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Saima Majeed, Mazhar Iqbal, Muhammad Rafique Asi, Shahzad Zafar Iqbal, Jinap Selamat
Recently, cultivation of high-yielding hybrid maize varieties has revolutionized maize production in Pakistan. Analyses of nutritional traits and aflatoxin (AF) contamination in these varieties can aid in the identification of susceptible and resistant varieties, particularly for cultivation in the Pakistani agro-climatic environment. Five spring maize varieties-Pioneer, Neelam, DK-919, Desi, and Hi-maize-were selected for analyses of their nutritional, tocopherol, and AF contents. Protein, carbohydrate, oil, ash, fiber, and moisture contents ranged between 8...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
Norma C S Amorim, Eduardo L C Amorim, Mario T Kato, Lourdinha Florencio, Savia Gavazza
Manipueira is a carbohydrate-rich agro-industrial waste from cassava processing. It is considered well suitable for biotechnological processes, such as hydrogen and carboxylic acids production, due to the high content of easily degradable organic matter. However, the proper methanogenesis inhibition method, inoculum type, and organic loads are factors still limiting the processes. The objective in this work was to evaluate the effects of such factors on byproducts production in anaerobic reactors. Batch experiments were conducted with 2...
November 11, 2017: Biodegradation
Nicoletta Patrizi, Valentina Niccolucci, Cesare Castellini, Federico M Pulselli, Simone Bastianoni
This study aims to assess the sustainability of an agroforestry system: i.e. a system obtained by the union of two productions to get at least two by-products from the same productive space. In particular, this case study presents the integration of a goose raising system with an organic grape production, from an environmental point of view. This integration is mainly designed to have two simultaneous co-products (grape and goose meat) with: i) a less intensive use of machineries for weeding and ii) avoiding use of chemical fertilizers and weeding...
November 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Hyungjoo Kim, Sunhwa Oh, Myung Chan Gye, Incheol Shin
Nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEOs) are a major group of nonionic surfactants widely used in various detergents, cleaners, plastics, papers, and agro-chemical products. Nonylphenol (NP), which is a final degraded metabolite derived from NPEOs, has been reported as an endocrine disrupter, known to mimic or disturb reproductive hormone functions. Concern about the hazards of NP and NPEOs has generated legal restrictions and action plans worldwide. Considering the fact that NP and NPEOs are majorly used in the production of products such as detergents, shampoos, and cosmetics which frequently come into contact with the skin, we investigated the effects of NP and NPEOs on a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT)...
November 10, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Michel P Laforge, Nicole L Michel, Ryan K Brook
Large-scale climatic fluctuations have caused species range shifts. Moose (Alces alces) have expanded their range southward into agricultural areas previously not considered moose habitat. We found that moose expansion into agro-ecosystems is mediated by broad-scale climatic factors and access to high-quality forage (i.e., crops). We used crop damage records to quantify moose presence across the Canadian Prairies. We regressed latitude of crop damage against North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and crop area to test the hypotheses that NAO-mediated wetland recharge and occurrence of more nutritious crop types would result in more frequent occurrences of crop damage by moose at southerly latitudes...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
Walter Svinurai, Farai Mapanda, Dingane Sithole, Elisha N Moyo, Kudzai Ndidzano, Alois Tsiga, Washington Zhakata
Without disregarding its role as one of the key sources of sustainable livelihoods in Zimbabwe and other developing countries, livestock production contributes significantly to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through enteric fermentation. For the livestock sector to complement global efforts to mitigate climate change, accurate estimations of GHG emissions are required. Methane emissions from enteric fermentation in Zimbabwe were quantified over 35years under four production systems and five agro-ecological regions...
November 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Mohammad Badrul Masud, Tim McAllister, Marcos R C Cordeiro, Monireh Faramarzi
Despite the perception of being one of the most agriculturally productive regions globally, crop production in Alberta, a western province of Canada, is strongly dependent on highly variable climate and water resources. We developed agro-hydrological models to assess the water footprint (WF) of barley by simulating future crop yield (Y) and consumptive water use (CWU) within the agricultural region of Alberta. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to develop rainfed and irrigated barley Y simulation models adapted to sixty-seven and eleven counties, respectively through extensive calibration, validation, sensitivity, and uncertainty analysis...
November 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Manee Luangtana-Anan, Sitthiphong Soradech, Suthep Saengsod, Jurairat Nunthanid, Sontaya Limmatvapirat
The aim of this investigation was to develop the high moisture protective ability and stable pectin through the design of composite films based on varying shellac concentrations. A film casting method was applied to prepare a free film. The moisture protective properties and mechanical properties were investigated. The findings was the composite films exhibited the reductions in the hydrophilicity, water vapor permeability, and the moisture content compared with pectin films. The single and composite films were then study for their stability at 40 °C and 75% RH for 90 d...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Food Science
Renganath Rao Ramesh, Vimudha Muralidharan, Saravanan Palanivel
Usage of the animal fleshing waste as the source of carbon and nitrogen for animal skin unhairing protease (EC 3.4.21) production along with agro-industrial wastes like wheat bran has been investigated. Thermal hydrolysis of delimed fleshing waste for 3 h yielded a fleshing hydrolysate (FH) having a protein content of 20.86 mg/mL and total solids of 46,600 ppm. The FH was lyophilized and spray dried to obtain fleshing hydrolysate powder (FHP) to be used along with wheat bran and rice bran for protease production...
November 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yuly A Ramírez-Tapias, Aldana S Lapasset Laumann, Claudia N Britos, Cintia W Rivero, Jorge A Trelles
Enzyme immobilization using hydrogels is a low-cost and effective system for the degradation of bulk pectin derived from orange industry residues. Polygalacturonases obtained from four different bacterial strains of Streptomyces genus were immobilized in alginate gel and assayed for pectin hydrolysis. The enzyme from Streptomyces halstedii ATCC 10897 proved to be superior and more stable within the alginate matrix. Furthermore, a new strategy to improve alginate bead stability using a mixture of calcium and strontium is reported; this technique allowed enhancing the mechanical properties by combining different amounts of these cations for ionotropic gelation...
December 2017: 3 Biotech
Michael Kermah, Angelinus C Franke, Samuel Adjei-Nsiah, Benjamin D K Ahiabor, Robert C Abaidoo, Ken E Giller
Smallholder farmers in the Guinea savanna practise cereal-legume intercropping to mitigate risks of crop failure in mono-cropping. The productivity of cereal-legume intercrops could be influenced by the spatial arrangement of the intercrops and the soil fertility status. Knowledge on the effect of soil fertility status on intercrop productivity is generally lacking in the Guinea savanna despite the wide variability in soil fertility status in farmers' fields, and the productivity of within-row spatial arrangement of intercrops relative to the distinct-row systems under on-farm conditions has not been studied in the region...
November 2017: Field Crops Research
Guy Bertrand Pouokam, William Lemnyuy Album, Alice S Ndikontar, Mohamed El Hady Sidatt
Chemical pesticides are widely used in Cameroon for agricultural production. In 2015, more than 600 pesticide products were approved for use in various foodstuffs. Much misuse of these chemicals by farmers has been documented in rural and urban settings. This pilot study aims to contribute to the improvement of the health of the population and the environmental preservation by identifying pesticide-poisoning cases, the most incriminated products and critical risk factors of exposure. Questionnaires were administered to pesticide vendors, farmers and health personnel, and observations made on farmers' practices at their work places...
November 1, 2017: Toxics
Hui Li, Zejun Jiang, Xiaolin Cao, Hang Su, Hua Shao, Fen Jin, A M Abd El-Aty, Jing Wang
Herein, an accurate and reliable isotope-labelled internal standard method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of three polar pesticide adjuvants, namely 2-pyrrolidone, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, and N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone in plant-derived agro-products. Matrices, including apple, cabbage, tomato, cucumber, rice, and wheat were extracted with a modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe "QuEChERS" method and purified with a new clean-up sorbent (Z-Sep). A hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column (HILIC), exhibiting a lipophilic-hydrophilic character, was used to separate the three analytes over 10min using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Bhadranie Thoradeniya, Uthpala Pinto, Basant Maheshwari
Integrated management of water quality is critical for sustaining food production and achieving overall well-being of a community. Further, understanding people's perceptions and engagement can play an important role in achieving water and food security. The main aim of this study was to investigate the perspectives of community and other stakeholders as to how water quality impacts on agriculture, livelihood and community well-being within rural farming communities of two dry zone districts of Sri Lanka. The study adopted 'key informant interviews' as the methodology to investigate community and other stakeholder perspectives to collect primary data over a period of four months...
November 4, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Marie-Lou Hillion, Roman Moscoviz, Eric Trably, Yoann Leblanc, Nicolas Bernet, Michel Torrijos, Renaud Escudié
Biodegradable wastes produced seasonally need an upstream storage, because of the requirement for a constant feeding of anaerobic digesters. In the present article, the potential of co-ensiling biodegradable agro-industrial waste (sugar beet leaves) and lignocellulosic agricultural residue (wheat straw) to obtain a mixture with low soluble sugar content was evaluated for long-term storage prior to anaerobic digestion. The aim is to store agro-industrial waste while pretreating lignocellulosic biomass. The dynamics of co-ensiling was evaluated in vacuum-packed bags at lab-scale during 180 days...
October 25, 2017: Waste Management
Bruno M Esteves, Carmen S D Rodrigues, Luís M Madeira
Degradation of total phenol (TPh) and organic matter, (expressed as total organic carbon TOC), of a simulated olive mill wastewater was evaluated by the Fenton oxidation process under batch and continuous mode conditions. A mixture of six phenolic acids usually found in these agro-industrial wastewaters was used for this purpose. The study focused on the optimization of key operational parameters of the Fenton process in a batch reactor, namely Fe(2+) dosage, hydrogen peroxide concentration, pH, and reaction temperature...
November 4, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Dong Zhuo, Liming Liu, Huirong Yu, Chengcheng Yuan
China's intensive agriculture has led to a broad range of adverse impacts upon ecosystems and thereby caused environmental quality degradation. One of the fundamental problems that face land managers when dealing with agricultural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution is to quantitatively assess the NPS pollution loads from different sources at a national scale. In this study, export scenarios and geo-spatial data were used to calculate the agricultural NPS pollution loads of nutrient, pesticide, plastic film residue, and crop straw burning in China...
November 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ifeoma N Chidebe, Sanjay K Jaiswal, Felix D Dakora
Cowpea derives most of its N nutrition from biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) via symbiotic bacteroids in root nodules. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the diversity and biogeo-graphic distribution of bacterial microsymbionts nodulating cowpea and other indigenous legumes are not well understood, though needed for increased legume production. The aim of this study was to describe rhizobial distribution and their phylogenies at different agro-ecological regions of Mozambique using BOX-PCR, ITS-RFLP and sequence analysis of housekeeping genes...
November 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Kyalo Richard, Elfatih M Abdel-Rahman, Sevgan Subramanian, Johnson O Nyasani, Michael Thiel, Hosein Jozani, Christian Borgemeister, Tobias Landmann
Cropping systems information on explicit scales is an important but rarely available variable in many crops modeling routines and of utmost importance for understanding pests and disease propagation mechanisms in agro-ecological landscapes. In this study, high spatial and temporal resolution RapidEye bio-temporal data were utilized within a novel 2-step hierarchical random forest (RF) classification approach to map areas of mono- and mixed maize cropping systems. A small-scale maize farming site in Machakos County, Kenya was used as a study site...
November 3, 2017: Sensors
Filomena Nazzaro, Florinda Fratianni, Raffaele Coppola, Vincenzo De Feo
Since ancient times, folk medicine and agro-food science have benefitted from the use of plant derivatives, such as essential oils, to combat different diseases, as well as to preserve food. In Nature, essential oils play a fundamental role in protecting the plant from biotic and abiotic attacks to which it may be subjected. Many researchers have analyzed in detail the modes of action of essential oils and most of their components. The purpose of this brief review is to describe the properties of essential oils, principally as antifungal agents, and their role in blocking cell communication mechanisms, fungal biofilm formation, and mycotoxin production...
November 2, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
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