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Yanling Zhang, Shixiang Zhang, Fengpeng Zhu, Aiguo Wang, Huaxin Dai, Sen Cheng, Jianwei Wang, Lina Tang
Atmospheric deposition has become one of the main sources of heavy metals in crops in developed and industrial zones in China for the past several years. However, lack of data of the agro-ecosystems on the vast areas of China makes it difficult to assess the impacts of air pollution on the heavy metal accumulation in crops. In this study, with deposit samples from 67 sites located at different agro-ecosystems (typical, factory nearby, town nearby, roadside, and remote) of four natural regions [Huanghuai (HH), Southeast (SE), Southwest (SW) and upper-mid Yangzi River (Up-mid YR)], atmospheric heavy metal deposition in agro-ecosystems on a large scale in China was studied...
December 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Lucile Toniutti, Jean-Christophe Breitler, Hervé Etienne, Claudine Campa, Sylvie Doulbeau, Laurent Urban, Charles Lambot, Juan-Carlos H Pinilla, Benoît Bertrand
Global warming is a major threat to agriculture worldwide. Between 2008 and 2013, some coffee producing countries in South and Central America suffered from severe epidemics of coffee leaf rust (CLR), resulting in high economic losses with social implications for coffee growers. The climatic events not only favored the development of the pathogen but also affected the physiological status of the coffee plant. The main objectives of the study were to evaluate how the physiological status of the coffee plant modified by different environmental conditions impact on the pathogenesis of CLR and to identify indicators of the physiological status able to predict rust incidence...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Gamuchirai Chakona, Charlie M Shackleton
The world faces a food security challenge with approximately 868 million people undernourished and about two billion people suffering from the negative health consequences of micronutrient deficiencies. Yet, it is believed that at least 33% of food produced for human consumption is lost or wasted along the food chain. As food waste has a negative effect on food security, the present study sought to quantify household food waste along the rural-urban continuum in three South African mid-sized towns situated along an agro-ecological gradient...
2017: PloS One
Tsegaw Fentie, Nigusie Fenta, Samson Leta, Wassie Molla, Birhanu Ayele, Yechale Teshome, Seleshe Nigatu, Ashenafi Assefa
BACKGROUND: Sheep pox and goat pox are contagious viral diseases of sheep and goats, respectively. The diseases result in substantial economic losses due to decreased milk and meat production, damage to hides and wool, and possible trade restriction. A study was undertaken in Amhara region of Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study design was used to estimate the sero-prevalence and identify associated risk factors, while retrospective study design was used to assess the temporal and spatial distribution of the disease...
December 11, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
Genoveva Hernández-Zamudio, Jorge Sáenz-Mata, Alejandro Moreno-Reséndez, Gamaliel Castañeda-Gaytán, Alfredo Ogaz, Santos Carballar-Hernández, Laura Hernández-Cuevas
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of arid and semiarid ecosystems are important for the development of plants that grow under biotic stress in wild or in agro-ecosystems. There is little information on the temporal diversity of these organisms in perennial plants from arid ecosystems in northern Mexico. On this study, the mycorrhizal colonization and the temporal diversity of AMF in the rhizosphere of Larrea tridentata, perennial plant abundant in the Chihuahuan Desert region were explored. Samples of the rhizosphere and roots of fifteen plants in each of the three sampling dates during the 2015 year were obtained...
December 6, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
Govind D Vyavahare, Ranjit G Gurav, Pooja P Jadhav, Ravishankar R Patil, Chetan B Aware, Jyoti P Jadhav
In the present study, sorption and detoxification of malachite green (MG) dye was executed using biochar resulting after pyrolysis of agro-industrial waste at 400, 600 and 800 °C. Maximum sorption of MG dye (3000 mg/L) was observed on the sugarcane bagasse biochar (SCB) prepared at 800 °C. The interactive effects of different factors like dye concentration, time, pH and temperature on sorption of MG dye were investigated using response surface methodology (RSM). Optimum MG dye concentration, contact time, temperature and pH predicted through Box-Behnken based RSM model were 3000 mg/L MG dye, 51...
December 1, 2017: Chemosphere
Qing-Long Fu, Nanyan Weng, Manabu Fujii, Dong-Mei Zhou
Global warming has obtained increasing attentions due to its multiple impacts on agro-ecosystem. However, limited efforts had been devoted to reveal the temporal variability of metal speciation and phytotoxicity of heavy metal-polluted soils affected by elevated temperature under the global warming scenario. In this study, effects of elevated temperature (15 °C, 25 °C, and 35 °C) on the physicochemical properties, microbial metabolic activities, and phytotoxicity of three Cu-polluted soils were investigated by a laboratory incubation study...
December 1, 2017: Chemosphere
Giovanna Simonetti, Felicia Diodata D'Auria, Nadia Mulinacci, Rosa Anna Milella, Donato Antonacci, Marzia Innocenti, Gabriella Pasqua
The antifungal activity of unripe grape extracts from agro-industrial wastes has been evaluated against several strains of Candida spp. and dermatophytes. All the extracts tested showed antifungal activity. The geometric mean MIC ranged from 53.58 to 214.31 μg/mL for Candida spp. and from 43.54 to 133.02 μg/mL for dermatophytes. The chemical analyses have been carried out using Liquid Chromatograph equipped with a DAD and MS detectors. Flavan-3-ols were the main metabolites within all samples ranged from 3...
December 7, 2017: Natural Product Research
Cts Silva, V Wanderley-Teixeira, F M Cunha, J V Oliveira, K A Dutra, Dma Ferraz Navarro, Aac Teixeira
The armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, is the principal pest of corn in Brazil. Control is achieved primarily by synthetic insecticides, which cause problems for the agro-ecosystem. Alternative methods of control are under investigation and citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) essential oil appears to be a promising agent. We investigated the effects of citronella oil using histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. The midgut of larvae treated with citronella exhibited altered epithelium including cytoplasmic protrusions, columnar cell extrusion, pyknotic nuclei, and increased periodic acid-Schiff positive granules...
December 5, 2017: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
Anton Sharakshane
Plants sharing a single light environment on a spaceship with a human being and bearing a decorative function should look as natural and attractive as possible. And consequently they can be illuminated only with white light with a high color rendering index. Can lighting optimized for a human eye be effective and appropriate for plants? Spectrum-based effects have been compared under artificial lighting of plants by high-pressure sodium lamps and general-purpose white LEDs. It has been shown that for the survey sample phytochrome photo-equilibria does not depend significantly on the parameters of white LED light, while the share of phytoactive blue light grows significantly as the color temperature increases...
November 2017: Life Sciences in Space Research
L Mateo, P Delgado, J Ortuño, S Bañón
Concentrates-fed lamb meat is often associated with an unfavourable lipid profile (high levels of saturated and/or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids; SFA and PUFA). For this reason, Spanish sheep producers from Mediterranean areas are turning to traditional grazing by ewes to obtain healthier lamb meat. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of maternal grazing on the fatty acid (FA) composition of weaned lamb meat. The ewes (Segureña breed) were allocated to two different rearing systems during pregnancy (5 months) and lactation (45 days): (i) feeding indoors on barley grain and lucerne pellets; (ii) grazing on cereal stubble, fallow land and seasonal pastures consisting of Mediterranean shrubs, herbs and trees...
December 4, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Edmond Sanganyado, Charles Teta, Busani Masiri
Recent studies showed cultural worldviews are a key determinant of environmental risk perceptions; thus, they could influence climate change adaptation strategies. African traditional worldviews encourage harmony between humans and the environment through a complex metaphysical belief system transmitted through folklore, taboos, and traditional knowledge. However, African traditional worldviews hold a belief in traditional gods that was shown to have a low connectedness to nature and low willingness to change...
November 29, 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Parmeshwar Kumar Sahu, Suvendu Mondal, Deepak Sharma, Gautam Vishwakarma, Vikash Kumar, Bikram Kishore Das
Rice has been cultivating and utilizing by humans for thousands of years under diverse environmental conditions. Therefore, tremendous genetic differentiation and diversity has occurred at various agro-ecosystems. The significant indica-japonica differentiation in rice provides great opportunities for its genetic improvement. In the present investigation, a total of 42 polymorphic InDel markers were used for differentiating 188 rice landraces and two local varieties of Chhattisgarh, India into indica and japonica related genotypes based on 'InDel molecular index'...
2017: PloS One
Shunsuke Tanaka, Yusuf Valentino Kaneti, Ripon Bhattacharjee, Md Nazmul Islam, Rina Nakahata, Nawfel Abdullah, Shin-Ichi Yusa, Nam-Trung Nguyen, Muhammad J A Shiddiky, Md Shahriar A Hossain, Yusuke Yamauchi
Herein, we report the soft-templated preparation of mesoporous iron oxide using the asymmetric poly(styrene-b-acrylic acid-b-ethylene glycol) (PS-b-PAA-b-PEG) triblock copolymer. To the best of our best knowledge, this block copolymer has not yet been used for the preparation of mesoporous iron oxide. This polymer forms a micelle consisting of a PS core, a PAA shell and a PEG corona in aqueous solutions, and the formed micelles can serve as templates. The mesoporous iron oxide obtained at an optimized calcination temperature of 400 °C exhibited an average pore diameter of 39 nm, with large specific surface area and pore volume of 86...
November 29, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
D Mitja, E Delaître, A M Santos, I Miranda, R F R Coelho, D J Macedo, L Demagistri, M Petit
When the Amazonian rain forest is cut to create pasture, some of the original vegetal species survive clearing, even expressing their ability to invade agro-systems. It is true of the babassu palm, which can be considered, paradoxically, a natural resource by the "Interstate Movement of Babassu Fruit Breaker Women" or as native weed by land owners-farmers. To manage potential conflict of land uses, we study here the current density of this palm tree in different habitats, based on a combination of field data and remote sensing data...
November 28, 2017: Environmental Management
Rodrigue Castro Gbedomon, Valère Kolawolé Salako, Adandé Belarmain Fandohan, Alix Frank Rodrigue Idohou, Romain Glèlè Kakaї, Achille Ephrem Assogbadjo
BACKGROUND: Understanding the functional diversity of home gardens and their socio-ecological determinants is essential for mainstreaming these agroforestry practices into agrobiodiversity conservation strategies. This paper analyzed functional diversity of home gardens, identified the socio-ecological drivers of functions assigned to them, and assessed the agrobiodiversity benefits of home gardens functions. METHODS: Using data on occurring species in home garden (HG) and functions assigned to each species by the gardeners, the study combined clustering and discriminant canonical analyses to explore the functional diversity of 360 home gardens in Benin, West Africa...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Susana Baena, Justin Moat, Oliver Whaley, Doreen S Boyd
The Pacific Equatorial dry forest of Northern Peru is recognised for its unique endemic biodiversity. Although highly threatened the forest provides livelihoods and ecosystem services to local communities. As agro-industrial expansion and climatic variation transform the region, close ecosystem monitoring is essential for viable adaptation strategies. UAVs offer an affordable alternative to satellites in obtaining both colour and near infrared imagery to meet the specific requirements of spatial and temporal resolution of a monitoring system...
2017: PloS One
Yicheng Fu, Xia Du, Benqing Ruan, Laisheng Liu, Jian Zhang
The paper aims at providing a framework to calculate the agro-eco-compensation standard based on the systems agro-ecological concept of embodied energy as emergy. We have proposed a calculation system of eco-compensation standard for sustainable agricultural development based on the convertibility between emergy and price. According to our calculation, the total energy of agricultural production in Yongding River Basin was 3.45 E + 16 Sej/ha (the unit emergy value, expressed in solar emergy joules per unit) in terms of the renewable resources, nonrenewable resources, material inputs, and service costs...
November 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Maria Domenica Di Mauro, Barbara Tomasello, Roberta Carla Giardina, Sandro Dattilo, Veronica Mazzei, Fulvia Sinatra, Massimo Caruso, Nicola D'Antona, Marcella Renis
Nowadays, agro-food by-products represent a potential low-cost source of biologically active ingredients which have been paid significant attention as nutraceuticals, medicine, food and cosmetics. In a previous study we evaluated the total sugars, metals and polyphenols of olive mill wastewater (OMWW) from a Cerasuola olive cultivar. In the present work we selectively recovered a sugar and mineral enriched fraction (SMEF) from Cerasuola OMWW by a green adsorption/desorption process. The SMEF was mainly found to be composed of monosaccharides and potassium by HPLC-ELSD and ICP-MS...
November 22, 2017: Food & Function
Susan Medina, S K Gupta, Vincent Vadez
Under conditions of high vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and soil drying, restricting transpiration is an important avenue to gain efficiency in water use. The question we raise in this article is whether breeding for agro-ecological environments that differ for the rainfall have selected for traits that control plant water use. These are measured in pearl millet materials bred for zones varying in rainfall (8 combinations of parent and F1-hybrids, 18 F1-hybrids and then 40 F1-hybrids). In all cases, we found an agro-ecological variation in the slope of the transpiration response to increasing VPD, and parental line variation in the transpiration response to soil drying within hybrids/parent combinations...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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