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Bacteria new gene origin

Ileana P Salto, Gonzalo Torres Tejerizo, Daniel Wibberg, Alfred Pühler, Andreas Schlüter, Mariano Pistorio
Bacteria belonging to the genus Acinetobacter have become of clinical importance over the last decade due to the development of a multi-resistant phenotype and their ability to survive under multiple environmental conditions. The development of these traits among Acinetobacter strains occurs frequently as a result of plasmid-mediated horizontal gene transfer. In this work, plasmids from nosocomial and environmental Acinetobacter spp. collections were separately sequenced and characterized. Assembly of the sequenced data resulted in 19 complete replicons in the nosocomial collection and 77 plasmid contigs in the environmental collection...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kerstin Koeller, Daniel P R Herlemann, Tobias Schuldt, Attila Ovari, Ellen Guder, Andreas Podbielski, Bernd Kreikemeyer, Bernhard Olzowy
The role of bacteria in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is still not well understood. Whole microbiome analysis adds new aspects to our current understanding that is mainly based on isolated bacteria. It is still unclear how the results of microbiome analysis and the classical culture based approaches interrelate. To address this, middle meatus swabs and tissue samples were obtained during sinus surgery in 5 patients with CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP), 5 patients with diffuse CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP), 5 patients with unilateral purulent maxillary CRS (upm CRS) and 3 patients with healthy sinus mucosa...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Shu-Ye Jiang, Mayalagu Sevugan, Srinivasan Ramachandran
BACKGROUND: Valine-glutamine (VQ) motif containing proteins play important roles in abiotic and biotic stress responses in plants. However, little is known about the origin and evolution as well as comprehensive expression regulation of the VQ gene family. RESULTS: In this study, we systematically surveyed this gene family in 50 plant genomes from algae, moss, gymnosperm and angiosperm and explored their presence in other species from animals, bacteria, fungi and viruses...
May 9, 2018: BMC Genomics
Raphael D Teixeira, Cristiane R Guzzo, Santiago Justo Arévalo, Maxuel O Andrade, Josielle Abrahão, Robson F de Souza, Chuck S Farah
The second messenger cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP) is a central regulator of bacterial lifestyle, controlling several behaviors, including the switch between sessile and motile states. C-di-GMP levels are controlled by the interplay between diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) and phosphodiesterases (PDEs), which synthesize and hydrolyze this second messenger, respectively. These enzymes often contain additional domains that regulate activity via binding of small molecules, covalent modification or protein-protein interactions...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Isa Adriana Kernberger-Fischer, Carsten Krischek, Birgit Strommenger, Ulrike Fiegen, Martin Beyerbach, Lothar Kreienbrock, Günter Klein, Corinna Kehrenberg
Few studies have been conducted on the susceptibility of bacteria to biocides. A total of 182 methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus isolates collected from healthy or diseased humans and animals in Germany were included in the present study. Sixty-three isolates of animal origin and 119 human isolates were tested for their MICs to eight biocides or heavy metals by the broth microdilution method. The MIC50 and MIC90 values of human and animal isolates were equal or differed by not more than one dilution step and statistical analysis revealed that differences between MICs of human and animal isolates were not significant...
May 4, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Nils Kapust, Shijulal Nelson-Sathi, Barbara Schönfeld, Einat Hazkani-Covo, David Bryant, Peter J Lockhart, Mayo Röttger, Joana C Xavier, William F Martin
In prokaryotes, known mechanisms of lateral gene transfer (transformation, transduction, conjugation, and gene transfer agents) generate new combinations of genes among chromosomes during evolution. In eukaryotes, whose host lineage is descended from archaea, lateral gene transfer from organelles to the nucleus occurs at endosymbiotic events. Recent genome analyses studying gene distributions have uncovered evidence for sporadic, discontinuous events of gene transfer from bacteria to archaea during evolution...
April 1, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Valérie Geoffroy, Geneviève Payette, Florian Mauffrey, Livie Lestin, Philippe Constant, Richard Villemur
Background: The biofilm of a methanol-fed, fluidized denitrification system treating a marine effluent is composed of multi-species microorganisms, among which Hyphomicrobium nitrativorans NL23 and Methylophaga nitratireducenticrescens JAM1 are the principal bacteria involved in the denitrifying activities. Strain NL23 can carry complete nitrate (NO[Formula: see text]) reduction to N2 , whereas strain JAM1 can perform 3 out of the 4 reduction steps. A small proportion of other denitrifiers exists in the biofilm, suggesting the potential plasticity of the biofilm in adapting to environmental changes...
2018: PeerJ
Maria Teresa P Gonçalves, María José Benito, María de Guía Córdoba, Conceição Egas, Almudena V Merchán, Ana I Galván, Santiago Ruiz-Moyano
Serpa cheese is one of the traditional regional Portuguese cheeses having the Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO) designation. This study investigated the bacterial community in the traditional Portuguese Serpa cheese. The microorganisms identified at the end of ripening (30 days) mainly were lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus paracasei/Lactobacillus casei was the main species in cheese from PDO registered industries, whereas in non-PDO registered industries Lactobacillus brevis was highlighted, among other LAB...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Hüseyin Haydar Kutlu, Ebru Us, Alper Tekeli
The worldwide spread of carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates has become a major threat of public health. This worrisome situation leads the development of new methods for carbapenemase screening, detection, prevention of spread and epidemiological data collection as mandatory. In this study, it was aimed to investigate existence and distribution of carbapenemase-encoding genes (CEGs) among carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolated from various clinical samples in Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, Ibni Sina Hospital, Central Microbiology Laboratory between June 2010-May 2014 and detect their clonal relationship...
January 2018: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Sahira Nsayef Muslim, Israa M S Al-Kadmy, Ibtesam Ghadban Auda, Alaa Naseer Mohammed Ali, Sawsan Sajid Al-Jubori
Background : Lectin was initially called hemagglutinin or agglutinin because of its capacity to agglutinate human as well as human erythrocytes. They are a heterogeneous group of proteins or glycoproteins of nonimmune origin. Because of their chemical properties, they have become a useful tool in several fields such as immunology, cell biology, molecular biology, membrane structure, pharmacology, cancer research, clinical chemistry, and genetic engineering. Objective : The wide applications of lectins users urged the need to isolate lectins from a new strain of bacteria can produce new and high yield of lectin because the current production of lectin from Pseudomonas spp...
April 4, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Rihab Ameri, Elisabeth Laville, Gabrielle Potocki-Véronèse, Sahar Trabelsi, Monia Mezghani, Fatma Elgharbi, Samir Bejar
Dromedaries are capable of digesting plant cell wall with high content of lignocellulose of poor digestibility. Consequently, their intestinal microbiota can be a source of novel carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). To the best of our knowledge, no data are available describing the biochemical analysis of enzymes in dromedary intestinal microbiota. To investigate new hydrolytic enzymes from the dromedary gut, a fosmid library was constructed using metagenomic DNA from feces of non-domestic adult dromedary camels living in the Tunisian desert...
2018: PloS One
Wei Lin, Wensi Zhang, Xiang Zhao, Andrew P Roberts, Greig A Paterson, Dennis A Bazylinski, Yongxin Pan
The origin and evolution of magnetoreception, which in diverse prokaryotes and protozoa is known as magnetotaxis and enables these microorganisms to detect Earth's magnetic field for orientation and navigation, is not well understood in evolutionary biology. The only known prokaryotes capable of sensing the geomagnetic field are magnetotactic bacteria (MTB), motile microorganisms that biomineralize intracellular, membrane-bounded magnetic single-domain crystals of either magnetite (Fe3 O4 ) or greigite (Fe3 S4 ) called magnetosomes...
March 26, 2018: ISME Journal
Sherwood R Casjens, Lia Di, Saymon Akther, Emmanuel F Mongodin, Benjamin J Luft, Steven E Schutzer, Claire M Fraser, Wei-Gang Qiu
BACKGROUND: With approximately one-third of their genomes consisting of linear and circular plasmids, the Lyme disease agent cluster of species has the most complex genomes among known bacteria. We report here a comparative analysis of plasmids in eleven Borreliella (also known as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) species. RESULTS: We sequenced the complete genomes of two B. afzelii, two B. garinii, and individual B. spielmanii, B. bissettiae, B. valaisiana and B...
March 27, 2018: BMC Genomics
Verity A Jackson, Dimphna H Meijer, Maria Carrasquero, Laura S van Bezouwen, Edward D Lowe, Colin Kleanthous, Bert J C Janssen, Elena Seiradake
Teneurins are ancient cell-cell adhesion receptors that are vital for brain development and synapse organisation. They originated in early metazoan evolution through a horizontal gene transfer event when a bacterial YD-repeat toxin fused to a eukaryotic receptor. We present X-ray crystallography and cryo-EM structures of two Teneurins, revealing a ~200 kDa extracellular super-fold in which eight sub-domains form an intricate structure centred on a spiralling YD-repeat shell. An alternatively spliced loop, which is implicated in homophilic Teneurin interaction and specificity, is exposed and thus poised for interaction...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Dilruba Sharmin, Yong Guo, Tomoyasu Nishizawa, Shoko Ohshima, Yoshinori Sato, Yusuke Takashima, Kazuhiko Narisawa, Hiroyuki Ohta
Endohyphal bacteria (EHB), dwelling within fungal hyphae, markedly affect the growth and metabolic potential of their hosts. To date, two EHB belonging to the family Burkholderiaceae have been isolated and characterized as new taxa, Burkholderia rhizoxinica (HKI 454T ) and Mycoavidus cysteinexigens (B1-EBT ), in Japan. Metagenome sequencing was recently reported for Mortierella elongata AG77 together with its endosymbiont M. cysteinexigens (Mc-AG77) from a soil/litter sample in the USA. In the present study, we elucidated the complete genome sequence of B1-EBT and compared it with those of Mc-AG77 and HKI 454T ...
March 14, 2018: Microbes and Environments
Mariia Rabyk, Oleksandr Yushchuk, Ihor Rokytskyy, Maria Anisimova, Bohdan Ostash
The AdpA protein from a streptomycin producer Streptomyces griseus is a founding member of the AdpA family of pleiotropic regulators, known to be ubiquitously present in streptomycetes. Functional genomic approaches revealed a huge number of AdpA targets, leading to the claim that the AdpA regulon is the largest one in bacteria. The expression of adpA is limited at the level of translation of the rare leucyl UUA codon. All known properties of AdpA regulators were discovered on a few streptomycete strains. There are open questions about the true abundance and diversity of AdpA across actinobacterial taxa (and beyond) and about the possible evolutionary forces that shape the AdpA orthologous group in Streptomyces...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular Evolution
Raphaël Méheust, Debashish Bhattacharya, Jananan S Pathmanathan, James O McInerney, Philippe Lopez, Eric Bapteste
BACKGROUND: Eukaryotes evolved from the symbiotic association of at least two prokaryotic partners, and a good deal is known about the timings, mechanisms, and dynamics of these evolutionary steps. Recently, it was shown that a new class of nuclear genes, symbiogenetic genes (S-genes), was formed concomitant with endosymbiosis and the subsequent evolution of eukaryotic photosynthetic lineages. Understanding their origins and contributions to eukaryogenesis would provide insights into the ways in which cellular complexity has evolved...
March 13, 2018: BMC Biology
Nicholas Dusek, Austin J Hewitt, Kaycie N Schmidt, Peter W Bergholz
Escherichia coli is deposited into soil with feces and exhibits subsequent population decline with concomitant environmental selection. Environmentally persistent strains exhibit longer survival times during this selection process, and some strains have adapted to soil and sediments. A georeferenced collection of E. coli isolates was developed comprising 3,329 isolates from 1,428 soil samples that were collected from a landscape spanning the transition from the grasslands to the eastern deciduous forest biomes...
May 15, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Zhihai Liu, Jiyun Li, Xiaoming Wang, Dejun Liu, Yuebin Ke, Yang Wang, Jianzhong Shen
The spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) mediated by New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) poses a serious challenge to clinicians and has become a major public health concern. NDM has been evolving into variants that possess different hydrolysis activity toward antibiotics, so as to affect treatment strategy. In addition, very few studies on NDM variants have focused on animal-derived bacterial isolates. Our study reports a novel NDM variant, NDM-20, in an isolate of Escherichia coli CCD1 recovered from the food animal swine in China...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Carlos Eduardo Serrano-Maldonado, Israel García-Cano, Augusto González-Canto, Eliel Ruiz-May, Jose Miguel Elizalde-Contreras, Maricarmen Quirasco
The atlD gene from an Enterococcus faecalis strain isolated from a Mexican artisanal cheese was cloned, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli in order to perform a biochemical characterization. A partial amino acid sequence of the heterologous protein was obtained by LC-MS/MS, and it corresponded to a novel peptidoglycan hydrolase designated AtlD. Its molecular mass was 62-75 kDa, as determined by SDS-PAGE, zymography, Western blot, and exclusion chromatography. Electrofocusing rendered an isoelectric point (pI) of 4...
2018: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology
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