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[This corrects the article on p. 37 in vol. 11, PMID: 29535561.].
2018: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Joel Cooper, Lauren A Feldman, Shane F Blackman
The field of experimental social psychology is appropriately interested in using novel theoretical approaches to implement change in the social world. In the current study, we extended cognitive dissonance theory by creating a new framework of social influence: imagined vicarious dissonance. We used the framework to influence attitudes on an important and controversial political attitude: U.S. citizens' support for the Affordable Care Act (ACA). 36 Republicans and 84 Democrats were asked to imagine fellow Republicans and Democrats, respectively, making attitude discrepant statements under high and low choice conditions about support for the ACA...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Social Psychology
Eesa Mohammadi, Roghaiyeh Nourizadeh, Masoumeh Simbar, Nicole Rohana
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore women's experiences of dealing with the complexities of an unplanned pregnancy. DESIGN: Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the reports of women experiencing unplanned pregnancy and provide meaning to the results. SETTING: Participants from Tabriz, Iran were recruited using purposive sampling method from June to September 2016. PARTICIPANTS: Data were gathered using face to face unstructured interviews among 23 women between the ages of 18-48 who recently reported having experienced an unplanned pregnancy...
April 3, 2018: Midwifery
Robert B Hudson
In his surprise election as President, Donald Trump enjoyed disproportionate electoral support from older voters, many of whom saw in Trump a person who would work to reverse demographic, economic, and cultural forces that had transformed American life as they had long seen it. Yet, Trump's campaign and incumbency has also been very much about gutting the Washington policy establishment of officials, bureaucrats, and lobbyists (aka, the Swamp) which, for over half a century, has been instrumental in enacting and expanding legislation that has benefitted older Americans, far more than any other social policy constituency in the country...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Aging & Social Policy
Qi Min
A method of generating nonlinear, pure standing-wave fields is proposed using a commercially available ordinary loudspeaker to drive easily manufactured dissonant standing-wave tubes at the first peak resonance frequencies, instead of traditional valley ones. With the transfer matrix, the dissonant properties of such standing-wave tubes with uniform cross-section (STUS), with tapered cross-section (STTS), and with abrupt cross-section (STAS) were analyzed, and extremely nonlinear pure standing-wave fields were obtained experimentally, whose sound pressure level reached 185 dB at the individual first resonance frequencies...
March 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
L Dyck
This paper examines the proposed asymmetry that should occur between resonance and dissonance in physician-patient relationships in favour of resonance to facilitate an effective relationship. Resonance is represented by the positive emotional attractor, which comprises patients' conscious preferred future or ideal self, and dissonance is expressed by the negative emotional attractor and consists of the gaps between patients' ideal and real self or their fears, problems, and shortfalls. Intentional change theory is reviewed to optimise the physician-patient relationship...
December 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
Shao-Hsi Chung, Kuo-Chih Cheng
Background: The sunk cost effect is the scenario when individuals are willing to continue to invest capital in a failing project. The purpose of this study was to explain such irrational behavior by exploring how sunk costs affect individuals' willingness to continue investing in an unfavorable project and to understand the role of cognitive dissonance on the sunk cost effect. Methods: This study used an experimental questionnaire survey on managers of firms listed on the Taiwan Stock Exchange and Over-The-Counter...
2018: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Lijun Song, Romain Merceron, Begoña Gracia, Ainhoa Lucia Quintana, Martijn D P Risseeuw, Fabian Hulpia, Paul Cos, Jose A Ainsa, Hélène Munier-Lehmann, Savvas N Savvides, Serge Van Calenbergh
In recent years thymidylate kinase (TMPK), an enzyme indispensable for bacterial DNA biosynthesis, has been pursued for the development of new antibacterial agents including against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent for the widespread infectious disease tuberculosis (TB). In response to a growing need for more effective anti-TB drugs we have built upon our previous efforts towards the exploration of novel and potent Mycobacterium tuberculosis TMPK (MtTMPK) inhibitors, and report here the design of a novel series of non-nucleoside inhibitors of MtTMPK that exhibit nanomolar potency...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Tomer J Czaczkes, Birgit Brandstetter, Isabella di Stefano, Jürgen Heinze
Expending effort is generally considered to be undesirable. However, both humans and vertebrates will work for a reward they could also get for free. Moreover, cues associated with high-effort rewards are preferred to low-effort associated cues. Many explanations for these counterintuitive findings have been suggested, including cognitive dissonance (self-justification) or a greater contrast in state (e.g., energy or frustration level) before and after an effort-linked reward. Here, we test whether effort expenditure also increases perceived value in ants, using both classical cue-association methods and pheromone deposition, which correlates with perceived value...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Jamie-Lee Pennesi, Tracey D Wade
OBJECTIVE: This pilot study compared two brief online interventions, imagery rescripting and cognitive dissonance, to an assessment-only control condition in a sample of body-dissatisfied young women at risk of developing an eating disorder. We examined the degree to which each intervention reduced disordered eating and modified risk and protective factors for eating disorders. METHOD: Female university students (N = 107, 17-28 years of age) completed a screening questionnaire, followed by random allocation to one of the three conditions, followed by a baseline assessment, body dissatisfaction induction, and brief online intervention...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Frédéric Leroy, Malaika Brengman, Wouter Ryckbosch, Peter Scholliers
The debate on meat's role in health and disease is a rowdy and dissonant one. This study uses the health section of the online version of The Daily Mail as a case study to carry out a quantitative and qualitative reflection on the related discourses in mass media during the first fifteen years of the 21st century. This period ranged from the fall-out of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis and its associated food safety anxieties, over the Atkins diet-craze in 2003 and the avian flu episode in 2007, to the highly influential publication of the report on colon cancer by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2015...
June 1, 2018: Appetite
Phoebe E Riley, Douglas S Ruhl, Macario Camacho, Anthony M Tolisano
Objective The cochlear implant (CI) improves quality of life for people who are severely and profoundly deafened, allowing implantees to perceive speech at levels similar to those of individuals with normal hearing. However, patients with CIs generally report a reduced appreciation of music after implantation. We aimed to systematically review the English-language literature for studies evaluating music enjoyment and perception among adult patients with CIs. Data Sources A systematic review of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Embase, and the Cochrane Library...
February 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Samantha J Stanley, Margaret Jane Pitts
While cigarette smoking is decreasing among young adults, rates of nicotine consumption through other devices, most notably electronic cigarettes, are on the rise. Framed by communication theory of identity, this study examines young adult smokers' experiences with relational others in regard to their smoking. Focus group discussions and individual interviews convened with 20 young adult cigarette and electronic cigarette smokers revealed identity gaps implicating the relational layer of identity, including personal-relational, enacted-relational, and personal-enacted-relational identity gaps...
February 22, 2018: Health Communication
Xiaomo Chen, Marc Zirnsak, Tirin Moore
We used local field potentials (LFPs) and spikes to investigate representations of visual space in prefrontal cortex and the dynamics of those representations during eye movements. Spatial information contained in LFPs of the frontal eye field (FEF) was differentially distributed across frequencies, with a majority of that information being carried in alpha and high-gamma bands and minimal signal in the low-gamma band. During fixation, spatial information from alpha and high-gamma bands and spiking activity was robust across cortical layers...
February 20, 2018: Cell Reports
Jerod L Stapleton, Sharon L Manne, Ashley K Day, Kristine Levonyan-Radloff, Sherry L Pagoto
BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in using social media sites such as Facebook to deliver health interventions so as to expose people to content while they are engaging in their usual social media habit. This formative intervention development study is novel in describing a preliminary test of using the secret group feature of Facebook to deliver a behavioral intervention targeting users of indoor tanning beds to reduce their risk of skin cancer. Intervention content was designed to challenge body image-related constructs associated with indoor tanning through the use of dissonance-inducing content...
February 20, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Javeed Sukhera, Alexandra Milne, Pim W Teunissen, Lorelei Lingard, Chris Watling
Emerging research on implicit bias recognition and management within health professions describes individually focused educational interventions without considering workplace influences. Workplace learning theories highlight how individual agency and workplace structures dynamically interact to produce change within individuals and learning environments. Promoting awareness of individual biases shaped by clinical learning environments may therefore represent a unique type of workplace learning. We sought to explore how individuals and the workplace learning environment interact once awareness of implicit biases are triggered within learners...
February 17, 2018: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Jeremy C Kane, Renee M Johnson, Derek K Iwamoto, David H Jernigan, Tracy W Harachi, Judith K Bass
A difference in degree of acculturation between immigrant parents and children, known as intergenerational cultural dissonance (ICD), is a risk factor for adolescent alcohol use. We used path analysis with 292 Vietnamese and Cambodian adolescents from immigrant families in the United States to measure potential mediators (family conflict, parental involvement/monitoring, association with deviant peers) of the ICD-alcohol use relationship. The hypothesized model was an adequate data fit among both groups. Among Cambodian adolescents, higher ICD levels significantly predicted increased family conflict, which in turn was associated with reduced parental involvement/monitoring, increased association with deviant peers, and a subsequently higher risk of alcohol use (p < ...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
Kingsley Powell, Emma Le Roux, Jonathan Banks, Matthew J Ridd
OBJECTIVES: To compare parents' and clinicians' perspectives on the assessment and treatment of children with eczema in primary care. DESIGN: Qualitative interview study with purposive and snowball sampling and thematic analysis. SETTING: 14 general practices in the UK. PARTICIPANTS: 11 parents of children with eczema and 15 general practitioners (GPs) took part in semistructured individual interviews. RESULTS: We identified several areas of dissonance between parents and GPs...
February 15, 2018: BMJ Open
Allison Werner-Lin, Lori Zaspel, Mae Carlson, Rebecca Mueller, Sarah A Walser, Ria Desai, Barbara A Bernhardt
Clinical genome and exome sequencing (CGES) may identify variants leading to targeted management of existing conditions. Yet, CGES often fails to identify pathogenic diagnostic variants and introduces uncertainties by detecting variants of uncertain significance (VUS) and secondary findings. This study investigated how families understand findings and adjust their perspectives on CGES. As part of NIH's Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium, children were recruited from clinics at the Children's Hospital of Pennsylvania (CHOP) and offered exome sequencing...
March 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Echezona E Ezeanolue, William Nii Ayitey Menson, Dina Patel, Gregory Aarons, Ayodotun Olutola, Michael Obiefune, Patrick Dakum, Prosper Okonkwo, Bola Gobir, Timothy Akinmurele, Anthea Nwandu, Hadiza Khamofu, Bolanle Oyeledun, Muyiwa Aina, Andy Eyo, Obinna Oleribe, Ikoedem Ibanga, John Oko, Chukwuma Anyaike, John Idoko, Muktar H Aliyu, Rachel Sturke
BACKGROUND: Despite being disproportionately burdened by preventable diseases than more advanced countries, low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) continue to trail behind other parts of the world in the number, quality and impact of scholarly activities by their health researchers. Our strategy at the Nigerian Implementation Science Alliance (NISA) is to utilise innovative platforms that catalyse collaboration, enhance communication between different stakeholders, and promote the uptake of evidence-based interventions in improving healthcare delivery...
February 12, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
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