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Frank A P C Gobas, Hao-Feng Lai, Donald Mackay, Lauren E Padilla, Andy Goetz, Scott H Jackson
A time-dependent environmental fate and food-web bioaccumulation model is developed to improve the evaluation of the behaviour of non-ionic hydrophobic organic pesticides in farm ponds. The performance of the model was tested by simulating the behaviour of 3 hydrophobic organic pesticides, i.e., metaflumizone (CAS Number: 139968-49-3), kresoxim-methyl (CAS Number: 144167-04-4) and pyraclostrobin (CAS Number: 175013-18-0), in microcosm studies and a Bluegill bioconcentration study for metaflumizone. In general, model-calculated concentrations of the pesticides were in reasonable agreement with the observed concentrations...
October 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ilje Pikaar, Silvio Matassa, Benjamin L Bodirsky, Isabelle Weindl, Florian Humpenöder, Korneel Rabaey, Nico Boon, Michele Bruschi, Zhiguo Yuan, Hannah van Zanten, Mario Herrero, Willy Verstraete, Alexander Popp
One of the main challenges for the 21st century is to balance the increasing demand for high-quality proteins while mitigating environmental impacts. In particular, cropland-based production of protein-rich animal feed for livestock rearing results in large-scale agricultural land-expansion, nitrogen pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. Here we propose and analyze the long-term potential of alternative animal feed supply routes based on industrial production of microbial proteins (MP). Our analysis reveals that by 2050, MP can replace, depending on socio-economic development and MP production pathways, between 10-19% of conventional crop-based animal feed protein demand...
June 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Pankaj Sharma, Amos Samkumar, Mahesh Rao, Vijay V Singh, Lakshman Prasad, Dwijesh C Mishra, Ramcharan Bhattacharya, Navin C Gupta
White mold or stem rot disease are ubiquitously distributed throughout the world and the causal organism of this disease Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, is known to infect over 400 plant species. Sclerotinia stem rot is one of the most devastating fungal diseases and poses a serious threat to the worldwide cultivation of oilseed Brassica including India. S. sclerotiorum pathogen usually infects the stem but in severe cases leaves and pods also affected at different developmental stages that deteriorate not only the oil quality but also causing the seed and oil yield losses up to 90% depending on the severity of the disease infestation...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jesús Mercado-Blanco, Isabel Abrantes, Anna Barra Caracciolo, Annamaria Bevivino, Aurelio Ciancio, Paola Grenni, Katarzyna Hrynkiewicz, László Kredics, Diogo N Proença
Trees are crucial for sustaining life on our planet. Forests and land devoted to tree crops do not only supply essential edible products to humans and animals, but also additional goods such as paper or wood. They also prevent soil erosion, support microbial, animal, and plant biodiversity, play key roles in nutrient and water cycling processes, and mitigate the effects of climate change acting as carbon dioxide sinks. Hence, the health of forests and tree cropping systems is of particular significance. In particular, soil/rhizosphere/root-associated microbial communities (known as microbiota) are decisive to sustain the fitness, development, and productivity of trees...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Alessandro Occhialini
The bimolecular fluorescent complementation (BiFC) is a fluorescent complementation method largely used to investigate protein-protein interaction in living cells. This method is based on the ability of two nonfluorescent fragments to assemble forming a native fluorescent reporter with the same spectral properties of the native reporter. Such fragments are fused to putative protein partners that in case of interaction will bring the two halves in close proximity, allowing for the reconstitution of an active fluorescent reporter...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Kristina M Mahan, Rosemary K Le, Tyrone Wells, Seth Anderson, Joshua S Yuan, Ryan J Stoklosa, Aditya Bhalla, David B Hodge, Arthur J Ragauskas
Livestock and fish farming are rapidly growing industries facing the simultaneous pressure of increasing production demands and limited protein required to produce feed. Bacteria that can convert low-value non-food waste streams into singe cell protein (SCP) present an intriguing route for rapid protein production. The oleaginous bacterium Rhodococcus opacus serves as a model organism for understanding microbial lipid production. SCP production has not been explored using an organism from this genus. In the present research, R...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Leonardo Caputo, Laura Quintieri, Maria Maddalena Cavalluzzi, Giovanni Lentini, Solomon Habtemariam
Citrus pomace is a huge agro-food industrial waste mostly composed of peels and traditionally used as compost or animal feed. Owing to its high content of compounds beneficial to humans (e.g., flavonoids, phenol-like acids, and terpenoids), citrus waste is increasingly used to produce valuable supplements, fragrance, or antimicrobials. However, such processes require sustainable and efficient extraction strategies by solvent-free techniques for environmentally-friendly good practices. In this work, we evaluated the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of water extracts of three citrus peels (orange, lemon, and citron) against ten different sanitary relevant bacteria...
June 17, 2018: Biomedicines
Siti Nur Ezzati Yazid, Hemashangari Thanggavelu, Norlia Mahror, Jinap Selamat, Nik Iskandar Putra Samsudin
In studying the ecophysiology of fungal phytopathogens, several stages are involved (in vitro, greenhouse, in planta). Most in vitro studies extensively utilise the general growth media such as Potato Dextrose Agar and Malt Extract Agar. Although the crop components in these media serve as excellent carbon sources and yield luxuriant growth, they are not naturally contaminated with Aspergillus flavus and thus might result in under- or overestimation of its actual toxigenic potentials. Empirical data on the formulation of semi-synthetic growth medium mimicking the natural crop commonly contaminated by A...
June 9, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Genciana Terova, Simona Rimoldi, Marisol Izquierdo, Cristina Pirrone, Wafa Ghrab, Giovanni Bernardini
Currently, the larviculture of many marine fish species with small-sized larvae depends for a short time after hatching, on the supply of high-quality live zooplankton to ensure high survival and growth rates. During the last few decades, the research community has made great efforts to develop artificial diets, which can completely substitute live prey. However, studies aimed at determining optimal levels of minerals in marine larvae compound feeds and the potential of novel delivery vectors for mineral acquisition has only very recently begun...
June 17, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Elizabeth Carazo-Rojas, Greivin Pérez-Rojas, Marta Pérez-Villanueva, Cristina Chinchilla-Soto, Juan Salvador Chin-Pampillo, Paula Aguilar-Mora, Melvin Alpízar-Marín, Mario Masís-Mora, Carlos E Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Zisis Vryzas
A pesticide monitoring study including 80 and 60 active ingredients (in surface waters and sediments, respectively) was carried out in a river basin in Costa Rica during 2007-2012. A special emphasis was given on the exceptional ecological conditions of the tropical agro-ecosystem and the pesticide application strategies in order to establish a reliable monitoring network. A total of 135 water samples and 129 sediment samples were collected and analyzed. Long-term aquatic ecotoxicological risk assessment based on risk quotient in three trophic levels was conducted...
June 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Muthusamy Sanjivkumar, Tamilselvan Silambarasan, Ramasamy Balagurunathan, Grasian Immanuel
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the biosynthesis, molecular modeling and statistical optimization of xylanase production through Box-Behnken design by a mangrove associated actinobacterium Streptomyces variabilis (MAB3). Initially, the production of xylanase by the selected strain was carried through submerged fermentation using birchwood xylan as substrate. Further the xylanase production was statistically optimized through Box-Behnken design. It showed 5.30 fold increase of xylanase production by the isolate compared to 'one factor at a time approach' in the presence of the basal medium containing birchwood xylan (2...
June 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Dongyang Liu, Hong Cheng, Rainer W Bussmann, Zhiyong Guo, Bo Liu, Chunlin Long
BACKGROUND: Chuxiong, known as "the City of Fungi," is rich in fungal resources and traditional knowledge related to fungal biodiversity. The local environment is an excellent habitat for a wide variety of edible fungi. In addition, the region is home to many ethnic minorities and especially the Yi ethnic group who has a long history for traditionally using fungi as food or medicine. The aims of this review are to provide up-to-date information on the knowledge about, and traditional management of, fungi in this area and give advice on future utilization and conservation...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Aswin Sriram, Ganapathiraman Swaminathan
In the present study, thermogravimetric analysis of Musa balbisiana flower petal was carried out to study the degradation behaviour and the kinetics in the pyrolytic reaction. The pyrolysis was carried out in the temperature range of 35-900 °C at different heating rates of 5, 10 and 20 °C/min. The kinetics was investigated using different models like Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS), Flynn-Ozawa-Wall (FOW), Friedman and Broido's plot. The average Ea values determined by KAS, FOW and Friedman methods were 137...
May 11, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Shihab Uddin, Markus Löw, Shahnaj Parvin, Glenn J Fitzgerald, Sabine Tausz-Posch, Roger Armstrong, Garry O'Leary, Michael Tausz
Through stimulation of root growth, increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) may facilitate access of crops to sub-soil water, which could potentially prolong physiological activity in dryland environments, particularly because crops are more water use efficient under elevated [CO2] (e[CO2]). This study investigated the effect of drought in shallow soil versus sub-soil on agronomic and physiological responses of wheat to e[CO2] in a glasshouse experiment. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Yitpi) was grown in split-columns with the top (0-30 cm) and bottom (31-60 cm; 'sub-soil') soil layer hydraulically separated by a wax-coated, root-penetrable layer under ambient [CO2] (a[CO2], ∼400 μmol mol-1) or e[CO2] (∼700 μmol mol-1) [CO2]...
2018: PloS One
Samual T Williams, Naudene Maree, Peter Taylor, Steven R Belmain, Mark Keith, Lourens H Swanepoel
This dataset includes data derived from camera trap surveys and questionnaire surveys relating to small carnivores in agro-ecosystems in the Vhembe Biosphere Reserve, South Africa. The data were collected as part of the study "Predation by small mammalian carnivores in rural agro-ecosystems: An undervalued ecosystem service?" (Williams et al., 2017a) [1]. Camera trap locations were stratified by land use: settlement, crops, and grazing areas. The camera trap data provide an insight into the ecology of the nine species of small carnivores that were recorded: striped polecat ( Ictonyx striatus ), honey badger ( Mellivora capensis ), large-spotted genet ( Genetta maculata ), African civet ( Civettictis civetta ), slender mongoose ( Galerella sanguinea ), Meller's mongoose ( Rhynchogale melleri ), Selous' mongoose ( Paracynictis selousi ), white tailed mongoose ( Ichneumia albicauda ), and dwarf mongoose ( Helogale parvula )...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Abade Ahmed, Jabir Makame, Fyumagwa Robert, Keyyu Julius, Matee Mecky
BACKGROUND: In the past two decades, Rift Valley Fever (RVF) outbreaks have been reported twice in Tanzania, with the most recent outbreak occurring in 2006/07. Given the ecology and climatic factors that support mosquito vectors in the Serengeti ecosystem, we hypothesized a continued transmission of RVF virus (RVFV) during interepidemic periods. This study was carried out to determine sero-prevalence, spatial distribution and factors associated with RVF in at-risk agro-pastoral and pastoral communities in the Serengeti Ecosystem in northern Tanzania...
June 14, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Nabin Narayan Munankarmi, Neesha Rana, Tribikram Bhattarai, Ram Lal Shrestha, Bal Krishna Joshi, Bikash Baral, Sangita Shrestha
Acid lime ( Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle) is an important fruit crop, which has high commercial value and is cultivated in 60 out of the 77 districts representing all geographical landscapes of Nepal. A lack of improved high-yielding varieties, infestation with various diseases, and pests, as well as poor management practices might have contributed to its extremely reduced productivity, which necessitates a reliable understanding of genetic diversity in existing cultivars. Hereby, we aim to characterize the genetic diversity of acid lime cultivars cultivated at three different agro-ecological gradients of eastern Nepal, employing PCR-based inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers...
June 12, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Ana Cristina Oliveira, Ana Barata, Ana P Batista, Luísa Gouveia
Wastewater biological treatment with microalgae can be an effective technology, removing nutrients and other contaminants while reducing chemical oxygen demand. This can be particularly interesting for the meat producing industry which produces large volumes of wastewater from the slaughtering of animals and cleaning of their facilities. The main purpose of this research was the treatment of poultry wastewater using Scenedesmus obliquus in an economical and environmentally sustainable way. Two wastewaters were collected from a Portuguese poultry slaughterhouse (poultry raw - PR and poultry flocculated - PF) and the bioremediation was evaluated...
June 12, 2018: Environmental Technology
Sabrina O Garcia, Ana Carla P Feltrin, Jaqueline Garda-Buffon
The peroxidase (POD) enzyme, obtained from different sources, has been described in the literature regarding its good results of reduction in concentration or degradation levels of mycotoxins, such as aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. This study aimed at evaluating the action of commercial peroxidase and peroxidase from soybean bran (SB) and rice bran (RB) in zearalenone (ZEA) reduction in a model solution and the characterization of the mechanism of enzyme action. POD was extracted from SB and RB in phosphate buffer by orbital agitation...
June 11, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Anna Bzducha-Wróbel, Stanisław Błażejak, Marek Kieliszek, Katarzyna Pobiega, Katarzyna Falana, Monika Janowicz
Changes in cell wall structure of four strains of Sacccharomyces cerevisiae species (brewer's, baker's and probiotic yeast) after culturing on deproteinated potato juice water (DPJW) with diverse addition of glycerol and different pH were investigated. It allowed to select conditions intensifying biosynthesis of β(1,3)/(1,6)-glucan and mannoproteins of cell walls of tested strains. Yeast cell wall structural polysaccharides show biological activity and technological usability in food industry but also decide about therapeutic properties of yeast biomass...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
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