Read by QxMD icon Read

Bacteria new gene origin

Verity A Jackson, Dimphna H Meijer, Maria Carrasquero, Laura S van Bezouwen, Edward D Lowe, Colin Kleanthous, Bert J C Janssen, Elena Seiradake
Teneurins are ancient cell-cell adhesion receptors that are vital for brain development and synapse organisation. They originated in early metazoan evolution through a horizontal gene transfer event when a bacterial YD-repeat toxin fused to a eukaryotic receptor. We present X-ray crystallography and cryo-EM structures of two Teneurins, revealing a ~200 kDa extracellular super-fold in which eight sub-domains form an intricate structure centred on a spiralling YD-repeat shell. An alternatively spliced loop, which is implicated in homophilic Teneurin interaction and specificity, is exposed and thus poised for interaction...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Dilruba Sharmin, Yong Guo, Tomoyasu Nishizawa, Shoko Ohshima, Yoshinori Sato, Yusuke Takashima, Kazuhiko Narisawa, Hiroyuki Ohta
Endohyphal bacteria (EHB), dwelling within fungal hyphae, markedly affect the growth and metabolic potential of their hosts. To date, two EHB belonging to the family Burkholderiaceae have been isolated and characterized as new taxa, Burkholderia rhizoxinica (HKI 454T ) and Mycoavidus cysteinexigens (B1-EBT ), in Japan. Metagenome sequencing was recently reported for Mortierella elongata AG77 together with its endosymbiont M. cysteinexigens (Mc-AG77) from a soil/litter sample in the USA. In the present study, we elucidated the complete genome sequence of B1-EBT and compared it with those of Mc-AG77 and HKI 454T ...
March 14, 2018: Microbes and Environments
Mariia Rabyk, Oleksandr Yushchuk, Ihor Rokytskyy, Maria Anisimova, Bohdan Ostash
The AdpA protein from a streptomycin producer Streptomyces griseus is a founding member of the AdpA family of pleiotropic regulators, known to be ubiquitously present in streptomycetes. Functional genomic approaches revealed a huge number of AdpA targets, leading to the claim that the AdpA regulon is the largest one in bacteria. The expression of adpA is limited at the level of translation of the rare leucyl UUA codon. All known properties of AdpA regulators were discovered on a few streptomycete strains. There are open questions about the true abundance and diversity of AdpA across actinobacterial taxa (and beyond) and about the possible evolutionary forces that shape the AdpA orthologous group in Streptomyces...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular Evolution
Raphaël Méheust, Debashish Bhattacharya, Jananan S Pathmanathan, James O McInerney, Philippe Lopez, Eric Bapteste
BACKGROUND: Eukaryotes evolved from the symbiotic association of at least two prokaryotic partners, and a good deal is known about the timings, mechanisms, and dynamics of these evolutionary steps. Recently, it was shown that a new class of nuclear genes, symbiogenetic genes (S-genes), was formed concomitant with endosymbiosis and the subsequent evolution of eukaryotic photosynthetic lineages. Understanding their origins and contributions to eukaryogenesis would provide insights into the ways in which cellular complexity has evolved...
March 13, 2018: BMC Biology
Nicholas Dusek, Austin J Hewitt, Kaycie N Schmidt, Peter W Bergholz
E. coli are deposited into soil with feces and exhibit subsequent population decline with concomitant environmental selection. Environmentally persistent strains exhibit longer survival times during this selection process and some strains have adapted to soil and sediments. A georeferenced collection of E. coli isolates was developed comprising 3,329 isolates from 1,428 soil samples that were collected from a landscape spanning the transition from the grasslands to the eastern deciduous forest biomes. The isolate collection and sample database were analyzed together to discover how land cover, site characteristics and soil chemistry influence the prevalence of cultivable E...
March 9, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Zhihai Liu, Jiyun Li, Xiaoming Wang, Dejun Liu, Yuebin Ke, Yang Wang, Jianzhong Shen
The spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) mediated by New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) poses a serious challenge to clinicians and has become a major public health concern. NDM has been evolving into variants that possess different hydrolysis activity toward antibiotics, so as to affect treatment strategy. In addition, very few studies on NDM variants have focused on animal-derived bacterial isolates. Our study reports a novel NDM variant, NDM-20, in an isolate of Escherichia coli CCD1 recovered from the food animal swine in China...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Carlos Eduardo Serrano-Maldonado, Israel García-Cano, Augusto González-Canto, Eliel Ruiz-May, Jose Miguel Elizalde-Contreras, Maricarmen Quirasco
The atlD gene from an Enterococcus faecalis strain isolated from a Mexican artisanal cheese was cloned, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli in order to perform a biochemical characterization. A partial amino acid sequence of the heterologous protein was obtained by LC-MS/MS, and it corresponded to a novel peptidoglycan hydrolase designated AtlD. Its molecular mass was 62-75 kDa, as determined by SDS-PAGE, zymography, Western blot, and exclusion chromatography. Electrofocusing rendered an isoelectric point (pI) of 4...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology
Yang Liu, Zhichao Zhou, Jie Pan, Brett J Baker, Ji-Dong Gu, Meng Li
Thorarchaeota are a new archaeal phylum within the Asgard superphylum, whose ancestors have been proposed to play possible ecological roles in cellular evolution. However, little is known about the lifestyles of these uncultured archaea. To provide a better resolution of the ecological roles and metabolic capacity of Thorarchaeota, we obtained Thorarchaeota genomes reconstructed from metagenomes of different depth layers in mangrove and mudflat sediments. These genomes from deep anoxic layers suggest the presence of Thorarchaeota with the potential to degrade organic matter, fix inorganic carbon, reduce sulfur/sulfate and produce acetate...
February 14, 2018: ISME Journal
Sunniva Katharina Thode, Ewelina Rojek, Mikolaj Kozlowski, Rafi Ahmad, Peik Haugen
Siderophores are small molecules synthesized and secreted by bacteria and fungi to scavenge iron. Extracellular ferri-siderohores are recognized by cognate receptors on the cell surface for transport over membranes. Several siderophore systems from Vibrionaceae representatives are known and well understood, e.g., the molecular structure of the siderophore, the biosynthesis gene cluster and pathway, and the gene expression pattern. Less is known about how these systems are distributed among the ~140 Vibrionaceae species, and which evolutionary processes contributed to the present-day distribution...
2018: PloS One
Juan Ling, Xiancheng Lin, Yanying Zhang, Weiguo Zhou, Qingsong Yang, Liyun Lin, Siquan Zeng, Ying Zhang, Cong Wang, Manzoor Ahmad, Lijuan Long, Junde Dong
Seagrasses in coral reef ecosystems play important ecological roles by enhancing coral reef resilience under ocean acidification. However, seagrass primary productivity is typically constrained by limited nitrogen availability. Ammonia oxidation is an important process conducted by ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB), yet little information is available concerning the community structure and potential activity of seagrass AOA and AOB. Therefore, this study investigated the variations in the abundance, diversity and transcriptional activity of AOA and AOB at the DNA and transcript level from four sample types: the leaf, root, rhizosphere sediment and bulk sediment of seagrass Thalassia hemprichii in three coral reef ecosystems...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Liliane Okdah, Stéphanie Le Page, Abiola Olumuyiwa Olaitan, Grégory Dubourg, Linda Hadjadj, Jean-Marc Rolain
BACKGROUND: The recent emergence of colistin resistance, particularly mcr-1 plasmid-mediated colistin resistance in Gram negative bacteria, has led to renewed interest in antibiotic combinations to overcome clinical therapeutic impasses. OBJECTIVE: We aim to evaluate the potential of the synergistic and bactericidal activity of colistin in combination with sulphonamide compounds including sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, against clinical colistin-resistant bacterial strains, including strains with the plasmidic mcr-1encoding gene...
February 5, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Eliot C Bush, Anne E Clark, Carissa A DeRanek, Alexander Eng, Juliet Forman, Kevin Heath, Alexander B Lee, Daniel M Stoebel, Zunyan Wang, Matthew Wilber, Helen Wu
BACKGROUND: Genomic islands play an important role in microbial genome evolution, providing a mechanism for strains to adapt to new ecological conditions. A variety of computational methods, both genome-composition based and comparative, have been developed to identify them. Some of these methods are explicitly designed to work in single strains, while others make use of multiple strains. In general, existing methods do not identify islands in the context of the phylogeny in which they evolved...
February 5, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
C Magnabosco, K R Moore, J M Wolfe, G P Fournier
Phototrophic bacteria are among the most biogeochemically significant organisms on Earth and are physiologically related through the use of reaction centers to collect photons for energy metabolism. However, the major phototrophic lineages are not closely related to one another in bacterial phylogeny, and the origins of their respective photosynthetic machinery remain obscured by time and low sequence similarity. To better understand the co-evolution of Cyanobacteria and other ancient anoxygenic phototrophic lineages with respect to geologic time, we designed and implemented a variety of molecular clocks that use horizontal gene transfer (HGT) as additional, relative constraints...
January 31, 2018: Geobiology
Runmao Lin, Feifei Qin, Baoming Shen, Qianqian Shi, Chichuan Liu, Xi Zhang, Yang Jiao, Jun Lu, Yaoyao Gao, Marta Suarez-Fernandez, Federico Lopez-Moya, Luis Vicente Lopez-Llorca, Gang Wang, Zhenchuan Mao, Jian Ling, Yuhong Yang, Xinyue Cheng, Bingyan Xie
Pochonia chlamydosporia infects eggs and females of economically important plant-parasitic nematodes. The fungal isolates parasitizing different nematodes are genetically distinct. To understand their intraspecific genetic differentiation, parasitic mechanisms, and adaptive evolution, we assembled seven putative chromosomes of P. chlamydosporia strain 170 isolated from root-knot nematode eggs (~44 Mb, including 7.19% of transposable elements) and compared them with the genome of the strain 123 (~41 Mb) isolated from cereal cyst nematode...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xinli Pan, Nicole Domin, Sebastian Schieferdecker, Hirokazu Kage, Martin Roth, Markus Nett
The genome of the predatory bacterium Herpetosiphon aurantiacus 114-95T harbors a number of biosynthesis genes, including four terpene cyclase genes. To identify the terpenes biosynthesized from H. aurantiacus 114-95T , we fed the strain with13 C-labeled glucose and, subsequently, searched for characteristic mass shifts in its metabolome. This approach led to the discovery of a new natural product, of which the isotope pattern is indicative for a diterpene originating from the methylerythritol phosphate pathway...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
Celine Petitjean, Tom A Williams
Mitochondria are the energy-generating organelles that power eukaryotic cells. Originally descended from endosymbiotic bacteria, their genomes have shrunk during evolution. New analyses suggest that large, gene-rich mitochondrial genomes are more common than previously thought, with interesting implications for eukaryotic genome evolution.
December 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Anton S Sulima, Vladimir A Zhukov, Alexey A Afonin, Aleksandr I Zhernakov, Igor A Tikhonovich, Ludmila A Lutova
During the initial step of the symbiosis between legumes (Fabaceae) and nitrogen-fixing bacteria (rhizobia), the bacterial signal molecule known as the Nod factor (nodulation factor) is recognized by plant LysM motif-containing receptor-like kinases (LysM-RLKs). The fifth chromosome of barrel medic ( Medicago truncatula Gaertn.) contains a cluster of paralogous LysM-RLK genes, one of which is known to participate in symbiosis. In the syntenic region of the pea ( Pisum sativum L.) genome, three genes have been identified: PsK1 and PsSym37 , two symbiosis-related LysM-RLK genes with known sequences, and the unsequenced PsSym2 gene which presumably encodes a LysM-RLK and is associated with increased selectivity to certain Nod factors...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Li Zhu, Xiuping Qian, Daijie Chen, Mei Ge
Analysis of the Amycolatopsis orientalis genome revealed that two genes, hemA1 and hemA2, belonging to divergent pathways, were involved in the biosynthesis of 5-aminolevulinic acid. The roles of hemA1 and hemA2 were elucidated via genetic manipulation and metabolite analysis. The disruption of hemA1, encoding the glutamyl-tRNA(Glu) reductase of the C5 pathway, was essential for cell growth and is used for heme synthesis. Overexpression of hemA1 resulted in elevated vancomycin and ECO-0501 production in Amycolatopsis orientalis, and it was also effective in increasing the production of daptomycin and natamycin in other Streptomycetes...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Xiang Li, James Tambong, Kat Xiaoli Yuan, Wen Chen, Huimin Xu, C André Lévesque, Solke H De Boer
Although the genus Clavibacter was originally proposed to accommodate all phytopathogenic coryneform bacteria containing B2γ diaminobutyrate in the peptidoglycan, reclassification of all but one species into other genera has resulted in the current monospecific status of the genus. The single species in the genus, Clavibacter michiganensis, has multiple subspecies, which are all highly host-specific plant pathogens. Whole genome analysis based on average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization as well as multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) of seven housekeeping genes support raising each of the C...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Anu Humisto, Jouni Jokela, Liwei Liu, Matti Wahlsten, Hao Wang, Perttu Permi, João Paulo Machado, Agostinho Antunes, David P Fewer, Kaarina Sivonen
Swinholides are 42-carbon ring polyketides with a twofold axis of symmetry. They are potent cytotoxins that disrupt the actin cytoskeleton. Swinholides were discovered from the marine sponge Theonella sp. and were long-suspected to be produced by symbiotic bacteria. Misakinolide, a structural variant of swinholide, was recently demonstrated to be the product of the symbiotic heterotrophic proteobacterium. Here we report the production of swinholide A by an axenic strain of the terrestrial cyanobacterium Nostoc sp...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"