned-from-recent-public-health-emergency-responses
#3
Anita Patel, Maryann M D'Alessandro, Karen J Ireland, W Greg Burel, Elaine B Wencil, Sonja A Rasmussen
Personal protective equipment (PPE) that protects healthcare workers from infection is a critical component of infection control strategies in healthcare settings. During a public health emergency response, protecting healthcare workers from infectious disease is essential, given that they provide clinical care to those who fall ill, have a high risk of exposure, and need to be assured of occupational safety. Like most goods in the United States, the PPE market supply is based on demand. The US PPE supply chain has minimal ability to rapidly surge production, resulting in challenges to meeting large unexpected increases in demand that might occur during a public health emergency...
May 2017: Health Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606192/assessment-of-healthcare-worker-protocol-deviations-and-self-contamination-during-personal-protective-equipment-donning-and-doffing
#4
Jennie H Kwon, Carey-Ann D Burnham, Kimberly A Reske, Stephen Y Liang, Tiffany Hink, Meghan A Wallace, Angela Shupe, Sondra Seiler, Candice Cass, Victoria J Fraser, Erik R Dubberke
OBJECTIVE To evaluate healthcare worker (HCW) risk of self-contamination when donning and doffing personal protective equipment (PPE) using fluorescence and MS2 bacteriophage. DESIGN Prospective pilot study. SETTING Tertiary-care hospital. PARTICIPANTS A total of 36 HCWs were included in this study: 18 donned/doffed contact precaution (CP) PPE and 18 donned/doffed Ebola virus disease (EVD) PPE. INTERVENTIONS HCWs donned PPE according to standard protocols. Fluorescent liquid and MS2 bacteriophage were applied to HCWs...
June 13, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601946/clinical-management-of-patients-with-ebola-virus-disease-in-high-resource-settings
#5
G Marshall Lyon, Aneesh K Mehta, Bruce S Ribner
Like most viral illnesses in humans, supportive care of the patient is the mainstay of clinical care for patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD). The goal is to maintain and sustain the patient until a specific immune response develops and clears the viral infection. Clearly, antiviral therapy may eventually help speed recovery, but supportive care will likely always be the centerpiece of care of the patient with EVD. While terrible in terms of human suffering and loss, the EVD outbreak of 2014-2016 provided an unheralded opportunity to advance our understanding in the care of patients (WHO 2016)...
June 11, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588978/improving-ebola-infection-prevention-and-control-in-primary-healthcare-facilities-in-sierra-leone-a-single-group-pretest-post-test-mixed-methods-study
#6
Ruwan Ratnayake, Lara S Ho, Rashid Ansumana, Hannah Brown, Matthias Borchert, Laura Miller, Thomas Kratz, Shannon A McMahon, Foday Sahr
BACKGROUND: Accomplishing infection prevention and control (IPC) in health facilities in Sub-Saharan Africa is challenging. Owing to poor IPC, healthcare workers (HCWs) were frequently infected during Sierra Leone's Ebola epidemic. In late 2014, IPC was rapidly and nationally scaled up. We carried out workshops in sampled facilities to further improve adherence to IPC. We investigated HCW experiences and observed practice gaps, before and after the workshops. METHODS: We conducted an uncontrolled, before and after, mixed-methods study in eight health facilities in Bo and Kenema Districts during December 2014 and January 2015...
November 2016: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573636/ebola-virus-field-sample-collection
#7
Brian R Amman, Amy J Schuh, Jonathan S Towner
Sampling wildlife for ebolaviruses presents the researcher with a multitude of challenges, foremost of which is safety. Throughout the methods described in this chapter, personal safety and personal protective equipment (PPE) will be reiterated for each methodology. The methods described here are those used to successfully detect and isolate marburgviruses from their natural reservoir, Rousettus aegyptiacus, and therefore should be applicable for diagnostic testing for ebolaviruses via RT-PCR, ELISA, and IHC techniques...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493945/ebola-virus-rna-detection-on-fomites-in-close-proximity-to-confirmed-ebola-patients-n-zerekore-guinea-2015
#8
Romain Palich, Leonid M Irenge, Eric Barte de Sainte Fare, Augustin Augier, Denis Malvy, Jean-Luc Gala
OBJECTIVE: Health care workers (HCWs) in contact with patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) are exposed to a risk of viral contamination. Fomites contaminated with the patient's blood or body fluids represents this risk. Our study aims to detect Ebola virus (EBOV) RNA within the high- and low-risk areas of an Ebola treatment unit (ETU) located in inland Guinea during the 2014-2015 West African Ebola epidemics. For samples from patients' immediate vicinity, we aim to seek an association between viral RNA detectability and level of plasma viral load of patients (intermediate to high, or very high)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420487/personal-protective-equipment-solution-for-uk-military-medical-personnel-working-in-an-ebola-virus-disease-treatment-unit-in-sierra-leone
#9
P Reidy, T Fletcher, C Shieber, J Shallcross, H Towler, M Ping, L Kenworthy, N Silman, E Aarons
The combination of personal protective equipment (PPE) together with donning and doffing protocols was designed to protect British and Canadian military medical personnel in the Kerry Town Ebola Treatment Unit (ETU) in Sierra Leone. The PPE solution was selected to protect medical staff from infectious risks, notably Ebola virus, and chemical (hypochlorite) exposure. PPE maximized dexterity, enabled personnel to work in hot temperatures for periods of up to 2h, protected mucosal membranes when doffing outer layers, and minimized potential contamination of the doffing area with infectious material by reducing the requirement to spray PPE with hypochlorite...
May 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303774/physiological-evaluation-of-personal-protective-ensembles-recommended-for-use-in-west-africa
#10
Aitor Coca, Tyler Quinn, Jung-Hyun Kim, Tianzhou Wu, Jeff Powell, Raymond Roberge, Ronald Shaffer
OBJECTIVE: Personal protective equipment (PPE) provides health care workers with a barrier to prevent human contact with viruses like Ebola and potential transmission of the disease. However, PPE can also introduce an additional physiological burden from potentially increased heat stress. This study evaluated the human physiological and subjective responses to continuous light exercise within environmental conditions similar to those in West Africa while wearing 3 different, commonly used PPE ensembles (E1, E2, and E3)...
March 17, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303772/physiological-evaluation-of-cooling-devices-in-conjunction-with-personal-protective-ensembles-recommended-for-use-in-west-africa
#11
Tyler Quinn, Jung-Hyun Kim, Amanda Strauch, Tianzhou Wu, Jeffery Powell, Raymond Roberge, Ronald Shaffer, Aitor Coca
OBJECTIVE: Cooling devices (CDs) worn under personal protective equipment (PPE) can alleviate some of the heat stress faced by health care workers responding to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. METHODS: Six healthy, young individuals were tested while wearing 4 different CDs or no cooling (control) under PPE in an environmental chamber (32°C/92% relative humidity) while walking (3 METs, 2.5 mph, 0% grade) on a treadmill for 60 minutes. Exercise was preceded by a 15-minute stabilization period and a 15-minute donning period...
March 17, 2017: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853031/the-post-ebola-virus-disease-scourge-in-nigeria-individual-levels-of-preparedness-among-physicians-in-the-federal-capital-territory-abuja
#12
Adewale L Alli, Maxwell M Nwegbu, Perpetua U Ibekwe, Titus S Ibekwe
BACKGROUND: Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a viral hemorrhagic illness with great propensity for spread across international borders. The latest outbreak in the West African region, which involved Nigeria, was the worst among previously documented 25 outbreaks since discovery in 1976. The Nigerian response toward attaining Ebola free status was phenomenal and a case study for most nations. However, the persistence of EVD in West Africa is still a risk to recurrence, hence, the need to assess the level of consciousness of Nigerian physicians towards this...
October 2016: Annals of African Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477451/assessment-of-self-contamination-during-removal-of-personal-protective-equipment-for-ebola-patient-care
#13
Lisa M Casanova, Lisa J Teal, Emily E Sickbert-Bennett, Deverick J Anderson, Daniel J Sexton, William A Rutala, David J Weber
OBJECTIVE Ebola virus disease (EVD) places healthcare personnel (HCP) at high risk for infection during patient care, and personal protective equipment (PPE) is critical. Protocols for EVD PPE doffing have not been validated for prevention of viral self-contamination. Using surrogate viruses (non-enveloped MS2 and enveloped Φ6), we assessed self-contamination of skin and clothes when trained HCP doffed EVD PPE using a standardized protocol. METHODS A total of 15 HCP donned EVD PPE for this study. Virus was applied to PPE, and a trained monitor guided them through the doffing protocol...
October 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27333890/good-laboratory-practices-guarantee-biosafety-in-the-sierra-leone-china-friendship-biosafety-laboratory
#14
Qin Wang, Wei-Min Zhou, Yong Zhang, Huan-Yu Wang, Hai-Jun Du, Kai Nie, Jing-Dong Song, Kang Xiao, Wen-Wen Lei, Jian-Qiang Guo, He-Jiang Wei, Kun Cai, Yan-Hai Wang, Jiang Wu, Gerard Kamara, Idrissa Kamara, Qiang Wei, Mi-Fang Liang, Gui-Zhen Wu, Xiao-Ping Dong
BACKGROUND: The outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa between 2014 and 2015 was the largest EDV epidemic since the identification of Ebola virus (EBOV) in 1976, and the countries most strongly affected were Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Liberia. FINDINGS: The Sierra Leone-China Friendship Biological Safety Laboratory (SLE-CHN Biosafety Lab), a fixed Biosafety Level 3 laboratory in the capital city of Sierra Leone, was established by the Chinese government and has been active in EBOV detection since 11 March 2015...
June 23, 2016: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27257793/personal-protective-equipment-and-improving-compliance-among-healthcare-workers-in-high-risk-settings
#15
Hitoshi Honda, Kentaro Iwata
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Personal protective equipment (PPE) protects healthcare workers (HCWs) from infection by highly virulent pathogens via exposure to body fluids and respiratory droplets. Given the recent outbreaks of contagious infectious diseases worldwide, including Ebola virus and Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome, there is urgent need for further research to determine optimal PPE use in high-risk settings. This review intends to provide a general understanding of PPE and to provide guidelines for appropriate use based on current evidence...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27224677/effect-of-multiple-alcohol-based-hand-rub-applications-on-the-tensile-properties-of-thirteen-brands-of-medical-exam-nitrile-and-latex-gloves
#16
Pengfei Gao, Matthew Horvatin, George Niezgoda, Robyn Weible, Ronald Shaffer
Current CDC guidance for the disinfection of gloved hands during the doffing of personal protective equipment (PPE) following the care of a patient with Ebola recommends for multiple applications of alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) on medical exam gloves. To evaluate possible effects of ABHR applications on glove integrity, thirteen brands of nitrile and latex medical exam gloves from five manufacturers and two different ABHRs were included in this study. A pair of gloves were worn by a test operator and the outside surfaces of the gloves were separately treated with an ABHR for 1 to 6 applications...
May 25, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27159355/addressing-infection-prevention-and-control-in-the-first-u-s-community-hospital-to-care-for-patients-with-ebola-virus-disease-context-for-national-recommendations-and-future-strategies
#17
Kristin J Cummings, Mary J Choi, Eric J Esswein, Marie A de Perio, Joshua M Harney, Wendy M Chung, David L Lakey, Allison M Liddell, Pierre E Rollin
Health care personnel (HCP) caring for patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) are at increased risk for infection with the virus. In 2014, a Texas hospital became the first U.S. community hospital to care for a patient with EVD; 2 nurses were infected while providing care. This article describes infection control measures developed to strengthen the hospital's capacity to safely diagnose and treat patients with EVD. After admission of the first patient with EVD, a multidisciplinary team from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) joined the hospital's infection preventionists to implement a system of occupational safety and health controls for direct patient care, handling of clinical specimens, and managing regulated medical waste...
May 10, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27093058/personal-protective-equipment-for-preventing-highly-infectious-diseases-due-to-exposure-to-contaminated-body-fluids-in-healthcare-staff
#18
REVIEW
Jos H Verbeek, Sharea Ijaz, Christina Mischke, Jani H Ruotsalainen, Erja Mäkelä, Kaisa Neuvonen, Michael B Edmond, Riitta Sauni, F Selcen Kilinc Balci, Raluca C Mihalache
BACKGROUND: In epidemics of highly infectious diseases, such as Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) or SARS, healthcare workers (HCW) are at much greater risk of infection than the general population, due to their contact with patients' contaminated body fluids. Contact precautions by means of personal protective equipment (PPE) can reduce the risk. It is unclear which type of PPE protects best, what is the best way to remove PPE, and how to make sure HCWs use PPE as instructed. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate which type or component of full-body PPE and which method of donning or removing (doffing) PPE have the least risk of self-contamination or infection for HCWs, and which training methods most increase compliance with PPE protocols...
April 19, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27043095/beating-the-spread-developing-a-simulation-analog-for-contagious-body-fluids
#19
Jonathan L Drew, Joseph Turner, Joshua Mugele, Greg Hasty, Taylor Duncan, Rebekah Zaiser, Dylan Cooper
INTRODUCTION: Effective models simulating the spread of contagion from provider to other patients, visitors, and rooms in a physically simulated emergency department setting have not been reported, and the effect of personal protective equipment (PPE) on reducing such spread in a simulated emergency department environment has not been quantified. METHODS: We developed a physical model for the spread of an Ebola-like virus. The scenario involved 3 computerized mannequins...
April 2016: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26989351/a-review-of-isolation-gowns-in-healthcare-fabric-and-gown-properties
#20
F Selcen Kilinc
The threat of emerging infectious diseases including Ebola hemorrhagic fever, pandemic influenza, avian influenza, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and SARS has highlighted the need for effective personal protective equipment (PPE) to protect healthcare workers (HCWs), patients, and visitors. PPE is a critical component in the hierarchy of controls used to protect HCWs from infectious hazards. HCW PPE may include gowns, respirators, face masks, gloves, eye protection, face shields, and head and shoe coverings. Important research has been conducted in certain areas, such as respirators and protective masks, but studies in other areas, particularly gowns, are scarce...
September 2015: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics
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