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Joyce Bischoff, Guillem Casanovas, Jill Wylie-Sears, Dae-Hee Kim, Philipp Bartko, J Guerrero, Jacob Dal-Bianco, Jonathan Beaudoin, Michael Garcia, Suzanne Sullivan, Margo Seybolt, Brittan Morris, Joshua Keegan, Whitney Irvin, Elena Aikawa, Robert Levine
RATIONALE: Ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR), a complication after myocardial infarction (MI), induces adaptive mitral valve (MV) responses that may be initially beneficial, but eventually lead to leaflet fibrosis and MV dysfunction. We sought to examine the MV endothelial response and its potential contribution to IMR. OBJECTIVE: Endothelial, interstitial and hematopoietic cells in MVs from post-MI sheep were quantified. MV endothelial CD45, found post-MI, was analyzed in vitro...
October 6, 2016: Circulation Research
A K A Wright, C Newby, R A Hartley, V Mistry, S Gupta, R Berair, K M Roach, R Saunders, T Thornton, M Shelley, K Edwards, B Barker, C E Brightling
BACKGROUND: The role of fibrocytes in COPD is unknown. We sought to enumerate blood and tissue fibrocytes in COPD and determine the association of blood fibrocytes with clinical features of disease. METHODS: Utilising flow cytometry to identify circulating, collagen type-1(+) cells we found two populations 1) CD45(+) CD34(+) (fibrocytes) and 2) CD45(+) CD34(-) (myeloid-derived suppressor cell [MDSC]-like fibrocytes) cells in stable COPD (n=41) and control (n=29) subjects...
October 6, 2016: Allergy
Chao Li, Sitong Du, Yiping Lu, Xiaowei Lu, Fangwei Liu, Ying Chen, Dong Weng, Jie Chen
Long term pulmonary exposure to crystalline silica leads to silicosis that manifests progressive interstitial fibrosis, eventually leading to respiratory failure and death. Despite efforts to eliminate silicosis, clinical cases continue to occur in both developing and developed countries. The exact mechanisms of crystalline silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis remain elusive. Herein, we find that 4-1BB is induced in response to crystalline silica injury in lungs and that it is highly expressed during development of experimental silicosis...
2016: Theranostics
Kazunori Tamaki, Ayumi Usui-Ouchi, Akira Murakami, Nobuyuki Ebihara
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether fibrocytes participate in formation of the fibrovascular membrane (FVM) in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Methods: Vitreous fluid and FVM samples were obtained during vitrectomy in patients with PDR. Samples from patients with macular hole or epiretinal membrane were used as controls. Vitreous fluid and FVM samples were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis. In addition, cells isolated from the vitreous fluid of PDR and control patients were cultured in serum-free medium...
September 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Roberta Opri, Gian Maria Fabrizi, Gaetano Cantalupo, Moreno Ferrarini, Alessandro Simonati, Bernardo Dalla Bernardina, Francesca Darra
PURPOSE: A small case series with a neurodegenerative disorder involving central nervous system and related to Seipin mutations was recently reported. Herein we describe clinical and EEG features of three patients presenting with Progressive Myoclonus Epilepsy (PME) and Congenital Generalized Lipodystrophy type 2 (CGL2) related to novel Seipin mutations. METHODS: The EEG-clinical picture was evaluated at epilepsy onset and in the follow-up period. The molecular analysis of BSCL2, Laforin and Malin genes was performed to patients and/or their parents by Denaturing High Performance Liquid Chromatography and automated nucleotide sequencing...
September 5, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Tünde Mester, Nupur Raychaudhuri, Erin F Gillespie, Hong Chen, Terry J Smith, Raymond S Douglas
CONTEXT: Fibrocytes appear to participate in inflammation and tissue remodeling in patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). These patients have increased frequencies of circulating TSH receptor (TSHR)- and CD40-positive fibrocytes, suggesting TSHR and CD40 may play roles in proinflammatory cytokine production, which ultimately leads to orbital inflammation and tissue remodeling. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the potential interactions between the TSHR and CD40 signaling pathways and their roles in IL-6 and TNF-α production...
2016: PloS One
Suellen A Zatti, Sarah Arana, Antônio A M Maia, Edson A Adriano
Myxobolus prochilodus and Myxobolus porofilus are parasites of Prochilodus lineatus, an economically important South American fish found in La Plata and Paraiba do Sul river basins. This study focusing on parasite-host interaction provides an ultrastructural and phylogenetic analysis, the latter based on ssrDNA sequencing of these parasites respectively infecting the gill filaments and fins of P. lineatus taken from the Mogi Guaçu River, São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 13 adult specimens were examined in this study...
September 14, 2016: Parasitology Research
Tong Wu, Tünde Mester, Shivani Gupta, Fengyuan Sun, Terry J Smith, Raymond S Douglas
BACKGROUND: Increased numbers of bone marrow-derived progenitor cells, known as fibrocytes, populate the peripheral circulation, orbit, and thyroid of patients with Graves' disease (GD). These cells have been implicated in the development of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. They can differentiate into myofibroblasts or adipocytes, produce inflammatory cytokines, and remodel tissue. This study sought to determine whether thyrotropin (TSH) and CD40 ligand (CD40L), implicated in the pathogenesis of GD, induce interleukin-12 (IL-12) in human fibrocytes...
October 18, 2016: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Daniel Karin, Yukinori Koyama, David Brenner, Tatiana Kisseleva
Liver fibrosis results from chronic injury of hepatocytes and activation of Collagen Type I producing myofibroblasts that produce fibrous scar in liver fibrosis. Myofibroblasts are not present in the normal liver but rapidly appear early in experimental and clinical liver injury. The origin of the myofibroblast in liver fibrosis is still unresolved. The possibilities include activation of liver resident cells including portal fibroblasts, hepatic stellate cells, mesenchymal progenitor cells, and fibrocytes recruited from the bone marrow...
August 30, 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
Kyoko Kitao, Kunio Mizutari, Susumu Nakagawa, Tatsuo Matsunaga, Satoshi Fukuda, Masato Fujii
Reduction of endocochlear potential (EP) is one of the main causes of sensorineural hearing loss. In this study, we investigated changes in the EP using a mouse model of acute cochlear energy failure, which comprised severe cochlear lateral wall damage induced by the local administration of 3-nitropropionic acid to the inner ear. We also analyzed the correlation between EP changes and histological findings in the cochlear lateral wall. We detected the recovery of the EP and hearing function at lower frequencies after severe damage of the cochlear lateral wall fibrocytes at the corresponding region...
October 19, 2016: Neuroreport
Paolo Giuffrida, Massimo Pinzani, Gino R Corazza, Antonio Di Sabatino
Intestinal fibrosis, caused by an excessive deposition of extracellular matrix components, and subsequent stricture development are a common complication of inflammatory bowel disease. However, currently there are no biomarkers which reliably predict the risk of developing intestinal strictures or identify early stages of fibrosis prior to clinical symptoms. Candidate biomarkers of intestinal fibrosis, including gene variants (i.e. nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-2 gene), serum microRNAs (miR-19, miR-29), serum extracellular matrix proteins (i...
August 2016: United European Gastroenterology Journal
Bernhard Zach, Ernst Hofer, Martin Asslaber, Helmut Ahammer
The human heart has a heterogeneous structure, which is characterized by different cell types and their spatial configurations. The physical structure, especially the fibre orientation and the interstitial fibrosis, determines the electrical excitation and in further consequence the contractility in macroscopic as well as in microscopic areas. Modern image processing methods and parameters could be used to describe the image content and image texture. In most cases the description of the texture is not satisfying because the fibre orientation, detected with common algorithms, is biased by elements such as fibrocytes or endothelial nuclei...
2016: PloS One
M-C Madekurozwa, D Booyse
Manipulation of the reproductive activity of jackals is dependent on a thorough understanding of the reproductive biology of this species. This study describes seasonal morphological changes in the adult testis of the black-backed jackal in relation to the immunoexpression of the basement membrane marker, laminin and the cytoskeletal proteins, cytokeratin, smooth muscle actin and vimentin. Laminin was immunolocalized in basement membranes surrounding seminiferous tubules, as well as in basement membranes associated with Leydig, peritubular myoid and vascular smooth muscle cells...
July 31, 2016: Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia
P Hadidi, N K Paschos, B J Huang, A Aryaei, J C Hu, K A Athanasiou
OBJECTIVE: The application of cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine is hindered by the difficulty of acquiring adequate numbers of competent cells. For the knee meniscus in particular, this may be solved by harvesting tissue from neighboring tendons and ligaments. In this study, we have investigated the potential of cells from tendon and ligament, as compared to meniscus cells, to engineer scaffold-free self-assembling fibrocartilage. METHOD: Self-assembling meniscus-shaped constructs engineered from a co-culture of articular chondrocytes and either meniscus, tendon, or ligament cells were cultured for 4 weeks with TGF-β1 in serum-free media...
July 27, 2016: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Roshini Fernando, Stephen J Atkins, Terry J Smith
Fibrocytes are monocyte progenitor cells that have been implicated in normal and pathological tissue remodeling. Among the prominent chemokine receptors expressed by these cells is CXC motif receptor 4 (CXCR4), which, with its cognate ligand CXCL motif ligand 12 (CXCL-12), directs fibrocytes to sites of fibrosis. Fibrocytes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy, the ocular manifestation of Graves' disease (GD), by virtue of their unique accumulation as CD34(+) orbital fibroblasts (OFs)...
October 2016: Endocrinology
Stephen J Gurczynski, Megan C Procario, David N O'Dwyer, Carol A Wilke, Bethany B Moore
CCR2-expressing leukocytes are required for the progression of fibrosis in models of induced lung injury as well as models of bone marrow transplant (BMT)-related idiopathic pneumonia syndrome. Infection with murid γ-herpesvirus-68 (γHV-68) results in severe pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis following syngeneic BMT; however, the roles that various proinflammatory leukocyte populations play in this process remain unclear. Deletion of CCR2 in both non-BMT and BMT mice increased early lytic viral replication and resulted in a reduction in the numbers of lung-infiltrating GR1+,F4/80+ and CXCR1+ cells, while maintaining robust neutrophil infiltration...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
S L Ashley, C A Wilke, K K Kim, B B Moore
Fibrocytes are circulating mesenchymal precursors (CD45+, col 1+) recruited to fibrotic areas. Fibrocytes secrete profibrotic mediators including periostin; a matricellular protein that regulates cellular interactions with extracellular matrix (ECM) components. In bleomycin-induced fibrosis, periostin deficiency in structural or hematopoietic cells limits development of pulmonary fibrosis. To determine if hematopoietic-derived fibrocytes might secrete soluble factors to activate structural myofibroblast differentiation, wild-type (WT) fibroblasts were treated with conditioned medium from fibrocytes isolated from bleomycin-treated WT or periostin(-/-) mice...
July 20, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
Soheir S Mansy, Mona M Nosseir, May M Othman, Mona A Zoheiry, Mohammed F Guda, Hoda A Yehia, Moataz H Hassanein
The present work deals with the simultaneous ultrastructure and triple immunofluorescence study of the three main hepatic fibrogenic cells, hepatic stellate cell, myofibroblast (MF), and fibroblast, in a group of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA positive patients, as their exact interrelation behavior in vivo with the progress of hepatic fibrosis is still inadequate. In this study, for the first time, cells having the morphological characteristic of MF and not bone marrow fibrocytes were revealed in liver portal vessels...
September 2016: Ultrastructural Pathology
Satoshi Watanabe, Kazuo Kasahara, Yuko Waseda, Hazuki Takato, Shingo Nishikawa, Taro Yoneda, Johsuke Hara, Takashi Sone, Miki Abo, Hideharu Kimura, Shinji Nakao
BACKGROUND: Imatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been proposed as a potential anti-fibrotic agent for fibroproliferative diseases, including bronchiolitis obliterans (BO). However, the underlying anti-fibrotic mechanisms of the agent remain unclear. We evaluated whether bone (BM)-derived progenitor cells, fibrocytes, might be a target of imatinib in the attenuation of BO. METHODS: We used a murine BO model induced by heterotopic tracheal transplantation and assessed the origin of fibroblasts by using green fluorescent protein-BM chimeric mice...
June 3, 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Chun-Chen Pan, Han-Qi Chu, Yan-Bing Lai, Yan-Bo Sun, Zhi-Hui Du, Yun Liu, Jin Chen, Ting Tong, Qing-Guo Chen, Liang-Qiang Zhou, Dan Bing, Yan-Ling Tao
Age-related hearing loss (AHL) is one of the most common sensory disorders among elderly persons. The inwardly rectifying potassium channel 5.1 (Kir5.1) plays a vital role in regulating cochlear K(+) circulation which is necessary for normal hearing. The distribution of Kir5.1 in C57BL/6J mice cochleae, and the relationship between the expression of Kir5.1 and the etiology of AHL were investigated. Forty C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into four groups at 4, 12, 24 and 52 weeks of age respectively. The location of Kir5...
June 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
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