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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521731/working-in-dissonance-experiences-of-work-instability-in-workers-with-common-mental-disorders
#1
Louise Danielsson, Monica Bertilsson, Kristina Holmgren, Gunnel Hensing
BACKGROUND: Common mental disorders have a negative impact on work functioning, but less is known about the process when the functioning starts to destabilize. This study explores experiences of work instability in workers with common mental disorders. METHODS: A grounded theory study using a theoretical sampling frame, individual in-depth interviews and a constant comparative analysis conducted by a multidisciplinary research team. The sample involved 27 workers with common mental disorders, currently working full or part time, or being on sick leave not more than 6 months...
May 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481431/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-the-body-project-more-than-muscles-for-men-with-body-dissatisfaction
#2
Tiffany A Brown, K Jean Forney, Dennis Pinner, Pamela K Keel
OBJECTIVE: Pressures for men to conform to a lean, muscular ideal have, in part, contributed to eating disorder and muscle dysmorphia symptoms, yet few programs have been developed and empirically evaluated to help men. This study investigated the acceptability and efficacy of a cognitive dissonance-based (DB) intervention in reducing eating disorder and muscle dysmorphia risk factors in men with body dissatisfaction. METHOD: Men were randomized to a two-session DB intervention (n = 52) or a waitlist control condition (n = 60)...
May 8, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477261/barriers-to-collaborative-anesthetic-care-between-anesthesiologists-and-nurses-on-the-labour-and-delivery-unit-a-study-using-a-modified-delphi-technique
#3
Lillia Y Fung, Kristi Downey, Nancy Watts, Jose C A Carvalho
INTRODUCTION: The practice of obstetrical anesthesia relies on collaborative effort between anesthesiologists and nurses, but teamwork remains a challenge. We sought to identify a consensus on the perceived barriers to collaborative care between anesthesiologists and perinatal nurses in a Canadian tertiary labour and delivery (L&D) unit. METHODS: A cross-sectional consensus-building study was conducted using a modified Delphi technique. We aimed to reach consensus on the barriers to collaborative care as well as to identify the reasons behind the issues and possible interventions...
May 5, 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464757/nurses-contributions-to-the-resolution-of-ethical-dilemmas-in-practice
#4
Nichola Ann Barlow, Janet Hargreaves, Warren P Gillibrand
BACKGROUND: Complex and expensive treatment options have increased the frequency and emphasis of ethical decision-making in healthcare. In order to meet these challenges effectively, we need to identify how nurses contribute the resolution of these dilemmas. AIMS: To identify the values, beliefs and contextual influences that inform decision-making. To identify the contribution made by nurses in achieving the resolution of ethical dilemmas in practice. DESIGN: An interpretive exploratory study was undertaken, 11 registered acute care nurses working in a district general hospital in England were interviewed, using semi-structured interviews...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449054/i-learn-therefore-i-am-a-phenomenological-analysis-of-meanings-of-lifelong-learning-for-vulnerable-older-adults
#5
Miya Narushima, Jian Liu, Naomi Diestelkamp
Background and Objectives: This study explores the lifelong learning experience of vulnerable older adults to find out (a) what is involved in their activities, (b) what meanings they take from their learning, and (c) how participation in a learning program helps to maintain their well-being and independent living despite their daily challenges. Research Design and Methods: This study employed a hermeneutic phenomenological approach. As part of a larger study, we conducted semi-structured interviews with older learners enrolled in general interest courses at a public continuing education program...
April 26, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445221/changes-in-personal-relationships-during-residency-and-their-effects-on-resident-wellness-a-qualitative-study
#6
Marcus Law, Michelle Lam, Diana Wu, Paula Veinot, Maria Mylopoulos
PURPOSE: Residency poses challenges for residents' personal relationships. Research suggests residents rely on family and friends for support during their training. The authors explored the impact of residency demands on residents' personal relationships and the effects changes in those relationships could have on their wellness. METHOD: The authors used a constructivist grounded theory approach. In 2012-2014, they conducted semistructured interviews with a purposive and theoretical sample of 16 Canadian residents from various specialties and training levels...
April 25, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441097/antismoking-ads-at-the-point-of-sale-the-influence-of-ad-type-and-context-on-ad-reactions
#7
Annice Kim, James Nonnemaker, Jamie Guillory, Paul Shafer, Sarah Parvanta, John Holloway, Matthew Farrelly
Efforts are underway to educate consumers about the dangers of smoking at the point of sale (POS). Research is limited about the efficacy of POS antismoking ads to guide campaign development. This study experimentally tests whether the type of antismoking ad and the context in which ads are viewed influence people's reactions to the ads. A national convenience sample of 7,812 adult current smokers and recent quitters was randomized to 1 of 39 conditions. Participants viewed one of the four types of antismoking ads (negative health consequences-graphic, negative social consequences-intended emotive, benefits of quitting-informational, benefits of quitting-graphic) in one of the three contexts (alone, next to a cigarette ad, POS tobacco display)...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438968/neural-mechanisms-of-cognitive-dissonance-revised-an-eeg-study
#8
Marco Colosio, Anna Shestakova, Vadim V Nikulin, Evgeny Blagovechtchenski, Vasily Klucharev
Cognitive dissonance theory suggests that our preferences are modulated by the mere act of choosing. A choice between two similarly valued alternatives creates psychological tension (cognitive dissonance) that is reduced by a post-decisional reevaluation of the alternatives. We measured EEG of human subjects during rest and free-choice paradigm. Our study demonstrates that choices associated with stronger cognitive dissonance trigger a larger negative fronto-central evoked response similar to error-related negativity (ERN), which has in turn been implicated in general performance monitoring...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425735/clinician-led-peer-led-and-internet-delivered-dissonance-based-eating-disorder-prevention-programs-acute-effectiveness-of-these-delivery-modalities
#9
Eric Stice, Paul Rohde, Heather Shaw, Jeff M Gau
OBJECTIVE: Because independent trials have provided evidence for the efficacy and effectiveness of the dissonance-based Body Project eating disorder prevention program, the present trial tested whether clinicians produce the largest intervention effects, or whether delivery can be task-shifted to less expensive undergraduate peer educators or to Internet delivery without effect size attenuation, focusing on acute effects. METHOD: In this study, 680 young women (Mage = 22...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424573/global-sensory-qualities-and-aesthetic-experience-in-music
#10
Pauli Brattico, Elvira Brattico, Peter Vuust
A well-known tradition in the study of visual aesthetics holds that the experience of visual beauty is grounded in global computational or statistical properties of the stimulus, for example, scale-invariant Fourier spectrum or self-similarity. Some approaches rely on neural mechanisms, such as efficient computation, processing fluency, or the responsiveness of the cells in the primary visual cortex. These proposals are united by the fact that the contributing factors are hypothesized to be global (i.e., they concern the percept as a whole), formal or non-conceptual (i...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422990/sensory-cortical-response-to-uncertainty-and-low-salience-during-recognition-of-affective-cues-in-musical-intervals
#11
Fernando Bravo, Ian Cross, Emmanuel Andreas Stamatakis, Martin Rohrmeier
Previous neuroimaging studies have shown an increased sensory cortical response (i.e., heightened weight on sensory evidence) under higher levels of predictive uncertainty. The signal enhancement theory proposes that attention improves the quality of the stimulus representation, and therefore reduces uncertainty by increasing the gain of the sensory signal. The present study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates for ambiguous valence inferences signaled by auditory information within an emotion recognition paradigm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394720/lessons-learned-from-training-peer-leaders-to-conduct-body-project-workshops
#12
Rachel Vanderkruik, Samantha Strife, Sona Dimidjian
The Body Project is a cognitive-dissonance intervention that is effective in improving body satisfaction for high school and college aged women. The Body Project can be implemented by trained peers, thus increasing its potential for broad and cost-effective dissemination. Little is known, however, about peer-leaders' perceptions of their training needs and preferences to deliver prevention programs. This qualitative study explored the perceptions of training strengths and areas of improvement among 14 Body Project peer-leaders at a college campus through a series of focus groups...
April 10, 2017: Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393654/clinical-evaluations-drive-cognitive-dissonance-in-medical-students
#13
Janice L Farlow, Daniel A London, Anil R Wadhwani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 9, 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389836/temporal-dissonance-south-african-historians-and-the-post-aids-dilemma
#14
Carla Tsampiras
While foregrounding the historiography of HIV and AIDS in the South African context, this article analyses AIDS as simultaneously existing in three spheres: first, virtually - as the subject matter of electronically measurable research; second, academically - as a topic of research in the discipline of History; and third, actually - as a complex health concern and signifier that, via the field of Medical and Health Humanities, could allow for new collaborations between historians and others interested in understanding AIDS...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383995/embodiment-as-procedures-physical-cleansing-changes-goal-priming-effects
#15
Ping Dong, Spike W S Lee
Physical cleansing reduces the influence of numerous psychological experiences, such as guilt from immoral behavior, dissonance from free choice, and good/bad luck from winning/losing. How do these domain-general effects occur? We propose an integrative account of cleansing as an embodied procedure of psychological separation. By separating physical traces from a physical target object (e.g., detaching dirt from hands), cleansing serves as the embodied grounding for the separation of psychological traces from a psychological target object (e...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367385/defining-health-in-the-era-of-value-based-care-the-six-cs-of-health-and-healthcare
#16
REVIEW
Mark Warren
INTRODUCTION: While healthcare expenditure continues to increase overall health outcomes in the United States continue to be submarginal. The changes we make in our healthcare system need to be informed by a comprehensive and actionable definition of health that can unite patients, healthcare professionals, and policymakers. METHODS: A literature review across multiple disciplines was conducted to assess a broad range of factors associated with health and well-being and based on this literature review a novel definition of health was developed...
February 22, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358126/corrigendum-uncovering-listeria-monocytogenes-hypervirulence-by-harnessing-its-biodiversity
#17
Mylène M Maury, Yu-Huan Tsai, Caroline Charlier, Marie Touchon, Viviane Chenal-Francisque, Alexandre Leclercq, Alexis Criscuolo, Charlotte Gaultier, Sophie Roussel, Anne Brisabois, Olivier Disson, Eduardo P C Rocha, Sylvain Brisse, Marc Lecuit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 30, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347940/does-the-media-matter-to-suicide-examining-the-social-dynamics-surrounding-media-reporting-on-suicide-in-a-suicide-prone-community
#18
Anna S Mueller
Despite the widespread acknowledgement by public health organizations that media reporting matters to suicide, this link has been much debated and the mechanisms undergirding it poorly understood. With this study, I combine a media analysis with ethnographic data collected during 2014-2016 (N = 91) to examine the social dynamics surrounding media reporting on suicide in a community (that I call Poplar Grove, USA) with an enduring adolescent suicide problem. I illustrate how the media crafted a particular story about why youth die by suicide that emphasized academic pressure over other plausible causes...
May 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323355/the-modelled-cost-effectiveness-of-cognitive-dissonance-for-the-prevention-of-anorexia-nervosa-and-bulimia-nervosa-in-adolescent-girls-in-australia
#19
Long Khanh-Dao Le, Jan J Barendregt, Phillipa Hay, Susan M Sawyer, Susan J Paxton, Cathrine Mihalopoulos
BACKGROUND: Eating disorders (EDs), including anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), are prevalent disorders that carry substantial economic and social burden. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the modelled population cost-effectiveness of cognitive dissonance (CD), a school-based preventive intervention for EDs, in the Australian health care context. METHOD: A population-based Markov model was developed to estimate the cost per disability adjusted life-year (DALY) averted by CD relative to no intervention...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301348/discord-among-radiation-oncologists-and-urologists-in-the-postoperative-management-of-high-risk-prostate-cancer
#20
Amar U Kishan, Gillian Duchesne, Pin-Chieh Wang, Jean-Claude M Rwigema, Arun U Kishan, Christopher Saigal, Matthew Rettig, Michael L Steinberg, Christopher R King
OBJECTIVE: To query specialty-specific differences regarding postoperative radiotherapy (RT) for high-risk prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electronic mail survey of radiation oncologists (ROs) and urologists. We sought to maximize absolute response number to capture contemporary practice ethos. The outcome of interest was association between response and specialty. Training level/expertise, practice setting, percentage of consultation caseload consisting of high-risk prostate cancer, and nationality were set as effect modifiers for multivariate logistic regression...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
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