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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793079/shifts-in-wind-energy-potential-following-land-use-driven-vegetation-dynamics-in-complex-terrain
#1
Jiannong Fang, Alexander Peringer, Mihai-Sorin Stupariu, Ileana Pǎtru-Stupariu, Alexandre Buttler, Francois Golay, Fernando Porté-Agel
Many mountainous regions with high wind energy potential are characterized by multi-scale variabilities of vegetation in both spatial and time dimensions, which strongly affect the spatial distribution of wind resource and its time evolution. To this end, we developed a coupled interdisciplinary modeling framework capable of assessing the shifts in wind energy potential following land-use driven vegetation dynamics in complex mountain terrain. It was applied to a case study area in the Romanian Carpathians...
May 21, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787968/background-concentrations-and-quality-reference-values-for-some-potentially-toxic-elements-in-soils-of-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-state-brazil
#2
Thiago Assis Rodrigues Nogueira, Cassio Hamilton Abreu-Junior, Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú Alleoni, Zhenli He, Marcio Roberto Soares, Camila Dos Santos Vieira, Luís Gustavo Frediani Lessa, Gian Franco Capra
Quality reference values (QRV) for potentially toxic elements (PTE) in soils are established as a tool for prevention and monitoring of soil pollution. These values should be periodically revised in order to ensure soil safety for agricultural purposes. Brazil is market leader for several commodities; therefore, the safety of Brazilian soils is of worldwide strategic importance. The objective of this study was to determine the natural background concentrations and the QRV for As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn by investigating 30 representative pedotypes in the São Paulo State, one of the most important agro-industry economy at worldwide level...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787307/membrane-based-technologies-for-meeting-the-recovery-of-biologically-active-compounds-from-foods-and-their-by-products
#3
Roberto Castro-Muñoz, Carmela Conidi, Alfredo Cassano
To date, according to the latest literature inputs, membranes-based technologies (microfiltration, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration) have demonstrated to meet the recovery of biologically active compounds, mainly phenolic compounds and their derivatives, from agro-food products and by-products. The goal of this paper is to provide a critical overview of the on ongoing development works aimed at improving the separation, fractionation and concentration of phenolic compounds and their derivatives from their original sources...
May 22, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786527/retrospective-analysis-of-bluetongue-farm-risk-profile-definition-based-on-biology-farm-management-practices-and-climatic-data
#4
Stefano Cappai, Federica Loi, Annamaria Coccollone, Marino Contu, Paolo Capece, Michele Fiori, Simona Canu, Cipriano Foxi, Sandro Rolesu
Bluetongue (BT) is a vector-borne disease transmitted by species of Culicoides midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Many studies have contributed to clarifying various aspects of its aetiology, epidemiology and vector dynamic; however, BT remains a disease of epidemiological and economic importance that affects ruminants worldwide. Since 2000, the Sardinia region has been the most affected area of the Mediterranean basin. The region is characterised by wide pastoral areas for sheep and represents the most likely candidate region for the study of Bluetongue virus (BTV) distribution and prevalence in Italy...
July 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782528/threat-of-wheat-blast-to-south-asia-s-food-security-an-ex-ante-analysis
#5
Khondoker Abdul Mottaleb, Pawan Kumar Singh, Kai Sonder, Gideon Kruseman, Thakur Prasad Tiwari, Naresh C D Barma, Paritosh Kumar Malaker, Hans-Joachim Braun, Olaf Erenstein
New biotic stresses have emerged around the globe over the last decades threatening food safety and security. In 2016, scientists confirmed the presence of the devastating wheat-blast disease in Bangladesh, South Asia-its first occurrence outside South America. Severely blast-affected wheat fields had their grain yield wiped out. This poses a severe threat to food security in a densely-populated region with millions of poor inhabitants where wheat is a major staple crop and per capita wheat consumption has been increasing...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778484/effect-of-grain-or-by-product-based-concentrate-fed-with-early-or-late-harvested-first-cut-grass-silage-on-dairy-cow-performance
#6
D Pang, T Yan, E Trevisi, S J Krizsan
This study compared the effects of a grain-based conventional concentrate (GC) and a concentrate based on agro-industrial by-products (BC), fed with grass silage harvested at early (ES) or late (LS) maturity stage, on dairy performance, CH4 and CO2 emissions, and metabolic status of dairy cows. Twenty lactating Nordic Red cows averaging 81 d in milk and 31.9 kg of milk/d pre-trial were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Dietary treatments were in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The silages were harvested 2 wk apart from the same primary growth grass ley...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778093/bio-detheobromination-of-cocoa-pod-husks-reduction-of-ochratoxin-a-content-without-change-in-nutrient-profile
#7
Daniel Oduro-Mensah, Augustine Ocloo, Sammy T Lowor, Cheetham Mingle, Laud K N-A Okine, Naa Ayikailey Adamafio
BACKGROUND: Utilization of cocoa pod husks (CPH) in animal feed is hindered by the presence of theobromine, which is variably toxic to animals. Treatment of this agro-waste to remove theobromine, while preserving its nutrient content, would allow beneficial use of the millions of metric tonnes discarded annually. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of selected theobromine-degrading filamentous fungi for use as bio-tools in degradation of theobromine in CPH. RESULTS: The candidate fungi assessed in this study were an Aspergillus niger (AnTD) and three Talaromyces spp...
May 19, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775214/pressurized-hot-water-extraction-of-bioactive-compounds-from-artichoke-by-products
#8
Imma Pagano, Anna Lisa Piccinelli, Rita Celano, Luca Campone, Patrizia Gazzerro, Mariateresa Russo, Luca Rastrelli
Artichoke by-products are a suitable source of health-promoting ingredients for the production of dietary supplements and food additives. A pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) was developed to recover caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) and flavone glycosides (FLs) from agro-industrial artichoke by-products. The main factors influencing PHWE efficiency and CQA isomerization (temperature, numbers of cycles, modifier and extraction time) were carefully studied and optimized by response surface design. The proposed PHWE procedure provides an exhaustive extraction of CQAs and FLs (recoveries: 93-105 and 90-105%) from artichoke external bracts and leaves of different cultivars (p > 0...
May 18, 2018: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775057/analysis-of-improved-nutritional-composition-of-potential-functional-food-okara-after-probiotic-solid-state-fermentation
#9
Sulagna Gupta, Jaslyn J L Lee, Wei Ning Chen
Okara is a major agro-waste, generated as a byproduct from the soymilk and tofu industry. Since okara has a high nutritive value, reusing it as a substrate for solid state biofermentation is an economical and environmental friendly option. Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum were the probiotic FDA-approved food-grade cultures used in this study. The study revealed that biofermenting okara improves its nutritional composition. It was found that the metabolomic composition (by GC-MS analysis) and antioxidant activity (by DPPH test) improved after the microbial fermentations...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774285/molecular-prevalence-of-babesia-bigemina-in-rhipicephalus-microplus-ticks-infesting-cross-bred-cattle-of-punjab-india
#10
S A Bhat, N K Singh, H Singh, S S Rath
Babesiosis is an economically important tick-borne apicomplexan protozoan disease of cattle in tropical and subtropical regions. In the present study, Rhipicephalus microplus engorged female ticks were collected from 135 apparently healthy cattle from different agro-climatic zones of Punjab, India, to investigate the carrier status of Babesia bigemina infection in vector tick by using microscopy and PCR based assays. PCR when applied on DNA extracted from the egg masses harvested from ticks showed 1.48% (2/135) samples as positive, whereas 4...
August 2017: Parasite Epidemiology and Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773395/x-ray-powder-diffraction-and-other-analyses-of-cellulose-nanocrystals-obtained-from-corn-straw-by-chemical-treatments
#11
C C Hernandez, F F Ferreira, D S Rosa
The extraction of nanocellulose from agro-industrial wastes is feasible due to a significant amount of cellulose contained in these natural fibers. The analysis of chemical treatments effects on the fibers to obtain the nanocellulose must be taken into consideration for the definition of an adequate and efficient methodology. In this study, two alkaline treatments were used (cleaning and bleaching), as well as an acid treatment for the extraction of nanocellulose from corn straw residues. The samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to verify the action and modifications caused in their chemical and physical structures...
August 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772658/in-vitro-iron-bioavailability-of-brazilian-food-based-by-products
#12
Gabriela M Chiocchetti, Elisabete A De Nadai Fernandes, Anna A Wawer, Susan Fairweather-Tait, Tatiana Christides
Background : Iron deficiency is a public health problem in many low- and middle-income countries. Introduction of agro-industrial food by-products, as additional source of nutrients, could help alleviate this micronutrient deficiency, provide alternative sources of nutrients and calories in developed countries, and be a partial solution for disposal of agro-industry by-products. Methods : The aim of this study was to determine iron bioavailability of 5 by-products from Brazilian agro-industry (peels from cucumber, pumpkin, and jackfruit, cupuaçu seed peel, and rice bran), using the in vitro digestion/ Caco-2 cell model; with Caco-2 cell ferritin formation as a surrogate marker of iron bioavailability...
May 16, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772563/assessment-of-different-pretreatment-technologies-for-efficient-bioconversion-of-lignocellulose-to-ethanol
#13
Jitendra K Singh, Preeti Vyas, Anamika Dubey, Chandrama Prakash Upadhyaya, Richa Kothari, Vineet Veer Tyagi, Ashwani Kumar
The future supply of energy to meet growing energy demand of rapidly exapanding populations is based on wide energy resources, particularly the renewable ones. Among all resources, lignocellulosic biomasses such as agriculture, forest, and agro-industrial residues are the most abundant and easily available bioresource for biorefineries to provide fuels, chemicals, and materials. However, pretreatment of biomass is required to overcome the physical and chemical barriers that exist in the lignin-carbohydrate composite and pretreatment facilitate the entry of biocatalysts for the conversion of biomass into fermentable sugars and other by-products...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771979/spatial-pattern-of-soil-organic-carbon-and-total-nitrogen-and-analysis-of-related-factors-in-an-agro-pastoral-zone-in-northern-china
#14
Xuyang Wang, Yuqiang Li, Yinping Chen, Jie Lian, Yongqing Luo, Yayi Niu, Xiangwen Gong
The spatial pattern of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) densities plays a profound important role in estimating carbon and nitrogen budgets. Naiman Banner located in northern China was chosen as research site, a total of 332 soil samples were taken in a depth of 100 cm from the low hilly land in the southern part, sandy land in the middle part and an alluvial plain in the northern part of the county. The results showed that SOC and TN density initially decreased and then increased from the north to the south, The highest densities, were generally in the south, with the lowest generally in the middle part...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770051/agriculture-and-agri-food-canada-s-research-program-on-antimicrobial-resistance
#15
E Topp
A key strategy for attenuating the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is ensuring judicious use of antimicrobials in human and veterinary medicine and in agriculture. Research on AMR in agriculture includes risk assessment, risk management, and identifying the role of agricultural practices in development of AMR. Risk assessment includes an impact assessment of antimicrobial use in livestock and on the environment; for example, many antimicrobials are excreted unchanged and thus reach the environment through manure application...
November 2, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767640/burden-of-exposure-to-potential-interactions-between-antiretroviral-and-non-antiretroviral-medications-in-a-population-of-hiv-positive-patients-aged-50-years-or-older
#16
Alice Ranzani, Letizia Oreni, Massimiliano Agrò, Lorena van den Bogaart, Laura Milazzo, Andrea Giacomelli, Dario Cattaneo, Cristina Gervasoni, Anna Lisa Ridolfo
BACKGROUND: As HIV-infected patients aged 50 years or older are at increased risk of comorbidities and multidrug treatments, we examined their exposure to the potential drug-drug interactions (PDDIs) of antiretroviral (ARV) and other medications. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved the patients aged 50 years or older receiving ARV and non-ARV medications at our clinic. PDDIs were identified using the University of Liverpool HIV Drug Interaction Checker...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758426/two-contrasted-future-scenarios-for-the-french-agro-food-system
#17
Gilles Billen, Julia Le Noë, Josette Garnier
Narratives of two prospective scenarios for the future of French agriculture were elaborated by pushing several trends already acting on the dynamics of the current system to their logical end. The first one pursues the opening and specialization characterizing the long-term evolution of the last 50 years of most French agricultural regions, while the second assumes a shift, already perceptible through weak signals, towards more autonomy at the farm and regional scales, a reconnection of crop and livestock farming and a more frugal human diet...
May 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752718/effect-of-rearing-substrate-on-growth-performance-waste-reduction-efficiency-and-chemical-composition-of-black-soldier-fly-hermetia-illucens-larvae
#18
Marco Meneguz, Achille Schiavone, Francesco Gai, Andrea Dama, Carola Lussiana, Manuela Renna, Laura Gasco
BACKGROUND: Wastes can be used as rearing substrate by black soldier fly (BSF) larvae, the latter being exploitable as protein source in animal feed. This research aimed to assess the influence of four rearing substrates [Trial 1 (organic wastes): a mixture of vegetable and fruit (VEGFRU) vs a mixture of fruits only (FRU); Trial 2 (agro-industrial by-products): brewery (BRE) vs winery (WIN) by-products] on BSF larvae development, waste reduction efficiency, and nutritional composition...
May 11, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751669/mapping-grain-iron-and-zinc-content-quantitative-trait-loci-in-an-iniadi-derived-immortal-population-of-pearl-millet
#19
Sushil Kumar, Charles Tom Hash, Thirunavukkarasu Nepolean, Mahesh D Mahendrakar, Chellapilla Tara Satyavathi, Govind Singh, Abhishek Rathore, Rattan S Yadav, Rajeev Gupta, Rakesh K Srivastava
Pearl millet is a climate-resilient nutritious crop requiring low inputs and is capable of giving economic returns in marginal agro-ecologies. In this study, we report large-effect iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) content quantitative trait loci ( QTLs) using diversity array technology (DArT) and simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers to generate a genetic linkage map using 317 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the (ICMS 8511-S1-17-2-1-1-B-P03 × AIMP 92901-S1-183-2-2-B-08) cross. The base map [seven linkage groups (LGs)] of 196 loci was 964...
May 11, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751299/net-ecosystem-exchange-of-co-2-and-h-2-o-fluxes-from-irrigated-grain-sorghum-and-maize-in-the-texas-high-plains
#20
Pradeep Wagle, Prasanna H Gowda, Jerry E Moorhead, Gary W Marek, David K Brauer
Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and water vapor (H2 O) fluxes from irrigated grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and maize (Zea mays L.) fields in the Texas High Plains were quantified using the eddy covariance (EC) technique during 2014-2016 growing seasons and examined in terms of relevant controlling climatic variables. Eddy covariance measured evapotranspiration (ETEC ) was also compared against lysimeter measured ET (ETLys ). Daily peak (7-day averages) NEE reached approximately -12 g C m-2 for sorghum and -14...
May 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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