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S G Adamu, J Kabir, J U Umoh, M A Raji
A cross sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of brucellosis and Q fever in cattle in Maigana and Birnin Gwari agro-ecological zone of Kaduna State, Nigeria. This study aimed at determining the significance of Brucella spp. and Coxiella burnetti infections in cattle. A total of 400 sera samples (139 from males and 261 from females cattle) were collected and screened for brucellosis using Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT) and competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) for brucellosis and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA) for Q fever...
April 19, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Rebeca Gonçalves de Melo, Alexsandra Frazão de Andrade, Raquel Pedrosa Bezerra, Dominick Spindola Correia, Vanessa Cristina de Souza, Ana Christina Brasileiro-Vidal, Daniela de Araújo Viana Marques, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo Porto
Algal wastewater remediation has become attractive for a couple of years now, however the effectiveness of genetic toxicity reducing of some by-products through microalgae are still not well reported. This study aimed to evaluate the growth, nutrients and toxicity removal of Chlorella vulgaris cultivated under autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions in three agro-industrial by-products. Mixotrophic culture using corn steep liquor showed higher cell concentration, specific growth rate, maximum cell productivity and biomass protein content when compared to cheese whey and vinasse...
April 16, 2018: Chemosphere
Giorgos Markou, Liang Wang, Jianfeng Ye, Adrian Unc
Aquatic organisms, such as microalgae (Chlorella, Arthrospira (Spirulina), Tetrasselmis, Dunalliela etc.) and duckweed (Lemna spp., Wolffia spp. etc.) are a potential source for the production of protein-rich biomass and for numerous other high-value compounds (fatty acids, pigments, vitamins etc.). Their cultivation using agro-industrial wastes and wastewater (WaW) is of particular interest in the context of a circular economy, not only for recycling valuable nutrients but also for reducing the requirements for fresh water for the production of biomass...
April 16, 2018: Biotechnology Advances
Saima Saif, Mohammad Saghir Khan
Considering the heavy metal risk to soil microbiota and agro-ecosystems, the study was designed to determine metal toxicity to bacteria and to find metal tolerant bacteria carrying multifarious plant growth promoting activities and to assess their impact on chickpea cultivated in stressed soils. Metal tolerant strain SFP1 recognized as Pseudomonas aeruginosa employing 16S rRNA gene sequence determination showed maximum tolerance to Cr (400 μg/ml) and Ni (800 μg/ml) and produced variable amounts of indole acetic acid, HCN, NH3 , and ACC deaminase and could solubilize insoluble phosphates even under Cr (VI) and Ni stress...
April 17, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Lynette Lincoln, Sunil S More
AIM: To screen and identify a potential extracellular β-D-fructofuranosidase or invertase producing bacterium from soil, and comparatively evaluate the enzyme biosynthesis under submerged and solid-state fermentation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Extracellular invertase producing bacteria were screened from soil. Identification of the potent bacterium was performed based on microscopic examinations and 16S rDNA molecular sequencing. Bacillus subtilis LYN12 invertase secretion was surplus with wheat bran humidified with molasses medium (70%), with elevated activity at 48 h and 37 °C under solid-state fermentation, whereas under submerged conditions increased activity was observed at 24 h and 45 °C in the molasses medium...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
M M Y Elghandour, M Z M Salem, R Greiner, A Z M Salem
BACKGROUND: This study explored the effect of garlic and/or eucalyptus oils on biogas production during in vitro ruminal fermentation of four agro industry byproducts. 0 to 180 mg of the oils per litre incubation medium was added and the gas volumes were recorded from 2 to 48 h of incubation. Dry matter substrate degradability and neutral as well as acid detergent fibre were determined after 72 h. RESULT: Gas production and nutrients degradability was oil type dependent...
April 16, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
José Manuel Salgado, Daniel Sousa, Armando Venâncio, Isabel Belo
BACKGROUND: Mediterranean agro-food industries, among which are wineries, breweries and olive mills, dispose a great amount of wastes, which generate environmental problems and have a low nutritional value to be used as animal feed. In this sense, solid-state fermentation (SSF) can increase the nutritional value of these wastes and simultaneously produce lignocellulolytic enzymes. RESULTS: All fermented wastes were enriched in protein by the three fungi studied...
April 13, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Nicholas J Meinzer
öProximity to protein production' has recently been identified as an important determinant of regional variation of biological standards of living, as evidenced by average heights. The number of cows per person turned out to be a useful proxy where milk consumption had not been documented. Re-analyses of agricultural production and average male heights in early 19th-century central Europe show that indicators of agricultural suitability and potential for food production constructed from modern agro-ecological data are strongly correlated with historical agricultural specialisation...
March 7, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
Zhongmin Dai, Weiqin Su, Huaihai Chen, Albert Barberán, Haochun Zhao, Mengjie Yu, Lu Yu, Philip C Brookes, Christopher W Schadt, Scott X Chang, Jianming Xu
Long-term elevated nitrogen (N) input from anthropogenic sources may cause soil acidification and decrease crop yield, yet the response of the belowground microbial community to long-term N input alone or in combination with phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) is poorly understood. We explored the effect of long-term N and NPK fertilization on soil bacterial diversity and community composition using meta-analysis of a global dataset. Nitrogen fertilization decreased soil pH, and increased soil organic carbon (C) and available N contents...
April 12, 2018: Global Change Biology
Sabiha Sultana, Sanjoy Kumar Adhikary, Md Monirul Islam, Sorder Mohammad Mahbubur Rahman
Leaf blotch of wheat caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana is a major constraint to wheat production, causing significant yield reduction resulting in severe economic impact. The present study characterizes to determine and compare pathogenic variability exist/not based on components of leaf blotch disease development and level of aggressiveness due to agroclimatic condition of B. sorokiniana in wheat. A total of 169 virulent isolates of B. sorokiniana isolated from spot blotch infected leaf from different wheat growing agroclimate of Bangladesh...
April 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
Oscar Martínez, Antoni Sánchez, Xavier Font, Raquel Barrena
2-Phenylethanol (2-PE) and 2-phenethyl acetate (2-PEA) are important aroma compounds widely used in food and cosmetic industries due to their rose-like odor. Nowadays, due to the growing demand for natural products, the development of bioprocesses for obtaining value-added compounds has become of great significance. 2-PE and 2-PEA can be produced through the biotransformation of L-phenylalanine using the generally recognized as safe strain Kluyveromyces marxianus. L-phenylalanine bioconversion systems have been typically focused on submerged fermentation processes (SmF), but there is no information about other alternative productive approaches...
April 7, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Amar Jyoti Das, Rajesh Kumar
This study reports biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas azotoformans AJ15 under submerged fermentation via utilizing the agro-industrial wastes (bagasse and potato peels). The extracted biosurfactant was characterized for its classification (nature, group, and class) and stability against environmental stresses. Further, the biosurfactant was employed to explore its oil recovery efficiency from the sand matrix with 2000 ppm salt concentration. Results revealed that substrates developed by mixing both the agro-industrial wastes account for high yield of biosurfactant...
March 30, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Shiori Yabe, Takashi Hara, Mariko Ueno, Hiroyuki Enoki, Tatsuro Kimura, Satoru Nishimura, Yasuo Yasui, Ryo Ohsawa, Hiroyoshi Iwata
To evaluate the potential of genomic selection (GS), a selection experiment with GS and phenotypic selection (PS) was performed in an allogamous crop, common buckwheat ( Fagopyrum esculentum Moench). To indirectly select for seed yield per unit area, which cannot be measured on a single-plant basis, a selection index was constructed from seven agro-morphological traits measurable on a single plant basis. Over 3 years, we performed two GS and one PS cycles per year for improvement in the selection index. In GS, a prediction model was updated every year on the basis of genotypes of 14,598-50,000 markers and phenotypes...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Chian Jones Ritten, Dannele Peck, Mariah Ehmke, M A Buddhika Patalee
While the demand for pollination services have been increasing, continued declines in honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), colonies have put the cropping sector and the broader health of agro-ecosystems at risk. Economic factors may play a role in dwindling honey bee colony supply in the United States, but have not been extensively studied. Using data envelopment analysis (DEA), we measure technical efficiency, returns to scale, and factors influencing the efficiency of those apiaries in the northern Rocky Mountain region participating in the pollination services market...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Bruno D Mattos, Blaise L Tardy, Mohammadi Pezhman, Tero Kämäräinen, Markus Linder, Wido H Schreiner, Washington L E Magalhães, Orlando J Rojas
Biocides are essential for crop protection, packaging and several other biosystem applications. Therein, properties such as tailored and controlled release are paramount in the development of sustainable biocide delivery systems. We explore the self-similar nano-organized architecture of biogenic silica particles to achieve high biocide payload. The high surface area accessibility of the carrier allowed us to develop an efficient, low energy loading strategy, reaching significant dynamic loadings of up to 100 mg·g-1 ...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Maria Marín, Adriana Artola, Antoni Sánchez
Production of enzymes through solid-state fermentation (SSF) of agro-industrial wastes reports high productivity with low investment. The extraction of the final product from the solid waste and solid disposal represent the main cost of the process. In this work, the complete downstream processes of SSF of two industrial residues for the production of proteases, soy fibre (SF) and a mixture of hair and sludge (HS), were studied in terms of activity recovery, using different extraction parameters (extracting solvent, ratio solid: solvent and extraction mode)...
April 2018: 3 Biotech
Surya Sudheer, Ibrahim Alzorqi, Asgar Ali, Poh Guat Cheng, Yasmeen Siddiqui, Sivakumar Manickam
This study investigates the cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum using different agricultural biomasses from Malaysia. Five different combinations of rubber wood sawdust, empty fruit bunch fiber, and mesocarp fiber from oil palm, alone and in combination, were used to cultivate G. lucidum. Although all the substrate combinations worked well to grow the mushroom, the highest biological efficiency was obtained from the combination of empty fruit bunch fiber with sawdust. A total yield of 27% was obtained from empty fruit bunch fiber with sawdust, followed by sawdust (26%), empty fruit bunch fiber (19%), mesocarp fiber with sawdust (19%), and mesocarp fiber (16%)...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Ferdinando Fusco, Massimiliano Creta, Cosimo De Nunzio, Mauro Gacci, Vincenzo Li Marzi, Enrico Finazzi Agrò
AIMS: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies evaluating the urodynamic outcomes of alpha-1 adrenergic antagonists (ABs), 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs), phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5is), and phytotherapic compounds in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms related to benign prostatic obstruction (LUTS/BPO). METHODS: A systematic review of PubMed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases was performed in June 2017...
March 31, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Dario Frascari, Giulio Zanaroli, Mohamed Abdel Motaleb, Giorgio Annen, Khaoula Belguith, Sara Borin, Redouane Choukr-Allah, Catherine Gibert, Atef Jaouani, Nicolas Kalogerakis, Fawzi Karajeh, Philippe A Ker Rault, Roula Khadra, Stathis Kyriacou, Wen-Tao Li, Bruno Molle, Marijn Mulder, Emmanuel Oertlé, Consuelo Varela Ortega
Mediterranean African Countries (MACs) face a major water crisis. The annual renewable water resources are close to the 500 m3 /capita threshold of absolute water scarcity, and water withdrawals exceed total renewable water resources by 30%. Such a low water availability curbs economic development in particular in the field of agriculture, that accounts for 86% of freshwater consumption. The analysis of the current situation of wastewater treatment, irrigation and water management in MACs and of the research projects targeted to these countries indicates the need for i) an enhanced capacity to analyze water stress, ii) the development of water management strategies capable to include wastewater reuse, and iii) development of locally-adapted water treatment and irrigation technologies...
March 30, 2018: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Adriana Maria Lotito, Marco De Sanctis, Carlo Pastore, Claudio Di Iaconi
This study proposes the evaluation of the suitability of mesophilic anaerobic digestion as a simple technology for the treatment of the citrus waste produced by small-medium agro-industrial enterprises involved in the transformation of Citrus fruits. Two different stocks of citrus peel waste were used (i.e., fresh and stored citrus peel waste), to evaluate the influence of waste composition (variability in the type of processed Citrus fruits) and of storage (potentially necessary to operate the anaerobic digester continuously over the whole year due to the seasonality of the production) on anaerobic degradation treatability...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
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