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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150506/the-swinholide-biosynthetic-gene-cluster-from-a-terrestrial-cyanobacterium-nostoc-sp-uhcc-0450
#1
Anu Humisto, Jouni Jokela, Liwei Liu, Matti Wahlsten, Hao Wang, Perttu Permi, João Paulo Machado, Agostinho Antunes, David P Fewer, Kaarina Sivonen
Swinholides are 42-carbon ring polyketides with a twofold axis of symmetry. They are potent cytotoxins that disrupt the actin cytoskeleton. Swinholides were discovered from the marine sponge Theonella sp. and were long-suspected to be produced by symbiotic bacteria. Misakinolide, a structural variant of swinholide, was recently demonstrated to be the product of the symbiotic heterotrophic proteobacterium. Here we report the production of swinholide A by an axenic strain of the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc sp...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145870/bacillus-anthracis-gamma-phage-lysis-among-soil-bacteria-an-update-on-test-specificity
#2
Cari B Kolton, Nicole L Podnecky, Sean V Shadomy, Jay E Gee, Alex R Hoffmaster
BACKGROUND: Bacillus anthracis, which causes anthrax in humans and animals, is enzootic in parts of the U.S. state of Texas where cases are typically reported in animals annually. The gamma phage lysis assay is a common diagnostic method for identification of B. anthracis and is based on the bacterium's susceptibility to lysis. This test has been shown to be 97% specific for B. anthracis, as a small number of strains of other Bacillus spp. are known to be susceptible. In this study, we evaluated the performance of a combination of B...
November 16, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125457/emended-description-of-the-genus-phytobacter-its-type-species-phytobacter-diazotrophicus-zhang-2008-and-description-of-phytobacter-ursingii-sp-nov
#3
Marcelo Pillonetto, Lavinia N Arend, Helisson Faoro, Helena R S D'Espindula, Jochen Blom, Theo H M Smits, Marcelo T Mira, Fabio Rezzonico
The species Phytobacter diazotrophicus and the associated genus Phytobacter were originally described by Zhanget al. [Arch Microbiol189 (2008), 431-439] on the basis of few endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) in China. In this study, we demonstrate that a number of clinical isolates that were either described in the literature, preserved in culture collections, or obtained during a 2013 multi-state sepsis outbreak in Brazil also belong to the same genus. 16S rRNA gene sequencing, multilocus sequence analysis based on gyrB, rpoB, atpD and infB genes, as well as digital DNA-DNA hybridization support the existence of a second species within the genus Phytobacter...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018120/an-engineered-synthetic-pathway-for-discovering-nonnatural-nonribosomal-peptides-in-escherichia%C3%A2-coli
#4
Sara Cleto, Timothy K Lu
Peptides that are synthesized independently of the ribosome in plants, fungi, and bacteria can have clinically relevant anticancer, antihemochromatosis, and antiviral activities, among many other. Despite their natural origin, discovering new natural products is challenging, and there is a need to expand the chemical diversity that is accessible. In this work, we created a novel, compressed synthetic pathway for the heterologous expression and diversification of nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) based on homologs of siderophore pathways from Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae To enhance the likelihood of successful molecule production, we established a selective pressure via the iron-chelating properties of siderophores...
October 10, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017001/single-pixel-densitometry-revealed-the-presence-of-peptidoglycan-in-the-intermembrane-space-of-moss-chloroplast-envelope-in-conventional-electron-micrographs
#5
Naoki Sato, Masakazu Toyoshima, Naoyuki Tajima, Katsuaki Takechi, Hiroyoshi Takano
Chloroplasts are believed to be descendants of ancestral cyanobacteria that have peptidoglycan layer between the outer and the inner membranes. In particular, cyanelles having peptidoglycan in Cyanophora paradoxa are considered as evidence for the endosymbiotic origin of chloroplasts. The moss Physcomitrella patens has a complete set of genes involved in the synthesis of peptidoglycan, but peptidoglycan layer has not been observed by conventional electron microscopy until now. Recently, a new metabolic labeling technique using a fluorescent probe was applied to visualize putative peptidoglycan surrounding the chloroplasts...
August 9, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016798/broad-phylogenetic-occurrence-of-the-oxygen-binding-hemerythrins-in-bilaterians
#6
Elisa M Costa-Paiva, Carlos G Schrago, Kenneth M Halanych
Animal tissues need to be properly oxygenated for carrying out catabolic respiration and, as such, natural selection has presumably favored special molecules that can reversibly bind and transport oxygen. Hemoglobins, hemocyanins, and hemerythrins (Hrs) fulfill this role, with Hrs being the least studied. Knowledge of oxygen-binding proteins is crucial for understanding animal physiology. Hr genes are present in the three domains of life, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota; however, within Animalia, Hrs has been reported only in marine species in six phyla (Annelida, Brachiopoda, Priapulida, Bryozoa, Cnidaria, and Arthropoda)...
October 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978684/comparative-phenotypic-and-genotypic-analysis-of-edwardsiella-spp-isolates-from-different-hosts-and-geographic-origins-with-an-emphasis-on-isolates-formerly-classified-as-e-tarda-and-an-evaluation-of-diagnostic-methods
#7
Stephen R Reichley, Cynthia Ware, James Steadman, Patricia S Gaunt, Julio C García, Benjamin R LaFrentz, Anil Thachil, Geoffrey C Waldbieser, Cynthia B Stine, Cova R Arias, Thomas Loch, Timothy J Welch, Rocco C Cipriano, Terrence E Greenway, Lester H Khoo, David J Wise, Mark L Lawrence, Matt J Griffin
Edwardsiella spp. are responsible for significant losses in important wild and cultured fish species worldwide. Recent phylogenomic investigations have determined bacteria historically classified as E. tarda actually represent three genetically distinct, yet phenotypically ambiguous taxa with varying degrees of pathogenicity in different hosts. Previous recognition of these taxa was hampered by the lack of a distinguishing phenotypic character. Commercial test panel configurations are relatively constant over time, and as new species are defined, appropriate discriminatory tests may not be present in current test panel arrangements...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959736/comparative-analysis-of-bacterial-community-composition-and-structure-in-clinically-symptomatic-and-asymptomatic-central-venous-catheters
#8
Franziska A Stressmann, Elodie Couve-Deacon, Delphine Chainier, Ashwini Chauhan, Aimee Wessel, Sylvaine Durand-Fontanier, Marie-Christine Escande, Irène Kriegel, Bruno Francois, Marie-Cécile Ploy, Christophe Beloin, Jean-Marc Ghigo
Totally implanted venous access ports (TIVAPs) are commonly used catheters for the management of acute or chronic pathologies. Although these devices improve health care, repeated use of this type of device for venous access over long periods of time is also associated with risk of colonization and infection by pathogenic bacteria, often originating from skin. However, although the skin microbiota is composed of both pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria, the extent and the consequences of TIVAP colonization by nonpathogenic bacteria have rarely been studied...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949542/hospital-wastewater-releases-of-carbapenem-resistance-pathogens-and-genes-in-urban-india
#9
Manisha Lamba, David W Graham, S Z Ahammad
Increasing antibiotic resistant hospital-acquired infections and limited new antibiotic discovery are jeopardizing human health at global scales, although how hospitals themselves fuel antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the wider environment is largely unknown. Antibiotic resistance (AR) in hospitals in countries such as India is potentially problematic because of high antibiotic use, overcrowding, and inadequate wastewater containment. Here we quantified fecal coliforms (FC), carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), blaNDM-1, and selected extended-spectrum β-lactam (ESBL) resistant bacteria and genes in 12 hospital wastewater outfalls and five background sewer drains across New Delhi over two seasons...
October 4, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936425/gut-dysbiosis-in-animals-due-to-environmental-chemical-exposures
#10
REVIEW
Cheryl S Rosenfeld
The gut microbiome consists of over 10(3)-10(4) microorganism inhabitants that together possess 150 times more genes that the human genome and thus should be considered an "organ" in of itself. Such communities of bacteria are in dynamic flux and susceptible to changes in host environment and body condition. In turn, gut microbiome disturbances can affect health status of the host. Gut dysbiosis might result in obesity, diabetes, gastrointestinal, immunological, and neurobehavioral disorders. Such host diseases can originate due to shifts in microbiota favoring more pathogenic species that produce various virulence factors, such as lipopolysaccharide...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933529/simultaneous-production-of-anabaenopeptins-and-namalides-by-the-cyanobacterium-nostoc-sp-cena543
#11
Tânia K Shishido, Jouni Jokela, David P Fewer, Matti Wahlsten, Marli F Fiore, Kaarina Sivonen
Anabaenopeptins are a diverse group of cyclic peptides, which contain an unusual ureido linkage. Namalides are shorter structural homologues of anabaenopeptins, which also contain an ureido linkage. The biosynthetic origins of namalides are unknown despite a strong resemblance to anabaenopeptins. Here, we show the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. CENA543 strain producing new (nostamide B-E (2, 4, 5, and 6)) and known variants of anabaenopeptins (schizopeptin 791 (1) and anabaenopeptin 807 (3)). Surprisingly, Nostoc sp...
November 17, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932816/a-quorum-sensing-system-that-regulates-streptococcus-pneumoniae-biofilm-formation-and-surface-polysaccharide-production
#12
Roger Junges, Gabriela Salvadori, Sudhanshu Shekhar, Heidi A Åmdal, Jimstan N Periselneris, Tsute Chen, Jeremy S Brown, Fernanda C Petersen
Despite vaccines, Streptococcus pneumoniae kills more than a million people yearly. Thus, understanding how pneumococci transition from commensals to pathogens is particularly relevant. Quorum sensing regulates collective behaviors and thus represents a potential driver of commensal-to-pathogen transitions. Rgg/small hydrophobic peptide (SHP) quorum-sensing systems are widespread in streptococci, yet they remain largely uncharacterized in S. pneumoniae. Using directional transcriptome sequencing, we show that the S...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918154/hot-topic-geographical-distribution-and-strain-diversity-of-lactobacillus-wasatchensis-isolated-from-cheese-with-unwanted-gas-formation
#13
Michele Culumber, Donald J McMahon, Fatih Ortakci, Lauren Montierth, Beatriz Villalba, Jeffery R Broadbent, Craig J Oberg
Lactobacillus wasatchensis, an obligate heterofermentative nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) implicated in causing gas defects in aged cheeses, was originally isolated from an aged Cheddar produced in Logan, Utah. To determine the geographical distribution of this organism, we isolated slow-growing NSLAB from cheeses collected in different regions of the United States, Australia, New Zealand, and Ireland. Seven of the cheeses showed significant gas defects and 12 did not. Nonstarter lactic acid bacteria were isolated from these cheeses on de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe medium supplemented with ribose, a preferred substrate for Lb...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871340/phza-the-shunt-switch-of-phenazine-1-6-dicarboxylic-acid-biosynthesis-in-pseudomonas-chlororaphis-ht66
#14
Shuqi Guo, Yining Wang, Bona Dai, Wei Wang, Hongbo Hu, Xianqing Huang, Xuehong Zhang
Natural phenazines are versatile secondary metabolites that are mainly produced by Pseudomonas and Streptomyces. All phenazine-type metabolites originate from two precursors: phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) in Pseudomonas or phenazine-1,6-dicarboxylic acid (PDC) in Streptomyces and other bacteria. Although the biosynthesis of PCA in Pseudomonas has been extensively studied, the origin of PDC still remains unclear. Comparing the phenazine biosynthesis operons of different species, we found that the phzA gene was restricted to Pseudomonas in which PCA is produced...
October 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863779/optimization-of-a-metatranscriptomic-approach-to-study-the-lignocellulolytic-potential-of-the-higher-termite-gut-microbiome
#15
Martyna Marynowska, Xavier Goux, David Sillam-Dussès, Corinne Rouland-Lefèvre, Yves Roisin, Philippe Delfosse, Magdalena Calusinska
BACKGROUND: Thanks to specific adaptations developed over millions of years, the efficiency of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose decomposition of higher termite symbiotic system exceeds that of many other lignocellulose utilizing environments. Especially, the examination of its symbiotic microbes should reveal interesting carbohydrate-active enzymes, which are of primary interest for the industry. Previous metatranscriptomic reports (high-throughput mRNA sequencing) highlight the high representation and overexpression of cellulose and hemicelluloses degrading genes in the termite hindgut digestomes, indicating the potential of this technology in search for new enzymes...
September 1, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854628/genomic-epidemiology-of-ndm-1-encoding-plasmids-in-latin-american-clinical-isolates-reveals-insights-into-the-evolution-of-multidrug-resistance
#16
Ricaurte Alejandro Marquez-Ortiz, Leanne Haggerty, Narda Olarte, Carolina Duarte, Ulises Garza-Ramos, Jesus Silva-Sanchez, Betsy E Castro, Eby M Sim, Mauricio Beltran, María V Moncada, Alberto Valderrama, Jaime E Castellanos, Ian G Charles, Natasha Vanegas, Javier Escobar-Perez, Nicola K Petty
Bacteria that produce the broad-spectrum Carbapenem antibiotic New Delhi Metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) place a burden on health care systems worldwide, due to the limited treatment options for infections caused by them and the rapid global spread of this antibiotic resistance mechanism. Although it is believed that the associated resistance gene blaNDM-1 originated in Acinetobacter spp., the role of Enterobacteriaceae in its dissemination remains unclear. In this study, we used whole genome sequencing to investigate the dissemination dynamics of blaNDM-1-positive plasmids in a set of 21 clinical NDM-1-positive isolates from Colombia and Mexico (Providencia rettgeri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Acinetobacter baumannii) as well as six representative NDM-1-positive Escherichia coli transconjugants...
June 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839126/ancestor-of-land-plants-acquired-the-dna-3-methyladenine-glycosylase-mag-gene-from-bacteria-through-horizontal-gene-transfer
#17
Huimin Fang, Liexiang Huangfu, Rujia Chen, Pengcheng Li, Shuhui Xu, Enying Zhang, Wei Cao, Li Liu, Youli Yao, Guohua Liang, Chenwu Xu, Yong Zhou, Zefeng Yang
The origin and evolution of land plants was an important event in the history of life and initiated the establishment of modern terrestrial ecosystems. From water to terrestrial environments, plants needed to overcome the enhanced ultraviolet (UV) radiation and many other DNA-damaging agents. Evolving new genes with the function of DNA repair is critical for the origin and radiation of land plants. In bacteria, the DNA-3-methyladenine glycosylase (MAG) recognizes of a variety of base lesions and initiates the process of the base excision repair for damaged DNA...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790994/insight-into-the-origin-and-evolution-of-the-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-pandemic-strain
#18
REVIEW
Romilio T Espejo, Katherine García, Nicolas Plaza
A strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus that emerged in 1995 caused the first known pandemic involving this species. This strain comprises clonal autochthonous ocean-dwelling bacteria whose evolution has occurred in the ocean environment. The low sequence diversity in this population enabled the discovery of information on its origin and evolution that has been hidden in bacterial clones that have evolved over a long period. Multilocus sequencing and microarray analysis, together with phylogenetic analysis, of pandemic and pre-pandemic isolates has suggested that the founder clone was an O3:K6 non-pathogenic strain that initially acquired a toxRS/new region and subsequently acquired at least seven novel genomic islands...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789673/gene-and-transcript-abundances-of-bacterial-type-iii-secretion-systems-from-the-rumen-microbiome-are-correlated-with-methane-yield-in-sheep
#19
Janine Kamke, Priya Soni, Yang Li, Siva Ganesh, William J Kelly, Sinead C Leahy, Weibing Shi, Jeff Froula, Edward M Rubin, Graeme T Attwood
BACKGROUND: Ruminants are important contributors to global methane emissions via microbial fermentation in their reticulo-rumens. This study is part of a larger program, characterising the rumen microbiomes of sheep which vary naturally in methane yield (g CH4/kg DM/day) and aims to define differences in microbial communities, and in gene and transcript abundances that can explain the animal methane phenotype. METHODS: Rumen microbiome metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data were analysed by Gene Set Enrichment, sparse partial least squares regression and the Wilcoxon Rank Sum test to estimate correlations between specific KEGG bacterial pathways/genes and high methane yield in sheep...
August 8, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765217/rip-seq-suggests-translational-regulation-by-l7ae-in-archaea
#20
Michael Daume, Michael Uhl, Rolf Backofen, Lennart Randau
L7Ae is a universal archaeal protein that recognizes and stabilizes kink-turn (k-turn) motifs in RNA substrates. These structural motifs are widespread in nature and are found in many functional RNA species, including ribosomal RNAs. Synthetic biology approaches utilize L7Ae/k-turn interactions to control gene expression in eukaryotes. Here, we present results of comprehensive RNA immunoprecipitation sequencing (RIP-Seq) analysis of genomically tagged L7Ae from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius A large set of interacting noncoding RNAs was identified...
August 1, 2017: MBio
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