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Lung volume reduction

Andrew R Kompa, Jiayu Lu, Thomas J Weller, Darren J Kelly, Henry Krum, Thomas G von Lueder, Bing H Wang
BACKGROUND: Angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNi) enhances beneficial natriuretic peptides by inhibiting their breakdown through neprilysin. Although the first-in-class ARNi sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) reduced mortality and morbidity in heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (EF) compared to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi), mechanistic data on ARNi are scarce. ARNi may be superior to ACEi in attenuating adverse cardiac remodeling and dysfunction post-myocardial infarction (MI)...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Daniel Langer, Casey E Ciavaglia, Azmy Faisal, Katherine A Webb, J Alberto Neder, Rik Gosselink, Sauwaluk Dacha, Marko Topalovic, Anna Ivanova, Denis E O'Donnell
Among patients with COPD, those with the lowest maximal inspiratory pressures experience greater breathing discomfort (dyspnea) during exercise. In such individuals, inspiratory muscle training (IMT) may be associated with improvement of dyspnea but the mechanisms for this are poorly understood. Therefore, we aimed to identify physiological mechanisms of improvement in dyspnea and exercise endurance following inspiratory muscle training (IMT) in patients with COPD and low maximal inspiratory pressure (Pi,max)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Brigitte Royer-Pokora, Manfred Beier, Artur Brandt, Constanze Duhme, Maike Busch, Carmen de Torres, Hans-Dieter Royer, Jaume Mora
Wilms tumors (WT) with WT1 mutations do not respond well to preoperative chemotherapy by volume reduction, suggesting resistance to chemotherapy. The histologic pattern of this tumor subtype indicates an intrinsic mesenchymal differentiation potential. Currently, it is unknown whether cytotoxic treatments can induce a terminal differentiation state as a direct comparison of untreated and chemotherapy-treated tumor samples has not been reported so far. We conducted gene expression profiling of 11 chemotherapy and seven untreated WT1-mutant Wilms tumors and analyzed up- and down-regulated genes with bioinformatic methods...
March 15, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Claudio Caviezel, Carlson Aruldas, Daniel Franzen, Silvia Ulrich, Ilhan Inci, Didier Schneiter, Walter Weder, Isabelle Opitz
OBJECTIVES: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is considered a contraindication for lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS). Because, it has been reported that endobronchial lung volume reduction may have a beneficial effect without increased mortality in patients with emphysema and PH, we evaluated its effect on PH in patients undergoing LVRS. METHODS: From January 2014 until June 2016, 119 LVRSs were performed at Zurich University Hospital. PH was a contraindication for patients with homogeneous emphysema but was acceptable for those with heterogeneous emphysema...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Wolfgang Michael Schaefer, Daniela Knollmann, Jerome Avondo, Andreas Meyer
AIM: In pulmonary emphysema lung volume reduction procedures (LVRP) can optimize respiratory pump function. Identification of the most affected lobe can be reached using relative lobar volume (relVol) from CT, but this approach disregards the corresponding lobar perfusion. The aim of the study was therefore to establish a new parameter combining relVol from CT and relative perfusion (relPerf) from perfusion SPECT as a single parameter (volume/perfusion ratio (VPR)) to optimize the identification procedure...
February 2018: Nuklearmedizin. Nuclear Medicine
Yurii L Zborovskii, Viktor V Orysyk, Iuliia Golovynska, Olena I Dzhus, Liudmyla V Garmanchuk, Iurii V Stepanov, Natalia Khranovska, Anatolii O Nehelia, Sergii Golovynskyi, Tymish Y Ohulchanskyy, Junle Qu, Svitlana I Orysyk, Vasyl I Pekhno, Myhaylo V Vovk
BACKGROUND: One of the most promising strategies to develop multi-targeted anticancer therapeutics is to introduce to the structure of a potential drug two or more pharmacophores (functional groups or structural fragments), which have antiproliferative, proapoptotic or antimetastatic properties acting via different mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To design, synthesize and perform screening of a novel hybrid anticancer compound. METHOD: A novel hybrid compound 4-[(E)-2-phenylethenesulfonamido]-N-hydroxybutanamide, combining butanehydroxamate and styrenesulfonamide moieties, was designed, synthesized and investigated as a potent antimetastatic and antiproliferative agent...
March 13, 2018: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Shinya Sakata, Yasumiko Sakamoto, Akira Takaki, Shiho Ishizuka, Sho Saeki, Kazuhiko Fujii
Pseudomesotheliomatous carcinoma of the lung is very rare, and reversible restrictive lung disease with pseudomesotheliomatous carcinoma has not yet been previously reported. We herein report a patient with HER2-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) showing pseudomesotheliomatous carcinoma who was successfully treated with bevacizumab combination chemotherapy. A 56-year-old Japanese woman with advanced NSCLC presented with dyspnea. We administered chemotherapy with cisplatin (75 mg/m2 ) plus pemetrexed (500 mg/m2 ) plus bevacizumab (15 mg/kg), followed by pemetrexed plus bevacizumab...
March 9, 2018: Internal Medicine
Nabil Wasif, David Etzioni, Elizabeth B Habermann, Amit Mathur, Barbara A Pockaj, Richard J Gray, Yu-Hui Chang
BACKGROUND: Regionalization of complex visceral surgery across the United States has followed identification of a volume-outcome association. However, a simultaneous trend towards improved surgical outcomes may have attenuated this relationship. We hypothesize that the difference in adjusted postoperative mortality between low, medium and high volume hospitals has decreased over time. STUDY DESIGN: The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) was used to identify patients undergoing bladder, esophageal, pancreatic, liver, lung, and rectal surgery from 2003-2011...
March 7, 2018: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
Noora Al-Hammadi, Palmira Caparrotti, Carole Naim, Jillian Hayes, Katherine Rebecca Benson, Ana Vasic, Hissa Al-Abdulla, Rabih Hammoud, Saju Divakar, Primoz Petric
Background: During radiotherapy of left-sided breast cancer, parts of the heart are irradiated, which may lead to late toxicity. We report on the experience of single institution with cardiac-sparing radiotherapy using voluntary deep inspiration breath hold (V-DIBH) and compare its dosimetric outcome with free breathing (FB) technique. Patients and methods: Left-sided breast cancer patients, treated at our department with postoperative radiotherapy of breast/chest wall +/- regional lymph nodes between May 2015 and January 2017, were considered for inclusion...
March 2018: Radiology and Oncology
Diego Milani, Megan C Bakeberg, Jane L Cross, Vince W Clark, Ryan S Anderton, David J Blacker, Neville W Knuckey, Bruno P Meloni
We have previously demonstrated that arginine-rich and poly-arginine peptides possess potent neuroprotective properties, with poly-arginine peptide R18 identified as being highly effective at reducing infarct volume following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in the Sprague Dawley rat. Since peptides synthesised using D-isoform amino acids have greater stability than L-isoform peptides due to increased resistance to proteolytic degradation, they represent potentially more effective peptide therapeutics...
2018: PloS One
Anna Sztafińska, Joanna Jerzyńska, Włodzimierz Stelmach, Katarzyna Woicka-Kolejwa, Iwona Stelmach
Introduction: Omalizumab, a monoclonal anti-immunoglobulin E antibody, has been successfully used as a supplementary therapy to improve asthma control in children aged ≥ 6 years with severe persistent allergic asthma. Aim: To demonstrate the quality of life in children with severe asthma and their caregivers, and changes from baseline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 ) and daily inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) dose after 2-year treatment with omalizumab...
October 2017: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
Nienke M Scheltema, Elisabeth E Nibbelke, Juliëtte Pouw, Maarten O Blanken, Maroeska M Rovers, Christiana A Naaktgeboren, Natalie I Mazur, Joanne G Wildenbeest, Cornelis K van der Ent, Louis J Bont
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is associated with subsequent wheeze and asthma. We previously reported on the causal relationship between prevention of RSV infection during infancy and reduced frequency of subsequent wheeze using a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial (MAKI). We continued follow-up and analysed the effect of RSV prevention during infancy on asthma and lung function at age 6 years. METHODS: We studied 429 infants born at 32-35 weeks of gestation between 2008-10 who had randomly received either palivizumab for RSV immunoprophylaxis or placebo during the RSV season of their first year of life...
February 27, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Antonello Nicolini, Bruna Grecchi, Maura Ferrari-Bravo, Cornelius Barlascini
Purpose: Chest physiotherapy is an important tool in the treatment of COPD. Intrapulmonary percussive ventilation (IPV) and high-frequency chest wall oscillation (HFCWO) are techniques designed to create a global percussion of the lung which removes secretions and probably clears the peripheral bronchial tree. We tested the hypothesis that adding IPV or HFCWO to the best pharmacological therapy (PT) may provide additional clinical benefit over chest physiotherapy in patients with severe COPD...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Marcel Simon, Lars Harbaum, Tim Oqueka, Stefan Kluge, Hans Klose
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic lung volume reduction coil (LVRC) treatment is a therapeutic option for selected patients with advanced emphysema. The effects and the safety of endoscopic lung volume reduction in patients with very low forced expired volume in one second (FEV1 ) remain to be determined. This study was conducted to assess the effects and the safety of LVRC treatment in patients with very low FEV1 . METHODS: The study was performed as a retrospective observational study in the Department of Respiratory Medicine at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf on patients with very low FEV1 , defined as an FEV1 ⩽ 20% of predicted at baseline in whom LVRC treatment was performed between 1 April 2012 and 28 February 2017...
January 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
Eduardo J Mortani Barbosa, Maarten Lanclus, Wim Vos, Cedric Van Holsbeke, William De Backer, Jan De Backer, James Lee
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Long-term survival after lung transplantation (LTx) is limited by bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), defined as a sustained decline in forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1 ) not explained by other causes. We assessed whether machine learning (ML) utilizing quantitative computed tomography (qCT) metrics can predict eventual development of BOS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Paired inspiratory-expiratory CT scans of 71 patients who underwent LTx were analyzed retrospectively (BOS [n = 41] versus non-BOS [n = 30]), using at least two different time points...
February 19, 2018: Academic Radiology
Alvenia Cairncross, Peter B Noble, Peter K McFawn
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Lung hyperinflation and reduced bronchodilation to deep inspiration (DI) are features of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Hyperinflation might impair the ability of a DI to stretch airway smooth muscle (ASM), as the bronchi operate at a stiff region of the pressure-volume curve. METHODS: Bronchial segments from pig lungs were mounted in an organ bath and equilibrated at either 5 cm H2 O (control) or 20 cm H2 O (hyperinflated) transmural pressure (Ptm )...
February 20, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Jianjun Wu, Xin Li, Yang Qin, Juan Cheng, Gaimei Hao, Ruifeng Jin, Chenjun Zhu
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine (TCHM), named Jinwei Tang on histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) and its role in the regulation of corticosteroid resistance in a rat model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (each n=10): COPD group, established by the intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide and passive smoke exposure, and control, budesonide, theophylline + budesonide and Jinwei Tang + budesonide groups...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Amy S Yu, Peter G Maxim, Billy W Loo, Michael F Gensheimer
PURPOSE: Stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR) to lung tumors close to the chest wall can cause rib fractures or chest wall pain. We evaluated and propose a clinically practical solution of using noncoplanar volumetric modulated arc radiation therapy (VMAT) to reduce chest wall dose from lung SABR. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Twenty lung SABR VMAT plans in which the chest wall volume receiving 30 Gy or higher (V30) exceeded 30 mL were replanned by noncoplanar VMAT with opposite 15° couch kicks...
December 19, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
M Fillon, S Si-Mohamed, P Coulon, A Vuillod, P Klahr, L Boussel
PURPOSE: To evaluate the radiation dose reduction, image quality and diagnostic confidence with thoraco-abdominopelvic computed tomography (TACT) using a new organ based dose modulation system (liver dose right index [Liver DRI]), compared to TACT using a standard automatic exposure control adjusting mA according to attenuation. METHODS: A total of 37 patients who had two TACT examinations on 2 different CT scanners, one using standard automatic exposure control (combination of a DoseRight automatic current selection and Z modulation) and one using Liver DRI were included...
February 13, 2018: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
Christian Murer, Lars Christian Huber, Thomas Kurowski, Astrid Hirt, Cécile A Robinson, Urs Bürgi, Christian Benden
AIMS OF THE STUDY: Cystic fibrosis is the most common genetic disorder in Caucasians. The combination of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) corrector lumacaftor / potentiator ivacaftor (LUM/IVA) has been shown to increase forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) moderately, but predominantly reduce acute exacerbation rate (AER) in Phe508del homozygous cystic fibrosis patients; however, patients with FEV1 <40% predicted were excluded from studies. We used LUM/IVA on a "compassionate use" basis in cystic fibrosis patients with end-stage pulmonary disease...
February 16, 2018: Swiss Medical Weekly
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