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Regenerative medicine

W V Giannobile, Y Chai, Y Chen, K E Healy, O Klein, N Lane, M T Longaker, J C Lotz, D J Mooney, C S Sfeir, M Urata, W R Wagner, B M Wu, D H Kohn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Juan Pablo Acevedo, Ioannis Angelopoulos, Danny van Noort, Maroun Khoury
Microfabrication and microfluidics contribute to the research of cellular functions of cells and their interaction with their environment. Previously, it has been shown that microfluidics can contribute to the isolation, selection, characterization and migration of cells. This review aims to provide stem cell researchers with a toolkit of microtechnology (mT) instruments for elucidating complex stem cells functions which are challenging to decipher with traditional assays and animal models. These microdevices are able to investigate about the differentiation and niche interaction, stem cells transcriptomics, therapeutic functions and the capture of their secreted microvesicles...
March 20, 2018: Regenerative Medicine
Lauren A Jevons, Franchesca D Houghton, Rahul S Tare
The rise in the incidence of musculoskeletal diseases is attributed to an increasing ageing population. The debilitating effects of musculoskeletal diseases, coupled with a lack of effective therapies, contribute to huge financial strains on healthcare systems. The focus of regenerative medicine has shifted to pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), namely, human embryonic stem cells and human-induced PSCs, due to the limited success of adult stem cell-based interventions. PSCs constitute a valuable cell source for musculoskeletal regeneration due to their capacity for unlimited self-renewal, ability to differentiate into all cell lineages of the three germ layers and perceived immunoprivileged characteristics...
March 20, 2018: Regenerative Medicine
Yi-Chao Hsu, Yu-Ting Wu, Chia-Ling Tsai, Yau-Huei Wei
In mammalian cells, there are seven members of the sirtuin protein family (SIRT1-7). SIRT1, SIRT6, and SIRT7 catalyze posttranslational modification of proteins in the nucleus, SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT5 are in the mitochondria and SIRT2 is in the cytosol. SIRT1 can deacetylate the transcription factor SOX2 and regulate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) reprogramming through the miR-34a-SIRT1-p53 axis. SIRT2 can regulate the function of pluripotent stem cells through GSK3β. SIRT3 can positively regulate PPAR gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) expression during the differentiation of stem cells...
March 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Klemen Čamernik, Ariana Barlič, Matej Drobnič, Janja Marc, Matjaž Jeras, Janja Zupan
The musculoskeletal system includes tissues that have remarkable regenerative capabilities. Bone and muscle sustain micro-damage throughout the lifetime, yet they continue to provide the body with the support that is needed for everyday activities. Our current understanding is that the regenerative capacity of the musculoskeletal system can be attributed to the mesenchymal stem/ stromal cells (MSCs) that reside within its different anatomical compartments. These MSCs can replenish various tissues with progenitor cells to form functional cells, such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes, myocytes, and others...
March 20, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
Ken P Ehrhardt, Susan M Mothersele, Andrew J Brunk, Jeremy B Green, Mark R Jones, Craig B Billeaud, Alan David Kaye
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic pain is a highly prevalent condition affecting millions of individuals. RECENT FINDINGS: In recent years, newer treatments have emerged that are changing the way clinicians treat pain pathogenesis, including novel nonopioid strategies. In this regard, spinal cord stimulation, the MILD procedure, and regenerative medicine have shown promise. This review summarizes recent literature on these three emerging treatment strategies. The results of this review suggest that under certain conditions, spinal cord stimulation, the MILD procedure, and regenerative medicine can be effective treatment modalities...
March 19, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
Muhammad Fuad Hilmi Yusof, Wafa' Zahari, Siti Nurnasihah Md Hashim, Zul Faizuddin Osman, Hamshawagini Chandra, Thirumulu Ponnuraj Kannan, Khairul Bariah Ahmad Amin Noordin, Ahmad Azlina
Manipulation of dental stem cells (DSCs) using current technologies in tissue engineering unveil promising prospect in regenerative medicine. DSCs have shown to possess angiogenic and osteogenic potential in both in vivo and in vitro. Neural crest derived DSCs can successfully be isolated from various dental tissues, exploiting their intrinsic great differentiation potential. In this article, researcher team intent to review the characteristics of DSCs, with focus on their angiogenic and osteogenic differentiation lineage...
January 2018: Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research
Sakiko Fujii, Katsumi Fujimoto, Noriko Goto, Yoshimitsu Abiko, Asayo Imaoka, Jinchang Shao, Kazuko Kitayama, Masami Kanawa, Agung Sosiawan, Ketut Suardita, Fusanori Nishimura, Yukio Kato
Dental pulp cells (DPCs) are promising candidates for use as transplantable cells in regenerative medicine. However, ex vivo expansion of these cells typically requires culture media containing fetal bovine serum, which may cause infection and immunological reaction following transplantation. In addition, the proliferation and differentiation of DPCs markedly depend upon serum batches. Therefore, the present study examined whether DPCs could be expanded under serum-free conditions. DPCs obtained from four donors were identified to proliferate actively in the serum-free medium, STK2, when compared with those cells in control medium (Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing 10% serum)...
April 2018: Biomedical Reports
Jiayin Fu, Dong-An Wang
Other than a few avascular tissues, almost all human tissues are connected to the systemic circulation via blood vessels that promote metabolism and function. Accordingly, engineered vascularization is a vital goal in tissue engineering for regenerative medicine. Endothelial cells (ECs) play a central role in vascularization with two significant specificities: physical interfaces between vascular stroma and blood, and phenotypic organ-specificity. Biomaterial scaffolding technologies that address these unique properties of ECs have been developed to promote the vascularization of various engineered tissues, and these have advanced from mimicking vascular architectures ex situ towards promoting spontaneous angiogenic remodeling in situ...
March 16, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
Syuuhei Komatsu, Yui Ikedo, Taka-Aki Asoh, Ryo Ishihara, Akihiko Kikuchi
Organic-inorganic CaCO3 capsules were prepared by crystallization of CaCO3 on Pickering emulsion prepared using coacervate droplets made from thermoresponsive and degradable poly(2-methylene-1,3-dioxepane-co-2-hydroxyethyl acrylate) (poly(MDO-co-HEA)) in sole aqueous medium. The diameters of CaCO3-based Pickering emulsion could be controlled by varying several parameters: diameter of CaCO3 powders, initial polymer concentration, and copolymer composition. The CaCO3 Pickering emulsion was able to load low-molecular-weight hydrophobic substances at temperatures above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) due to formation of polymer-concentrated phases, i...
March 19, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Jessica C Stark, Euan Wallace, Rebecca Lim, Bryan Leaw
Microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, are the first responders to inflammation or injury in the central nervous system. Recent research has revealed microglia to be dynamic, capable of assuming both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory phenotypes. Both M1 (pro-inflammatory) and M2 (pro-reparative) phenotypes play an important role in neuroinflammatory conditions such as perinatal brain injury, and exhibit differing functions in response to certain environmental stimuli. The modulation of microglial activation has been noted to confer neuroprotection thus suggesting microglia may have therapeutic potential in brain injury...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Polina Zjablovskaja, Petr Danek, Miroslava Kardosova, Meritxell Alberich-Jorda
Understanding of the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell biology has important implications for regenerative medicine and the treatment of hematological pathologies. Despite the most relevant data that can be acquired using in vivo models or primary cultures, the low abundance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells considerably restricts the pool of suitable techniques for their investigation. Therefore, the use of cell lines allows sufficient production of biological material for the performance of screenings or assays that require large cell numbers...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Rinat Sultanov, Olga Lebedeva, Georgij Arapidi, Maria Lagarkova, Sergei Kiselev
The genetic reprogramming technology allows generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from somatic cells (Takahashi and Yamanaka, 2006) [1]. iPSCs have the ability to self-renew, and to differentiate into any type of somatic cells, and are considered as a promising tool for drug development, disease modeling, and regenerative medicine. The reprogramming factors (oct4, sox2, klf4, c-myc) can be delivered to the cell nucleus either by vectors integrating into the genome (lentiviruses, retroviruses) or by non-integrative methods (e...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Joke Terryn, Tine Tricot, Madhavsai Gajjar, Catherine Verfaillie
Pluripotent stem cells have the property of long-term self-renewal and the potential to give rise to descendants of the three germ layers and hence all mature cells in the human body. Therefore, they hold the promise of offering insight not only into human development but also for human disease modeling and regenerative medicine. However, the generation of mature differentiated cells that closely resemble their in vivo counterparts remains challenging. Recent advances in single-cell transcriptomics and computational modeling of gene regulatory networks are revealing a better understanding of lineage commitment and are driving modern genome editing approaches...
2018: F1000Research
Maria Perez-Lanzon, Guido Kroemer, Maria Chiara Maiuri
In less than a decade, organoid systems have emerged as an innovative and valid in vitro method to mimic in vivo pathophysiology. Organoids are 3D structures constituted by multiple organ-specific cell types that self-organize and can function as miniature organs. Organoids have quickly become an important tool for basic and translational research with wide applications for disease modeling, drug screening, drug optimization, and personalized and regenerative medicine. In this review, we summarize the recent utilization of organoids for modeling human genetic diseases, a research area with promising biomedical applications...
2018: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
Christophe O Chantre, Patrick H Campbell, Holly M Golecki, Adrian T Buganza, Andrew K Capulli, Leila F Deravi, Stephanie Dauth, Sean P Sheehy, Jeffrey A Paten, Karl Gledhill, Yanne S Doucet, Hasan E Abaci, Seungkuk Ahn, Benjamin D Pope, Jeffrey W Ruberti, Simon P Hoerstrup, Angela M Christiano, Kevin Kit Parker
Wounds in the fetus can heal without scarring. Consequently, biomaterials that attempt to recapitulate the biophysical and biochemical properties of fetal skin have emerged as promising pro-regenerative strategies. The extracellular matrix (ECM) protein fibronectin (Fn) in particular is believed to play a crucial role in directing this regenerative phenotype. Accordingly, Fn has been implicated in numerous wound healing studies, yet remains untested in its fibrillar conformation as found in fetal skin. Here, we show that high extensional (∼1...
March 5, 2018: Biomaterials
Ling Ling Liau, Suzana Makpol, Abdul Ghani Nur Azurah, Kien Hui Chua
Currently, orthotopic liver transplantation is the gold standard therapy for liver failure. However, it is limited by the insufficient organ donor and risk of immune rejection. Stem cell therapy is a promising alternative treatment for liver failure. One of the most ideal sources of stem cells for regenerative medicine is adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). In this study, primary ADSCs seeded on cell culture insert were indirectly co-cultured with injured HepG2 to elucidate the role of ADSCs in promoting the recovery of injured HepG2 in non-contact manner...
March 16, 2018: Cytotechnology
Sebastian Kress, Johannes Baur, Christoph Otto, Natalie Burkard, Joris Braspenning, Heike Walles, Joachim Nickel, Marco Metzger
In tissue engineering, the generation and functional maintenance of dense voluminous tissues is mainly restricted due to insufficient nutrient supply. Larger three-dimensional constructs, which exceed the nutrient diffusion limit become necrotic and/or apoptotic in long-term culture if not provided with an appropriate vascularization. Here, we established protocols for the generation of a pre-vascularized biological scaffold with intact arterio-venous capillary loops from rat intestine, which is decellularized under preservation of the feeding and draining vascular tree...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anny Waloski Robert, Addeli Bez Batti Angulski, Lucia Spangenberg, Patrícia Shigunov, Isabela Tiemy Pereira, Paulo Sergio Loiacono Bettes, Hugo Naya, Alejandro Correa, Bruno Dallagiovanna, Marco Augusto Stimamiglio
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely studied with regard to their potential use in cell therapy protocols and regenerative medicine. However, a better comprehension about the factors and molecular mechanisms driving cell differentiation is now mandatory to improve our chance to manipulate MSC behavior and to benefit future applications. In this work, we aimed to study gene regulatory networks at an early step of osteogenic differentiation. Therefore, we analyzed both the total mRNA and the mRNA fraction associated with polysomes on human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASCs) at 24 h of osteogenesis induction...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anton G Kutikhin, Maxim Yu Sinitsky, Arseniy E Yuzhalin, Elena A Velikanova
The blood flow through vessels produces a tangential, or shear, stress sensed by their innermost layer (i.e., endothelium) and representing a major hemodynamic force. In humans, endothelial repair and blood vessel formation are mainly performed by circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) characterized by a considerable expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), CD34, and CD133, pronounced tube formation activity in vitro, and strong reendothelialization or neovascularization capacity in vivo...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
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