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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715855/assessing-long-term-impact-of-land-use-change-on-hydrological-ecosystem-functions-in-a-mediterranean-upland-agro-forestry-catchment
#1
Paolo Nasta, Mario Palladino, Nadia Ursino, Antonio Saracino, Angelo Sommella, Nunzio Romano
During the second half of the 20th century farming systems in hilly and mountainous areas of Mediterranean Europe were progressively abandoned and the forest cover subsequently re-expanded. This paper investigates the environmental impacts of land-use/land-cover (LULC) changes on hydrological ecosystem functions (HEFs) in the Upper Alento River Catchment (UARC) in southern Italy. We document the human-driven post-war landscape in 1955 with its maximum expansion of pasture and crops. By 1998 forest cover had doubled and cropland had roughly halved due to decades of land abandonment and reduction in human pressure...
July 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715050/carmine-melino-and-his-love-for-the-history-of-hygiene
#2
A Finazzi-Agrò
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711849/fertilizer-efficiency-in-wheat-is-reduced-by-ozone-pollution
#3
Malin C Broberg, Johan Uddling, Gina Mills, Håkan Pleijel
Inefficient use of fertilizers by crops increases the risk of nutrient leaching from agro-ecosystems, resulting in economic loss and environmental contamination. We investigated how ground-level ozone affects the efficiency by which wheat used applied nitrogen (N) fertilizer to produce grain protein (NEP, N efficiency with respect to protein yield) and grain yield (NEY, N efficiency with respect to grain yield) across a large number of open-top chamber field experiments. Our results show significant negative ozone effects on NEP and NEY, both for a larger data set obtained from data mining (21 experiments, 70 treatments), and a subset of data for which stomatal ozone flux estimates were available (7 experiments, 22 treatments)...
July 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706381/concurrent-femoral-and-tibial-osteotomies-versus-soft-tissue-balance-in-total-knee-arthroplasty-a-technical-case-report
#4
M Lo Presti, G G Costa, S Cialdella, M P Neri, G Agrò, F Iacono, G F Raspugli, M Marcacci
This case report outlines some of the challenges as well as limitations in correction of osteoarthritis of the knee in combination with extra-articular deformities,and provides a novel and straightforward surgical solution in overcoming these challenges. We describe the case of a 37-year-old male who suffered from advanced bilateral tri-compartmental knee arthritis due to untreated bloodstream-sourced osteomyelitis after birth. Radiographs and surgery confirmed extremely severe deformities. We performed two different surgical techniques in order to correct extra-articular deformities (one-stage approach of concurrent tibial and femoral osteotomy and total knee arthroplasty on one side, and soft tissue balancing with "pie-crusting technique" plus total knee arthroplasty on the other side), with description of subsequent results at 36-months follow-up...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705394/melanization-and-ageing-are-not-drawbacks-for-successful-agro-transformation-of-dark-septate-endophytes
#5
Charlotte Berthelot, Yoann Perrin, Corinne Leyval, Damien Blaudez
Dark septate endophytes (DSEs) are melanin-enriched ascomycetous fungi that are abundant in stressed environments. However, little is known about their physiology and metabolism, and DSE genes have not been functionally characterized yet. Therefore developing molecular genetic tools to investigate the biological function of genes of interest in DSEs is of major significance. We investigated Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) efficiency in eight DSE strains belonging to Cadophora sp., Cadophora malorum, Leptodontidium sp...
August 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702460/seroprevalence-and-distribution-of-contagious-bovine-pleuropneumonia-in-ethiopia-update-and-critical-analysis-of-20-years-1996-2016-reports
#6
REVIEW
Nejash Abdela, Nesradin Yune
Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP), infectious and highly contagious diseases of cattle in Africa, is the only bacterial disease in the OIE list A diseases. This severe respiratory disease of cattle is the second most important transboundary animal disease in Africa after rinderpest. CBPP is caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides SC (small colony bovine biotype) and it is endemic disease in many African countries including Ethiopia. This paper systematically reviews prevalence report at herd and individual animal level for the last 20 years (1996-2016) with main aim of making comprehensive document regarding the seroprevalence and distribution of CBPP in Ethiopia...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702039/ceres-maize-model-for-determining-the-optimum-planting-dates-of-early-maturing-maize-varieties-in-northern-nigeria
#7
Adnan A Adnan, Jibrin M Jibrin, Alpha Y Kamara, Bassam L Abdulrahman, Abdulwahab S Shaibu, Ismail I Garba
Field trials were carried out in the Sudan Savannah of Nigeria to assess the usefulness of CERES-maize crop model as a decision support tool for optimizing maize production through manipulation of plant dates. The calibration experiments comprised of 20 maize varieties planted during the dry and rainy seasons of 2014 and 2015 at Bayero University Kano and Audu Bako College of Agriculture Dambatta. The trials for model evaluation were conducted in 16 different farmer fields across the Sudan (Bunkure and Garun-Mallam) and Northern Guinea (Tudun-Wada and Lere) Savannas using two of the calibrated varieties under four different sowing dates...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701074/pyrrolizidine-alkaloids-in-floral-honeys-of-tropical-ghana-and-health-risk-assessment
#8
Emmanuel Letsyo, Gerold Jerz, Peter Winterhalter, Arne Dübecke, Werner von der Ohe, Katharina von der Ohe, Till Beuerle
There is a vast amount of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey as a result of its numerous benefits. However, honeys have been found to be contaminated with hepatotoxic and carcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) on account of bees foraging on PA containing plants. This study deals with the analysis of PAs in tropical honeys emanating from different agro-ecological zones of Ghana in order to assess its potential health risk. PAs of 48 honey samples were analysed using HPLC-ESI-MS/MS...
July 13, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700590/greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-dung-pats-vary-with-dung-beetle-species-and-with-assemblage-composition
#9
Irene Piccini, Fabrizio Arnieri, Enrico Caprio, Beatrice Nervo, Simone Pelissetti, Claudia Palestrini, Tomas Roslin, Antonio Rolando
Cattle farming is a major source of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Recent research suggests that GHG fluxes from dung pats could be affected by biotic interactions involving dung beetles. Whether and how these effects vary among beetle species and with assemblage composition is yet to be established. To examine the link between GHGs and different dung beetle species assemblages, we used a closed chamber system to measure fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from cattle dung pats. Targeting a total of four dung beetle species (a pat-dwelling species, a roller of dung balls, a large and a small tunnelling species), we ran six experimental treatments (four monospecific and two mixed) and two controls (one with dung but without beetles, and one with neither dung nor beetles)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698507/risk-assessment-of-mycotoxins-in-stored-maize-grains-consumed-by-infants-and-young-children-in-nigeria
#10
Modupeade C Adetunji, Olusegun O Atanda, Chibundu N Ezekiel
Maize is a major complimentary food for infants (0-4years) and young children (5-12years) in Nigeria. In this study, we assessed the risk of exposure of infants and young children (IYC) to some major mycotoxins in stored maize grains from five agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. The probable daily intake approach was employed to determine exposure to five mycotoxins while the margin of exposure (MOE) and population at risk of primary hepatocellular carcinoma approaches were used to characterize the risk of consuming aflatoxin contaminated maize...
July 10, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698129/an-efficient-agro-industrial-complex-in-almer%C3%A3-a-spain-towards-an-integrated-and-sustainable-bioeconomy-model
#11
REVIEW
Francisco J Egea, Roberto G Torrente, Alfredo Aguilar
In the last ten years, bioeconomy strategies and policy-related bioeconomy initiatives have been developed all over the world. Some of them are currently in the process of translation into specific actions. In most cases, the approaches followed have been top-down policy-related initiatives, triggered by the public sector originating a dynamic which can bring together different bioeconomy stakeholders i.e. industry, academia, financial operators and farmers. This article describes a bottom-up situation with unique bioeconomy-related features that deserve specific attention...
July 8, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696064/harnessing-microbiome-based-biotechnologies-for-sustainable-mitigation-of-nitrous-oxide-emissions
#12
Hang-Wei Hu, Ji-Zheng He, Brajesh K Singh
Achieving the Sustainable Development Goal of climate change mitigation within this century will require adoption of new innovative technologies to control emissions of nitrous oxide (N2 O), an important greenhouse gas leading to global warming. This is particularly important in the face of growing fertilizer consumption and continuous land degradation. Currently used tools to mitigate N2 O emissions are based on agrochemical inputs and agronomic practices. Emerging technologies include plant breeding approaches to manipulate microbiome activities in agro-ecosystems, and microbial biotechnology approaches for in situ microbiome manipulation and engineering via use of biochemical, cellular and genome-editing methods...
July 11, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690803/deriving-a-light-use-efficiency-estimation-algorithm-using-in%C3%A2-situ-hyperspectral-and-eddy-covariance-measurements-for-a-maize-canopy-in-northeast-china
#13
Feng Zhang, Guangsheng Zhou
We estimated the light use efficiency (LUE) via vegetation canopy chlorophyll content (CCCcanopy) based on in situ measurements of spectral reflectance, biophysical characteristics, ecosystem CO 2 fluxes and micrometeorological factors over a maize canopy in Northeast China. The results showed that among the common chlorophyll-related vegetation indices (VIs), CCCcanopy had the most obviously exponential relationships with the red edge position (REP) (R(2) = .97, p < .001) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) (R(2) = ...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687337/a-translational-synthetic-biology-platform-for-rapid-access-to-gram-scale-quantities-of-novel-drug-like-molecules
#14
James Reed, Michael J Stephenson, Karel Miettinen, Bastiaan Brouwer, Aymeric Leveau, Paul Brett, Rebecca J M Goss, Alain Goossens, Maria A O'Connell, Anne Osbourn
Plants are an excellent source of drug leads. However availability is limited by access to source species, low abundance and recalcitrance to chemical synthesis. Although plant genomics is yielding a wealth of genes for natural product biosynthesis, the translation of this genetic information into small molecules for evaluation as drug leads represents a major bottleneck. For example, the yeast platform for artemisinic acid production is estimated to have taken >150 person years to develop. Here we demonstrate the power of plant transient transfection technology for rapid, scalable biosynthesis and isolation of triterpenes, one of the largest and most structurally diverse families of plant natural products...
July 4, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686608/biodiversity-conservation-in-an-anthropized-landscape-trees-not-patch-size-drive-bird-community-composition-in-a-low-input-agro-ecosystem
#15
Eric Mellink, Mónica E Riojas-López, Melinda Cárdenas-García
One of the most typical agro-ecosystems in the Llanos de Ojuelos, a semi-arid region of central Mexico, is that of fruit-production orchards of nopales (prickly pear cacti). This perennial habitat with complex vertical structure provides refuge and food for at least 112 species of birds throughout the year. Nopal orchards vary in their internal structure, size and shrub/tree composition, yet these factors have unknown effects on the animals that use them. To further understand the conservation potential of this agro-ecosystem, we evaluated the effects of patch-size and the presence of trees on bird community composition, as well as several habitat variables, through an information-theoretical modelling approach...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684880/genomic-and-phenotypic-analysis-of-vavilov-s-historic-landraces-reveals-the-impact-of-environment-and-genomic-islands-of-agronomic-traits
#16
Elena Plekhanova, Margarita A Vishnyakova, Sergey Bulyntsev, Peter L Chang, Noelia Carrasquilla-Garcia, Kassaye Negash, Eric von Wettberg, Nina Noujdina, Douglas R Cook, Maria G Samsonova, Sergey V Nuzhdin
The Vavilov Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (VIR), in St. Petersburg, Russia, houses a unique genebank, with historical collections of landraces. When they were collected, the geographical distribution and genetic diversity of most crops closely reflected their historical patterns of cultivation established over the preceding millennia. We employed a combination of genomics, computational biology and phenotyping to characterize VIR's 147 chickpea accessions from Turkey and Ethiopia, representing chickpea's center of origin and a major location of secondary diversity...
July 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680459/high-throughput-sequencing-technology-reveals-that-continuous-cropping-of-american-ginseng-results-in-changes-in-the-microbial-community-in-arable-soil
#17
Linlin Dong, Jiang Xu, Lianjuan Zhang, Juan Yang, Baosheng Liao, Xiwen Li, Shilin Chen
BACKGROUND: American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is renowned worldwide for its eutherapeutic effects. The replantation of American ginseng usually fails due to problems associated with continuous cropping. An imbalance in the microbial community is thought to be responsible for this, but the overall changes in microbial communities under a continuous cropping system are unclear. METHODS: This study used quantitative polymerase chain reaction combined with high-throughput sequencing methods to confirm changes in a microbial community under continuous cropping of American ginseng...
2017: Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679066/agro-waste-biosorbents-effect-of-physico-chemical-properties-on-atrazine-and-imidacloprid-sorption
#18
Abhishek Mandal, Neera Singh, Lata Nain
Low cost agro-waste biosorbents namely eucalyptus bark (EB), corn cob (CC), bamboo chips (BC), rice straw (RS) and rice husk (RH) were characterized and used to study atrazine and imidacloprid sorption. Adsorption studies suggested that biosorbents greatly varied in their pesticide sorption behaviour. The EB was the best biosorbent to sorb both atrazine and imidacloprid with KF values of 169.9 and 85.71, respectively. The adsorption isotherm were nonlinear in nature with slope (1/n) values <1. The Freundlich constant Correlating atrazine/imidacloprid sorption parameter [KF...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677084/genetic-diversity-of-sugarcane-hybrid-cultivars-by-rapd-markers
#19
Pratap Singh, Sujeet Pratap Singh, Ajay Kumar Tiwari, Brij Lal Sharma
Genetic diversity among sugarcane hybrids (Saccharum spp) is pre-requisite for sugarcane improvement through breeding. Twelve decamer oligonucleotide random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were utilized to investigate the genetic potential among 24 sugarcane cultivars. A total of 120 fragments were originated by 12 RAPD primers. An average number of fragments were obtained as 11.42 fragments per cultivar, which ranged from 4 to 21 fragments. The genetic similarity among 24 sugarcane cultivars ranged from 0...
July 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677034/effect-of-dietary-utilisation-of-sugarcane-press-mud-on-production-performance-of-muzaffarnagari-lambs
#20
Ranjan Kumar, S K Saha, Dinesh Kumar, M S Mahesh, C D Malapure
Sugarcane press mud (SPM) is one of the potential agro-industrial by-products available in India and research exploring its utilisation in small ruminant nutrition is scanty. In this direction, the present study evaluated the feasibility of dietary incorporation of SPM at different levels in a feeding trial lasting 180 days. A total of 21 Muzaffarnagari ram lambs were randomly distributed into three groups of seven each based on comparable body weight (11.70 ± 0.29 kg) and age (3-5 months) following a completely randomised design...
July 5, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
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