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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338358/a-mismatch-between-athlete-practice-and-current-sports-nutrition-guidelines-among-elite-female-and-male-middle-and-long-distance-athletes
#1
Ida Aliisa Heikura, Trent Stellingwerff, Antti A Mero, Arja Leena Tuulia Uusitalo, Louise Mary Burke
Contemporary nutrition guidelines promote a variety of periodized and time-sensitive recommendations, but current information regarding the knowledge and practice of these strategies among world-class athletes is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate this theme by implementing a questionnaire on dietary periodization practices in national/international level female (n=27) and male (n=21) middle- and long-distance runners/race-walkers. The questionnaire aimed to gain information on between and within-day dietary choices, as well as timing of pre- and post-training meals and practices of training with low or high carbohydrate (CHO) availability...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332115/periodized-nutrition-for-athletes
#2
REVIEW
Asker E Jeukendrup
It is becoming increasingly clear that adaptations, initiated by exercise, can be amplified or reduced by nutrition. Various methods have been discussed to optimize training adaptations and some of these methods have been subject to extensive study. To date, most methods have focused on skeletal muscle, but it is important to note that training effects also include adaptations in other tissues (e.g., brain, vasculature), improvements in the absorptive capacity of the intestine, increases in tolerance to dehydration, and other effects that have received less attention in the literature...
March 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332114/training-the-gut-for-athletes
#3
REVIEW
Asker E Jeukendrup
The gastrointestinal (GI) tract plays a critical role in delivering carbohydrate and fluid during prolonged exercise and can therefore be a major determinant of performance. The incidence of GI problems in athletes participating in endurance events is high, indicating that GI function is not always optimal in those conditions. A substantial body of evidence suggests that the GI system is highly adaptable. Gastric emptying as well as stomach comfort can be "trained" and perceptions of fullness decreased; some studies have suggested that nutrient-specific increases in gastric emptying may occur...
March 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332113/the-critical-power-concept-applications-to-sports-performance-with-a-focus-on-intermittent-high-intensity-exercise
#4
REVIEW
Andrew M Jones, Anni Vanhatalo
The curvilinear relationship between power output and the time for which it can be sustained is a fundamental and well-known feature of high-intensity exercise performance. This relationship 'levels off' at a 'critical power' (CP) that separates power outputs that can be sustained with stable values of, for example, muscle phosphocreatine, blood lactate, and pulmonary oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]), from power outputs where these variables change continuously with time until their respective minimum and maximum values are reached and exercise intolerance occurs...
March 22, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329355/international-recommendations-for-electrocardiographic-interpretation-in-athletes
#5
Sanjay Sharma, Jonathan A Drezner, Aaron Baggish, Michael Papadakis, Mathew G Wilson, Jordan M Prutkin, Andre La Gerche, Michael J Ackerman, Mats Borjesson, Jack C Salerno, Irfan M Asif, David S Owens, Eugene H Chung, Michael S Emery, Victor F Froelicher, Hein Heidbuchel, Carmen Adamuz, Chad A Asplund, Gordon Cohen, Kimberly G Harmon, Joseph C Marek, Silvana Molossi, Josef Niebauer, Hank F Pelto, Marco V Perez, Nathan R Riding, Tess Saarel, Christian M Schmied, David M Shipon, Ricardo Stein, Victoria L Vetter, Antonio Pelliccia, Domenico Corrado
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the leading cause of mortality in athletes during sport. A variety of mostly hereditary, structural, or electrical cardiac disorders are associated with SCD in young athletes, the majority of which can be identified or suggested by abnormalities on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). Whether used for diagnostic or screening purposes, physicians responsible for the cardiovascular care of athletes should be knowledgeable and competent in ECG interpretation in athletes. However, in most countries a shortage of physician expertise limits wider application of the ECG in the care of the athlete...
February 20, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328713/the-effect-of-standard-strength-vs-contrast-strength-training-on-the-development-of-sprint-agility-repeated-change-of-direction-and-jump-in-junior-male-soccer-players
#6
Mehréz Hammami, Yassine Negra, Roy J Shephard, Mohamed Souhaiel Chelly
Hammami, M, Negra, Y, Shephard, RJ, and Chelly, MS. The effect of standard strength vs. contrast strength training on the development of sprint, agility, repeated change of direction, and jump in junior male soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 901-912, 2017-The aim was to compare the impact of 2 differing strength training (ST) programs on the athletic performance of junior male soccer players at a critical phase during their competitive season. Participants aged 16.0 ± 0.5 years were randomly assigned between control (C, n = 12), standard ST (n = 16), and contrast strength training (CST, n = 16), each performed twice a week...
April 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326044/geographical-variations-in-the-interaction-of-relative-age-effects-in-youth-and-adult-elite-soccer
#7
Christina Steingröver, Nick Wattie, Joseph Baker, Werner F Helsen, Jörg Schorer
Selection biases based on the use of cut-off dates and the timing of athletes' birthdates have been termed relative age effects. These effects have been shown to differentially affect individuals involved in sport. For example, young male soccer players born early in their age group are overrepresented in elite teams while studies in adult soccer indicated potential carry-over effects from talent development systems. This two-study approach focuses on the processes within multi-year age groups in youth and adult elite soccer and on the role of players' age position within the age band with regard to players' birth year and birth month...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321588/use-of-bioimpedianciometer-as-predictor-of-mountain-marathon-performance
#8
Vicente Javier Clemente-Suarez, Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis
This study aimed to examine the relation among body composition, training experience and race time during a mountain marathon. Body composition and training pre-race experience analyses were conducted previous to a mountain marathon in 52 male athletes. A significant correlation between race time and mountain marathon with chronological age, body fat mass, percentage of body fat (BF), level of abdominal obesity, sport experience and daily training volume was revealed. In addition, BF and athlete's chronological age were negatively associated with race performance...
May 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319734/novel-mechanical-impact-simulator-designed-to-generate-clinically-relevant-anterior-cruciate-ligament-ruptures
#9
Nathaniel A Bates, Nathan D Schilaty, Christopher V Nagelli, Aaron J Krych, Timothy E Hewett
BACKGROUND: Over 250,000 anterior cruciate ligament ruptures occur each year; therefore, it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms of these injuries. The objective of the current investigation was to develop and analyze an impact test device that consistently produces anterior cruciate ligament failure in a clinically relevant manner. METHOD: A mechanical impact simulator was developed to simulate the ground reaction force impulse generated from landing in a physiologic and clinically relevant manner...
March 10, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318314/promising-and-established-investigators-experiences-participating-in-the-national-athletic-trainers-association-foundation-research-mentor-program-a
#10
Sara L Nottingham, Stephanie M Mazerolle, Jessica L Barrett
CONTEXT: Mentorship is a helpful resource for individuals who transition from doctoral student to tenure-track faculty member. The National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) Research & Education Foundation offers a Research Mentor Program to provide mentorship to promising investigators, particularly as they work to establish independent lines of research. OBJECTIVE: To gain the perspectives of promising and established investigators on their participation in the NATA Foundation Research Mentor Program...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316971/exercise-associated-hyponatremia-2017-update
#11
REVIEW
Tamara Hew-Butler, Valentina Loi, Antonello Pani, Mitchell H Rosner
Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) was initially described in the 1980s in endurance athletes, and work done since then has conclusively identified that overdrinking beyond thirst and non-osmotic arginine vasopressin release are the most common etiologic factors. In recent years, EAH has been described in a broader variety of athletic events and also has been linked to the development of rhabdomyolysis. The potential role of volume and sodium depletion in a subset of athletes has also been described. This review focuses on the most recent literature in the field of EAH and summarizes key new findings in the epidemiology, pathophysiology, treatment, and prevention of this condition...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316585/is-elite-sport-really-bad-for-you-can-we-answer-the-question
#12
Florence Lebrun, Dave Collins
Elite athletes are not immune to mental health issues. Yet, quality research on mental health in elites has so far been limited. Thus, while research on mental health emphasises the prevalence and nature of disorders in the general population, its extent in elite performers remains unclear. Indeed, the prevalence of mental conditions cannot be accurately calculated in elite athletes due to a lack of diagnostic criteria and screening tools specifically adapted to this unique population. Researchers and practitioners are, therefore, confronted with biases reflecting the use of clinical norms and instruments initially developed for the general population...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314926/american-football-and-fatal-exertional-heat-stroke-a-case-study-of-korey-stringer
#13
Andrew Grundstein, John A Knox, Jennifer Vanos, Earl R Cooper, Douglas J Casa
On August 1, 2001, Korey Stringer, a Pro Bowl offensive tackle for the Minnesota Vikings, became the first and to date the only professional American football player to die from exertional heat stroke (EHS). The death helped raise awareness of the dangers of exertional heat illnesses in athletes and prompted the development of heat safety policies at the professional, collegiate, and interscholastic levels. Despite the public awareness of this death, no published study has examined in detail the circumstances surrounding Stringer's fatal EHS...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306393/circannual-rhythm-of-plasmatic-vitamin-d-levels-and-the-association-with-markers-of-psychophysical-stress-in-a-cohort-of-italian-professional-soccer-players
#14
Giovanni Lombardi, Jacopo Antonino Vitale, Sergio Logoluso, Giovanni Logoluso, Nino Cocco, Giulio Cocco, Antonino Cocco, Giuseppe Banfi
Adequate plasmatic Vitamin D levels are crucial to maintain calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism both in the general population and in athletes. Correct dietary supply and a regular sun exposure are fundamental for allowing the desired and effective fitness level. Past studies highlighted a scenario of Vitamin D insufficiency among professional soccer players in several countries, especially in North Europe, whilst a real deficiency in athletes is rare. The typical seasonal fluctuations of Vitamin D are wrongly described transversally in athletes belonging to teams that play at different latitudes and a chronobiologic approach studying the Vitamin D circannual rhythm in soccer players has not been described yet...
March 17, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306388/effects-of-body-mapping-designed-clothing-on-heat-stress-and-running-performance-in-a-hot-environment
#15
Jiao Jiao, Yi Li, Lei Yao, Yajun Chen, Yueping Guo, Stephen H S Wong, Frency S F Ng, Junyan Hu
To investigate clothing-induced differences in human thermal response and running performance, eight male athletes participated in a repeated-measure study by wearing three sets of clothing (CloA, CloB, and CloC). CloA and CloB were body-mapping-designed with 11% and 7% increased capacity of heat dissipation respectively than CloC, the commonly used running clothing. The experiments were conducted by using steady-state running followed by an all-out performance running in a controlled hot environment. Participants' thermal responses such as core temperature (Tc), mean skin temperature [Formula: see text], heat storage (S), and the performance running time were measured...
March 17, 2017: Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298058/effect-of-pitching-consecutive-days-in-youth-fast-pitch-softball-tournaments-on-objective-shoulder-strength-and-subjective-shoulder-symptoms
#16
S Andrew Skillington, Robert H Brophy, Rick W Wright, Matthew V Smith
BACKGROUND: The windmill pitching motion has been associated with risk for shoulder injury. Because there are no pitching limits on youth fast-pitch softball pitchers, these athletes often pitch multiple games across consecutive days. Strength changes, fatigue levels, and shoulder pain that develop among female fast-pitch pitchers over the course of consecutive days of pitching have not been investigated. HYPOTHESIS: Over the course of 2- and 3-day fast-pitch softball tournaments, pitchers will develop progressive objective weakness and increased subjective shoulder fatigue and pain without complete recovery between days...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297591/estrogen-replacement-improves-verbal-memory-and-executive-control-in-oligomenorrheic-amenorrheic-athletes-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Charumathi Baskaran, Brooke Cunningham, Franziska Plessow, Vibha Singhal, Ryan Woolley, Kathryn E Ackerman, Meghan Slattery, Hang Lee, Elizabeth A Lawson, Kamryn Eddy, Madhusmita Misra
OBJECTIVE: Both estrogen and exercise may have cognition enhancing benefits; however, young oligomenorrheic/amenorrheic athletes (OA) with estrogen deficiency have not been evaluated for cognitive deficits. Our objective was to determine whether 6 months of estrogen replacement will impact cognitive domains in OA. We hypothesized that estrogen replacement would improve verbal memory and executive control in OA. METHODS: We performed cognitive assessments at baseline and after 6 months in 48 OA (14-25 years) randomized to estrogen (EST+) (oral 30 µg ethinyl estradiol [n = 16] or transdermal 100 µg 17-β-estradiol patch [n = 13]) or no estrogen (EST-) (n = 19) in an ongoing clinical trial...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291764/delayed-effects-of-a-low-volume-power-type-resistance-exercise-session-on-explosive-performance
#18
Athanasios Tsoukos, Panagiotis Veligekas, Lee E Brown, Gerasimos Terzis, Gregory C Bogdanis
This study examined the delayed effects of a power type training session on explosive performance. Seventeen well-trained male power and team sport athletes (age: 22.7±5.5 y, height: 181±8 cm, body mass: 80.7±8.6 kg, body fat: 9.2±1.7 %, 1-RM half-squat: 163±29 kg) performed four sessions (2 experimental and 2 control) one week apart in a randomized and counterbalanced order. Explosive performance was assessed before, 24 and 48 h following a low-volume, power-type training session (5 x 4 jump squats at 40% 1RM with 3 min rest), as well as before and after 24 and 48 h of rest (control)...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290931/prophylactic-ankle-bracing-in-military-settings-a-review-of-the-literature
#19
Thomas M Newman, Michael R Gay, W E Buckley
BACKGROUND: Within athletics and the military, ankle sprains are one of the most common injuries with the potential for long-term functional deficits. Incidence rates for ankle sprains within the military are one of the leading causes of limited duty days, especially during basic combat training, parachute training exercises, and in cadet populations. In 2008, the Department of Defense U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventative Medicine report recommended that military personnel should wear semirigid ankle braces during parachuting, basketball, soccer, and other similar high-risk activities to reduce ankle sprain injuries...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290716/cycling-vs-uphill-walking-impact-on-locomotor-muscle-fatigue-and-running-exercise
#20
Benjamin Pageaux, Jean Theurel, Romuald Leper
PURPOSE: To describe the effects of uphill walking versus cycling exercises on knee extensors (KE) neuromuscular properties and subsequent running exercise. METHODS: Nine athletes performed four different sessions (one familiarization and three experimental sessions, visit 2 to 4). Visit 2 (cycling + 10 km condition) consisted of the completion of 1-h cycling followed by a 10 km running time trial. Visit 3 consisted of the completion of 1-h uphill walking followed by a 10 km running exercise (RE)...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
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