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Regenerative medicine

Katie Bardsley, Agnieska Kwarciak, Christine Freeman, Ian Brook, Paul Hatton, Aileen Crawford
The regeneration of large bone defects remains clinically challenging. The aim of our study was to use a rat model to use nasal chondrocytes to engineer a hypertrophic cartilage tissue which could be remodelled into bone in vivo by endochondral ossification. Primary adult rat nasal chondrocytes were isolated from the nasal septum, the cell numbers expanded in monolayer culture and the cells cultured in vitro on polyglycolic acid scaffolds in chondrogenic medium for culture periods of 5-10 weeks. Hypertrophic differentiation was assessed by determining the temporal expression of key marker genes and proteins involved in hypertrophic cartilage formation...
October 11, 2016: Biomaterials
Maria Giretova, Lubomir Medvecky, Radoslava Stulajterova, Tibor Sopcak, Jaroslav Briancin, Monika Tatarkova
Polyhydroxybutyrate/chitosan/calcium phosphate composites are interesting biomaterials for utilization in regenerative medicine and they may by applied in reconstruction of deeper subchondral defects. Insufficient informations were found in recent papers about the influence of lysozyme degradation of chitosan in calcium phosphate/chitosan based composites on in vitro cytotoxicity and proliferation activity of osteoblasts. The effect of enzymatic chitosan degradation on osteoblasts proliferation was studied on composite films in which the porosity of origin 3D scaffolds was eliminated and the surface texture was modified...
December 2016: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Minoo Heidari Kani, Eng-Cheng Chan, Roger C Young, Trent Butler, Roger Smith, Jonathan W Paul
Research insights into uterine function and the mechanisms of labour have been hindered by the lack of suitable animal and cellular models. The use of traditional culturing methods limits the exploration of complex uterine functions, such as cell interactions, connectivity and contractile behaviour, as it fails to mimic the three-dimensional (3D) nature of uterine cell interactions in vivo. Animal models are an option, however, use of these models is constrained by ethical considerations as well as translational limitations to humans...
October 21, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Adrian O'Dowd
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 21, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Pan Dan, Émilie Velot, Grégory Francius, Patrick Menu, Véronique Decot
: One of the outstanding goals in tissue engineering is to develop a natural coating surface which is easy to manipulate, effective for cell adhesion and fully biocompatible. The ideal surface would be derived from human tissue, perfectly controllable, and pathogen-free, thereby satisfying all of the standards of the health authorities. This paper reports an innovative approach to coating surfaces using a natural extracellular matrix (ECM) extracted from the Wharton's jelly (WJ) of the umbilical cord (referred to as WJ-ECM)...
October 18, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Alison T Merryweather-Clarke, Alex J Tipping, Abigail A Lamikanra, Rui Fa, Basel Abu-Jamous, Hoi Pat Tsang, Lee Carpenter, Kathryn J H Robson, Asoke K Nandi, David J Roberts
BACKGROUND: Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are a potentially invaluable resource for regenerative medicine, including the in vitro manufacture of blood products. HiPSC-derived red blood cells are an attractive therapeutic option in hematology, yet exhibit unexplained proliferation and enucleation defects that presently preclude such applications. We hypothesised that substantial differential regulation of gene expression during erythroid development accounts for these important differences between hiPSC-derived cells and those from adult or cord-blood progenitors...
October 21, 2016: BMC Genomics
Meital Charni, Ronit Aloni-Grinstein, Alina Molchadsky, Varda Rotter
Regeneration and tumorigenesis share common molecular pathways, nevertheless the outcome of regeneration is life, whereas tumorigenesis leads to death. Although the process of regeneration is strictly controlled, malignant transformation is unrestrained. In this review, we discuss the involvement of TP53, the major tumor-suppressor gene, in the regeneration process. We point to the role of p53 as coordinator assuring that regeneration will not shift to carcinogenesis. The fluctuation in p53 activity during the regeneration process permits a tight control...
October 21, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
Ellen L Mintz, Juliana A Passipieri, Daniel Y Lovell, George J Christ
Despite the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle, permanent functional and/or cosmetic deficits (e.g., volumetric muscle loss (VML) resulting from traumatic injury, disease and various congenital, genetic and acquired conditions are quite common. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine technologies have enormous potential to provide a therapeutic solution. However, utilization of biologically relevant animal models in combination with longitudinal assessments of pertinent functional measures are critical to the development of improved regenerative therapeutics for treatment of VML-like injuries...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Davod Pashoutan Sarvar, Karim Shamsasenjan, Parvin Akbarzadehlaleh
Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are involved in tissue homeostasis through direct cell-to-cell interaction, as well as secretion of soluble factors. Exosomes are the sort of soluble biological mediators that obtained from MSCs cultured media in vitro. MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-DEs) which produced under physiological or pathological conditions are central mediators of intercellular communications by conveying proteins, lipids, mRNAs, siRNA, ribosomal RNAs and miRNAs to the neighbor or distant cells. MSC-DEs have been tested in various disease models, and the results have revealed that their functions are similar to those of MSCs...
September 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
In K Cho, Silun Wang, Hui Mao, Anthony Ws Chan
Recent advances in stem cell-based regenerative medicine, cell replacement therapy, and genome editing technologies (i.e. CRISPR-Cas 9) have sparked great interest in in vivo cell monitoring. Molecular imaging promises a unique approach to noninvasively monitor cellular and molecular phenomena, including cell survival, migration, proliferation, and even differentiation at the whole organismal level. Several imaging modalities and strategies have been explored for monitoring cell grafts in vivo. We begin this review with an introduction describing the progress in stem cell technology, with a perspective toward cell replacement therapy...
2016: American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Richard J McMurtrey
Biomaterials are becoming an essential tool in the study and application of stem cell research. Various types of biomaterials enable three-dimensional culture of stem cells, and, more recently, also enable high-resolution patterning and organization of multicellular architectures. Biomaterials also hold potential to provide many additional advantages over cell transplants alone in regenerative medicine. This article describes novel designs for functionalized biomaterial constructs that guide tissue development to targeted regional identities and structures...
January 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering
Lauren S Sherman, Maran Shaker, Veronica Mariotti, Pranela Rameshwar
Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC) have emerged as a class of cells suitable for cellular delivery of nanoparticles, drugs and micro-RNA cargo for targeted treatments such as tumor and other protective mechanisms. The special properties of MSC underscore the current use for various clinical applications. Examples of applications include but are not limited to regenerative medicine, immune disorders and anti-cancer therapies. In recent years, there has been intense research in modifying MSC to achieve targeted and efficient clinical outcomes...
October 17, 2016: Cytotherapy
Kipp Weiskopf, Peter J Schnorr, Wendy W Pang, Mark P Chao, Akanksha Chhabra, Jun Seita, Mingye Feng, Irving L Weissman
The hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) is a multipotent stem cell that resides in the bone marrow and has the ability to form all of the cells of the blood and immune system. Since its first purification in 1988, additional studies have refined the phenotype and functionality of HSCs and characterized all of their downstream progeny. The hematopoietic lineage is divided into two main branches: the myeloid and lymphoid arms. The myeloid arm is characterized by the common myeloid progenitor and all of its resulting cell types...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Vincent Ronfard, Alain Vertes, Michael May, Anne Dupraz, Mark van Dyke, Yves Bayon
"Evaluating the Past & Present of Regenerative Medicine (RM)" was the first part of an Industry Symposium dedicated to the subject during the 2015 World TERMIS Congress in Boston. This working session presented a critical review of the current RM landscape in Europe and North America with possible projections for the future. Interestingly, the RM development cycle seems to obey the Gartner hype cycle, now at the enlightenment phase, after past exaggerated expectations and discouragements, as suggested by increasing numbers of clinical trials and recent market approvals of RM solutions in both Europe (Glybera & Holoclar® from Chiesi Pharma and Strimvelis® from GSK) and Japan (Remestemcel-L from Mesoblast® )...
October 20, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Colin Crist
Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in our body, is responsible for generating the force required for movement and is also an important thermogenic organ. Skeletal muscle is an enigmatic tissue because, while on one hand, skeletal muscle regeneration after injury is arguably one of the best studied stem cell dependent regenerative processes, on the other hand, skeletal muscle is still subject to many degenerative disorders with few therapeutic options in the clinic. It is important to develop new regenerative medicine based therapies for skeletal muscle...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Pathology
J Wu, A Platero Luengo, M A Gil, K Suzuki, C Cuello, M Morales Valencia, I Parrilla, C A Martinez, A Nohalez, J Roca, E A Martinez, J C Izpisua Belmonte
More than eighteen years have passed since the first derivation of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs), but their clinical use is still met with several challenges, such as ethical concerns regarding the need of human embryos, tissue rejection after transplantation and tumour formation. The generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) enables the access to patient-derived pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) and opens the door for personalized medicine as tissues/organs can potentially be generated from the same genetic background as the patient recipients, thus avoiding immune rejections or complication of immunosuppression strategies...
October 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Anjali Nagpal, Chris Juttner, Monica Anne Hamilton-Bruce, Paul Rolan, Simon A Koblar
The encouraging pace of discovery and development in the field of regenerative medicine holds tremendous potential for bringing therapies to the clinic that may offer meaningful benefit to patients, particularly in diseases with no or suboptimal therapeutic options. Academic researchers will continue to play a critical role in developing concepts and therapies, thus determining whether regenerative medicine will be able to live up to this potential that clearly excites clinicians, researchers and patients alike...
October 17, 2016: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Y-C Huang, J Xiao, W Y Leung, W W Lu, Y Hu, K D Luk
Previous human study suggested that fresh-frozen intervertebral disc allograft transplantation can relieve neurological symptoms and restore segmental kinematics. Before wide clinical application, research into the pathophysiology of the postoperative disc allograft is needed. One important question that remains to be answered in disc allografting is the healing process of the host-graft interface and the subsequent change of the endplates. With the goat model for lumbar disc allografting, histology, micro-computed tomography analysis, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy mapping were applied to evaluate the healing of the host-graft interfaces, the remodelling of subchondral bone, and the changes of the bony and cartilaginous endplates after transplantation...
October 19, 2016: European Cells & Materials
Fiona E Freeman, Laoise McNamara
Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have significant potential to treat bone pathologies by exploiting the capacity for bone progenitors to grow and produce tissue constituents under specific biochemical and physical conditions. However, conventional tissue engineering approaches, which combine stem cells with biomaterial scaffolds, are limited as the constructs often degrade, due to a lack of vascularisation, and lack the mechanical integrity to fulfil loading bearing functions, and as such are not yet widely used for clinical treatment of large bone defects...
October 19, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
Heidi Stoll, Heidrun Steinle, Katharina Stang, Silju Kunnakattu, Lutz Scheideler, Bernd Neumann, Julia Kurz, Ilka Degenkolbe, Nadja Perle, Christian Schlensak, Hans Peter Wendel, Meltem Avci-Adali
Hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility of biomaterials codetermine the success of tissue engineering applications. DNA, the natural component of our cells, is an auspicious biomaterial for the generation of designable scaffolds with tailorable characteristics. In this study, a combination of rolling circle amplification and multiprimed chain amplification is used to generate hydrogels at centimeter scale consisting solely of DNA. Using an in vitro rotation model and fresh human blood, the reaction of the hemostatic system on DNA hydrogels is analyzed...
October 19, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
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