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canine distemper virus

Scott A Dee, Fernando V Bauermann, Megan C Niederwerder, Aaron Singrey, Travis Clement, Marcelo de Lima, Craig Long, Gilbert Patterson, Maureen A Sheahan, Ana M M Stoian, Vlad Petrovan, Cassandra K Jones, Jon De Jong, Ju Ji, Gordon D Spronk, Luke Minion, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Jeff J Zimmerman, Raymond R R Rowland, Eric Nelson, Paul Sundberg, Diego G Diel
The goal of this study was to evaluate survival of important viral pathogens of livestock in animal feed ingredients imported daily into the United States under simulated transboundary conditions. Eleven viruses were selected based on global significance and impact to the livestock industry, including Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV), Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV), Influenza A Virus of Swine (IAV-S), Pseudorabies virus (PRV), Nipah Virus (NiV), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), Swine Vesicular Disease Virus (SVDV), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) and Vesicular Exanthema of Swine Virus (VESV)...
2018: PloS One
Miranda E Spindel, Matthew R Krecic, Margaret R Slater, Nicole Vigil
This cross-sectional study aimed to identify where dogs with negative antibody tests to canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) originated when entering a community shelter, using a commercially available ELISA antibody test and Geographic Information Systems mapping. Of 2745 canines entering during a three-month period, 1056 test results were obtained. Dogs or puppies weighing over 2 lb were eligible if they could be humanely, nonchemically restrained for phlebotomy. Age and minor health issues weren't exclusions...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Claire M Jardine, Tore Buchanan, Davor Ojkic, G Douglas Campbell, Jeff Bowman
Rabies and canine distemper virus infections in wildlife share similar presenting signs. Canine distemper virus was detected using real-time PCR of conjunctival swabs in rabies positive raccoons (22/32) and skunks (7/34) during a concurrent rabies and canine distemper outbreak in Ontario, Canada in 2015-2016. Coinfections with both viruses should be considered, particularly in distemper endemic areas that are at risk of rabies incursion.
March 8, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Yaru Sun, Yuening Cheng, Peng Lin, Li Yi, Mingwei Tong, Zhigang Cao, Gaili Wang, Shuang Li, Shipeng Cheng, Wanzhe Yuan, Jianke Wang
Canine parvovirus (CPV) is an important pathogen in domestic dogs, and the original antigenic types CPV-2 and its variants, CPV-2a, 2b and 2c, are prevalent worldwide. A multiplex TaqMan real-time PCR method was developed for the detection and differentiation of four antigenic types of CPV. A set of primers and probes, CPV-305F/CPV-305R and CPV-2-305P (for CPV-2)/CPV-2a-305P (for CPV-2a, 2b and 2c), was able to differentiate CPV-2 and its variants (CPV-2a, 2b and 2c). Another set of primers and probes, CPV-426F/CPV-426R and CPV-2-426P (for CPV-2 and 2a)/CPV-2b-426P (for CPV-2b)/CPV-2c-426P (for CPV-2c), was able to differentiate CPV-2a (2), CPV-2b, and CPV-2c...
February 27, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Darren J Wostenberg, Nikki Walker, Karen A Fox, Terry R Spraker, Antoinette J Piaggio, Amy Gilbert
Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a highly contagious pathogen that principally infects wildlife and domestic carnivores. Peridomestic species such as raccoons ( Procyon lotor) experience outbreaks with high mortality. Clinical signs of infection include anorexia, fever, respiratory infection, and neurologic complications. Although not zoonotic, CDV poses a high risk to unvaccinated domestic animals and the conservation of endangered species. During 2013-2016, we opportunistically collected wild and domestic carnivore specimens through a rabies surveillance program in northern Colorado...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Peter Ross, Paige S Nemec, Alexander Kapatos, Keith R Miller, Jennifer C Holmes, Steven E Suter, Adam S Buntzman, Erik J Soderblom, Edward J Collins, Paul R Hess
Ideally, CD8+ T-cell responses against virally infected or malignant cells are defined at the level of the specific peptide and restricting MHC class I element, a determination not yet made in the dog. To advance the discovery of canine CTL epitopes, we sought to determine whether a putative classical MHC class Ia gene, Dog Leukocyte Antigen (DLA)-88, presents peptides from a viral pathogen, canine distemper virus (CDV). To investigate this possibility, DLA-88*508:01, an allele prevalent in Golden Retrievers, was expressed as a FLAG-tagged construct in canine histiocytic cells to allow affinity purification of peptide-DLA-88 complexes and subsequent elution of bound peptides...
March 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Christian D B T Alves, Renata F Budaszewski, Marcela Torikachvili, André F Streck, Matheus N Weber, Samuel P Cibulski, Ana P Ravazzolo, Vagner R Lunge, Cláudio W Canal
Mamastrovirus 5 (MAstV5), belonging to the Astroviridae (AstV) family, previously known as canine astrovirus or astrovirus-like particles, has been reported in several countries to be associated with viral enteric disease in dogs since the 1980s. Astroviruses have been detected in fecal samples from a wide variety of mammals and birds that are associated with gastroenteritis and extra enteric manifestations. In the present study, RT-PCR was used to investigate the presence of MAstV5 in 269 dog fecal samples...
February 2, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Gael D Maganga, Ingrid Labouba, Barthélémy Ngoubangoye, Andriniaina A Nkili-Meyong, Daniel Obame Ondo, Eric M Leroy, Nicolas Berthet
Canine distemper (CD) is the most deadly disease in dogs with mortality rates reaching 50%. The pathological agent, the CD virus (CDV), generally causes a severe systemic disease, although the nervous form can coexist with the acute catarrhal form in the same individual. In this study, we describe an outbreak of 18 cases of CD that occurred in 2015 in a German Shepherd dog population in northwestern Gabon. In addition, we determined the sequence of the CDV genotype associated with this fatal distemper infection in Gabon and compared it with other published CDV sequences...
January 30, 2018: Virus Research
Yipeng Jin, Xinke Zhang, Yisheng Ma, Yanchao Qiao, Xiaobin Liu, Kaihui Zhao, Chenglin Zhang, Degui Lin, Xuelian Fu, Xinrong Xu, Yiwei Wang, Huanan Wang
We evaluated exposure to canine distemper virus (CDV) in eight wild giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and 125 unvaccinated domestic dogs living in and around Foping National Nature Reserve (FNNR), China. Seventy-two percent of unvaccinated domestic dogs (mixed breed) had neutralizing antibodies for CDV due to exposure to the disease. The eight wild giant pandas were naïve to CDV and carried no positive antibody titer. RT-PCR assays for hemagglutinin (H) gene confirmed the presence of CDV in 31 clinically ill dogs from several areas near FNNR...
December 26, 2017: Oncotarget
Sebastian Ortiz, Sonia M Hernandez, Michael J Yabsley, Trista I Becker, Benjamin Carswell, Yank Moore, Heather Fenton, Charlie S Bahnson, Kevin Niedringhaus, Elizabeth Elsmo, Lillian Orciari, Pamela Yager, Nancy L Stedman, Steven E Nelson, Terry M Norton
  The introduction of rabies virus (RABV) to barrier islands, which are often popular tourist destinations with resource-rich habitats and connectivity and proximity to the mainland, is especially concerning because it can easily become endemic due to factors like dense rabies-vector populations (e.g., raccoons [ Procyon lotor]), high inter- and intraspecies contact rates, and anthropogenic activities such as supplemental feeding of feral cats ( Felis catus). In January 2013, a neurologic raccoon found on the Jekyll Island (JI), Georgia causeway tested positive for rabies...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Dafei Liu, Fei Liu, Dongchun Guo, Xiaoliang Hu, Zhijie Li, Zhigang Li, Jianzhang Ma, Chunguo Liu
To rapidly distinguish Canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus (CPV), and canine kobuvirus (CaKoV) in practice, a one-step multiplex PCR/RT-PCR assay was developed, with detection limits of 102.1 TCID50 for CDV, 101.9 TCID50 for CPV and 103 copies for CaKoV. This method did not amplify nonspecific DNA or RNA from other canine viruses. Therefore, the assay provides a sensitive tool for the rapid clinical detection and epidemiological surveillance of CDV, CPV and CaKoV in dogs.
January 23, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Jean P Elbers, Mary B Brown, Sabrina S Taylor
BACKGROUND: Infectious disease is the single greatest threat to taxa such as amphibians (chytrid fungus), bats (white nose syndrome), Tasmanian devils (devil facial tumor disease), and black-footed ferrets (canine distemper virus, plague). Although understanding the genetic basis to disease susceptibility is important for the long-term persistence of these groups, most research has been limited to major-histocompatibility and Toll-like receptor genes. To better understand the genetic basis of infectious disease susceptibility in a species of conservation concern, we sequenced all known/predicted immune response genes (i...
January 19, 2018: BMC Genomics
Wendy K Jo, Albert Dme Osterhaus, Martin Ludlow
Transmission of morbilliviruses within and among marine mammal species has been documented in a variety of marine habitats. Cetacean morbillivirus spreads between cetacean species in the aquatic environment whereas both phocine distemper virus and canine distemper virus have been associated with transmission within and between pinniped and terrestrial carnivore species in their natural habitat and at the aquatic-terrestrial interface. Periodically these viruses have caused large epizootics involving thousands of animals, due to sustained intra-species virus transmission...
January 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
Julie D Sheldon, Andrew C Cushing, Rebecca P Wilkes, Eman Anis, Edward J Dubovi
Canine distemper virus (CDV) affects many wild and captive, nondomestic species worldwide but has not been previously reported in Xenarthra. Paucity of information on vaccination safety and efficacy presents challenges for disease prevention in captive collections. CDV infections and subsequent mortalities in five captive Linnaeus's two-toed sloths ( Choloepus didactylus) in eastern Tennessee are reported. Clinical signs included oculonasal discharge, oral ulcerations, and diarrhea, and the diagnosis was confirmed by necropsy, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, virus isolation, and polymerase chain reaction...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Sathya K Chinnadurai, Michael J Kinsel, Michael J Adkesson, Karen Terio
A 6-yr-old male snow leopard ( Panthera uncia) presented with acute seizures, hyperthermia, and tachypnea. Because of a diagnosis of anuric renal failure, the animal was euthanized. On histopathologic examination, numerous intralesional intracytoplasmic and intranuclear inclusions were found in the lungs, lymph nodes, and stomach. Positive immunohistochemical staining for canine distemper virus (CDV) was found in the lungs and, to a lesser extent, in the lymph nodes and brain. Molecular testing yielded a CDV H gene sequence that was closely related to CDV isolates concurrently found in wild raccoons from adjacent forested areas...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Nicole M Nemeth, Paul T Oesterle, G Douglas Campbell, Davor Ojkic, Claire M Jardine
Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a widespread morbillivirus that causes subclinical to fatal infections in domestic and wild carnivores. Raccoons ( Procyon lotor) are CDV reservoirs and suffer from associated disease. Aspects of pathogenesis may lead to difficulty in the interpretation of commonly used testing modalities, such as reverse-transcription real-time (RT-rt)PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The reliance upon such tests is greater for wildlife, which are often submitted as carcasses with no clinical history...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
R Lucá, R Giacominelli-Stuffler, S Mazzariol, S Roperto, C Cocumelli, G DI Guardo
Dolphin morbillivirus (DMV), a highly pathogenic agent, may cause peculiar, "brain-only" forms of infection (BOFDI), in which viral antigen and/or genome is found exclusively in the brain from striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). These BOFDIs show morphopathological similarities with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and old dog encephalitis (ODE) in measles virus-infected patients and in canine distemper virus-infected dogs, respectively. The brain tissue from 3 BOFDI-affected striped dolphins was investigated by means of double labelling-indirect immunofluorescence (DL-IIF) and ultrastructurally, in order to characterize the DMV-targeted neuronal and non-neuronal cell populations, along with the associated submicroscopic findings...
2017: Acta Virologica
Labrini V Athanasiou, Maria C Kantere, Constantinos S Kyriakis, Dimitra Pardali, Katerina Adamama Moraitou, Zoe S Polizopoulou
Canine distemper is a common and potentially lethal multisystemic disease caused by the Canine distemper virus (CDV). We evaluated the diagnostic performance of direct immunofluorescent assay (FA) and cytology to detect CDV antigen in conjunctival cells compared with an established polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection assay used as a gold standard for CDV diagnosis. Samples were collected from 57 young dogs presenting with central nervous system signs compatible with distemper disease. Exfoliative epithelial cells were collected from the right and left conjunctiva of each animal using nylon-bristled cytobrushes for cytology and cotton swabs for FA and PCR...
November 29, 2017: Viral Immunology
Judy A Mitchell, Jacqueline M Cardwell, Heather Leach, Caray A Walker, Sophie Le Poder, Nicola Decaro, Miklos Rusvai, Herman Egberink, Peter Rottier, Mireia Fernandez, Eirini Fragkiadaki, Shelly Shields, Joe Brownlie
Canine infectious respiratory disease (CIRD) is a major cause of morbidity in dogs worldwide, and is associated with a number of new and emerging pathogens. In a large multi-centre European study the prevalences of four key emerging CIRD pathogens; canine respiratory coronavirus (CRCoV), canine pneumovirus (CnPnV), influenza A, and Mycoplasma cynos (M. cynos); were estimated, and risk factors for exposure, infection and clinical disease were investigated. CIRD affected 66% (381/572) of the dogs studied, including both pet and kennelled dogs...
December 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
Sara Louise Cosby, Leanne Weir
Measles virus (MV) is the only human virus within the morbillivirus genus of the Paramyxoviridae. The veterinary members are canine distemper virus (CDV), peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), Rinderpest Virus (RPV) as well as the marine morbilliviruses phocine distemper virus (PDV), dolphin morbillivirus (DMV) and porpoise morbillivirus (PMV). Morbilliviruses have a severe impact on humans and animal species. They confer diseases which have contributed to morbidity and mortality of the population on a global scale...
January 2, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
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