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Athlete development

Valentina Camomilla, Elena Bergamini, Silvia Fantozzi, Giuseppe Vannozzi
Recent technological developments have led to the production of inexpensive, non-invasive, miniature magneto-inertial sensors, ideal for obtaining sport performance measures during training or competition. This systematic review evaluates current evidence and the future potential of their use in sport performance evaluation. Articles published in English (April 2017) were searched in Web-of-Science, Scopus, Pubmed, and Sport-Discus databases. A keyword search of titles, abstracts and keywords which included studies using accelerometers, gyroscopes and/or magnetometers to analyse sport motor-tasks performed by athletes (excluding risk of injury, physical activity, and energy expenditure) resulted in 2040 papers...
March 15, 2018: Sensors
Thomas A Haugen, Paul A Solberg, Carl Foster, Ricardo Morán-Navarro, Felix Breitschädel, Will G Hopkins
The aim of this study was to quantify peak age and improvements over the preceding years to peak age in elite athletic contestants according to athlete performance level, sex and discipline. Individual season bests for world-ranked top 100 athletes from 2002 to 2016 (14937 athletes and 57049 individual results) were downloaded from the International Association of Athletics Federations' web site. Individual performance trends were generated by fitting a quadratic curve separately to each athlete's performance and age data using a linear modeling procedure...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Armin H Paravlic, Maamer Slimani, David Tod, Uros Marusic, Zoran Milanovic, Rado Pisot
BACKGROUND: Motor imagery (MI), a mental simulation of a movement without overt muscle contraction, has been largely used to improve general motor tasks. However, the effects of MI practice on maximal voluntary strength (MVS) remain equivocal. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this meta-analysis were to (1) estimate whether MI practice intervention can meaningfully improve MVS in healthy adults; (2) compare the effects of MI practice on MVS with its combination with physical practice (MI-C), and with physical practice (PP) training alone; and (3) investigate the dose-response relationships of MI practice...
March 14, 2018: Sports Medicine
Monica Taylor, Elizabeth F Nagle, Fredric L Goss, Elaine N Rubinstein, Andrew Simonson
Monitoring an athlete's energy intake and energy expenditure (EE) is an important consideration of nutritional planning for sport conditioning and peak performance. In order to provide appropriate recommendations regarding nutritional requirements and caloric needs, an accurate determination of energy requirements is necessary. By knowing an individual's EE, a coach, athletic performance staff or trainer can effectively determine training loads and volumes necessary for periodization and seasonal planning for a particular sport...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Xiujie Ma, Wei Sun, An Lu, Pei Ma, Chuanyin Jiang
The aim of this study was to investigate whether both suspension training (ST) and traditional training (TT) can improve Sanda athlete's strength quality of trunk muscles and to explore the effect of suspension training on Sanda athletes' trunk muscle power production. Twelve elite Sanda athletes from the Competitive Sports School of Shanghai University of Sport were randomly assigned to experimental group (EG) and control group (CG). EG and CG were regularly trained with suspension training and traditional strength training for 40 minutes three times per week...
December 2017: Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness
Tristan J Coulter, Clifford J Mallett, Jefferson A Singer
The current study adopted McAdams' multilayer framework as the basis to develop a psychological portrait of an elite athlete who was identified as being particularly 'mentally tough'. The aim was to use this single case as an exemplar to demonstrate the utility of McAdams' framework for understanding the complexity of sport performers across three domains of personality: dispositional traits, characteristic adaptations, and narrative identity. We operationalised these domains through the development of specific research questions and, subsequently, the collection and integration of the participant's Big Five traits, personal strivings, coping strategies, and response to a life story interview...
January 2018: European Journal of Personality
Dayanne S Lima-Borges, Paula F Martinez, Luiz Carlos M Vanderlei, Fernando S S Barbosa, Silvio A Oliveira-Junior
OBJECTIVES: Young athletes' participation in competitive sports is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the occurrence of overtraining and sports injuries. Since these issues are poorly understood, this study analyzed heart rate variability, stress/recovery relationship, and sports injury incidence during a training macrocycle of young sprint and endurance swimmers. METHODS: Thirty teenage swimmers (aged 12 to 17 years) were divided into two groups as follows: Sprint (n=17) and Endurance (n=13)...
March 14, 2018: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Emanuele D'Artibale, Paul B Laursen, John B Cronin
Performance in motorcycle road racing is typically considered as the summation of interactions between rider, motorcycle, tires, and environment. Despite the substantial investments made towards the development of motorcycle technology and the business interests of manufacturers, published research focusing on the riders is relatively sparse, and a bike-centered mentality tends to dominate the sport. This manuscript reviews the known human performance aspects of motorcycle road racing and suggests directions for future research...
March 13, 2018: Sports Medicine
Kristy L Smith, Patricia L Weir, Kevin Till, Michael Romann, Stephen Cobley
BACKGROUND: Subtle differences in chronological age within sport (bi-) annual-age groupings can contribute to immediate participation and long-term attainment discrepancies; known as the relative age effect. Voluminous studies have examined relative age effects in male sport; however, their prevalence and context-specific magnitude in female sport remain undetermined. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and magnitude of relative age effects in female sport via examination of published data spanning 1984-2016...
March 13, 2018: Sports Medicine
Mareike Roell, Kai Roecker, Dominic Gehring, Hubert Mahler, Albert Gollhofer
The increasing interest in assessing physical demands in team sports has led to the development of multiple sports related monitoring systems. Due to technical limitations, these systems primarily could be applied to outdoor sports, whereas an equivalent indoor locomotion analysis is not established yet. Technological development of inertial measurement units (IMU) broadens the possibilities for player monitoring and enables the quantification of locomotor movements in indoor environments. The aim of the current study was to validate an IMU measuring by determining average and peak human acceleration under indoor conditions in team sport specific movements...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Pedro B Junior, Vitor L de Andrade, Eduardo Z Campos, Carlos A Kalva-Filho, Alessandro M Zagatto, Gustavo G de Araújo, Marcelo Papoti
Due to the controversy about the sensitive of lactate minimum intensity (LMI) to training and the need to develop other tool for aerobic fitness evaluation, the purpose of this study was to analyze the sensitivity of glucose minimum intensity (GMI) and LMI to endurance training. Eight trained male cyclists (21.4 ± 1.9 years, 67.6 ± 7.5 kg and 1.72 ± 0.10 m) were evaluated twice, before and after 12 weeks of training. GMI and LMI were calculated, respectively, by the lowest blood glucose and lactate values attained during an incremental test performed after a hyperlactemia induction, and VO2 max was determined during standard incremental effort...
March 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Christopher A Abeare, Isabelle Messa, Brandon G Zuccato, Bradley Merker, Laszlo Erdodi
Importance: Estimated base rates of invalid performance on baseline testing (base rates of failure) for the management of sport-related concussion range from 6.1% to 40.0%, depending on the validity indicator used. The instability of this key measure represents a challenge in the clinical interpretation of test results that could undermine the utility of baseline testing. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of invalid performance on baseline testing and to assess whether the prevalence varies as a function of age and validity indicator...
March 12, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Roger L Hammer, Joshua T Linton, Adam M Hammer
The purpose of this investigation was to determine maximal strength and jump performance outcomes of heavy squat training on a low-amplitude (<1.0 mm peak-to-peak) vibration platform (VP). Nineteen recreationally resistance-trained college-aged men (22.3 ± 1.66 years) completed the 6-week study. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: SQT (n = 10) performed conventional back squats on the floor; SQTV (n = 9) performed back squats on the VP. Supervised training took place over 12 sessions (2 days/week) which utilized an aggressive strength development protocol (85-95 % 1-RM), which was identically followed by both groups...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Renee Zahnow, Jim McVeigh, Geoff Bates, Vivian Hope, Joseph Kean, John Campbell, Josie Smith
BACKGROUND: Despite recognition that the Anabolic Androgenic Steroid (AAS) using population is diverse, empirical studies to develop theories to conceptualise this variance in use have been limited. METHODS: In this study, using cluster analysis and multinomial logistic regression, we identify typologies of people who use AAS and examine variations in motivations for AAS use across types in a sample of 611 men who use AAS. RESULTS: The cluster analysis identified four groups in the data with different risk profiles...
March 8, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Thijs Devriendt, Davit Chokoshvili, Maddalena Favaretto, Pascal Borry
The Athlete's Biological Passport (ABP) refers to the collection of data related to an individual athlete. The ABP contains the Haematological Module and the Steroidal Module, which are used for the longitudinal monitoring of variables in blood and urine respectively. Based on changes in these variables, a statistical model detects outliers which indicate doping use and guide further targeted testing of the athlete. Presently, athletes can access their data of the Haematological Module in ADAMS. However, granting athletes access to this data has been a matter of debate within the anti-doping community...
March 10, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Julianne D Schmidt, Katherine Rizzone, Nicole L Hoffman, Michelle L Weber, Courtney Jones, Jeff Bazarian, Steven P Broglio, Michael McCrea, Thomas W McAllister
BACKGROUND: Individuals who sustain their first concussion during childhood may be at greater risk of sustaining multiple concussions throughout their lifetime because of a longer window of vulnerability. This article aims to estimate the association between age at first concussion and number of subsequent concussions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 23,582 collegiate athletes from 26 universities and military cadets from three military academies completed a concussion history questionnaire (65% males, age 19...
January 31, 2018: Pediatric Neurology
Andreas Liefeith, John Kiely, Dave Collins, Jim Richards
Perhaps as a consequence of increased specialism in training and support, the focus on engendering and maintaining agility as a generic quality has diminished within many contemporary sports performance programmes. Reflecting this, we outline a rationale suggesting that such a decreased focus represents an oversight which may be detrimental to maximising the potential of performers. We present an evidence-based argument that both generic and specific elements of agility performance should be consistently emphasised within long-term performance-training programmes...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Gareth Roderique-Davies, Robert M Heirene, Stephen Mellalieu, David A Shearer
Conceptual similarities have been identified between experiences of extreme sports athletes and those with drug and behavioral addictions. Evidence suggests rock climbers experience craving and other withdrawal-like states when abstinent from their sport. However, no studies have attempted to quantitatively measure the craving experienced by participants of any extreme sports. Such a measure could allow a greater understanding of the craving experienced by extreme sports athletes and a comparison of these across sports (e...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Arne Güllich
Elite track and field athletes with greater and lesser multi-year performance improvement were compared regarding their developmental sport-specific and non-specific, organised (coach-led) and non-organised (peer-led) sporting activities. Athlete pairs were matched on gender, discipline and baseline performance in competitions (at 13/19 years). Their unequal subsequent performance development during junior (13-17 years; n = 138) and senior (19-23+ years; n = 80) age ranges defined "strong responders" and "weak responders"...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Ryan N Moran, Tracey Covassin, R J Elbin, Dan Gould, Sally Nogle
BACKGROUND: The Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) measure is a newly developed vestibular and ocular motor symptom provocation screening tool for sport-related concussions. Baseline data, psychometric properties, and reliability of the VOMS are needed to further understand the applications of this tool, especially in the youth population, where research is scarce. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to establish normative data and document the internal consistency and false-positive rate of the VOMS in a sample of nonconcussed youth athletes...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
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