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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348510/genome-and-secretome-analysis-of-pochonia-chlamydosporia-provide-new-insight-into-egg-parasitic-mechanisms
#1
Runmao Lin, Feifei Qin, Baoming Shen, Qianqian Shi, Chichuan Liu, Xi Zhang, Yang Jiao, Jun Lu, Yaoyao Gao, Marta Suarez-Fernandez, Federico Lopez-Moya, Luis Vicente Lopez-Llorca, Gang Wang, Zhenchuan Mao, Jian Ling, Yuhong Yang, Xinyue Cheng, Bingyan Xie
Pochonia chlamydosporia infects eggs and females of economically important plant-parasitic nematodes. The fungal isolates parasitizing different nematodes are genetically distinct. To understand their intraspecific genetic differentiation, parasitic mechanisms, and adaptive evolution, we assembled seven putative chromosomes of P. chlamydosporia strain 170 isolated from root-knot nematode eggs (~44 Mb, including 7.19% of transposable elements) and compared them with the genome of the strain 123 (~41 Mb) isolated from cereal cyst nematode...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234472/herpetopanone-a-diterpene-from-herpetosiphon-aurantiacus-discovered-by-isotope-labeling
#2
Xinli Pan, Nicole Domin, Sebastian Schieferdecker, Hirokazu Kage, Martin Roth, Markus Nett
The genome of the predatory bacterium Herpetosiphon aurantiacus 114-95T harbors a number of biosynthesis genes, including four terpene cyclase genes. To identify the terpenes biosynthesized from H. aurantiacus 114-95T, we fed the strain with 13C-labeled glucose and, subsequently, searched for characteristic mass shifts in its metabolome. This approach led to the discovery of a new natural product, of which the isotope pattern is indicative for a diterpene originating from the methylerythritol phosphate pathway...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207267/evolution-new-gene-rich-mitochondria-found-across-the-eukaryotic-tree
#3
Celine Petitjean, Tom A Williams
Mitochondria are the energy-generating organelles that power eukaryotic cells. Originally descended from endosymbiotic bacteria, their genomes have shrunk during evolution. New analyses suggest that large, gene-rich mitochondrial genomes are more common than previously thought, with interesting implications for eukaryotic genome evolution.
December 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184566/selection-signatures-in-the-first-exon-of-paralogous-receptor-kinase-genes-from-the-sym2-region-of-the-pisum-sativum-l-genome
#4
Anton S Sulima, Vladimir A Zhukov, Alexey A Afonin, Aleksandr I Zhernakov, Igor A Tikhonovich, Ludmila A Lutova
During the initial step of the symbiosis between legumes (Fabaceae) and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia), the bacterial signal molecule known as the Nod factor (nodulation factor) is recognized by plant LysM motif-containing receptor-like kinases (LysM-RLKs). The fifth chromosome of barrel medic (Medicago truncatula Gaertn.) contains a cluster of paralogous LysM-RLK genes, one of which is known to participate in symbiosis. In the syntenic region of the pea (Pisum sativum L.) genome, three genes have been identified: PsK1 and PsSym37, two symbiosis-related LysM-RLK genes with known sequences, and the unsequenced PsSym2 gene which presumably encodes a LysM-RLK and is associated with increased selectivity to certain Nod factors...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164655/role-of-two-5-aminolevulinic-acid-biosynthetic-pathways-in-heme-and-secondary-metabolite-biosynthesis-in-amycolatopsis-orientalis
#5
Li Zhu, Xiuping Qian, Daijie Chen, Mei Ge
Analysis of the Amycolatopsis orientalis genome revealed that two genes, hemA1 and hemA2, belonging to divergent pathways, were involved in the biosynthesis of 5-aminolevulinic acid. The roles of hemA1 and hemA2 were elucidated via genetic manipulation and metabolite analysis. The disruption of hemA1, encoding the glutamyl-tRNA(Glu) reductase of the C5 pathway, was essential for cell growth and is used for heme synthesis. Overexpression of hemA1 resulted in elevated vancomycin and ECO-0501 production in Amycolatopsis orientalis, and it was also effective in increasing the production of daptomycin and natamycin in other Streptomycetes...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160202/re-classification-of-clavibacter-michiganensis-subspecies-on-the-basis-of-whole-genome-and-multi-locus-sequence-analyses
#6
Xiang Li, James Tambong, Kat Xiaoli Yuan, Wen Chen, Huimin Xu, C André Lévesque, Solke H De Boer
Although the genus Clavibacter was originally proposed to accommodate all phytopathogenic coryneform bacteria containing B2γ diaminobutyrate in the peptidoglycan, reclassification of all but one species into other genera has resulted in the current monospecific status of the genus. The single species in the genus, Clavibacter michiganensis, has multiple subspecies, which are all highly host-specific plant pathogens. Whole genome analysis based on average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization as well as multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) of seven housekeeping genes support raising each of the C...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150506/the-swinholide-biosynthetic-gene-cluster-from-a-terrestrial-cyanobacterium-nostoc-sp-uhcc-0450
#7
Anu Humisto, Jouni Jokela, Liwei Liu, Matti Wahlsten, Hao Wang, Perttu Permi, João Paulo Machado, Agostinho Antunes, David P Fewer, Kaarina Sivonen
Swinholides are 42-carbon ring polyketides with a twofold axis of symmetry. They are potent cytotoxins that disrupt the actin cytoskeleton. Swinholides were discovered from the marine sponge Theonella sp. and were long-suspected to be produced by symbiotic bacteria. Misakinolide, a structural variant of swinholide, was recently demonstrated to be the product of the symbiotic heterotrophic proteobacterium. Here we report the production of swinholide A by an axenic strain of the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc sp...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145870/bacillus-anthracis-gamma-phage-lysis-among-soil-bacteria-an-update-on-test-specificity
#8
Cari B Kolton, Nicole L Podnecky, Sean V Shadomy, Jay E Gee, Alex R Hoffmaster
BACKGROUND: Bacillus anthracis, which causes anthrax in humans and animals, is enzootic in parts of the U.S. state of Texas where cases are typically reported in animals annually. The gamma phage lysis assay is a common diagnostic method for identification of B. anthracis and is based on the bacterium's susceptibility to lysis. This test has been shown to be 97% specific for B. anthracis, as a small number of strains of other Bacillus spp. are known to be susceptible. In this study, we evaluated the performance of a combination of B...
November 16, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125457/emended-description-of-the-genus-phytobacter-its-type-species-phytobacter-diazotrophicus-zhang-2008-and-description-of-phytobacter-ursingii-sp-nov
#9
Marcelo Pillonetto, Lavinia N Arend, Helisson Faoro, Helena R S D'Espindula, Jochen Blom, Theo H M Smits, Marcelo T Mira, Fabio Rezzonico
The species Phytobacter diazotrophicus and the associated genus Phytobacter were originally described by Zhanget al. [Arch Microbiol189 (2008), 431-439] on the basis of few endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) in China. In this study, we demonstrate that a number of clinical isolates that were either described in the literature, preserved in culture collections, or obtained during a 2013 multi-state sepsis outbreak in Brazil also belong to the same genus. 16S rRNA gene sequencing, multilocus sequence analysis based on gyrB, rpoB, atpD and infB genes, as well as digital DNA-DNA hybridization support the existence of a second species within the genus Phytobacter...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018120/an-engineered-synthetic-pathway-for-discovering-nonnatural-nonribosomal-peptides-in-escherichia%C3%A2-coli
#10
Sara Cleto, Timothy K Lu
Peptides that are synthesized independently of the ribosome in plants, fungi, and bacteria can have clinically relevant anticancer, antihemochromatosis, and antiviral activities, among many other. Despite their natural origin, discovering new natural products is challenging, and there is a need to expand the chemical diversity that is accessible. In this work, we created a novel, compressed synthetic pathway for the heterologous expression and diversification of nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) based on homologs of siderophore pathways from Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae To enhance the likelihood of successful molecule production, we established a selective pressure via the iron-chelating properties of siderophores...
October 10, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017001/single-pixel-densitometry-revealed-the-presence-of-peptidoglycan-in-the-intermembrane-space-of-moss-chloroplast-envelope-in-conventional-electron-micrographs
#11
Naoki Sato, Masakazu Toyoshima, Naoyuki Tajima, Katsuaki Takechi, Hiroyoshi Takano
Chloroplasts are believed to be descendants of ancestral cyanobacteria that have peptidoglycan layer between the outer and the inner membranes. In particular, cyanelles having peptidoglycan in Cyanophora paradoxa are considered as evidence for the endosymbiotic origin of chloroplasts. The moss Physcomitrella patens has a complete set of genes involved in the synthesis of peptidoglycan, but peptidoglycan layer has not been observed by conventional electron microscopy until now. Recently, a new metabolic labeling technique using a fluorescent probe was applied to visualize putative peptidoglycan surrounding the chloroplasts...
August 9, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016798/broad-phylogenetic-occurrence-of-the-oxygen-binding-hemerythrins-in-bilaterians
#12
Elisa M Costa-Paiva, Carlos G Schrago, Kenneth M Halanych
Animal tissues need to be properly oxygenated for carrying out catabolic respiration and, as such, natural selection has presumably favored special molecules that can reversibly bind and transport oxygen. Hemoglobins, hemocyanins, and hemerythrins (Hrs) fulfill this role, with Hrs being the least studied. Knowledge of oxygen-binding proteins is crucial for understanding animal physiology. Hr genes are present in the three domains of life, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota; however, within Animalia, Hrs has been reported only in marine species in six phyla (Annelida, Brachiopoda, Priapulida, Bryozoa, Cnidaria, and Arthropoda)...
October 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978684/comparative-phenotypic-and-genotypic-analysis-of-edwardsiella-spp-isolates-from-different-hosts-and-geographic-origins-with-an-emphasis-on-isolates-formerly-classified-as-e-tarda-and-an-evaluation-of-diagnostic-methods
#13
Stephen R Reichley, Cynthia Ware, James Steadman, Patricia S Gaunt, Julio C García, Benjamin R LaFrentz, Anil Thachil, Geoffrey C Waldbieser, Cynthia B Stine, Cova R Arias, Thomas Loch, Timothy J Welch, Rocco C Cipriano, Terrence E Greenway, Lester H Khoo, David J Wise, Mark L Lawrence, Matt J Griffin
Edwardsiella spp. are responsible for significant losses in important wild and cultured fish species worldwide. Recent phylogenomic investigations have determined bacteria historically classified as E. tarda actually represent three genetically distinct, yet phenotypically ambiguous taxa with varying degrees of pathogenicity in different hosts. Previous recognition of these taxa was hampered by the lack of a distinguishing phenotypic character. Commercial test panel configurations are relatively constant over time, and as new species are defined, appropriate discriminatory tests may not be present in current test panel arrangements...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959736/comparative-analysis-of-bacterial-community-composition-and-structure-in-clinically-symptomatic-and-asymptomatic-central-venous-catheters
#14
Franziska A Stressmann, Elodie Couve-Deacon, Delphine Chainier, Ashwini Chauhan, Aimee Wessel, Sylvaine Durand-Fontanier, Marie-Christine Escande, Irène Kriegel, Bruno Francois, Marie-Cécile Ploy, Christophe Beloin, Jean-Marc Ghigo
Totally implanted venous access ports (TIVAPs) are commonly used catheters for the management of acute or chronic pathologies. Although these devices improve health care, repeated use of this type of device for venous access over long periods of time is also associated with risk of colonization and infection by pathogenic bacteria, often originating from skin. However, although the skin microbiota is composed of both pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria, the extent and the consequences of TIVAP colonization by nonpathogenic bacteria have rarely been studied...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949542/hospital-wastewater-releases-of-carbapenem-resistance-pathogens-and-genes-in-urban-india
#15
Manisha Lamba, David W Graham, S Z Ahammad
Increasing antibiotic resistant hospital-acquired infections and limited new antibiotic discovery are jeopardizing human health at global scales, although how hospitals themselves fuel antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the wider environment is largely unknown. Antibiotic resistance (AR) in hospitals in countries such as India is potentially problematic because of high antibiotic use, overcrowding, and inadequate wastewater containment. Here we quantified fecal coliforms (FC), carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), blaNDM-1, and selected extended-spectrum β-lactam (ESBL) resistant bacteria and genes in 12 hospital wastewater outfalls and five background sewer drains across New Delhi over two seasons...
October 4, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936425/gut-dysbiosis-in-animals-due-to-environmental-chemical-exposures
#16
REVIEW
Cheryl S Rosenfeld
The gut microbiome consists of over 10(3)-10(4) microorganism inhabitants that together possess 150 times more genes that the human genome and thus should be considered an "organ" in of itself. Such communities of bacteria are in dynamic flux and susceptible to changes in host environment and body condition. In turn, gut microbiome disturbances can affect health status of the host. Gut dysbiosis might result in obesity, diabetes, gastrointestinal, immunological, and neurobehavioral disorders. Such host diseases can originate due to shifts in microbiota favoring more pathogenic species that produce various virulence factors, such as lipopolysaccharide...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933529/simultaneous-production-of-anabaenopeptins-and-namalides-by-the-cyanobacterium-nostoc-sp-cena543
#17
Tânia K Shishido, Jouni Jokela, David P Fewer, Matti Wahlsten, Marli F Fiore, Kaarina Sivonen
Anabaenopeptins are a diverse group of cyclic peptides, which contain an unusual ureido linkage. Namalides are shorter structural homologues of anabaenopeptins, which also contain an ureido linkage. The biosynthetic origins of namalides are unknown despite a strong resemblance to anabaenopeptins. Here, we show the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. CENA543 strain producing new (nostamide B-E (2, 4, 5, and 6)) and known variants of anabaenopeptins (schizopeptin 791 (1) and anabaenopeptin 807 (3)). Surprisingly, Nostoc sp...
November 17, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932816/a-quorum-sensing-system-that-regulates-streptococcus-pneumoniae-biofilm-formation-and-surface-polysaccharide-production
#18
Roger Junges, Gabriela Salvadori, Sudhanshu Shekhar, Heidi A Åmdal, Jimstan N Periselneris, Tsute Chen, Jeremy S Brown, Fernanda C Petersen
Despite vaccines, Streptococcus pneumoniae kills more than a million people yearly. Thus, understanding how pneumococci transition from commensals to pathogens is particularly relevant. Quorum sensing regulates collective behaviors and thus represents a potential driver of commensal-to-pathogen transitions. Rgg/small hydrophobic peptide (SHP) quorum-sensing systems are widespread in streptococci, yet they remain largely uncharacterized in S. pneumoniae. Using directional transcriptome sequencing, we show that the S...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918154/hot-topic-geographical-distribution-and-strain-diversity-of-lactobacillus-wasatchensis-isolated-from-cheese-with-unwanted-gas-formation
#19
Michele Culumber, Donald J McMahon, Fatih Ortakci, Lauren Montierth, Beatriz Villalba, Jeffery R Broadbent, Craig J Oberg
Lactobacillus wasatchensis, an obligate heterofermentative nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) implicated in causing gas defects in aged cheeses, was originally isolated from an aged Cheddar produced in Logan, Utah. To determine the geographical distribution of this organism, we isolated slow-growing NSLAB from cheeses collected in different regions of the United States, Australia, New Zealand, and Ireland. Seven of the cheeses showed significant gas defects and 12 did not. Nonstarter lactic acid bacteria were isolated from these cheeses on de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe medium supplemented with ribose, a preferred substrate for Lb...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871340/phza-the-shunt-switch-of-phenazine-1-6-dicarboxylic-acid-biosynthesis-in-pseudomonas-chlororaphis-ht66
#20
Shuqi Guo, Yining Wang, Bona Dai, Wei Wang, Hongbo Hu, Xianqing Huang, Xuehong Zhang
Natural phenazines are versatile secondary metabolites that are mainly produced by Pseudomonas and Streptomyces. All phenazine-type metabolites originate from two precursors: phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) in Pseudomonas or phenazine-1,6-dicarboxylic acid (PDC) in Streptomyces and other bacteria. Although the biosynthesis of PCA in Pseudomonas has been extensively studied, the origin of PDC still remains unclear. Comparing the phenazine biosynthesis operons of different species, we found that the phzA gene was restricted to Pseudomonas in which PCA is produced...
October 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
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