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R Renganath Rao, M Vimudha, N R Kamini, M K Gowthaman, B Chandrasekran, P Saravanan
Enzyme-based unhairing in replacement of conventional lime sulfide system has been attempted as an alternative for tackling pollution. The exorbitant cost of enzyme and the need for stringent process control need to be addressed yet. This study developed a mechanism for regulated release of protease from cheaper agro-wastes, which overcomes the necessity for stringent process control along with total cost reduction. The maximum protease activity of 1193.77 U/g was obtained after 96 h of incubation with 15% inoculum of the actinomycete strain Brevibacterium luteolum (MTCC 5982) under solid-state fermentation (SSF)...
December 2, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Dong Hu, Xiaping Fu, Xueming He, Yibin Ying
Spatial-frequency domain imaging (SFDI), as a noncontact, low-cost and wide-field optical imaging technique, offers great potential for agro-product safety and quality assessment through optical absorption (μa) and scattering (μ) property measurements. In this study, a laboratory-based SFDI system was constructed and developed for optical property measurement of fruits and vegetables. The system utilized a digital light projector to generate structured, periodic light patterns and illuminate test samples...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ayotokunbo O Egbontan, Clement G Afolabi, Iyabode A Kehinde, Ololade A Enikuomehin, Chibundu N Ezekiel, Michael Sulyok, Benedikt Warth, Rudolf Krska
A preliminary survey involving limited sample size was conducted to determine the spectrum of moulds and mycotoxins in wheat grains from flour mills and local markets in Nigeria. Fourteen wheat samples were analyzed for moulds using standard mycological methods and for toxic fungal metabolites using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method. Fusarium (range of incidence 12.5-61.7%) dominated in the wheat grains though species of Aspergillus (range of incidence 2.24-3.86%) were also recovered from the samples...
November 30, 2016: Mycotoxin Research
Rowan Sprague, Stéphane Boyer, Georgia M Stevenson, Steve D Wratten
BACKGROUND: Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) are frequently used in agriculture for pollination services because of their abundance, generalist floral preferences, ease of management and hive transport. However, their populations are declining in many countries. Agri-Environment Schemes (AES) are being implemented in agricultural systems to combat the decline in populations of pollinators and other insects. Despite AES being increasingly embedded in policy and budgets, scientific assessments of many of these schemes still are lacking, and only a few studies have examined the extent to which insect pollinators use the floral enhancements that are part of AES and on which floral components they feed (i...
2016: PeerJ
Jerry Asalma Nboyine, Stephane Boyer, David J Saville, Stephen David Wratten
The efficacy of different combinations of under-vine and inter-row treatments for managing a soil-dwelling orthopteran pest, weta (Hemiandrus sp.), in vineyards was investigated over two seasons. This insect damages vine buds, thus reducing subsequent grape yield. The under-vine treatments comprised pea straw mulch, mussel shells, tick beans (Vicia faba Linn. var minor (Fab)), plastic sleeves on vine trunks (treated control) and control (no intervention), while inter-rows contained either the existing vegetation or tick beans...
November 28, 2016: Insect Science
Zahoor Ahmed Wani, Dania Nazir Mirza, Palak Arora, Syed Riyaz-Ul-Hassan
A total of 294 fungal endophytes were isolated from the corms of Crocus sativus at two stages of crocus life cycle collected from 14 different saffron growing sites in Jammu and Kashmir (J & K) State, India. Molecular phylogeny assigned them into 36 distinct internal transcribed spacer (ITS) genotypes which spread over 19 genera. The diversity of endophytes was higher at the dormant than at the vegetative stage. The Saffron microbiome was dominated by Phialophora mustea and Cadophora malorum, both are dark septate endophytes (DSEs)...
December 2016: Fungal Biology
Siyuan Chang, Yalan Guo, Bin Wu, Bingfang He
An alkali tolerant xylanase gene from Bacillus subtilis Lucky9 was cloned and extracellular expressed in E. coli BL21. Xylanase amino acid sequence showed 99% identity with xylanase sequence from Bacillus subtilis 168, and was belonged to glycoside hydrolase family 11. The recombinant E. coli (pET-pelB-xynLC9) containing pelB signal peptide produced extracellular xylanase of 436.5U/mL for 8h, which was used arabinose as extra carbon source and inducer for enhancing extracellular production. The extracellular xylanase was determined by SDS-PAGE with a relative molecular mass of 21kDa...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
M B Marconato, E M Pereira, F M Silva, E H Bizari, J B Pinheiro, A O Mauro, S H Unêda-Trevisoli
Owing to the narrow genetic basis of soybean (Glycine max), the incorporation of new sources of germplasm is indispensable when searching for alleles that contribute to a greater diversity of varieties. The alternative is plant introduction, which may increase genetic variability within breeding programs. Multivariate techniques are important tools to study genetic diversity and allow the precise elucidation of variability in a set of genotypes of interest. The agro-morphological traits of 93 soybean accessions from various continents were analyzed in order to assess the genetic diversity present, and to highlight important traits...
November 21, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Samir Gonçalves Rolim, Regina Helena Rosa Sambuichi, Götz Schroth, Marcelo Trindade Nascimento, José Manoel Lucio Gomes
Cocoa agroforests like the cabrucas of Brazil's Atlantic forest are among the agro-ecosystems with greatest potential for biodiversity conservation. Despite a global trend for their intensification, cocoa agroforests are also being abandoned for socioeconomic reasons especially on marginal sites, because they are incorporated in public or private protected areas, or are part of mandatory set-asides under Brazilian environmental legislation. However, little is known about phylogenetic structure, the processes of forest regeneration after abandonment and the conservation value of former cabruca sites...
November 25, 2016: Environmental Management
Abhishek Gupta, N K Singh, Harkirat Singh, S S Rath
A total of 2089 faecal samples (956 buffaloes and 1133 cattle) were collected from 21 districts of five major agro-climatic zones of Punjab during April, 2013-May, 2014. An overall prevalence rate of 32.17 % (672/2089) was recorded for coccidiosis in dairy animals with a significantly higher (P < 0.01) infection rate in buffaloes (35.46 %) in comparison to cattle (29.39 %). Quantitative analysis revealed oocyst per gram of faeces ranging from 200 to 10,000 (1083.72 ± 227.20) and 100 to 2400 (748...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Xiang Gao, Wei Ouyang, Zengchao Hao, Yandan Shi, Peng Wei, Fanghua Hao
Although climate warming and agricultural land use changes are two of the primary instigators of increased diffuse pollution, they are usually considered separately or additively. This likely lead to poor decisions regarding climate adaptation. Climate warming and farmland responses have synergistic consequences for diffuse nitrogen pollution, which are hypothesized to present different spatio-temporal patterns. In this study, we propose a modeling framework to simulate the synergistic impacts of climate warming and warming-induced farmland shifts on diffuse pollution...
November 18, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Cynthia Adaku Chilaka, Marthe De Boevre, Olusegun Oladimeji Atanda, Sarah De Saeger
In Nigeria, maize, sorghum, and millet are very important cash crops. They are consumed on a daily basis in different processed forms in diverse cultural backgrounds. These crops are prone to fungi infestation, and subsequently may be contaminated with mycotoxins. A total of 363 samples comprising of maize (136), sorghum (110), millet (87), and ogi (30) were collected from randomly selected markets in four agro-ecological zones in Nigeria. Samples were assessed for Fusarium mycotoxins contamination using a multi-mycotoxin liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method...
November 18, 2016: Toxins
L Wu, X Zhang, B A Griffith, T H Misselbrook
The North Wyke Farm Platform (NWFP) provides data from the field- to the farm-scale, enabling the research community to address key issues in sustainable agriculture better and to test models that are capable of simulating soil, plant and animal processes involved in the systems. The tested models can then be used to simulate how agro-ecosystems will respond to changes in the environment and management. In this study, we used baseline datasets generated from the NWFP to validate the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum System (SPACSYS) model in relation to the dynamics of soil water content, water loss from runoff and forage biomass removal...
July 2016: European Journal of Soil Science
R J Orr, P J Murray, C J Eyles, M S A Blackwell, L M Cardenas, A L Collins, J A J Dungait, K W T Goulding, B A Griffith, S J Gurr, P Harris, J M B Hawkins, T H Misselbrook, C Rawlings, A Shepherd, H Sint, T Takahashi, K N Tozer, A P Whitmore, L Wu, M R F Lee
: The North Wyke Farm Platform was established as a United Kingdom national capability for collaborative research, training and knowledge exchange in agro-environmental sciences. Its remit is to research agricultural productivity and ecosystem responses to different management practices for beef and sheep production in lowland grasslands. A system based on permanent pasture was implemented on three 21-ha farmlets to obtain baseline data on hydrology, nutrient cycling and productivity for 2 years...
July 2016: European Journal of Soil Science
Eleni Koutra, George Grammatikopoulos, Michael Kornaros
The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of cultivating Parachlorella kessleri and Acutodesmus obliquus, in anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) derived from the co-digestion of end-of-life dairy products with mixtures of agro-industrial wastes. To this end, their performance under sterile and non-sterile conditions and different ADE loadings was evaluated, in terms of biomass and lipid production, nutrient removal efficiency and vitality of the photosynthetic apparatus. 10% (v/v) ADE loading inhibited growth over 9-12days of cultivation, however biomass yields of 1...
November 17, 2016: Bioresource Technology
Xingmin Wang, Can Zhang, Baoli Qiu, Umair Ashraf, Rashid Azad, Jianhui Wu, Shaukat Ali
Agro-ecosystem contamination by the heavy metals present in different agricultural products is a serious challenge faced by the living organisms. This study explains the cadmium (Cd) transfer from soils contaminated with different cadmium concentrations through a plant (eggplant and tomato) - mealybug (Dysmicoccus neobrevipes) - predator (Cryptolaemus-montrouzieri) food chain. The soils were amended with Cd at the rates of 0, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg (w/w). Our findings showed that considerably higher Cd transfer through tomato plant...
November 15, 2016: Chemosphere
Cindy E Morris, Marie-Anne Barny, Odile Berge, Linda L Kinkel, Christelle Lacroix
Methods to assure the health of crops owe their efficacy to the extent to which we understand the ecology and biology of environmental microorganisms and the conditions under which their interactions with plants lead to losses in crop quality or yield. But in the pursuit of this knowledge, notions of the ecology of plant pathogenic microorganisms have been reduced to a plant-centric and agro-centric focus. With increasing global change, i.e. changes that encompass not only the climate but also biodiversity, geographic distribution of biomes, human demographic and socio-economic adaptations and land use, new plant health problems will emerge via a range of processes influenced by these changes...
November 9, 2016: Molecular Plant Pathology
Elifuraha B Mngumi, Mariam M Mirambo, Sospeter Wilson, Stephen E Mshana
BACKGROUND: Human brucellosis remains to be a neglected zoonotic disease among agro-pastoral communities where livestock rearing is one of the main economic activities. This study was conducted in different agro-pastoral communities in Sengerema district, Mwanza, Tanzania, to determine seroprevalence and predictors of anti-Brucella antibodies, information that may influence public awareness on the risk factors and strategies to improve the diagnosis of brucellosis in developing countries...
2016: Tropical Medicine and Health
Alyssa M Bilinski, Meagan C Fitzpatrick, Charles E Rupprecht, A David Paltiel, Alison P Galvani
Rabies causes more than 24 000 human deaths annually in Sub-Saharan Africa. The World Health Organization recommends annual canine vaccination campaigns with at least 70% coverage to control the disease. While previous studies have considered optimal coverage of animal rabies vaccination, variation in the frequency of vaccination campaigns has not been explored. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of rabies canine vaccination campaigns at varying coverage and frequency, we parametrized a rabies virus transmission model to two districts of northwest Tanzania, Ngorongoro (pastoral) and Serengeti (agro-pastoral)...
November 16, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Scott J Werner, Keith A Hobson, Steven L Van Wilgenburg, Justin W Fischer
We analyzed stable-hydrogen (δ2H), carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ 15N) isotope ratios in feathers to better understand the molt origin and food habits of Red-winged Blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) near sunflower production in the Upper Midwest and rice production in the Mid-South of the United States. Outer primary feathers were used from 661 after-second-year (ASY) male blackbirds collected in Minnesota, Montana, North Dakota and South Dakota (spring collection), and Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri and Texas (winter collection)...
2016: PloS One
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