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Go Shinke, Daisaku Yamada, Hidetoshi Eguchi, Yoshifumi Iwagami, Tadafumi Asaoka, Takehiro Noda, Hiroshi Wada, Koichi Kawamoto, Kunihito Gotoh, Shogo Kobayashi, Yutaka Takeda, Masahiro Tanemura, Masaki Mori, Yuichiro Doki
Current therapies for pancreatic ductal cancer (PDAC) do not sufficiently control distant metastasis. Thus, new therapeutic targets are urgently needed. Numerous studies have suggested that the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is pivotal for metastasis of carcinomas. The fact that the EMT is reversible suggests the possibility that it is induced by an epigenetic mechanism. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1), which is an epigenetic mechanism on distant metastasis of PDAC...
June 19, 2018: Cancer Science
Jordan Greer
Does fine-scale variation in the aposematic coloration of the six-spot burnet moth, Zygaena filipendulae, reflect its degree of toxicity? Briolat et al. (2018) find that most color metrics do not have a significant positive association (or sometimes curiously a negative association) to the amount of toxins present in Z. filipendulae. Surprisingly, effects are more pronounced in females, which exhibit a decrease in color saturation and wing spot size in accordance with greater concentrations of cyanogenic glucosides...
June 19, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Q-G Tian, Y-T Wu, Y Liu, J Zhang, Z-Q Song, W-F Gao, T-K Guo, C-H He, F-R Dai
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expressions of HIF-1α, surviving, and VEGF in patients with hepatocarcinoma as well as the correlation analysis among them. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 65 patients, who were admitted to our hospital and diagnosed as hepatocarcinoma from January 2014 to October 2015, were selected as hepatocarcinoma group, while 50 healthy cases that do not have hepatocarcinoma were selected as normal control group. The expression levels of HIF-1α, surviving, and VEGF in hepatocarcinoma tissues of hepatocarcinoma group and normal liver tissues of control group were detected by immunohistochemical (SP) staining method; then, the correlation among them was explored...
June 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Tatsuya Matsuoka, Aya Onozawa, Kintake Sonoike, Shin Kore-Eda
Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, which switches the mode of photosynthesis from C3 to crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) upon high salt stress, was shown here to exhibit diurnal changes in not only CO2 fixation pathway but also chlorophyll fluorescence parameters under CAM-induced conditions. We conducted comprehensive time course measurements of M. crystallinum leaf chlorophyll fluorescence using the same leaf through the CAM-induction period. By doing so, we were able to distinguish the effect of CAM induction from that of photoinhibition and avoid the possible effects of differences in foliar age...
June 15, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Sergej Franz, Martina Friesland, Vânia Passos, Daniel Todt, Graham Simmons, Christine Goffinet, Eike Steinmann
Despite increasing clinical relevance of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection, caused by a rapidly emerging pathogen, recommended guidelines for its inactivation do not exist. Here, we investigated the susceptibility of CHIKV to inactivation by heat and commercially available hand, surface and WHO-recommended disinfectants to define CHIKV prevention protocols for healthcare systems.
June 15, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Anne Grosen, Jacob Nersting, Mona Bungum, Lisbet Ambrosius Christensen, Kjeld Schmiegelow, Marcello Spanò, Mette Julsgaard, Eugenia Cordelli, Giorgio Leter, Peter Braad Larsen, Christian Lodberg Hvas, Jens Kelsen
Background & Aims: Sperm DNA integrity, concentration and motility are suspected to be altered by thiopurines (azathioprine (AZA) and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP)). We investigated the impact of thiopurines on semen quality in men with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by a comprehensive panel of semen analyses. Methods: Semen from 40 men with IBD in remission on AZA/6-MP therapy was prospectively collected and compared with samples from 40 healthy volunteers. Paired samples (off and on AZA/6-MP) were obtained from a subset of IBD patients, and blood and semen were collected to determine 6-MP transmission to the ejaculate...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Aleksandra Drazbo, Katarzyna Ognik, Anita Zaworska, Karolina Ferenc, Jan Jankowski
This study evaluated the effects of including 15% of raw or fermented rapeseed cake (RRC and FRC, respectively) in turkey diets on the growth performance, antioxidant and immune status, and intestinal morphology of birds. Rapeseed cake was fermented using the commercial 6-phytase enzyme preparation, and dried. A total of 1,350 day-old female Hybrid Converter turkeys were randomly allocated to 3 dietary treatments with 9 replicates per treatment and 50 birds per replicate. All diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric, and contained various protein sources...
June 15, 2018: Poultry Science
Aimee Elizabeth Kessler, Malia A Santos, Ramona Flatz, Nyambayar Batbayar, Tseveenmyadag Natsagdorj, Dashnyam Batsuur, Fyodor G Bidashko, Natsag Galbadrakh, Oleg Goroshko, Valery V Khrokov, Tuvshin Unenbat, Ivan I Vagner, Muyang Wang, Christopher Irwin Smith
The Great Bustard is the heaviest bird capable of flight and an iconic species of the Eurasian steppe. Populations of both currently recognized subspecies are highly fragmented and critically small in Asia. We used DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and the mitochondrial control region to estimate the degree of mitochondrial differentiation and rates of female gene flow between the subspecies. We obtained genetic samples from 51 individuals of Otis tarda dybowskii representing multiple populations, including the first samples from Kazakhstan and Mongolia and samples from near the Altai Mountains, the proposed geographic divide between the subspecies, allowing for better characterization of the boundary between the two subspecies...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Heredity
Asia T McCleary-Gaddy, Carol T Miller, Kristie W Grover, James J Hodge, Brenda Major
Background: Stigmatized people exhibit blunted cortisol responses to many stressors. Purpose: To examine the cortisol responses of individuals who are overweight to a stigma-related stressor involving interviewing for a weight-discriminatory company. Methods: We recruited 170 men and women (mean age = 35.01) from towns located within about a 30-min drive of the study center. Weight was assessed using body mass index (BMI) and self-perceptions about being overweight...
June 16, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Donald C Hood, Carlos G De Moraes
We pose four questions for the clinician diagnosing and monitoring glaucoma, and supply evidence-based answers. The first question is: "When do you perform a 10-2 (2° grid) visual field test?" We argue the best answer is: anyone you would do, or have done, a 24-2 (6° grid) visual field on should have both a 24-2 and a 10-2 visual field within the first two visits. Second, "When do you perform an optical coherence tomography (OCT) scan of the macula?" We argue that, if you are performing an OCT test, then it should include both the macula and disc, either as a single scan or as two scans, one centered on the macula and the other on the disc...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Salam Rahmatalla, Jonathan DeShaw, Joshua Stilley, Gerene Denning, Charles Jennissen
STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective simulator study with 16 healthy male subjects. OBJECTIVE: To compare the relative efficacy of immobilization systems in limiting involuntary movements of the cervical spine using a dynamic simulation model. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Relatively few studies have tested the efficacy of immobilization methods for limiting involuntary cervical movement, and only one of these studies used a dynamic simulation system to do so...
June 18, 2018: Spine
Gregorio P Milani, Jaap W Groothoff, Federica A Vianello, Emilio F Fossali, Fabio Paglialonga, Sivia Consolo, Alberto Edefonti, Dario Consonni, Dewi van Harskamp, Johannes B van Goudoever, Henk Schierbeek, Carlo Agostoni, Michiel J S Oosterveld
OBJECTIVES: Alterations in body compositions are strongly associated with poor outcomes in end-stage renal disease patients. Hence, assessment of lean body mass is crucial for clinically monitoring these patients. The use of multi-frequency bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements have also been advocated, but their usefulness in children is questioned. We investigated whether their application is appropriate for lean body mass measurement in pediatric patients receiving chronic dialysis...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Amy J Spooner, Wendy Chaboyer, Leanne M Aitken
BACKGROUND: Interruptions during handover may compromise continuity of care and patient safety. LOCAL PROBLEM: Interruptions occur frequently during handovers in the intensive care unit. METHODS: A quality improvement study was undertaken to improve nursing team leader handover processes. The frequency, source, and reason interruptions occurred were recorded before and after a handover intervention. INTERVENTIONS: The intervention involved relocating handover from the desk to bedside and using a printed version of an evidence-based electronic minimum data set...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Nursing Care Quality
Kamran Efendioglu, Ersin Aksam, Berrak Aksam, Murat Tuzuner, Hakan Gence
BACKGROUND: Breast ptosis is an inevitable consequence of gravity and time. Every breast tends to become ptotic in different shapes and degrees. Many surgical techniques were described to solve this problematic issue. The aim of this article is to describe a mastopexy technique used for grades 1 to 2 ptosis, "tuck-in" mastopexy technique. METHODS: Keyhole pattern was used for skin markings. All the planned skin excision areas were de-epithelialized. Breast mound was elevated as a 1-piece flap with extensive subglandular dissection...
June 19, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Rebecca R Seltzer, Megan Kasimatis Singleton, Erin P Williams, Renee D Boss
Children in foster care are considered a "vulnerable population" in clinical care and research, with good reason. These children face multiple medical, psychological, and social risks that obligate the child welfare and healthcare systems to protect them from further harms. An unintended consequence of the "vulnerable population" designation for children in foster care is that it may impose barriers on tracking and studying their health that creates gaps in knowledge that are key to their receipt of medical care and good outcomes...
2018: Journal of Clinical Ethics
Edmund G Howe
Ethics consultants' grasp of ethical principles is ever improving. Yet, what still remains and will remain lacking is their ability to access factors that lie outside their conscious awareness and thus still effect suboptimal outcomes. This article will explore several ways in which these poor outcomes may occur. This discussion will include clinicians' implicit biases, well-intentioned but nonetheless intrusive violations of patients' privacy, and clinicians' unwittingly connoting to patients and families that clinicians regard their moral values and conclusions as superior...
2018: Journal of Clinical Ethics
Pawel J Matusz, Suzanne Dikker, Alexander G Huth, Catherine Perrodin
Real-world environments are typically dynamic, complex, and multisensory in nature and require the support of top-down attention and memory mechanisms for us to be able to drive a car, make a shopping list, or pour a cup of coffee. Fundamental principles of perception and functional brain organization have been established by research utilizing well-controlled but simplified paradigms with basic stimuli. The last 30 years ushered a revolution in computational power, brain mapping, and signal processing techniques...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Suzanne Hoogeveen, Uffe Schjoedt, Michiel van Elk
This study examines the effects of expected transcranial stimulation on the error(-related) negativity (Ne or ERN) and the sense of agency in participants who perform a cognitive control task. Placebo transcranial direct current stimulation was used to elicit expectations of transcranially induced cognitive improvement or impairment. The improvement/impairment manipulation affected both the Ne/ERN and the sense of agency (i.e., whether participants attributed errors to oneself or the brain stimulation device): Expected improvement increased the ERN in response to errors compared with both impairment and control conditions...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Andrea Laghi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2018: Radiology
Sheila M McMahon, Gretchen L Hoge, Laura Johnson, Sarah McMahon
Bystander education is an increasingly popular primary prevention strategy for preventing sexual and relationship violence on college campuses. Although the evidence base for this primary prevention approach has grown substantially in recent years, more research is needed that accounts for changes in students' readiness to help and helping behaviors over time. In addition, because there is still much to learn about the factors that contribute to these changes in behavior, it is important to hear from students in their own words about their experiences with bystander education...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
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