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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425735/clinician-led-peer-led-and-internet-delivered-dissonance-based-eating-disorder-prevention-programs-acute-effectiveness-of-these-delivery-modalities
#1
Eric Stice, Paul Rohde, Heather Shaw, Jeff M Gau
OBJECTIVE: Because independent trials have provided evidence for the efficacy and effectiveness of the dissonance-based Body Project eating disorder prevention program, the present trial tested whether clinicians produce the largest intervention effects, or whether delivery can be task-shifted to less expensive undergraduate peer educators or to Internet delivery without effect size attenuation, focusing on acute effects. METHOD: In this study, 680 young women (Mage = 22...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424573/global-sensory-qualities-and-aesthetic-experience-in-music
#2
Pauli Brattico, Elvira Brattico, Peter Vuust
A well-known tradition in the study of visual aesthetics holds that the experience of visual beauty is grounded in global computational or statistical properties of the stimulus, for example, scale-invariant Fourier spectrum or self-similarity. Some approaches rely on neural mechanisms, such as efficient computation, processing fluency, or the responsiveness of the cells in the primary visual cortex. These proposals are united by the fact that the contributing factors are hypothesized to be global (i.e., they concern the percept as a whole), formal or non-conceptual (i...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422990/sensory-cortical-response-to-uncertainty-and-low-salience-during-recognition-of-affective-cues-in-musical-intervals
#3
Fernando Bravo, Ian Cross, Emmanuel Andreas Stamatakis, Martin Rohrmeier
Previous neuroimaging studies have shown an increased sensory cortical response (i.e., heightened weight on sensory evidence) under higher levels of predictive uncertainty. The signal enhancement theory proposes that attention improves the quality of the stimulus representation, and therefore reduces uncertainty by increasing the gain of the sensory signal. The present study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates for ambiguous valence inferences signaled by auditory information within an emotion recognition paradigm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394720/lessons-learned-from-training-peer-leaders-to-conduct-body-project-workshops
#4
Rachel Vanderkruik, Samantha Strife, Sona Dimidjian
The Body Project is a cognitive-dissonance intervention that is effective in improving body satisfaction for high school and college aged women. The Body Project can be implemented by trained peers, thus increasing its potential for broad and cost-effective dissemination. Little is known, however, about peer-leaders' perceptions of their training needs and preferences to deliver prevention programs. This qualitative study explored the perceptions of training strengths and areas of improvement among 14 Body Project peer-leaders at a college campus through a series of focus groups...
April 10, 2017: Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393654/clinical-evaluations-drive-cognitive-dissonance-in-medical-students
#5
Janice L Farlow, Daniel A London, Anil R Wadhwani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 9, 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389836/temporal-dissonance-south-african-historians-and-the-post-aids-dilemma
#6
Carla Tsampiras
While foregrounding the historiography of HIV and AIDS in the South African context, this article analyses AIDS as simultaneously existing in three spheres: first, virtually - as the subject matter of electronically measurable research; second, academically - as a topic of research in the discipline of History; and third, actually - as a complex health concern and signifier that, via the field of Medical and Health Humanities, could allow for new collaborations between historians and others interested in understanding AIDS...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383995/embodiment-as-procedures-physical-cleansing-changes-goal-priming-effects
#7
Ping Dong, Spike W S Lee
Physical cleansing reduces the influence of numerous psychological experiences, such as guilt from immoral behavior, dissonance from free choice, and good/bad luck from winning/losing. How do these domain-general effects occur? We propose an integrative account of cleansing as an embodied procedure of psychological separation. By separating physical traces from a physical target object (e.g., detaching dirt from hands), cleansing serves as the embodied grounding for the separation of psychological traces from a psychological target object (e...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367385/defining-health-in-the-era-of-value-based-care-the-six-cs-of-health-and-healthcare
#8
REVIEW
Mark Warren
INTRODUCTION: While healthcare expenditure continues to increase overall health outcomes in the United States continue to be submarginal. The changes we make in our healthcare system need to be informed by a comprehensive and actionable definition of health that can unite patients, healthcare professionals, and policymakers. METHODS: A literature review across multiple disciplines was conducted to assess a broad range of factors associated with health and well-being and based on this literature review a novel definition of health was developed...
February 22, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358126/corrigendum-uncovering-listeria-monocytogenes-hypervirulence-by-harnessing-its-biodiversity
#9
Mylène M Maury, Yu-Huan Tsai, Caroline Charlier, Marie Touchon, Viviane Chenal-Francisque, Alexandre Leclercq, Alexis Criscuolo, Charlotte Gaultier, Sophie Roussel, Anne Brisabois, Olivier Disson, Eduardo P C Rocha, Sylvain Brisse, Marc Lecuit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 30, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347940/does-the-media-matter-to-suicide-examining-the-social-dynamics-surrounding-media-reporting-on-suicide-in-a-suicide-prone-community
#10
Anna S Mueller
Despite the widespread acknowledgement by public health organizations that media reporting matters to suicide, this link has been much debated and the mechanisms undergirding it poorly understood. With this study, I combine a media analysis with ethnographic data collected during 2014-2016 (N = 91) to examine the social dynamics surrounding media reporting on suicide in a community (that I call Poplar Grove, USA) with an enduring adolescent suicide problem. I illustrate how the media crafted a particular story about why youth die by suicide that emphasized academic pressure over other plausible causes...
May 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323355/the-modelled-cost-effectiveness-of-cognitive-dissonance-for-the-prevention-of-anorexia-nervosa-and-bulimia-nervosa-in-adolescent-girls-in-australia
#11
Long Khanh-Dao Le, Jan J Barendregt, Phillipa Hay, Susan M Sawyer, Susan J Paxton, Cathrine Mihalopoulos
BACKGROUND: Eating disorders (EDs), including anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), are prevalent disorders that carry substantial economic and social burden. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the modelled population cost-effectiveness of cognitive dissonance (CD), a school-based preventive intervention for EDs, in the Australian health care context. METHOD: A population-based Markov model was developed to estimate the cost per disability adjusted life-year (DALY) averted by CD relative to no intervention...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301348/discord-among-radiation-oncologists-and-urologists-in-the-postoperative-management-of-high-risk-prostate-cancer
#12
Amar U Kishan, Gillian Duchesne, Pin-Chieh Wang, Jean-Claude M Rwigema, Arun U Kishan, Christopher Saigal, Matthew Rettig, Michael L Steinberg, Christopher R King
OBJECTIVE: To query specialty-specific differences regarding postoperative radiotherapy (RT) for high-risk prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electronic mail survey of radiation oncologists (ROs) and urologists. We sought to maximize absolute response number to capture contemporary practice ethos. The outcome of interest was association between response and specialty. Training level/expertise, practice setting, percentage of consultation caseload consisting of high-risk prostate cancer, and nationality were set as effect modifiers for multivariate logistic regression...
March 15, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295980/mental-health-status-and-its-predictors-among-call-center-employees-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Hyunjin Oh, Heyeon Park, Sunjoo Boo
In this study, we assessed the mental health of Korean call center employees and investigated the potential predictors of their mental health status. A cross-sectional study using self-completing questionnaire was conducted for employees working for a credit card call center. A total of 306 call center employees completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, the Emotion Labor Scale, and the Korean Occupational Stress Scale. The results showed that more than half of the participants reported high levels of depression, anxiety, and stress...
March 15, 2017: Nursing & Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291105/escalation-of-commitment-in-the-surgical-icu
#14
Carla C Braxton, Celia N Robinson, Samir S Awad
OBJECTIVES: Escalation of commitment is a business term that describes the continued investment of resources into a project even after there is objective evidence of the project's impending failure. Escalation of commitment may be a contributor to high healthcare costs associated with critically ill patients as it has been shown that, despite almost certain futility, most ICU costs are incurred in the last week of life. Our objective was to determine if escalation of commitment occurs in healthcare settings, specifically in the surgical ICU...
April 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290744/psychosocial-predictors-of-physical-activity-change-among-college-students-in-an-obesity-prevention-trial
#15
Danielle Arigo, Paul Rohde, Heath Shaw, Eric Stice
BACKGROUND: Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is critical for maintaining a healthy weight, although little is known about psychological barriers to maintaining MVPA in at-risk groups. Identifying characteristics associated with poor MVPA maintenance in obesity prevention programs could improve participant outcomes. METHODS: Toward this end, we examined predictors of MVPA in an obesity prevention trial for college students at risk for weight gain (n = 333; 72% female, MBMI = 23...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287919/cost-effectiveness-of-achieving-clinical-improvement-with-a-dissonance-based-eating-disorder-prevention-program
#16
Laura Akers, Paul Rohde, Eric Stice, Meghan L Butryn, Heather Shaw
Using data from an effectiveness trial delivered by college clinicians, we examined the cost-effectiveness of the dissonance-based Body Project program for reducing eating disorder symptoms in women with body dissatisfaction. The outcome of interest was individual-level change; 14.9% of Body Project participants attained clinically meaningful improvement vs. 6.7% of controls. Delivering the intervention costs approximately $70 (2012 U.S. dollars) per person. Incremental cost-effectiveness was $838 for each additional at-risk person reducing eating disorder symptomology to a clinically meaningful degree...
March 13, 2017: Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287800/how-does-brief-motivational-intervention-change-heavy-drinking-and-harm-among-underage-young-adult-drinkers
#17
Molly Magill, Suzanne M Colby, Lindsay Orchowski, James G Murphy, Ariel Hoadley, Linda A Brazil, Nancy P Barnett
OBJECTIVE: This study tested mediating processes hypothesized to explain the therapeutic benefit of an efficacious motivational interview (MI). The constructs of interest were motivation to change, cognitive dissonance about current drinking, self-efficacy for change, perceived young adult drinking norms, future drinking intentions, and the use of protective behavioral strategies. METHOD: A randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of a brief MI to a time- and attention-matched control of meditation and relaxation training for alcohol use...
May 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286489/attitudes-vs-purchase-behaviors-as-experienced-dissonance-the-roles-of-knowledge-and-consumer-orientations-in-organic-market
#18
María Hidalgo-Baz, Mercedes Martos-Partal, Óscar González-Benito
This research focuses on the incongruity between positive attitudinal responses but a lack of purchase behavior in organic markets. According to cognitive dissonance theory, consumer orientations toward the benefits attributed to organic products (environmental protection, health, hedonic) relieve the dissonance that results from this attitude-behavior incongruity. Knowledge also functions as a transmitter, from positive attitudes to purchase behaviors, thereby reducing the incongruity. Using quota sampling in a survey study, this paper tests the hypotheses from linear regression models...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249107/a-controlled-randomized-preliminary-trial-of-a-modified-dissonance-based-eating-disorder-intervention-program
#19
M A Green, M Willis, K Fernandez-Kong, S Reyes, R Linkhart, M Johnson, T Thorne, J Lindberg, E Kroska, H Woodward
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a controlled randomized preliminary trial of a modified dissonance-based eating disorder program (n = 24) compared to an assessment-only control condition (n = 23) via a longitudinal design (baseline, postintervention, 2-month follow-up) in a community sample of women (N = 47) with clinical (n = 22) and subclinical (n = 25) eating disorder symptoms. METHOD: The traditional content of the Body Project, a dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program, was modified to include verbal, written, and behavioral exercises designed to dissuade self-objectification and maladaptive social comparison...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247208/unmasking-identity-dissonance-exploring-medical-students-professional-identity-formation-through-mask-making
#20
Kimera Joseph, Karlen Bader, Sara Wilson, Melissa Walker, Mark Stephens, Lara Varpio
PURPOSE: Professional identity formation is an on-going, integrative process underlying trainees' experiences of medical education. Since each medical student's professional identity formation process is an individual, internal, and often times emotionally charged unconscious experience, it can be difficult for educators to understand each student's unique experience. We investigate if mask making can provide learners and educators the opportunity to explore medical students' professional identity formation experiences...
April 2017: Perspectives on Medical Education
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