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Complex Partial Seizure

Chuanzhong Ye, Megan Ninneman, Judd S Christian, Fanglin Zhang, Dominique Musselman
Venlafaxine is a selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor commonly used for the treatment of depression. Although listed as an adverse reaction, seizure activity associated with a therapeutic dose of venlafaxine has rarely been documented. A review of the literature reveals only 2 cases of venlafaxine-induced seizures, both of which were generalized tonic-clonic seizures in patients on doses at the higher end of the therapeutic range. We report the case of a 44-year-old woman undergoing antituberculosis therapy who suffered complex partial seizures after ingestion of a low therapeutic dose of venlafaxine extended release (ER)...
March 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
Marlena Hupalo, Rafal Wojcik, Dariusz J Jaskolski
BACKGROUND: Results of DBS of ATN in refractory epilepsy depend on accuracy of the electrode's location. We searched for characteristic intraoperative, intracerebral EEG recording pattern from anterior thalamic nuclei (ATNs) as a biological marker for verifying the electrode's position. METHODS: There were six patients with refractory epilepsy scheduled for deep brain stimulation (DBS) procedure. At surgery, to map the target, we recorded EEG from each lead of DBS electrodes...
February 6, 2018: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
Christian E Elger, Christian Hoppe
Epileptic seizures vary greatly in clinical phenomenology and can markedly affect the patient's quality of life. As therapeutic interventions focus on reduction or elimination of seizures, the accurate documentation of seizure occurrence is essential. However, patient self-evaluation compared with objective evaluation by video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring or long-term ambulatory EEG revealed that patients document fewer than 50% of their seizures, on average, and that documentation accuracy varies significantly over time...
March 2018: Lancet Neurology
Neha Singh, Sheekha Vijayanti, Lekha Saha
Epilepsy is a complex, chronic neurological disorder characterized by increased and abnormal synchronization of neuronal electrical activity, which is manifested as seizures. It is associated with many comorbid conditions such as depression, anxiety, sleep disorder, psychiatric disorder etc. which consequently causes higher mortality rate. The understanding of its cellular and molecular mechanism is partial, because of which it remains an ongoing health problem, despite the increasing availability of newer antiepileptic drugs...
February 15, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Thomas J Cusack, J Ricardo Carhuapoma, Wendy C Ziai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Spontaneous intraparenchymal hemorrhage (IPH) is a prominent challenge faced globally by neurosurgeons, neurologists, and intensivists. Over the past few decades, basic and clinical research efforts have been undertaken with the goal of delineating biologically and evidence-based practices aimed at decreasing mortality and optimizing the likelihood of meaningful functional outcome for patients afflicted with this devastating condition. Here, the authors review the medical and surgical approaches available for the treatment of spontaneous intraparenchymal hemorrhage, identifying areas of recent progress and ongoing research to delineate the scope and scale of IPH as it is currently understood and treated...
February 3, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Jason R Fredriksen, Carrie M Carr, Kelly K Koeller, Jared T Verdoorn, Avi Gadoth, Sean J Pittock, Amy L Kotsenas
PURPOSE: Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) has been implicated in a number of autoimmune-associated neurologic syndromes, including autoimmune epilepsy. This study categorizes the spectrum of MRI findings in patients with a clinical diagnosis of autoimmune epilepsy and elevated serum GAD65 autoantibodies. METHODS: An institutional database search identified patients with elevated serum GAD65 antibodies and a clinical diagnosis of autoimmune epilepsy who had undergone brain MRI...
March 2018: Neuroradiology
Uma Sundar, Sonal Thakur Honrao, Nilesh Shah
Background: The co-existence of psychiatric co-morbidities with Epilepsy in women is multifactorial and complex, being closely related to hormonal status, medication side effects, and psychosocial factors. Aims: We aimed to study associated Psychiatric co-morbidities in women with Epilepsy (WWE), and correlate the same with seizure subtype and medication , compliance with treatment and seizure control. Material and Methods: This was a prospective, interview based study in OPD over 18 months, evaluating WWE over 13 years of age with at least 1 seizure in the last 1 year...
December 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Jelena Bosnjak, Silva Soldo Butkovic, Snjezana Miskov, Lejla Coric, Ana Jadrijevic-Tomas, Vlatka Mejaski-Bosnjak
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to describe types of epileptic seizures in patients with pineal gland cyst (PGC) and their outcome during follow up period (6-10 years). We wanted to determine whether patients with epilepsy differ in PGC volume and compression of the PGC on surrounding brain structures compared to patients with PGC, without epilepsy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed prospectivelly 92 patients with PGC detected on magnetic resonance (MR) of the brain due to various neurological symptoms during the period 2006-2010...
February 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Rod Foroozan
Vigabatrin was introduced as an antiseizure medication in the United Kingdom in 1989 and was extensively used until 1997 when concerns arose regarding peripheral visual field loss. When the drug was approved in the United States in 2009, it carried a black box warning for the risk of permanent visual loss, and the pharmaceutical company was mandated to create a drug registry to assess for visual deficits. The vigabatrin drug registry has documented a relatively large percentage (37%) of preexisting, baseline visual deficits and a paucity (2%) of potential new visual findings...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Tiina Alapirtti, Kai Lehtimäki, Riina Nieminen, Riikka Mäkinen, Jani Raitanen, Eeva Moilanen, Jussi Mäkinen, Jukka Peltola
Experimental and clinical reports highlight the role of cytokines in pathophysiological processes in underpinning epilepsy, but the clinical data remains somewhat limited. The levels of Interleukin (IL)-6 were measured in serum from 49 patients with refractory epilepsy [temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, n=23), extratemporal lobe epilepsy (XLE, n=22), and idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE, n=4)] before and after the first verified seizure (IS; index seizure) during inpatient video-electroencephalographic (VEEG) monitoring...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Sarah J Nevitt, Maria Sudell, Jennifer Weston, Catrin Tudur Smith, Anthony G Marson
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common neurological condition with a worldwide prevalence of around 1%. Approximately 60% to 70% of people with epilepsy will achieve a longer-term remission from seizures, and most achieve that remission shortly after starting antiepileptic drug treatment. Most people with epilepsy are treated with a single antiepileptic drug (monotherapy) and current guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the United Kingdom for adults and children recommend carbamazepine or lamotrigine as first-line treatment for partial onset seizures and sodium valproate for generalised onset seizures; however a range of other antiepileptic drug (AED) treatments are available, and evidence is needed regarding their comparative effectiveness in order to inform treatment choices...
December 15, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Robynne George, Alex Langford
An 82-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department following bizarre behaviour. Police had noticed him driving erratically through his village. He did not stop when instructed, drove slowly home and appeared 'vacant' on questioning. While in hospital, he had approximately 15 episodes of catatonia, involving rigidity, negativism, mutism except echolalia and perseveration, automatic obedience and utilisation phenomena, lasting 2-20 min each. Between episodes, he was amnestic but otherwise well. Electroencephalography demonstrated bifrontal slowing with left-sided emphasis, and captured two focal onset partial seizures with the clinical correlate of the syndrome described above...
December 13, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
Ebtesam Abdalla, Ahmed El-Beheiry, Klaus Dieterich, Julien Thevenon, Julien Fauré, John Rendu
Lowe syndrome (LS) is a very rare disorder of phosphatidylinositol metabolism, which manifests with a complex phenotype comprising a clinical triad encompassing major abnormalities of the eyes, the kidneys, and the central nervous system. We are reporting a 23-year-old Egyptian male with a severe phenotype of LS with a minimal kidney disease. Direct sequencing of the OCRL gene detected a p.His375Arg mutation in the catalytic domain of the protein. The patient suffered from bilateral congenital cataracts and glaucoma, striking growth deficiency, severe psychomotor disability, a severe osteopathy, and seizures, but only minimal renal dysfunction...
February 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Shahd H M Hamid, Dan Whittam, Mariyam Saviour, Amal Alorainy, Kerry Mutch, Samantha Linaker, Tom Solomon, Maneesh Bhojak, Mark Woodhall, Patrick Waters, Richard Appleton, Martin Duddy, Anu Jacob
Importance: Antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein IgG (MOG-IgG) are increasingly detected in patients with non-multiple sclerosis-related demyelination, some of whom manifest a neuromyelitis optica (NMO) phenotype. Cortical involvement, encephalopathy, and seizures are rare in aquaporin 4 antibody (AQP4-IgG)-related NMO in the white European population. However, the authors encountered several patients with seizures associated with MOG-IgG disease. Objective: To compare incidence of seizures and encephalitis-like presentation, or both between AQP4-IgG-positive and MOG-IgG-positive patients...
November 13, 2017: JAMA Neurology
Thi Tuyet Mai Nguyen, Yoshiko Murakami, Eamonn Sheridan, Sophie Ehresmann, Justine Rousseau, Anik St-Denis, Guoliang Chai, Norbert F Ajeawung, Laura Fairbrother, Tyler Reimschisel, Alexandra Bateman, Elizabeth Berry-Kravis, Fan Xia, Jessica Tardif, David A Parry, Clare V Logan, Christine Diggle, Christopher P Bennett, Louise Hattingh, Jill A Rosenfeld, Michael Scott Perry, Michael J Parker, Françoise Le Deist, Maha S Zaki, Erika Ignatius, Pirjo Isohanni, Tuula Lönnqvist, Christopher J Carroll, Colin A Johnson, Joseph G Gleeson, Taroh Kinoshita, Philippe M Campeau
Approximately one in every 200 mammalian proteins is anchored to the cell membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. These proteins play important roles notably in neurological development and function. To date, more than 20 genes have been implicated in the biogenesis of GPI-anchored proteins. GPAA1 (glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor attachment 1) is an essential component of the transamidase complex along with PIGK, PIGS, PIGT, and PIGU (phosphatidylinositol-glycan biosynthesis classes K, S, T, and U, respectively)...
November 2, 2017: American Journal of Human Genetics
Anna R Tröscher, Andrea Klang, Maria French, Lucía Quemada-Garrido, Sibylle Maria Kneissl, Christian G Bien, Ákos Pákozdy, Jan Bauer
Human leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 encephalitis (LGI1) is an autoimmune limbic encephalitis in which serum and cerebrospinal fluid contain antibodies targeting LGI1, a protein of the voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex. Recently, we showed that a feline model of limbic encephalitis with LGI1 antibodies, called feline complex partial seizures with orofacial involvement (FEPSO), is highly comparable to human LGI1 encephalitis. In human LGI1 encephalitis, neuropathological investigations are difficult because very little material is available...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Yu Kitazawa, Kazutaka Jin, Masaki Iwasaki, Hiroyoshi Suzuki, Fumiaki Tanaka, Nobukazu Nakasato
A 26-year-old right-handed woman, with a history of left temporal lobe contusion caused by a fall at the age of 9 months, started to have complex partial seizures with oral automatism at the age of 7 years. The seizures occurred once or twice a month despite combination therapy with several antiepileptic agents. Her history and imaging studies suggested the diagnosis of epilepsy arising from traumatic neocortical temporal lesion. Comprehensive assessment including long-term video EEG monitoring, MRI, FDG-PET, MEG, and neuropsychological evaluation was performed at the age of 26 years...
November 25, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Peng-Fei Qiao, Guang-Ming Niu
OBJECTIVE: To detect resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) changes and their relationships with the clinical curative effect of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) for complex partial seizures (CPS) in epilepsy patients using the fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (fALFF). METHODS: rfMRI data from 14 CPS patients enrolled between June 2015 and June 2016 in Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University were retrospectively investigated and compared with findings from 14 healthy age-, gender-, handedness-, and education-matched subjects...
October 2017: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
Z J Duan, K Yao, J Zhou, L Li, F Zhai, C Q Liu, Z Ma, Y Bian, G M Luan, X L Qi
Objective: To investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics of intractable epilepsy. Methods: Based on the classification criteria proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE), a retrospective analysis of the pathological characteristics was done in 822 patients who underwent epilepsy surgery in Sanbo Brain Hospital, Capital Medical University, from June 2008 to December 2012. Results: The mean age of epilepsy onset was 9.9 years, mean duration of epilepsy was 11.9 years. Complex partial seizures were the main presenting features...
October 8, 2017: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
João Paulo Sant Ana Santos de Souza, Jeff Mullin, Connor Wathen, Juan Bulacio, Patrick Chauvel, Lara Jehi, Jorge Gonzalez-Martinez
The authors report a case of 18-year-old woman with partial complex seizures compatible with temporal epilepsy by semiology. Due to medical refractoriness, she was referred to pre-surgical evaluation. Initially, MRI showed no significant structural abnormality and superficial scalp EEG demonstrated epileptiform activity in the frontotemporal areas. Due to the lack of clear MRI abnormalities and the potential involvement of dominant mesial temporal structures by seizure semiology and non-invasive data, extra-operative invasive evaluation using stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) methodology was indicated...
October 16, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
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