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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221450/peer-feedback-for-examiner-quality-assurance-on-mrcgp-international-south-asia-a-mixed-methods-study
#1
D P Perera, Marie Andrades, Val Wass
BACKGROUND: The International Membership Examination (MRCGP[INT]) of the Royal College of General Practitioners UK is a unique collaboration between four South Asian countries with diverse cultures, epidemiology, clinical facilities and resources. In this setting good quality assurance is imperative to achieve acceptable standards of inter rater reliability. This study aims to explore the process of peer feedback for examiner quality assurance with regard to factors affecting the implementation and acceptance of the method...
December 8, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219166/muslim-gay-men-identity-conflict-and-politics-in-a-muslim-majority-nation
#2
Nassim Hamdi, Monia Lachheb, Eric Anderson
While a number of investigations have examined how gay Muslim men view homosexuality in relation to religious Western homophobia, this research constitutes the first account of the experiences of self-identified gay men living in an African, Muslim nation, where same-sex sex is both illegal and actively persecuted. We interviewed 28 gay men living in Tunisia in order to understand how they assimilate their sexual, religious and ethnic identities within a highly homophobic culture. Utilizing notions of homoerasure and homohysteria (McCormack and Eric Anderson ,b), and examining the intersection of identity conflict and new social movement theory, we highlight four strategies that participants use to negotiate the dissonance of living with conflicting identities in a context of religious homophobia: (1) privileging their Islamic identities and rejecting homosexuality as a legitimate sexual identity; (2) rejecting Islam and accepting homosexuality as a legitimate sexual identity; (3) interpreting Islam to be supportive of homosexuality; and (4) creating a non-penetrative homosexuality to be compatible with literal Qur'anic interpretations...
December 8, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193062/the-question-behaviour-effect-in-intergroup-attitudes-research-when-do-attitudes-towards-a-minority-predict-a-relevant-behaviour
#3
Katarzyna Byrka, Tomasz Grzyb, Dariusz Dolinski
We hypothesised that the question-behaviour effect, referred to as the influence of questioning about a given behaviour on its subsequent performance, is a relevant issue when exploring the external validity of intergroup attitudes. In a pair of studies, we have corroborated that merely expressing attitudes towards the Jewish minority affects people's relevant behaviour towards this group. In an Internet study, participants who first completed verbal attitude measures were more likely to donate to a Jewish organisation compared to those who completed the measures after making the decision to donate...
November 29, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189022/using-counterattitudinal-advocacy-to-change-drinking-a-pilot-study
#4
Angelo M DiBello, Kate B Carey, Vanessa Cushing
The persistence of risky drinking among young adults in college calls for continued efforts to prevent alcohol-related harms. This study tested a novel prevention strategy targeting a specific mechanism of change: creating attitude-behavior dissonance. Informed by an extensive literature showing strong and consistent associations between alcohol attitudes and drinking behavior, we adapted a brief counterattitudinal advocacy (CAA) manipulation to the alcohol prevention context. We conducted a small randomized controlled trial with 49 heavy-drinking students who reported drinking 4/5 drinks in 1 sitting (female/male, respectively) and endorsed ≥2 alcohol-related consequences in the previous month...
November 30, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185817/does-religious-attendance-moderate-the-connection-between-pornography-consumption-and-attitudes-toward-women
#5
Kyler R Rasmussen, Taylor Kohut
Feminist theory and religious doctrines alike often suggest that pornography alters the attitudes of those who consume it, particularly with respect to how consumers view women. Many would assume that pornography would universally encourage sexism and female objectification, but recent evidence has linked pornography use with more gender egalitarian views. Using data from a large-scale, nationally representative survey, we argue that cognitive dissonance among pornography consumers could alter egalitarian attitudes...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183265/when-general-practitioners-meet-new-evidence-an-exploratory-ethnographic-study
#6
Ole Olsen
OBJECTIVE: To explore how general practitioners (GPs) think and act when presented with new evidence in relation to planned home birth and a proposal to change information practices. DESIGN: Exploratory ethnographic study of GPs. The GPs were encountered one or more times during a two-year period, 2011-2013, while the author tried to set up formal focus group interviews. Dialogues about the evidence, personal experiences, values and other issues unavoidably occurred...
December 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168777/association-of-emotional-labor-and-occupational-stressors-with-depressive-symptoms-among-women-sales-workers-at-a-clothing-shopping-mall-in-the-republic-of-korea-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Yuh-Jin Chung, Woo-Chul Jung, Hyunjoo Kim, Seong-Sik Cho
In the distribution service industry, sales people often experience multiple occupational stressors such as excessive emotional labor, workplace mistreatment, and job insecurity. The present study aimed to explore the associations of these stressors with depressive symptoms among women sales workers at a clothing shopping mall in Korea. A cross sectional study was conducted on 583 women who consist of clothing sales workers and manual workers using a structured questionnaire to assess demographic factors, occupational stressors, and depressive symptoms...
November 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154594/morally-injurious-events-and-psychological-distress-among-veterans-examining-the-mediating-role-of-religious-and-spiritual-struggles
#8
Wyatt R Evans, Melinda A Stanley, Terri L Barrera, Julie J Exline, Kenneth I Pargament, Ellen J Teng
OBJECTIVE: Potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs)-violations (perpetrated or witnessed) of one's deeply held beliefs or values-have been associated with several forms of psychological distress. The values violated by PMIEs are often influenced by one's religion/spirituality (r/s). Struggles with one's r/s beliefs and/or practices may also contribute to elevated psychological distress. To further develop a framework for understanding and treating the sequelae of PMIE exposure, we examined the role of r/s struggles in the relation between PMIE exposure and psychological distress...
November 20, 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153300/cognitive-dissonance-and-pediatric-procedural-pain-management-a-concept-clarification
#9
April A Bice
Pediatric nurses have often reported that pain management is a vital part of patient care. Evidence, however, suggests pediatric procedural pain treatments are often underused. Cognitive dissonance, the mental conflict leading to unpleasant thoughts and or feelings, may be related to this evidence-based gap found between what pediatric nurses claim about procedural pain management (that it is important) and what they actually do (underutilize pain treatments). The purpose of this manuscript is to clarify and further develop the concept of cognitive dissonance in terms of its relationship to nurses' mental struggles with underutilization of pediatric procedural pain treatments...
November 15, 2017: Pain Management Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144147/pursued-for-their-prescription-exposure-to-compliance-gaining-strategies-predicts-stimulant-diversion-in-emerging-adults
#10
Laura J Holt, Paige N Marut, Ty S Schepis
Researchers have begun to identify predictors of who will divert their stimulant prescriptions, as most emerging adults (EAs) who use prescription stimulants nonmedically procure these drugs from a friend or acquaintance with a prescription. Far less research has examined how EAs with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are approached for these medications, and their affective and behavioral responses to these requests. We hypothesized that EAs with a stimulant prescription who reported greater exposure to compliance-gaining attempts from peers, particularly rational appeals for academic work, would be more likely to divert, as would EAs who reported lower resistance to peer influence...
November 16, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117458/telephone-based-cbt-and-the-therapeutic-relationship-the-views-and-experiences-of-iapt-practitioners-in-a-low-intensity-service
#11
J Turner, J C Brown, D T Carpenter
INTRODUCTION: Over-the-Telephone (OTT) delivered psychological therapies as an alternative method to face-to-face (F2F) are becoming more prevalent in mental healthcare. Research suggests a range of benefits of OTT use in therapy but there are growing concerns about its consequences for the therapeutic relationship. This paper presents new knowledge regarding psychological practitioners' experience and views of OTT work and its potential effects on the therapeutic relationship in the context of the UK's Increasing Access to Psychological Therapy (IAPT) programme...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113456/a-systematic-review-of-cost-effectiveness-studies-of-prevention-and-treatment-for-eating-disorders
#12
Long Khanh-Dao Le, Phillipa Hay, Cathrine Mihalopoulos
BACKGROUND: Eating disorders are serious mental disorders and are associated with substantial economic and social burden. The aim of this study is to undertake a systematic review of the cost-effectiveness studies of both preventive and treatment interventions for eating disorder. METHOD: Electronic databases (including the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Academic Search Complete, Global Health, CINAHL complete, Health Business Elite, Econlit, Health Policy Reference Center and ERIC) were searched for published cost-effectiveness studies of eating disorder prevention and treatment including papers published up to January 2017...
November 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095894/suicides-as-a-response-to-adverse-market-sentiment-1980-2016
#13
Pankaj Agrrawal, Doug Waggle, Daniel H Sandweiss
Financial crises inflict significant human as well as economic hardship. This paper focuses on the human fallout of capital market stress. Financial stress-induced behavioral changes can manifest in higher suicide and murder-suicide rates. We find that these rates also correlate with the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate (negatively associated; a -0.25% drop [in the rate of change in annual suicides for a +1% change in the independent variable]), unemployment rate (positive link; 0.298% increase), inflation rate (positive link; 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080473/service-user-engagement-in-healthcare-education-as-a-mechanism-for-value-based-recruitment-an-evaluation-study
#14
Vanessa Heaslip, Janet Scammell, Anne Mills, Ashley Spriggs, Andrea Addis, Mandy Bond, Carolyn Latchford, Angela Warren, Juliet Borwell, Stephen Tee
AIM: Within the United Kingdom (UK) there is an increasing focus on Values Based Recruitment (VBR) of staff working in the National Health Service (NHS) in response to public inquiries criticising the lack of person-centred care. All NHS employees are recruited on the basis of a prescribed set of values. This is extended to the recruitment of student healthcare professionals, yet there is little research of how to implement this. Involving Service Users in healthcare educational practice is gaining momentum internationally, yet involvement of service users in VBR of 'would be' healthcare professionals remains at an embryonic phase...
October 6, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077619/perceptions-of-risk-and-safety-in-the-icu-a-qualitative-study-of-cognitive-processes-relating-to-staffing
#15
Danielle M D'Lima, Eleanor J Murray, Stephen J Brett
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to 1) examine individual professionals' perceptions of staffing risks and safe staffing in intensive care and 2) identify and examine the cognitive processes that underlie these perceptions. DESIGN: Qualitative case study methodology with nurses, doctors, and physiotherapists. SETTING: Three mixed medical and surgical adult ICUs, each on a separate hospital site within a 1,200-bed academic, tertiary London hospital group...
October 26, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077209/beliefs-about-causes-of-major-depression-clinical-and-treatment-correlates-among-african-americans-in-an-urban-community
#16
Eleanor Murphy, Sidney Hankerson
OBJECTIVES: Major depression is increasingly viewed in the United States public as a medical disorder with biological and psychosocial causes. Yet little is known about how causal attributions about depression vary among low-income racial minorities. This study examined beliefs about causes of depression and their demographic, clinical and treatment correlates in a lower income African American sample. METHOD: Volunteers (N = 110) aged 24-79 years, who participated in a family study of depression, completed a 45-item questionnaire on their beliefs about the causes of depression...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072551/randomized-controlled-trial-of-rebel-a-peer-education-program-to-promote-positive-body-image-healthy-eating-behavior-and-empowerment-in-teens
#17
Laura Eickman, Jessica Betts, Lauren Pollack, Frances Bozsik, Marshall Beauchamp, Jennifer Lundgren
Short-term outcomes associated with participation in REbeL, a peer-led dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program for high school students, were evaluated. Seventy-one students across the three high schools were enrolled in the study (REbeL N = 48; Control N = 23) and were assessed on measures of eating attitudes and behaviors, body image, weight bias, self-esteem, empowerment, and mood at the beginning of the school year; 37 REbeL students and 20 control students completed assessments at the end of the school year...
October 26, 2017: Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072332/updates-on-immunity-and-inflammation-in-parkinson-disease-pathology
#18
REVIEW
Neeraj Joshi, Sarika Singh
Studies in the last decade have suggested the association of both neuroinflammatory processes and immune responses in Parkinson disease (PD) pathology. PD pathology is related to depleted dopamine levels, α-synuclein aggregation, and death of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Reports have suggested central and peripheral inflammation in the prodromal stage of the disease, which is sustained during disease progression. Alongside the activation of peripheral immune system exacerbates the dissonant central inflammatory responses and could contribute in synergistic neurodegeneration...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068736/emotional-labour-learning-from-the-past-understanding-the-present
#19
Chris Elliott
The number of nurses considering leaving the profession has continued to rise, and in many areas there is a nursing shortfall. For many of those leaving the profession, the decision results from workplace stress. This article examines the concept of emotional labour, which has been linked to compassion fatigue and subsequent burnout. Emotional labour is the term used to describe the process of displaying outward emotion that may not match our internal emotion; this dissonance can lead to highly stressful situations...
October 26, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065958/dissociation-of-objective-and-subjective-daytime-sleepiness-and-biomarkers-of-systemic-inflammation-in-sleep-disordered-breathing-and-systolic-heart-failure
#20
Reena Mehra, Lu Wang, Noah Andrews, W H Wilson Tang, James B Young, Shahrokh Javaheri, Nancy Foldvary-Schaefer
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Subjective versus objective sleepiness in heart failure (HF) remains understudied; therefore, we sought to examine the association of these measures and interrelationships with biochemical markers. METHODS: Participants with stable systolic HF recruited from a clinic-based program underwent attended polysomnography, Multiple Sleep Latency Testing, questionnaire data collection including Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and morning phlebotomy for biochemical markers...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
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