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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427816/effect-of-torrefaction-on-yield-and-quality-of-pyrolytic-products-of-arecanut-husk-an-agro-processing-wastes
#1
Debajeet Gogoi, Neonjyoti Bordoloi, Ritusmita Goswami, Rumi Narzari, Ruprekha Saikia, Debashis Sut, Lina Gogoi, Rupam Kataki
In the present study, arecanut husk, an agro-processing waste of areca plam industry highly prevalent in the north-eastern region of India, was investigated for its suitability as a prospective bioenergy feedstock for thermo-chemical conversion. Pretreatment of areca husk using torrefaction was performed in a fixed bed reactor with varying reaction temperature (200, 225, 250 and 275°C). The torrefied areca husk was subsequently pyrolyzed from temperature range of 300-600°C with heating rate of 40°C/min to obtain biooil and biochar...
March 29, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427739/boosting-biogas-production-from-sewage-sludge-by-adding-small-amount-of-agro-industrial-by-products-and-food-waste-residues
#2
A E Maragkaki, M Fountoulakis, A Kyriakou, K Lasaridi, T Manios
In Greece, in many cities, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) operate their own anaerobic digestion (AD) facility in order to treat sewage sludge rather than achieve optimum biogas production. Nowadays, there is a growing interest regarding the addition of other co-substrates in these existing facilities in order to increase gas yield from the biomass. This practice may be possible by adding small amount of co-substrates which will not affect significantly in the designed hydraulic retention time. Nonetheless, the lack of experimental data regarding this option is a serious obstacle...
April 17, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425935/water-access-sanitation-and-hygiene-conditions-and-health-outcomes-among-two-settlement-types-in-rural-far-north-cameroon
#3
Tyler J Gorham, Joshua Yoo, Rebecca Garabed, Arabi Mouhaman, Jiyoung Lee
The Far North region in Cameroon has been more heavily impacted by cholera than any other region over the past decade, but very little has been done to study the drivers of waterborne diseases in the region. We investigated the relationship between water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) parameters, microbial and antibiotic resistance (AR) contamination levels in drinking water, and health outcomes using health survey and molecular analysis during June and July of 2014 in two settlement types (agro-pastoralist villages and transhumant pastoralist camps)...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424718/comparative-performance-of-multivariable-agro-physiological-parameters-for-detecting-salt-tolerance-of-wheat-cultivars-under-simulated-saline-field-growing-conditions
#4
Salah E El-Hendawy, Wael M Hassan, Nasser A Al-Suhaibani, Yahya Refay, Kamel A Abdella
Field-based trials are crucial for successfully achieving the goals of plant breeding programs aiming to screen and improve the salt tolerance of crop genotypes. In this study, simulated saline field growing conditions were designed using the subsurface water retention technique (SWRT) and three saline irrigation levels (control, 60, and 120 mM NaCl) to accurately appraise the suitability of a set of agro-physiological parameters including shoot biomass, grain yield, leaf water relations, gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, and ion accumulation as screening criteria to establish the salt tolerance of the salt-tolerant (Sakha 93) and salt-sensitive (Sakha 61) wheat cultivars...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421101/hyperspectral-technologies-for-assessing-seed-germination-and-trifloxysulfuron-methyl-response-in-amaranthus-palmeri-palmer-amaranth
#5
Maor Matzrafi, Ittai Herrmann, Christian Nansen, Tom Kliper, Yotam Zait, Timea Ignat, Dana Siso, Baruch Rubin, Arnon Karnieli, Hanan Eizenberg
Weed infestations in agricultural systems constitute a serious challenge to agricultural sustainability and food security worldwide. Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson (Palmer amaranth) is one of the most noxious weeds causing significant yield reductions in various crops. The ability to estimate seed viability and herbicide susceptibility is a key factor in the development of a long-term management strategy, particularly since the misuse of herbicides is driving the evolution of herbicide response in various weed species...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420420/distribution-of-ticks-infesting-ruminants-and-risk-factors-associated-with-high-tick-prevalence-in-livestock-farms-in-the-semi-arid-and-arid-agro-ecological-zones-of-pakistan
#6
Abdul Rehman, Ard M Nijhof, Carola Sauter-Louis, Birgit Schauer, Christoph Staubach, Franz J Conraths
BACKGROUND: Tick infestation is the major problem for animal health that causes substantial economic losses, particularly in tropical and subtropical countries. To better understand the spatial distribution of tick species and risk factors associated with tick prevalence in livestock in Pakistan, ticks were counted and collected from 471 animals, including 179 cattle, 194 buffaloes, 80 goats and 18 sheep, on 108 livestock farms in nine districts, covering both semi-arid and arid agro-ecological zones...
April 19, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420078/natural-phenol-polymers-recent-advances-in-food-and-health-applications
#7
REVIEW
Lucia Panzella, Alessandra Napolitano
Natural phenol polymers are widely represented in nature and include a variety of classes including tannins and lignins as the most prominent. Largely consumed foods are rich sources of phenol polymers, notably black foods traditionally used in East Asia, but other non-edible, easily accessible sources, e.g., seaweeds and wood, have been considered with increasing interest together with waste materials from agro-based industries, primarily grape pomace and other byproducts of fruit and coffee processing. Not in all cases were the main structural components of these materials identified because of their highly heterogeneous nature...
April 14, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419490/european-cowpea-landraces-for-a-more-sustainable-agriculture-system-and-novel-foods
#8
Márcia Carvalho, Penelope J Bebeli, Graça Pereira, Isaura Castro, Catalina Egea-Gilabert, Manuela Matos, Efstathia Lazaridi, Isabel Duarte, Teresa Lino-Neto, Georgia Ntatsi, Miguel Rodrigues, Dimitrios Savvas, Eduardo Rosa, Valdemar Carnide
BACKGROUND: Genetic diversity is fundamental for breeding programs and consequently has an important role to obtain new varieties. To properly use the genetic diversity present in germplasm collections, a good knowledge of the agro-morphological traits of each accession is needed. The aim of this study was to explore the production capacity of 24 cowpea landraces from Southern Europe, through phenotypic characterization and evaluation in three different locations of Greece and Portugal...
April 17, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413253/are-african-households-not-leaving-agriculture-patterns-of-households-income-sources-in-rural-sub-saharan-africa
#9
Benjamin Davis, Stefania Di Giuseppe, Alberto Zezza
This paper uses comparable income aggregates from 41 national household surveys from 22 countries to explore the patterns of income generation among rural households in Sub-Saharan Africa, and to compare household income strategies in Sub-Saharan Africa with those in other regions. The paper seeks to understand how geography drives these strategies, focusing on the role of agricultural potential and distance to urban areas. Specialization in on-farm activities continues to be the norm in rural Africa, practiced by 52 percent of households (as opposed to 21 percent of households in other regions)...
February 2017: Food Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413244/agricultural-intensification-the-status-in-six-african-countries
#10
Hans P Binswanger-Mkhize, Sara Savastano
Boserup and Ruthenberg (BR) provided the framework to analyze the impact of population growth and market access on the intensification of farming systems. Prior evidence in Africa is consistent with the framework. Over the past two decades, rapid population growth has put farming systems under stress, while rapid urbanization and economic growth have provided new market opportunities. New measures of agro-ecological potential and urban gravity are developed to analyze their impact on population density and market access...
February 2017: Food Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413243/ten-striking-facts-about-agricultural-input-use-in-sub-saharan-africa
#11
Megan Sheahan, Christopher B Barrett
Conventional wisdom holds that Sub-Saharan African farmers use few modern inputs despite the fact that most poverty-reducing agricultural growth in the region is expected to come largely from expanded use of inputs that embody improved technologies, particularly improved seed, fertilizers and other agro-chemicals, machinery, and irrigation. Yet following several years of high food prices, concerted policy efforts to intensify fertilizer and hybrid seed use, and increased public and private investment in agriculture, how low is modern input use in Africa really? This article revisits Africa's agricultural input landscape, exploiting the unique, recently collected, nationally representative, agriculturally intensive, and cross-country comparable Living Standard Measurement Study-Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA) covering six countries in the region (Ethiopia, Malawi, Niger, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda)...
February 2017: Food Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407187/genetic-variability-and-expression-of-agro-morphological-traits-among-genotypes-of-coffea-arabica-being-promoted-by-supplementary-irrigation
#12
W N Rodrigues, S V B Brinate, L D Martins, T V Colodetti, M A Tomaz
The use of supplementary irrigation to sustain the plantation during moments of severe water stress or moments of high water demand is becoming almost a norm to keep sustainable crops, especially due to the climate changes and the high frequency in which climate extremes are occurring lately. The objective of this study was to evaluate the agronomic performance and expression of genetic variability among genotypes of Coffea arabica L. cultivated in farming systems with different levels of water supply, focusing on rainfed or supplementary irrigated systems...
April 13, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400172/a-biorefinery-based-approach-for-the-production-of-ethanol-from-enzymatically-hydrolysed-cotton-stalks
#13
Meera Christopher, Anil K Mathew, M Kiran Kumar, Ashok Pandey, Rajeev K Sukumaran
Cotton post-harvest residue/cotton stalk (CS) - a major agro-residue in south asian countries was evaluated as a feed stock for bioethanol production. The common thermochemical pretreatment strategies based on dilute acid and alkali and different combinations of biomass hydrolyzing enzymes were evaluated for saccharification of CS biomass. A hydrolytic efficiency of 80% was achieved for alkali treated biomass using cellulase supplemented with beta glucosidase. Recycling of undigested/residual biomass and/or enzyme supported same final sugar concentration as for fresh hydrolytic experiments...
April 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393102/effect-of-vegetated-filter-strips-on-transport-and-deposition-rates-of-escherichia-coli-in-overland-flow-in-the-eastern-escarpments-of-the-mau-forest-njoro-river-watershed-kenya
#14
C O Olilo, J O Onyando, W N Moturi, A W Muia, P Ombui, W A Shivoga, A F Roegner
The fate and transport of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in lotic waters through vegetated filter strips (VFSs) was evaluated in a field model pasture, utilizing VFSMOD Windows along with direct pathogen testing. This study assessed effects of VFS on transport and deposition rates of E. coli in lotic overland flow waters. The VFS measured 44 m long by 40 m wide, covering an area of 1584 m(2) and land slope of 15 %. Cowpat was applied onto the model pasture and washed by overland flow into the VFS. The 4-methylumbelliferyl β-D-glucuronide substrate confirmed the identity of E...
June 2016: Energy, Ecology & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392783/agro-industrial-wastes-for-production-of-biosurfactant-by-bacillus-subtilis-anr-88-and-its-application-in-synthesis-of-silver-and-gold-nanoparticles
#15
Ashwini N Rane, Vishakha V Baikar, D V Ravi Kumar, Rajendra L Deopurkar
Biosurfactants, surface-active amphiphilic compounds, despite having a wide range of applications, have a high cost of production, which severely restricts their use. For cheaper production of biosurfactant, we investigated the potential of the indigenously isolated biosurfactant producing organism, Bacillus subtilis ANR 88, to grow on different cheap carbon sources (molasses, whey, and extracts of potato peels, orange peels, banana peels, and bagasse). We found that, B. subtilis ANR 88 used significant amounts of total sugar to produce cell biomass and biosurfactant...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390668/strategy-for-comparative-untargeted-metabolomics-reveals-honey-markers-of-different-floral-and-geographic-origins-using-ultrahigh-performance-liquid-chromatography-hybrid-quadrupole-orbitrap-mass-spectrometry
#16
Yi Li, Yue Jin, Shupeng Yang, Wenwen Zhang, Jinzhen Zhang, Wen Zhao, Lanzhen Chen, Yaqin Wen, Yongxin Zhang, Kaizhi Lu, Yaping Zhang, Jinhui Zhou, Shuming Yang
Honey discrimination based on floral and geographic origins is limited by the ability to determine reliable markers because developing hypothetical substances in advance considerably limits the throughput of metabolomics studies. Here, we present a novel approach to screen and elucidate honey markers based on comparative untargeted metabolomics using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap). To reduce metabolite information losses during sample preparation, the honey samples were dissolved in water and centrifuged to remove insoluble particles prior to UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap analysis in positive and negative electrospray ionization modes...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389982/the-assessment-and-the-farmers-perceived-ranking-of-feed-resources-and-coping-strategies-with-feed-scarcity-in-smallholder-dairy-farming-in-selected-district-towns-of-jimma-zone-ethiopia
#17
Belay Duguma, Veronique Dermauw, Geert Janssens
Inadequate quantity and quality of feed resources are major constraints limiting milk production and reproductive performance of dairy cattle in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess dairy cattle feed resources, feeding practices, the farmers' perceived ranking of feed resources, causes of feed shortage, and coping strategies to feed scarcity in smallholder dairy system in selected district towns of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Data were obtained by interviewing 52 randomly selected smallholder dairy farmers using structured questionnaires and through direct observations...
April 8, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389896/improved-efficacy-of-ultrafiltered-xylanase-pectinase-concoction-in-biobleaching-of-plywood-waste-soda-pulp
#18
Divya Sharma, Sharad Agrawal, Ravi Dutt Yadav, Ritu Mahajan
The effect of ultrafiltered xylanase-pectinase concoction produced simultaneously by a bacterial isolate using agro-waste-based media was assessed in prebleaching of plywood waste pulp. Ultrafiltered enzymes caused 12.5% reduction in kappa number at reduced enzyme dose of xylanase-pectinase (4.0-0.8 IU) per gram of pulp under optimized conditions at pH 8.5, temperature 55 °C, and treatment period of 2 h. Using this methodology, amount of Cl2-ClO2 consumption can be reduced up to 30 and 28.86%. Significant improvement in physical and optical properties of pulp was obtained along with an additional reduction in BOD and COD values up to 18...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387986/the-fifty-distal-amino-acids-of-the-2a-hp-homing-protein-of-grapevine-fanleaf-virus-elicit-a-hypersensitive-reaction-on-nicotiana-occidentalis
#19
Isabelle R Martin, Emmanuelle Vigne, François Berthold, Véronique Komar, Olivier Lemaire, Marc Fuchs, Corinne Schmitt-Keichinger
Avirulence factors are critical for the arm's race between a virus and its host in determining incompatible reactions. The response of plants to viruses from the genus Nepovirus in the family Secoviridae, including grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), is well characterized although the nature and characteristics of a viral avirulence factor remains elusive. By using infectious clones of GFLV strains F13 and GHu in a reverse genetics approach with wild-type, assortant and chimeric viruses, the determinant of necrotic lesions caused by GFLV-F13 on inoculated leaves of Nicotiana occidentalis was mapped to the RNA2-encoded protein 2A(HP) , particularly to its fifty C-terminal amino acids...
April 7, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382450/removal-of-pfoa-and-pfos-from-aqueous-solutions-using-activated-carbon-produced-from-vitis-vinifera-leaf-litter
#20
Bamidele Oladapo Fagbayigbo, Beatrice Olutoyin Opeolu, Olalekan Siyanbola Fatoki, Terresa Ayuko Akenga, Olatunde Stephen Olatunji
The removal of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) from aqueous solutions using agro-waste biomass of Vitis vinifera (grape) leaf litter was studied. Activated carbons were produced from the biomass and chemical activation achieved by using phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and potassium hydroxide (KOH) for the modification of the carbons' surface morphology. Activated carbons were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) in order to understand removal mechanisms of the contaminants by activated carbons...
April 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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