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Adrian Duba, Klaudia Goriewa, Urszula Wachowska, Marian Wiwart
The saprotrophic fungus Alternaria alternata is widespread in the agro-environment and produces more than ten allergenic proteins, mostly protein Alt a 1. The frequency of the Alt a 1 gene was analyzed in a group of A. alternata isolates from winter wheat kernels obtained in Poland, and the effectiveness of various fungicides targeting the pathogen was evaluated. The Alt a 1 gene was identified in four of the seven tested isolates. A. alternata colonized 35.67% kernels on average, but its frequency increased in stored grain where the presence of epiphytes was noted on 23...
October 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
José Pinela, Ana Maria Carvalho, Isabel C F R Ferreira
Wild edible plants (WEPs) are part of the cultural and genetic heritage of different regions of the world. In times of famine and scarcity, these sources of nutrients and health-promoting compounds have received high importance mainly in rural and suburban areas. Although currently underutilized, WEPs are still consumed traditionally by different communities and are gaining relevance in today's society. However, these foods lack recognition as significant contributors to the human diet in developed areas. This review describes the nutritional value of WEPs from the North-eastern region of Portugal and points out those containing potentially toxic compounds...
October 14, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Muhammad Umair, Yanjun Shen, Yongqing Qi, Yucui Zhang, Ayesha Ahmad, Hongwei Pei, Meiying Liu
The North China Plain (NCP) is a major grain production zone that plays a critical role in ensuring China's food supply. Irrigation is commonly used during grain production; however, the high annual water deficit [precipitation (P) minus evapotranspiration (ET)] in typical irrigated cropland does not support double cropping systems (such as maize and wheat) and this has resulted in the steep decline in the water table (~0.8 m year(-1) at the Luancheng station) that has taken place since the 1970s. The current study aimed to adapt and check the ability of the CropSyst model (Suite-4) to simulate actual evapotranspiration (ETa), biomass, and grain yield, and to identify major evaporation (E) losses from winter wheat (WW) and summer maize (SM) rotations...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Mario Cezar Rodrigues Mano, Iramaia Angélica Neri-Numa, Juliana Bueno da Silva, Bruno Nicolau Paulino, Marina Gabriel Pessoa, Gláucia Maria Pastore
Oligosaccharides are polymers with two to ten monosaccharide residues which have sweetener functions and sensory characteristics, in addition to exerting physiological effects on human health. The ones called nondigestible exhibit a prebiotic behavior being fermented by colonic microflora or stimulating the growth of beneficial bacteria, playing roles in the immune system, protecting against cancer, and preventing cardiovascular and metabolic issues. The global prebiotics market is expected to grow around 12...
October 14, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Daniele De Luca, Paola Cennamo, Emanuele Del Guacchio, Riccardo Di Novella, Paolo Caputo
Since its introduction from Central-South America to Italy almost 500 years ago, the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was largely cultivated across the peninsula in hundreds of different landraces. However, globalisation and technological modernisation of agricultural practices in the last decades promoted the cultivation of few varieties at the expense of traditional and local agro-ecotypes, which have been confined to local markets or have completely disappeared. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity and differentiation in 12 common bean landraces once largely cultivated in the Cilento region (Campania region, southern Italy), and now the object of a recovery program to save them from extinction...
October 13, 2017: Genetica
Berhanu Tadesse Ertiro, Kassa Semagn, Biswanath Das, Michael Olsen, Maryke Labuschagne, Mosisa Worku, Dagne Wegary, Girum Azmach, Veronica Ogugo, Tolera Keno, Beyene Abebe, Temesgen Chibsa, Abebe Menkir
BACKGROUND: Molecular characterization is important for efficient utilization of germplasm and development of improved varieties. In the present study, we investigated the genetic purity, relatedness and population structure of 265 maize inbred lines from the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR), the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT) and the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) using 220,878 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers obtained using genotyping by sequencing (GBS)...
October 12, 2017: BMC Genomics
Teresa Gervasi, Vito Pellizzeri, Qada Benameur, Claudio Gervasi, Antonello Santini, Nicola Cicero, Giacomo Dugo
Waste deriving from food and agro-industries is a growing problem in our modern society. In order to reduce food waste and its associated impacts over the environment and public health, innovative strategies for the conversion of food wastes in added value products are studied. Whey is one of the prominent waste deriving from Sicilian diary industry. The growth and the carotenoid biosynthesis of the yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous by its cultivation in pre-treated whey were studied. The study showed the possibility of increasing the astaxanthin productivity from X...
October 11, 2017: Natural Product Research
Nándor Fodor, Andrew Challinor, Ioannis Droutsas, Julian Ramirez-Villegas, Florian Zabel, Ann-Kristin Koehler, Christine H Foyer
Increasing global CO2 emissions have profound consequences for plant biology, not least because of direct influences on carbon gain. However, much remains uncertain regarding how our major crops will respond to a future high CO2 world. Crop models inter-comparison studies have identified large uncertainties and biases associated with climate change. The need to quantify uncertainty has drawn the fields of plant molecular physiology, crop breeding and biology, and climate change modelling closer together. Comparing data from different models that have been used to assess the potential climate change impacts on soybean and maize production, future yield losses have been predicted for both major crops...
September 15, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
Hui Zhang, Ge Zhang, Jingkun Xu, Yangping Wen, Shouli Ming, Jie Zhang, Wanchuan Ding
Trivalent chromium (Cr(3+)) can cause severely environment pollution, declining quality of edible agro-products in plants and animals, and human diseases. Poly(N-(9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl)-l-histidine) (PFLH) synthesized by the direct electro-polymerization of its corresponding commercially available monomer in both boron trifluoride diethyl etherate and dichloromethane mixed system. The "turn-on" type fluorescent sensor based on PFLH displayed high sensitivity and selectivity for Cr(3+) detecting. The structure of PFLH was rationally proved by (1)H NMR spectra, FT-IR spectra, quantum chemical calculations, and its optical properties were characterized...
September 7, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
José A Heredia-Guerrero, Antonio Heredia, Eva Domínguez, Roberto Cingolani, Ilker S Bayer, Athanassia Athanassiou, José J Benítez
Cutin is the main component of plant cuticles constituting the framework that supports the rest of the cuticle components. This biopolymer is composed of esterified bi- and trifunctional fatty acids. Despite its ubiquity in terrestrial plants, it has been underutilized as raw material due to its insolubility and lack of melting point. However, in recent years, a few technologies have been developed to obtain cutin monomers from several agro-wastes at an industrial scale. This review is focused on the description of cutin properties, biodegradability, chemical composition, processability, abundance, and the state of art of the fabrication of cutin-based materials in order to evaluate whether this biopolymer can be considered a source for the production of renewable materials...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
Quan Van Nguyen, Lars Stoumann Jensen, Roland Bol, Di Wu, Jin Mi Triolo, Ali Heidarzadeh Vazifehkhoran, Sander Bruun
Knowledge about environmental impacts associated with the application of anaerobic digestion residue to agricultural land is of interest owing to the rapid proliferation of biogas plants worldwide. However, virtually no information exists concerning how soil-emitted NO is affected by the feedstock hydraulic retention time (HRT) in the biogas digester. Here, the O planar optode technique was used to visualize soil O dynamics following the surface application of digestates of the codigestion of pig slurry and agro-industrial waste...
September 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
Ndirigwe Jean, Rubaihayo Patrick, Tukamuhabwa Phenihas, Agaba Rolland, Rukundo Placide, Mwanga O M Robert, Tumwegamire Silver, Kamarirwa Vestine, Kayinamura Evrard, Wolfgang J Grüneberg
The yam bean (Pachyrizhus spp) was recently introduced as a root crop with high-yield potential, considerable protein and micro-nutrient concentration to investigate its potential for food production in Rwanda. Except for Chuin types (Pachyrizhus tuberosus) which have high storage root dry matter (RDM) (26 to 36%), most accessions are consumed raw and are reported to have low RDM. The present study aimed to evaluate and identify adapted high yielding yam bean accessions in major agro-ecological zones of Rwanda...
2017: Tropical Plant Biology
Brayan Alexis Parra-Orobio, Andrés Donoso-Bravo, Juan Camilo Ruiz-Sánchez, Karen Jimena Valencia-Molina, Patricia Torres-Lozada
The production of renewable energy in the form of methane from the anaerobic digestion (AD) of food waste (FW) varies depending on factors such as the quantity and quality of the inoculum. This research evaluated the influence of trace elements (Ca, K, Fe, Zn, Al, Mg, Co, Ni, and Mo) present in inoculum from different sources (wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs): 2 agro-industrial WWTPs and 1 municipal WWTP) on the AD of FW. This study found that the source of the inoculum determines the content of macronutrients and trace elements, which can alter the requirements of the AD process and therefore affect methane production...
October 5, 2017: Waste Management
Sandipan Ganguly, Sharad Barkataki, Sumallya Karmakar, Prerna Sanga, K Boopathi, K Kanagasabai, P Kamaraj, Punam Chowdhury, Rituparna Sarkar, Dibyendu Raj, Leo James, Shanta Dutta, Rakesh Sehgal, Priya Jha, Manoj Murhekar
BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections often affect the poorest and most deprived communities. In order to generate reliable data for planning a school based deworming program, we conducted a survey among primary school children studying in government schools in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The objectives of our survey were to estimate the prevalence and intensity of STH infections. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey among children studying in 130 primary schools from 9 agro-climatic zones, during May - August 2015...
October 9, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Marta Goberna, Pedro Simón, María Teresa Hernández, Carlos García
Sewage sludge features high nitrogen and phosphorous contents encouraging its use as a biosolid in agriculture, but it bears potential chemical and microbiological risks. To tease apart the relative contribution of main factors determining the sludge chemical and microbial features, we analysed 28 treatment plants differing in the wastewater origin (municipal residues, agro-food or chemical industries), organic loading rate and treatment technology (extended aeration, activated sludge or activated sludge followed by anaerobic digestion)...
October 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
K Meusburger, P Porto, L Mabit, C La Spada, L Arata, C Alewell
The expected growing population and challenges associated with globalisation will increase local food and feed demands and enhance the pressure on local and regional upland soil resources. In light of these potential future developments it is necessary to define sustainable land use and tolerable soil loss rates with methods applicable and adapted to mountainous areas. Fallout-radionuclides (FRNs) are proven techniques to increase our knowledge about the status and resilience of agro-ecosystems. However, the use of the Caesium-137 ((137)Cs) method is complicated in the European Alps due to its heterogeneous input and the timing of the Chernobyl fallout, which occurred during a few single rain events on partly snow covered ground...
October 5, 2017: Environmental Research
Romualdo Del Buono, Fabio Costa, Chiara Piliego, Felice E Agrò
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
Darshil U Shah, Thomas P S Reynolds, Michael H Ramage, Christine Raines
From the stems of agricultural crops to the structural trunks of trees, studying the mechanical behaviour of plant stems is critical for both commerce and science. Plant scientists are also increasingly relying on mechanical test data for plant phenotyping. Yet there are neither standardized methods nor systematic reviews of current methods for the testing of herbaceous stems. We discuss the architecture of plant stems and highlight important micro- and macrostructural parameters that need to be controlled and accounted for when designing test methodologies, or that need to be understood in order to explain observed mechanical behaviour...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
M Yemmen, A Landolsi, J Ben Hamida, F Mégraud, M Trabelsi Ayadi
Plant derived compounds have played an important role in the development of several clinically useful anticancer drugs. The aim of the present study was 1) to evaluate for the first time the anti-proliferative activity of a polyphenol enriched extract obtained from leaf, fruit and stem of Tunisian variety of Pistacia lentiscus against two cultured cancer cells, and 2) to carry out a phytochemical analysis of vegetable extracts particularly by determining the chemical composition of phenolics (total polyphenols, flavonoids and condensed tannins content in solvents with varying polarities), 3) to  evaluate the antioxidant activity and identify the major compounds by RP-HPLC...
September 30, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Jacob L Berl, Amy J Kuenzi, Elizabeth A Flaherty, Robert K Swihart
Comparatively little is known about hantavirus prevalence within rodent populations from the Midwestern US, where two species of native mice, the prairie deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus bairdii) and the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus noveboracensis), are dominant members of rodent communities. We sampled both species in central Indiana and tested individuals for presence of hantavirus antibodies to determine whether seroprevalence (percent of individuals with antibodies reactive to Sin Nombre virus antigen) differed between species, or among different habitat types within fragmented agro-ecosystems...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
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