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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432101/polio-and-measles-down-the-drain-environmental-enterovirus-surveillance-in-the-netherlands-2005-2015
#1
Kimberley S M Benschop, Harrie G van der Avoort, Edin Jusic, Harry Vennema, Rob van Binnendijk, Erwin Duizer
Polioviruses (PV) are members of the genus Enterovirus (EV). In the Netherlands, the exclusion of PVcirculation is based on Clinical EV Surveillance (CEVS) of EV positive cases and routine Environmental EV Surveillance (EEVS) conducted on sewage samples collected in the region of the Netherlands where vaccination coverage is low due to religious reason.We compared the EEVS data to those of the CEVS to gain insight in the relevance of EEVS for poliovirus and non-polio enterovirus surveillance. Following the polio outbreak in Syria, EEVS was performed at the Primary Refugee Center Ter Apel in the Netherlands and data were compared to CEVS and EEVS...
April 21, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426308/humanitarian-needs-among-displaced-and-female-headed-households-in-government-controlled-areas-of-syria
#2
Shannon Doocy, Emily Lyles
OBJECTIVES: To identify unmet needs and assistance priorities of displaced and female-headed households in government-controlled areas of Syria. METHODS: In mid-2016, we undertook a survey of accessible areas, largely urban and government-controlled, to identify unmet needs and assistance priorities. We used a cluster design with probability sampling to attain a final sample of 2405 households from 10 of 14 governorates; 31 of 65 (47.7%) districts were included that are home to 38...
April 20, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422476/origin-dependent-variations-in-the-atmospheric-microbiome-community-in-eastern-mediterranean-dust-storms
#3
Daniella Gat, Yinon Mazar, Eddie Cytryn, Yinon Rudich
Dust storms transport through the atmosphere microorganisms that can potentially affect human health and the functionality of microbial communities in various environments. Characterizing the dust-borne microbiome in storms of different origin or that followed different paths provides valuable data to improve understanding of global health and environmental impacts. We present a comparative study on the diversity of dust-borne microbial communities in dust storms from three distinct origins-North Africa, Syria and Saudi-Arabia-and compare them with those on dust-free days...
April 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422016/syria-chemical-attacks-preparing-for-the-unconscionable
#4
John Zarocostas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 15, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419820/community-acquired-infections-among-the-refugees-leading-to-intensive-care-unit-admissions-in-turkey
#5
Mediha Turktan, Oznur Ak, Hakan Erdem, Dilek Ozcengiz, Sally Hargreaves, Safak Kaya, Emre Karakoc, Ozlem Ozkan-Kuscu, Gunay Tuncer-Ertem, Recep Tekin, Handan Birbicer, Gul Durmus, Canan Yilmaz, Funda Kocak, Edmond Puca, Jordi Rello
OBJECTIVES: Data on the impact of refugees on Intensive Care Units (ICUs) are lacking in the literature, in particular for community-acquired (CA) infectious diseases, for which they are known to be at higher risk. We did a descriptive, multicenter study to analyze CA infections among refugee patients requiring ICU admission. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were adult refugee patients admitted to an ICU due to CA infections. Anonymized data were collected between January 1, 2010 and December 30, 2015 across 10 referral centers...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416965/a-crisis-of-protection-and-safe-passage-violence-experienced-by-migrants-refugees-travelling-along-the-western-balkan-corridor-to-northern-europe
#6
Jovana Arsenijević, Erin Schillberg, Aurelie Ponthieu, Lucio Malvisi, Waeil A Elrahman Ahmed, Stefano Argenziano, Federica Zamatto, Simon Burroughs, Natalie Severy, Christophe Hebting, Brice de Vingne, Anthony D Harries, Rony Zachariah
BACKGROUND: Pushed by ongoing conflicts and pulled by the desire for a better life, over one million migrants/refugees transited Balkan countries and arrived in Europe during 2015 and early 2016. To curb this influx, European countries instituted restrictive migration policies often characterized by building of razor-wire border fences and border closures. Among migrants/refugees who received mental health care in Serbia while travelling through Balkan countries to Northern Europe, we assessed the prevalence and patterns of violent events experienced including physical trauma...
2017: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388689/whole-genome-sequencing-of-brucella-melitensis-isolated-from-57-patients-in-germany-reveals-high-diversity-in-strains-from-middle-east
#7
Enrico Georgi, Mathias C Walter, Marie-Theres Pfalzgraf, Bernd H Northoff, Lesca M Holdt, Holger C Scholz, Lothar Zoeller, Sabine Zange, Markus H Antwerpen
Brucellosis, a worldwide common bacterial zoonotic disease, has become quite rare in Northern and Western Europe. However, since 2014 a significant increase of imported infections caused by Brucella (B.) melitensis has been noticed in Germany. Patients predominantly originated from Middle East including Turkey and Syria. These circumstances afforded an opportunity to gain insights into the population structure of Brucella strains. Brucella-isolates from 57 patients were recovered between January 2014 and June 2016 with culture confirmed brucellosis by the National Consultant Laboratory for Brucella...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383793/the-epidemiology-of-sickle-cell-disease-in-germany-following-recent-large-scale-immigration
#8
Joachim B Kunz, Holger Cario, Regine Grosse, Andrea Jarisch, Stephan Lobitz, Andreas E Kulozik
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of sickle cell disease (SCD) in Germany is currently changing fundamentally with ongoing immigration. Here, we address the challenges resulting from the increased frequency, that is, the morbidity, and mortality of SCD in this population. PROCEDURE: The number of immigrants with SCD was estimated based on the data of the German central registry of migrants (2007-2015) and published epidemiologic data. Additional data analysis was based on nationwide aggregated data from the diagnosis-related groups' (DRG) statistics of the German Federal Statistical Office...
April 6, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359211/emergency-food-assistance-in-northern-syria
#9
Shannon Doocy, Hannah Tappis, Emily Lyles, Joseph Witiw, Vicki Aken
BACKGROUND: The war in Syria has left millions struggling to survive amidst violent conflict, pervasive unemployment, and food insecurity. Although international assistance funding is also at an all-time high, it is insufficient to meet the needs of conflict-affected populations, and there is increasing pressure on humanitarian stakeholders to find more efficient, effective ways to provide assistance. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate 3 different assistance programs (in-kind food commodities, food vouchers, and unrestricted vouchers) in Idleb Governorate of Syria from December 2014 and March 2015...
January 1, 2017: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345824/epidemiological-characteristics-of-retinoblastoma-in-children-attending-almouassat-university-hospital-damascus-syria-2012-2016
#10
Ahmad Al Hasan, Rashad Murad, Khaldoun Zaid, Jourjous Al Daoud, Khaled Zaid
Retinoblastoma (Rb) is a malignant tumor that originates from the developing retina. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs and symptoms and usually children under the age of five years are affected. Early diagnosis and treatment of Rb and non-ocular tumors can reduce morbidity and increase longevity. Treatment in the early stages may allow a good prognosis and salvage of visual function.The aim of this study is to present descriptive epidemiological aspects of retinoblastomas in children seen at Almouassat University Hospital (AUH) in Damascus, Syria from 1 January 2012 to 31 October 2016In this retrospective, observational hospital survey, medical records of 37 retinoblastoma cases were reviewed...
February 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314568/health-workers-and-the-weaponisation-of-health-care-in-syria-a-preliminary-inquiry-for-the-lancet-american-university-of-beirut-commission-on-syria
#11
Fouad M Fouad, Annie Sparrow, Ahmad Tarakji, Mohamad Alameddine, Fadi El-Jardali, Adam P Coutts, Nour El Arnaout, Lama Bou Karroum, Mohammed Jawad, Sophie Roborgh, Aula Abbara, Fadi Alhalabi, Ibrahim AlMasri, Samer Jabbour
The conflict in Syria presents new and unprecedented challenges that undermine the principles and practice of medical neutrality in armed conflict. With direct and repeated targeting of health workers, health facilities, and ambulances, Syria has become the most dangerous place on earth for health-care providers. The weaponisation of health care-a strategy of using people's need for health care as a weapon against them by violently depriving them of it-has translated into hundreds of health workers killed, hundreds more incarcerated or tortured, and hundreds of health facilities deliberately and systematically attacked...
March 14, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314565/syria-suffers-as-the-world-watches
#12
EDITORIAL
The Lancet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 18, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301703/best-evidence-aside-why-trump-s-executive-order-makes-america-less-healthy
#13
Lawrence O Gostin
What are the health impacts of President Trump's January 27, 2017, executive order suspending the resettlement of refugees and temporarily banning entry of nationals from Iraq, Syria, Iran, Sudan, Libya, Somalia, and Yemen? Even if the President's constitutional arguments are credible, the order is deeply troubling under international law and humanitarian values. Under the 1967 Refugee Protocol, the United States has assumed a legal obligation to examine the claims of asylum seekers who reach U.S. territory without discrimination based on race, nationality, or religion...
March 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288843/non-invasive-diagnosis-of-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-by-the-direct-boil-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-method-and-minion%C3%A2-nanopore-sequencing
#14
Kazuo Imai, Norihito Tarumoto, Kiyoko Amo, Makoto Takahashi, Naoya Sakamoto, Atsushi Kosaka, Yasuyuki Kato, Kei Mikita, Jun Sakai, Takashi Murakami, Yutaka Suzuki, Shigefumi Maesaki, Takuya Maeda
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is gaining attention as a public health problem. We present two cases of CL imported from Syria and Venezuela in Japan. We diagnosed them as CL non-invasively by the direct boil loop-mediated isothermal amplification method and an innovative sequencing method using the MinION™ sequencer. This report demonstrates that our procedure could be useful for the diagnosis of CL in both clinical and epidemiological settings.
March 11, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281759/application-of-the-transpiration-method-to-determine-the-vapor-pressure-and-related-physico-chemical-data-of-low-volatile-thermolabile-and-toxic-organo-thio-phosphates
#15
Marc A Althoff, Kathrin Grieger, Martin A C Härtel, Konstantin L Karaghiosoff, Thomas M Klapötke, Manfred Metzulat
The present work represents the most recent study on the physico-chemical properties of the organophosphate compound class being directly related to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC). This compound class is of great importance in the ongoing conflict in Syria. Here, the vapor pressure of the deadly organo(thio)phosphate Amiton and seven of its derivatives was investigated. These medium to low volatile analytes pose a potential threat toward human life by inhalation or direct contact with the skin at very low doses...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270420/hospitals-and-medical-staff-are-targeted-in-syria-as-un-report-blames-regime-forces
#16
Owen Dyer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266226/why-have-the-majority-of-recent-polio-cases-occurred-in-countries-affected-by-islamist-militancy-a-historical-comparative-analysis-of-the-political-determinants-of-polio-in-nigeria-somalia-pakistan-afghanistan-and-syria
#17
Jonathan Kennedy
This article aims to understand why the last few areas where polio remains are affected by armed conflicts involving militant organizations that use Islam to legitimize their activities. The first section critically analyses the argument that Muslims' animosity towards polio vaccination programmes is a consequence of their irrational, backward, anti-Western theology. This argument is depoliticizing, ahistorical and orientalist. Moreover, it does not explain why Islamist militant groups' attitudes to polio vaccination campaigns vary between countries...
March 7, 2017: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253239/in-absentia-describing-the-toll-of-war-on-health-in-syria
#18
EDITORIAL
Vanessa Cramond, Matthew Reid
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 3, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253229/response-to-a-large-polio-outbreak-in-a-setting-of-conflict-middle-east-2013-2015
#19
Chukwuma Mbaeyi, Michael J Ryan, Philip Smith, Abdirahman Mahamud, Noha Farag, Salah Haithami, Magdi Sharaf, Jaume C Jorba, Derek Ehrhardt
As the world advances toward the eradication of polio, outbreaks of wild poliovirus (WPV) in polio-free regions pose a substantial risk to the timeline for global eradication. Countries and regions experiencing active conflict, chronic insecurity, and large-scale displacement of persons are particularly vulnerable to outbreaks because of the disruption of health care and immunization services (1). A polio outbreak occurred in the Middle East, beginning in Syria in 2013 with subsequent spread to Iraq (2). The outbreak occurred 2 years after the onset of the Syrian civil war, resulted in 38 cases, and was the first time WPV was detected in Syria in approximately a decade (3,4)...
March 3, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242700/strategic-aspects-of-cyberattack-attribution-and-blame
#20
Benjamin Edwards, Alexander Furnas, Stephanie Forrest, Robert Axelrod
Cyber conflict is now a common and potentially dangerous occurrence. The target typically faces a strategic choice based on its ability to attribute the attack to a specific perpetrator and whether it has a viable punishment at its disposal. We present a game-theoretic model, in which the best strategic choice for the victim depends on the vulnerability of the attacker, the knowledge level of the victim, payoffs for different outcomes, and the beliefs of each player about their opponent. The resulting blame game allows analysis of four policy-relevant questions: the conditions under which peace (i...
March 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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