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Kyosuke Sakai, Takeaki Yamamoto, Keiji Sasaki
The spatial structure of an electromagnetic field can determine the characteristics of light-matter interactions. A strong gradient of light in the near field can excite dipole-forbidden atomic transitions, e.g., electric quadrupole transitions, which are rarely observed under plane-wave far-field illumination. Structured light with a higher-order orbital angular momentum state may also modulate the selection rules in which an atom can absorb two quanta of angular momentum: one from the spin and another from the spatial structure of the beam...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yue-Qin Song, Hui-Zhong Sun, Jun Du
Tropidothorax elegans Distant (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) is an insect pest that inflicts damage to vegetables and flowering plants across China. The olfactory system regulates insect behavior, such as feeding, mating, oviposition and predator avoidance. Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and the chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are two groups of small soluble proteins that initiate olfactory signal transduction in insects. In this study, we generated antennal transcriptomes of male and female T. elegans, and identified 19 putative OBP (14 classic OBPs and five plus-C OBPs) and seven CSP genes...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lucilla Taddei, Volha Chukhutsina, Bernard Lepetit, Giulio R Stella, Roberto Bassi, Herbert van Amerongen, Jean-Pierre Bouly, Marianne Jaubert, Giovanni Finazzi, Angela Falciatore
Marine diatoms are prominent phytoplankton organisms, optimally performing photosynthesis in extremely variable environments. Diatoms possess a strong ability to dissipate excess absorbed energy as heat via non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). This process relies on changes in carotenoid pigment composition (xanthophyll cycle) and on specific members of the light-harvesting complex (LHC) family specialized in photoprotection (LHCX), which potentially act as NPQ effectors. However, the link between light stress, NPQ, and the existence of different LHCX isoforms is not understood in these organisms...
May 17, 2018: Plant Physiology
Andreas Hellerschmied, Lucia McCallum, Jamie McCallum, Jing Sun, Johannes Böhm, Jianfeng Cao
The possibility to observe satellites with the geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique is vividly discussed in the geodetic community, particularly with regard to future co-location satellite missions. The Chinese APOD-A nano satellite can be considered as a first prototype-suitable for practical observation tests-combining the techniques Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and VLBI on a single platform in a Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Unfortunately, it has hardly been observed by VLBI, so major studies towards actual frame ties could not be performed...
May 16, 2018: Sensors
Shan-Ning Wang, Shuang Shan, Jing-Tao Liu, Rui-Jun Li, Zi-Yun Lu, Khalid Hussain Dhiloo, Adel Khashaveh, Yong-Jun Zhang
Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) expressed in antennal chemosensilla are believed to be important in insect chemoreception. In the current study, we fully described the morphological characteristics of the antennal sensilla in parasitoid wasp Microplitis mediator and analyzed the expression patterns of OBPs and CSPs within the antennae. In M. mediator, eight types of sensilla were observed on the antennae. Sensilla basiconica type 2 and s. placodea with wall pores may be involved in olfactory perception, whereas s...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jing Zhang, Shi-Jian Liu, Pei-Wei Tsai, Fu-Min Zou, Xiao-Rong Ji
Data gathering is a fundamental task in Wireless Visual Sensor Networks (WVSNs). Features of directional antennas and the visual data make WVSNs more complex than the conventional Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). The virtual backbone is a technique, which is capable of constructing clusters. The version associating with the aggregation operation is also referred to as the virtual backbone tree. In most of the existing literature, the main focus is on the efficiency brought by the construction of clusters that the existing methods neglect local-balance problems in general...
2018: PloS One
Son Trinh-Van, Youngoo Yang, Kang-Yoon Lee, Keum Cheol Hwang
In this paper, a microstrip-fed broadband circularly polarized (CP) slot antenna is presented. CP operation can be attained simply by embedding an S-shaped strip. By loading with a multiple-circular-sector patch, which consists of 12 circular-sector patches with identical central angles of 30° and different radii, the 3 dB axial ratio (AR) bandwidth is significantly broadened. To validate the performance of the proposed antenna, an antenna prototype is fabricated and tested. The fabricated antenna is 54 mm × 54 mm × 0...
May 15, 2018: Sensors
Lorenzo Gilli, Umberto Sciacca, Enrico Zuccheretti
Vertical ionospheric soundings have been performed at almost all ionospheric observatories with little attention to measuring the attenuation of the signal between transmission and reception. When the absorption has been determined, this has been achieved by comparing the received power after the first and second reflections, but this method has some limitations due to the unknown reflection coefficient of the ground and the non-continuous presence of the second reflection. This paper deals with a different method based on precise calibration of the sounding system, allowing determination of absolute signal attenuation after a single reflection...
May 15, 2018: Sensors
Beatriz Trastoy, Erik Klontz, Jared Orwenyo, Alberto Marina, Lai-Xi Wang, Eric J Sundberg, Marcelo E Guerin
Endoglycosidase S (EndoS) is a bacterial endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase that specifically catalyzes the hydrolysis of the β-1,4 linkage between the first two N-acetylglucosamine residues of the biantennary complex-type N-linked glycans of IgG Fc regions. It is used for the chemoenzymatic synthesis of homogeneously glycosylated antibodies with improved therapeutic properties, but the molecular basis for its substrate specificity is unknown. Here, we report the crystal structure of the full-length EndoS in complex with its oligosaccharide G2 product...
May 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Jun Tan, Zaiping Nie
Direction of Arrival (DOA) estimation of low-altitude targets is difficult due to the multipath coherent interference from the ground reflection image of the targets, especially for very high frequency (VHF) radars, which have antennae that are severely restricted in terms of aperture and height. The polarization smoothing generalized multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm, which combines polarization smoothing and generalized MUSIC algorithm for polarization sensitive arrays (PSAs), was proposed to solve this problem in this paper...
May 12, 2018: Sensors
Ping Hu, Chenglong Gao, Shixiang Zong, Youqing Luo, Jing Tao
The seabuckthorn carpenterworm moth Eogystia hippophaecolus is a major threat to seabuckthorn plantations, causing considerable ecological and economic losses in China. Transcriptomic analysis of E. hippophaecolus previously identified 137 olfactory proteins, including three pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs). We investigated the function of E. hippophaecolus PBP1 by studying its mRNA and protein expression profiles and its binding ability with different compounds. The highest levels of expression were in the antennae, particularly in males, with much lower levels of expression in the legs and external genitals...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Erica M Knavel, Chelsey M Green, Annette Gendron-Fitzpatrick, Christopher L Brace, Paul F Laeseke
PURPOSE: To quantify the effect of transarterial embolization on microwave (MW) ablations in an in vivo porcine liver model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hepatic arteriography and cone-beam computed tomography (CT) scans were performed in 6 female domestic swine. Two lobes were embolized to an endpoint of substasis with 100-300-μm microspheres. MW ablations (65 W, 5 min) were created in embolized (n = 15) and nonembolized (n = 12) liver by using a 2.45-GHz system and single antenna...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
Laura Ellen Birks, Benjamin Struchen, Marloes Eeftens, Luuk van Wel, Anke Huss, Peter Gajšek, Leeka Kheifets, Mara Gallastegi, Albert Dalmau-Bueno, Marisa Estarlich, Mariana F Fernandez, Inger Kristine Meder, Amparo Ferrero, Ana Jiménez-Zabala, Maties Torrent, Tanja G M Vrijkotte, Elisabeth Cardis, Jørn Olsen, Blaž Valič, Roel Vermeulen, Martine Vrijheid, Martin Röösli, Mònica Guxens
BACKGROUND: Exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) has rapidly increased and little is known about exposure levels in children. This study describes personal RF-EMF environmental exposure levels from handheld devices and fixed site transmitters in European children, the determinants of this, and the day-to-day and year-to-year repeatability of these exposure levels. METHODS: Personal environmental RF-EMF exposure (μW/m2 , power flux density) was measured in 529 children (ages 8-18 years) in Denmark, the Netherlands, Slovenia, Switzerland, and Spain using personal portable exposure meters for a period of up to three days between 2014 and 2016, and repeated in a subsample of 28 children one year later...
May 10, 2018: Environment International
Fabrizio Araniti, Antonio Lupini, Antonio Mauceri, Antonino Zumbo, Francesco Sunseri, Maria Rosa Abenavoli
In this study, the effects (5 days) of the secondary metabolite trans-cinnamic acid on maize leaves (Zea mays L.), through a physiological and an untargeted metabolomic approach, were evaluated. A reduction in leaf growth and development accompanied by a decrease in protein content was observed in treated seedlings. Besides, trans-cinnamic acid stimulated the photosynthetic machinery with a significant increment in pigment content (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids), a stimulation of the light adapted PSII efficiency (ɸII ) as well as the chlorophyll a fluorescence (YNO ), the apparent electron transport rate, and the regulated dissipation of the energy (YNPQ )...
May 5, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
André Soffiatti, Yuri Max, Sandro G Silva, Laércio M de Mendonça
This article proposed to build a system founded on metamaterial sensor antennas, which can be used to evaluate impurities in aqueous substances according to the quality of transmission between the sensor antennas. In order to do this, a dedicated setup with tests in several frequencies was deployed so as to monitor the behavior of transmission variation between sensors. These sensors are microstrip antennas with a ground plane of resonant cleaved metallic rings; the substrate functions as a metamaterial for the irradiating element...
May 11, 2018: Sensors
Guillermo Robles, José Manuel Fresno, Juan Manuel Martínez-Tarifa
Spatial localization of emitting sources is especially interesting in different fields of application. The focus of an earthquake, the determination of cracks in solid structures, or the position of bones inside a body are some examples of the use of multilateration techniques applied to acoustic and vibratory signals. Radar, GPS and wireless sensors networks location are based on radiofrequency emissions and the techniques are the same as in the case of acoustic emissions. This paper is focused on the determination of the position of sources of partial discharges in electrical insulation for maintenance based on the condition of the electrical equipment...
May 3, 2018: Sensors
Qiulin Tan, Yanjie Guo, Lei Zhang, Fei Lu, Helei Dong, Jijun Xiong
This paper presents a new wireless sensor structure based on a substrate integrated circular waveguide (SICW) for the temperature test in harsh environments. The sensor substrate material is 99% alumina ceramic, and the SICW structure is composed of upper and lower metal plates and a series of metal cylindrical sidewall vias. A rectangular aperture antenna integrated on the surface of the SICW resonator is used for electromagnetic wave transmission between the sensor and the external antenna. The resonant frequency of the temperature sensor decreases when the temperature increases, because the relative permittivity of the alumina ceramic increases with temperature...
May 3, 2018: Sensors
Rahma Goussi, Arafet Manaa, Walid Derbali, Simone Cantamessa, Chedly Abdelly, Roberto Barbato
Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stress affecting plant growth and productivity worldwide. Photosynthesis, together with cell growth, is among the primary process affected by salinity. Here, we report the effects of salt stress on photosynthesis in the model halophyte Thellungiella salsuginea. Plants were grown in hydroponic system and then treated for 2 weeks with different NaCl concentrations (0, 100, 200 and 400 mM). Leaf analysis using both photonic and transmission electron microscopes showed some changes in mesophyll cell organization, including shape and dimension...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Yazhi Gao, Wei Liu, Xiaoxiong Wang, Lihua Yang, Su Han, Shiguo Chen, Reto Jörg Strasser, Bernal E Valverde, Sheng Qiang
The effects of four phytotoxins usnic acid (UA), salicylic acid (SA), cinnamic acid (CA) and benzoic acid (BA) on photosynthesis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were studied in vivo to identify and localise their initial action sites on two photosystems. Our experimental evidence shows that the four phytotoxins have multiple targets in chloroplasts, which mainly lie in photosystem II (PSII), not photosystem I (PSI). They share an original action site by blocking electron transport beyond QA (primary plastoquinone acceptor) at PSII acceptor side since a fast increase of the J-step level is the greatest change in chlorophyll a fluorescence induction kinetics OJIP in C...
May 4, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Vivek Dogra, Jean-David Rochaix, Chanhong Kim
Singlet oxygen (1 O2 ) is a prime cause of photodamage of the photosynthetic apparatus. The chlorophyll molecules in the photosystem II reaction center (PSII RC) and in the light-harvesting antenna complex (LHC) are major sources of 1 O2 generation. It has been thought that the generation of 1 O2 mainly takes place in the appressed regions of the thylakoid membranes, namely the grana core, where most of the active PSII complexes are localized. Apart from being a toxic molecule, new evidence suggests that 1 O2 significantly contributes to chloroplast-to-nucleus retrograde signaling that primes acclimation and cell death responses...
May 10, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
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