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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028240/tobacco-still-a-major-killer-will-we-achieve-the-end-game
#1
Luis Saboga-Nunes, Diane Levin-Zamir, Vance Rabius
The game of tobacco use began in Europe in 1560 when the first tobacco seeds were sent from Lisbon to the king of France, by Jean Nicot. From kings' and nobles' exclusive use, it gradually and progressively became popular among the public, as a new player. Eighty-eight years ago (1929), Fritz Linkint, an extraordinary researcher in Germany, while reviewing existing evidence regarding a wide range of cancers potentially caused by smoking, indicated that smoking was a cause of respiratory disease. Despite the overwhelming accumulated evidence of the negative effects of nicotine intake, the prevalence of tobacco use is not expected to decline in the near future...
October 1, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018372/neurodiversity-giftedness-and-aesthetic-perceptual-judgment-of-music-in-children-with-autism
#2
Nobuo Masataka
The author investigated the capability of aesthetic perceptual judgment of music in male children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) when compared to age-matched typically developing (TD) male children. Nineteen boys between 4 and 7 years of age with ASD were compared to 28 TD boys while listening to musical stimuli of different aesthetic levels. The results from two musical experiments using the above participants, are described here. In the first study, responses to a Mozart minuet and a dissonant altered version of the same Mozart minuet were compared...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016914/spinal-cord-injury-during-attempted-cervical-interlaminar-epidural-injection-of-steroids
#3
Milton H Landers
Background: Interlaminar cervical epidural injections are commonly performed in the practice of interventional pain medicine. Injury to the spinal cord following injection into the substance of the cord is a known complication of this procedure, but it has rarely been reported and illustrated in the literature. Objective: To describe and analyze a case where an inadvertent injection of contrast medium into the cervical spinal cord occurred. Highlighted is the dissonance between how the procedure was performed and published guidelines for its performance...
July 11, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994341/-a-sweet-smile-the-modulatory-role-of-emotion-in-how-extrinsic-factors-influence-taste-evaluation
#4
Qian Janice Wang, Charles Spence
It has recently been demonstrated that the reported tastes/flavours of food/beverages can be modulated by means of external visual and auditory stimuli such as typeface, shapes, and music. The present study was designed to assess the role of the emotional valence of the product-extrinsic stimuli in such crossmodal modulations of taste. Participants evaluated samples of mixed fruit juice whilst simultaneously being presented with auditory or visual stimuli having either positive or negative valence. The soundtracks had either been harmonised with consonant (positive valence) or dissonant (negative valence) musical intervals...
October 10, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990590/an-experimental-therapeutics-test-of-whether-adding-dissonance-induction-activities-improves-the-effectiveness-of-a-selective-obesity-and-eating-disorder-prevention-program
#5
E Stice, P Rohde, H Shaw, J M Gau
OBJECTIVE: Compare the Healthy Weight obesity and eating disorder prevention program, which promotes participant-driven gradual lifestyle changes to bring energy intake and expenditure into balance, to a new intervention, Project Health, which adds activities to create cognitive dissonance about unhealthy eating, a sedentary lifestyle, and excess body fat, and an obesity education video control condition. METHOD: College students at risk for both outcomes because of weight concerns (N=364, 72% female) were randomized to condition, completing pretest, posttest, and 6, 12, and 24-month follow-up assessments...
October 9, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989797/the-place-of-identity-dissonance-and-emotional-motivations-in-bio-cultural-models-of-religious-experience-a-report-from-the-19-th-century
#6
Adam Powell
Durham University's 'Hearing the Voice' project involves a multi-disciplinary exploration of hallucinatory-type phenomena in an attempt to revaluate and reframe discussions of these experiences. As part of this project, contemporaneous religious experiences (supernatural voices and visions) in the United States from the first half of the nineteenth century have been analysed, shedding light on the value and applicability of contemporary bio-cultural models of religious experience for such historical cases. In particular, this essay outlines four historical cases, seeking to utilise and to refine four theoretical models, including anthropologist Tanya Luhrmann's 'absorption hypothesis', by returning to something like William James' concern with 'discordant personalities'...
2017: J Study Relig Exp
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985303/what-do-tests-do-for-doctors-a-qualitative-study-of-blood-testing-in-uk-primary-care
#7
Jessica Watson, Isabel de Salis, Jonathan Banks, Chris Salisbury
Background: Rates of blood testing are rising with significant geographical variability. Most research into diagnostic testing focuses on the role of tests in diagnostic decision-making. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the non-medical motives for blood testing by considering what tests do for doctors, through qualitative interviews with general practitioners (GPs). Methods: We undertook 23 in-depth semi-structured interviews with UK GPs...
June 13, 2017: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982186/relationships-between-followers-behaviors-and-job-satisfaction-in-a-sample-of-nurses
#8
Paola Gatti, Chiara Ghislieri, Claudio G Cortese
The study investigated two followership behaviors, followers' active engagement and followers' independent critical thinking, and their relationship with job satisfaction in a sample of nurses. In addition, the study also considered a number of control variables and classical job demands and job resources-workload and emotional dissonance for job demands, and meaningful work for job resources-which have an impact on well-being at work. A paper-and-pencil questionnaire was administered to 425 nurses in an Italian hospital, and a hierarchical multiple regression was used to test the hypotheses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970811/balanced-cultural-identities-promote-cognitive-flexibility-among-immigrant-children
#9
Olivia Spiegler, Birgit Leyendecker
The acculturation complexity model suggests that immersion into dissonant cultures promotes cognitive skills in biculturals (Tadmor and Tetlock, 2006). In the present study, we examined links between identity acculturation and executive functioning (EF). Turkish-German immigrant origin children (N = 225; M = 11 years, SD = 1.6 years, 99 males) were given questions about their identification with Turks and Germans to capture bicultural involvement and a Dot Task (using Hearts and Flowers) to measure EF. Results showed that Turkish-German bicultural children who endorse both cultures with equal strength did not have a cognitive advantage in working memory and inhibition compared to their peers who more clearly preferred one culture over the other...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957520/chelicerates-and-the-conquest-of-land-a-view-of-arachnid-origins-through-an-evo-devo-spyglass
#10
Prashant P Sharma
The internal phylogeny of Chelicerata and the attendant evolutionary scenario of arachnid terrestrialization have a long and contentious history. Previous studies of developmental gene expression data have suggested that respiratory systems of spiders, crustaceans, and insects are all serially homologous structures derived from the epipods (outer appendage rami) of the arthropod ancestor, corresponding to an ancestral gill. A separate body of evidence has suggested that the respiratory systems of arachnids are modified, inverted telopods (inner rami, or legs)...
September 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953826/reflecting-on-the-humanities-related-to-experiences-of-illness-with-a-creative-exploration-of-metaphoric-spaces
#11
Mohamud A Verjee
Every patient has a story to tell, and every experienced physician has a bank of stories to recall. A patient's visit is not chance but a search for a cure, amelioration of state, advice, guidance, a prescription, or for seeking reassurance, comfort, and in some circumstances, permission to "be well". From the simplest tale to the most complex, narratives abound. Sometimes, the most intimate information shared with the physician confidante, go dark and deep, with a yearning to "tell all" after a period of suppression...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951236/the-effects-of-dissociation-on-willingness-to-eat-meat-are-moderated-by-exposure-to-unprocessed-meat-a-cross-cultural-demonstration
#12
Jonas R Kunst, Christian Andrés Palacios Haugestad
Dissociating meat from its animal origins helps consumers deal with the cognitive dissonance resulting from liking meat but disliking causing pain to animals. Extending previous research, we tested whether dissociation would play less of a role for meat consumption in a country where average consumers are more frequently exposed to unprocessed meat (i.e., Ecuador) than where such exposure is rare (i.e., the US). Specifically, we randomly showed Ecuadorians and US Americans a pork roast with the head present or removed...
September 23, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917215/a-pilot-controlled-trial-of-a-cognitive-dissonance-based-body-dissatisfaction-intervention-with-young-british-men
#13
Glen S Jankowski, Phillippa C Diedrichs, Melissa J Atkinson, Helen Fawkner, Brendan Gough, Emma Halliwell
This pilot study evaluated a body image intervention for men, Body Project M. Seventy-four British undergraduate men took part in two 90-min intervention sessions, and completed standardised assessments of body image, bulimic pathology, and related outcomes at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up. Fifty-three other men completed the questionnaires as an assessment-only control group. Per-protocol analysis showed that Body Project M improved men's dissatisfaction with body fat and muscularity, body appreciation, muscularity enhancing behaviours, appearance comparisons, and internalization (ds=0...
September 13, 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915326/adaptive-immunity-and-metabolic-health-harmony-becomes-dissonant-in-obesity-and-aging
#14
Leena P Bharath, Blanche C Ip, Barbara S Nikolajczyk
Adipose tissue (AT) is the primary energy reservoir organ, and thereby plays a critical role in energy homeostasis and regulation of metabolism. AT expands in response to chronic overnutrition or aging and becomes a major source of inflammation that has marked influence on systemic metabolism. The chronic, sterile inflammation that occurs in the AT during the development of obesity or in aging contributes to onset of devastating diseases such as insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular pathologies. Numerous studies have shown that inflammation in the visceral AT of humans and animals is a critical trigger for the development of metabolic syndrome...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867965/play-as-third-space-between-home-and-school-bridging-cultural-discourses
#15
Raudhah Yahya, Elizabeth Ann Wood
This article examines play as a conceptual third space that serves as a bridge between home and school discourses. Using sociocultural theories and an interpretivist framework, 19 immigrant mothers and their children in Canada were interviewed about their play experiences at home and in preschools. The findings reveal that children and teachers utilise play as third space in various ways. Although there is some cultural dissonance experienced by children, this study illustrates ways that children use play as a bridge between home and school and explores strategies that teachers use in supporting children's use of play as third space...
September 2017: Journal of Early Childhood Research: ECR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854127/adding-insult-to-injury-sex-sexual-orientation-and-juror-decision-making-in-a-case-of-intimate-partner-violence
#16
Marissa Stanziani, Jennifer Cox, C Adam Coffey
Societal definitions of intimate partner violence (IPV) are highly gendered and heteronormative, resulting in dissonance regarding cases of same-sex IPV. This study explored perceptions of IPV when the context of the case is inconsistent with societal norms regarding sex and sexuality. Mock jurors read a vignette describing a case of alleged IPV in which the sex and sexual orientation of the defendant were manipulated. Participants (N = 415) rendered a verdict and provided ratings of the defendant, victim, and case...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831898/recognising-and-responding-to-care-erosion-part-2
#17
Jan Martinus Anne de Vries, Fiona Timmins
This article is the second in a two-part series discussing a gradual decline in standards of care, termed 'care erosion'. The first part of this article used cognitive dissonance theory to discuss the psychosocial mechanisms involved in care erosion and focused on the nurse's role in identifying and preventing declining standards in care. This article, part two, explores the wider involvement of individuals, organisations and nurse education in preventing care erosion, with a particular focus on reflection; mastery of nursing skills and care; supporting nursing values; and addressing denial and trivialisation of, and justifications for, substandard care...
August 23, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830493/unsatisfactory-colposcopy-clinical-decision-making-in-conditions-of-uncertainty
#18
Kristyn M Manley, Rebecca A Simms, Sarah Platt, Amit Patel, Rachna Bahl
BACKGROUND: Unsatisfactory colposcopy, where the cells of interest are not visible in women with a positive cervical screening test, is a common area of clinical uncertainty due to the lack of clear evidence and guidance. Colposcopists' opinions and experiences are likely to have a significant influence on service provision and the development of national policy. The aim of this study was to analyse decision-making when applied to women with unsatisfactory colposcopy. METHODS: A multi-centre qualitative study utilizing a series of focus groups in an English healthcare region...
August 22, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827366/spontaneous-virulence-loss-in-natural-populations-of-listeria-monocytogenes
#19
Mylène M Maury, Viviane Chenal-Francisque, Hélène Bracq-Dieye, Lei Han, Alexandre Leclercq, Guillaume Vales, Alexandra Moura, Edith Gouin, Mariela Scortti, Olivier Disson, José A Vázquez-Boland, Marc Lecuit
Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) pathogenesis depends on its ability to escape from the phagosome of the host cells via the action of the pore-forming toxin listeriolysin O (LLO). Expression of the LLO-encoding gene (hly) requires the transcriptional activator PrfA, and both hly and prfA genes are essential for Lm virulence. Here we used the hemolytic activity of LLO as a phenotypic marker to screen for spontaneous virulence-attenuating mutations in Lm Sixty (0.1%) non-hemolytic isolates were identified among a collection of 57,820 confirmed Lm strains isolated from a variety of sources...
August 21, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816031/do-you-see-what-i-see-a-mother-s-plea
#20
Kees Nydam, Rebecca Soole
There is sometimes dissonance between the medical services that the general public expects an ED to provide and the acute critical care that emergency clinicians hope to provide. One explanation for this is that the ED is both a territory and a meeting place for a cornucopia of clinicians, some of whom are not ED clinicians themselves. Roles are sometimes ambiguous and location-specific. Recently, one Queensland mother believed that her son's suicide could have been prevented had emergency staff been better educated...
August 16, 2017: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
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