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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822953/xylanase-from-acinetobacter-pittii-mask-25-and-developed-magnetic-cross-linked-xylanase-aggregate-produce-predominantly-xylopentose-and-xylohexose-from-agro-biomass
#1
Anjali Purohit, Shushil Kumar Rai, Manisha Chownk, Rajender Singh Sangwan, Sudesh Kumar Yadav
Most of the chemical and biochemical processes used for the de-polymerization of structural polymers of lignocellulosic biomass are environment unfriendly and costly. Here an efficient process based on xylanase, produced by Acinetobacter pittii MASK25 (MTCC 25132), hydrolysis of only physically treated rice straw and corn cob has been developed for the production of xylooligosaccharides. Bacterial strain isolated from soil was found to produce maximum xylanase at 30°C and pH 7. While the optimum temperature and pH of xylanase were characterized as 40°C and 5...
August 9, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817696/phenotypic-and-molecular-characterization-of-sweet-sorghum-accessions-for-bioenergy-production
#2
Michele Jorge da Silva, Maria Marta Pastina, Vander Fillipe de Souza, Robert Eugene Schaffert, Pedro Crescêncio Souza Carneiro, Roberto Willians Noda, José Eustáquio de Souza Carneiro, Cynthia Maria Borges Damasceno, Rafael Augusto da Costa Parrella
Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a type of cultivated sorghum characterized by the accumulation of high levels of sugar in the stems and high biomass accumulation, making this crop an important feedstock for bioenergy production. Sweet sorghum breeding programs that focus on bioenergy have two main goals: to improve quantity and quality of sugars in the juicy stem and to increase fresh biomass productivity. Genetic diversity studies are very important for the success of a breeding program, especially in the early stages, where understanding the genetic relationship between accessions is essential to identify superior parents for the development of improved breeding lines...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813463/genetic-diversity-of-bemisia-tabaci-species-colonizing-cassava-in-central-african-republic-characterized-by-analysis-of-cytochrome-c-oxidase-subunit-i
#3
Brice Kette Tocko-Marabena, Semballa Silla, Christophe Simiand, Innocent Zinga, James Legg, Bernard Reynaud, Helene Delatte
After 2007, upsurges of whiteflies on cassava plants and high incidences of cassava diseases were observed in Central African Republic. This recent upsurge in the abundance of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) was directly linked to serious damage to cassava crops resulting from spread of whitefly-borne cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs). There is currently very little information describing whitefly populations on cassava and associated crops in Central African Republic. The current study aimed to address this gap, and to determine whether the increasing damage associated with B...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811759/seed-transmission-of-tomato-yellow-leaf-curl-virus-in-white-soybean-glycine-max
#4
Eui-Joon Kil, Jungho Park, Hong-Soo Choi, Chang-Seok Kim, Sukchan Lee
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) infection of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has been reported, but soybean (Glycine max) has not previously been identified as a TYLCV host. Five cultivars of white soybean were agro-inoculated using an infectious TYLCV clone. At 30 days post-inoculation, they showed infection rates of 25% to 100%. Typical TYLCV symptoms were not observed in any inoculated plants. To examine whether TYLCV was transmitted in soybean seeds, DNA was isolated from bundles of five randomly selected seeds from TYLCV-inoculated soybean plants and amplified with a TYLCV-specific primer set...
August 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811511/from-metabolome-to-phenotype-gc-ms-metabolomics-of-developing-mutant-barley-seeds-reveals-effects-of-growth-temperature-and-genotype
#5
Bekzod Khakimov, Morten Arendt Rasmussen, Rubini Maya Kannangara, Birthe Møller Jespersen, Lars Munck, Søren Balling Engelsen
The development of crop varieties tolerant to growth temperature fluctuations and improved nutritional value is crucial due to climate change and global population growth. This study investigated the metabolite patterns of developing barley seed as a function of genotype and growth temperature for ideal vegetable protein production and for augmented β-glucan production. Seeds from three barley lines (Bomi, lys3.a and lys5.f) were sampled eight times during grain filling and analysed for metabolites using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810521/cropping-systems-affect-paddy-soil-organic-carbon-and-total-nitrogen-stocks-in-rice-garlic-and-rice-fava-systems-in-temperate-region-of-southern-china
#6
Tao Zhang, Anqiang Chen, Jian Liu, Hongbin Liu, Baokun Lei, Limei Zhai, Dan Zhang, Hongyuan Wang
The accumulation of soil organic carbon (SOC) in agricultural soils is critical to food security and climate change. However, there is still limited information on the dynamic trend of SOC sequestration following changes in cropping systems. Paddy soils, typical of temperate region of southern China, have a large potential for carbon (C) sequestration and nitrogen (N) fixation. It is of great importance to study the impacts of changes in cropping systems on stocks of SOC and total nitrogen (TN) in paddy soils...
August 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810217/porous-cellulose-as-promoter-of-oil-production-by-the-oleaginous-yeast-lipomyces-starkeyi-using-mixed-agroindustrial-wastes
#7
Vassilios Ganatsios, Athanasios A Koutinas, Argyro Bekatorou, Vassilios Panagopoulos, Ibrahim M Banat, Antonia Terpou, Nikolaos Kopsahelis
Enhanced single cell oil (SCO) production by the oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi DSM 70296, immobilised on delignified porous cellulose, is reported. Pure glucose media were initially used. The effects of substrate pH and treatment temperature were evaluated, showing that 30°C and pH 5.0 were the optimum conditions for SCO production by the immobilised yeast. The immobilisation technique led to increased lipid accumulation and cell growth by 44% and 8%, respectively, in the glucose media, compared to free cells in suspension...
July 29, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808954/heavy-metal-pollutants-in-selected-organs-of-african-giant-rats-from-three-agro-ecological-zones-of-nigeria-evidence-for-their-role-as-an-environmental-specimen-bank
#8
Ifukibot Levi Usende, Benjamin O Emikpe, James Olukayode Olopade
An assessment of the concentration of heavy metals in the liver, brain, kidney, bone, and lungs of African giant rats (AGRs) from three agro-ecological zones of Nigeria having different industrial activities was carried out using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Twenty adult AGRs from cities in mangrove/freshwater swamp, rainforest, and woodland/tall grass savanna agro-ecological zones of Nigeria were used for this study. AGRs were euthanized, carefully dissected, and the brains, liver, lungs, bone, and kidneys were harvested, digested, and analyzed for concentrations of vanadium (V), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe)...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804804/life-cycle-environmental-impacts-of-bioethanol-production-from-sugarcane-molasses-in-iran
#9
Saeid Shahvarooghi Farahani, Mohammad Amin Asoodar
In recent years, bioethanol from sugarcane molasses has been produced on an industrial scale in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate molasses-based bioethanol production from an environmental point of view. Data were collected from Debel Khazai agro-industry situated in southern region of Iran by using face-to-face interviews and annual statistics of 2010 to 2016 (6-year life cycle of sugarcane cultivation). Ten impact categories including abiotic depletion (AD), acidification (AC), eutrophication (EP), global warming potential (GWP), ozone layer depletion (OLD), human toxicity (HT), freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity (FE), marine aquatic ecotoxicity (ME), terrestrial ecotoxicity (TE), and photochemical oxidation (PO) were selected based on CML methodology...
August 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803466/deciphering-the-fluorine-code-the-many-hats-fluorine-wears-in-a-protein-environment
#10
Allison Ann Berger, Jan-Stefan Völler, Nediljko Budisa, Beate Koksch
Deciphering the fluorine code is how we describe not only the focus of this Account, but also the systematic approach to studying the impact of fluorine's incorporation on the properties of peptides and proteins used by our groups and others. The introduction of fluorine has been shown to impart favorable, but seldom predictable, properties to peptides and proteins, but up until about two decades ago the outcomes of fluorine modification of peptides and proteins were largely left to chance. Driven by the motivation to extend the application of the unique properties of the element fluorine from medicinal and agro chemistry to peptide and protein engineering we have established extensive research programs that enable the systematic investigation of effects that accompany the introduction of fluorine into this class of biopolymers...
August 12, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801586/identification-of-mega-environments-and-rice-genotypes-for-general-and-specific-adaptation-to-saline-and-alkaline-stresses-in-india
#11
S L Krishnamurthy, P C Sharma, D K Sharma, K T Ravikiran, Y P Singh, V K Mishra, D Burman, B Maji, S Mandal, S K Sarangi, R K Gautam, P K Singh, K K Manohara, B C Marandi, G Padmavathi, P B Vanve, K D Patil, S Thirumeni, O P Verma, A H Khan, S Tiwari, S Geetha, M Shakila, R Gill, V K Yadav, S K B Roy, M Prakash, J Bonifacio, Abdelbagi Ismail, G B Gregorio, Rakesh Kumar Singh
In the present study, a total of 53 promising salt-tolerant genotypes were tested across 18 salt-affected diverse locations for three years. An attempt was made to identify ideal test locations and mega-environments using GGE biplot analysis. The CSSRI sodic environment was the most discriminating location in individual years as well as over the years and could be used to screen out unstable and salt-sensitive genotypes. Genotypes CSR36, CSR-2K-219, and CSR-2K-262 were found ideal across years. Overall, Genotypes CSR-2K-219, CSR-2K-262, and CSR-2K-242 were found superior and stable among all genotypes with higher mean yields...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801256/new-innovative-ecosystems-in-france-to-develop-the-bioeconomy
#12
REVIEW
Thierry Stadler, Jean-Marie Chauvet
The cluster's policy initiated in France in 2005 was a formidable opportunity to boost innovation in the bioeconomy and to develop innovation platforms allowing industrial demonstration and feasibility at technology readiness level (TRL) from 5 to 9. The IAR Cluster (Industries and Agro-Resources), based in the Hauts-de-France and Grand Est regions is completely dedicated to the bioeconomy. IAR's work has contributed to build a complete innovation ecosystem on bioeconomy by opening up relationships between actors along the full value chain...
August 8, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799370/nucleation-in-food-colloids
#13
Malcolm J W Povey
Nucleation in food colloids has been studied in detail using ultrasound spectroscopy. Our data show that classical nucleation theory (CNT) remains a sound basis from which to understand nucleation in food colloids and analogous model systems using n-alkanes. Various interpretations and modifications of CNT are discussed with regard to their relevance to food colloids. Much of the evidence presented is based on the ultrasound velocity spectrometry measurements which has many advantages for the study of nucleating systems compared to light scattering and NMR due to its sensitivity at low solid contents and its ability to measure true solid contents in the nucleation and early crystal growth stages...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794923/a-sustainable-use-of-low-cost-raw-substrates-for-biodiesel-production-by-the-oleaginous-yeast-wickerhamomyces-anomalus
#14
Fatma Arous, Imen Ben Atitallah, Moncef Nasri, Tahar Mechichi
Over the past decade, the increasing demand of vegetable oils for biodiesel production has highlighted the need for alternative oil feedstocks that do not compete with food production. In this context, the combined use of agro-industrial wastes and oleaginous microorganisms could be a promising strategy for sustainable biodiesel production. The present investigation involves the performance of the oleaginous yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus strain EC28 to produce lipids from different agro-industrial wastewaters (i...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793900/botanical-ethnoveterinary-therapies-used-by-agro-pastoralists-of-fafan-zone-eastern-ethiopia
#15
Teka Feyera, Endalkachew Mekonnen, Befekadu Urga Wakayo, Solomon Assefa
BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, plant based remedies are still the most important and sometimes the only source of therapeutics in the management of livestock diseases. However, documentation of this indigenous knowledge of therapeutic system still remains at a minimum level. The aim of this study was, thus, to document the traditional knowledge of botanical ethnoveterinary therapies in the agro-pastoral communities of Fafan Zone, Eastern Ethiopia. METHODS: The study employed a cross-sectional participatory survey...
August 9, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781375/the-agricultural-origins-of-time-preference
#16
Oded Galor, Ömer Özak
This research explores the origins of observed differences in time preference across countries and regions. Exploiting a natural experiment associated with the expansion of suitable crops for cultivation in the course of the Columbian Exchange, the research establishes that pre-industrial agro-climatic characteristics that were conducive to higher return to agricultural investment, triggered selection, adaptation and learning processes that generated a persistent positive effect on the prevalence of long-term orientation in the contemporary era...
October 2016: American Economic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781100/molecular-characterization-of-novel-bradyrhizobium-strains-nodulating-eriosema-chinense-and-flemingia-vestita-important-unexplored-native-legumes-of-the-sub-himalayan-region-meghalaya-of-india
#17
Archana Ojha, Nisha Tak, Sonam Rathi, Bhawana Chouhan, Satyawada Rama Rao, Saroj K Barik, Santa R Joshi, Janet S Sprent, Euan K James, Hukam S Gehlot
Root nodule bacterial strains were isolated from the little-studied legumes Eriosema chinense and Flemingia vestita (both in tribe Phaseoleae, Papilionoideae) growing in acidic soil of the sub-Himalayan region of the Indian state of Meghalaya (ME), and were identified as novel strains of Bradyrhizobium on the basis of their 16S rRNA sequences. Seven isolates selected on the basis of phenotypic characters and assessment of ARDRA and RAPD patterns were subjected to multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) using four protein-coding housekeeping genes (glnII, recA, dnaK and gyrB)...
July 19, 2017: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780453/a-novel-horizontal-subsurface-flow-constructed-wetland-reducing-area-requirements-and-clogging-risk
#18
Triantafyllos Tatoulis, Christos S Akratos, Athanasia G Tekerlekopoulou, Dimitrios V Vayenas, Alexandros I Stefanakis
The use of Constructed Wetlands (CWs) has been nowadays expanded from municipal to industrial and agro-industrial wastewaters. The main limitations of CWs remain the relatively high area requirements compared to mechanical treatment technologies and the potential occurrence of the clogging phenomenon. This study presents the findings of an innovative CW design where novel materials were used. Four pilot-scale CW units were designed, built and operated for two years. Each unit consisted of two compartments, the first of which (two thirds of the total unit length) contained either fine gravel (in two units) or random type high density polyethylene (HDPE) (in the other two units)...
August 1, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780295/investigating-the-efficiency-of-co-composting-and-vermicomposting-of-vinasse-with-the-mixture-of-cow-manure-wastes-bagasse-and-natural-zeolite
#19
Nadali Alavi, Monavvar Daneshpajou, Mohammad Shirmardi, Gholamreza Goudarzi, Abdolkazem Neisi, Ali Akbar Babaei
Fermentation of ethanol as a product of sugarcane agro-industry causes the discharge of large amounts of a liquid waste called vinasse into the environment. In this study, co-composting followed by vermicomposting process of the mixtures of vinasse, cow manure, and chopped bagasse was performed for 60days using earthworms of Eisenia fetida species. The results showed that the trend of changes in C/N was decreasing. The pH of the final fertilizer was in alkaline range (8.1-8.4). The total potassium decreased during the process, ranging from 0...
August 2, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780262/production-of-poly-%C3%AE-l-malic-acid-by-aureobasidium-pullulans-ha-4d-under-solid-state-fermentation
#20
Jun Xia, Rongqing Li, Aiyong He, Jiaxing Xu, Xiaoyan Liu, Xiangqian Li, Jiming Xu
Poly(β-l-malic acid) (PMA) production by Aureobasidium pullulans HA-4D was carried out through solid-state fermentation (SSF) using agro-industrial residues. Maximum PMA production (75.4mg/g substrate) was obtained from a mixed substrate of sweet potato residue and wheat bran (1:1, w/w) supplemented with NaNO3 (0.8%, w/w) and CaCO3 (2%, w/w), with an initial moisture content of 70% and inoculum size of 13% (v/w) for 8days. Repeated-batch SSF was successfully conducted for 5 cycles with a high productivity...
July 27, 2017: Bioresource Technology
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