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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356406/origin-of-sex-chromosomes-in-six-groups-of-rana-rugosa-frogs-inferred-from-a-sex-linked-dna-marker
#1
Akira Oike, Koichiro Watanabe, Mi-Sook Min, Koji Tojo, Masahide Kumagai, Yuya Kimoto, Tadashi Yamashiro, Takanori Matsuo, Maho Kodama, Yoriko Nakamura, Masaru Notsu, Takeyoshi Tochimoto, Hiroyuki Fujita, Maki Ota, Etsuro Ito, Shigeki Yasumasu, Masahisa Nakamura
Each vertebrate species, as a general rule, has either the XX/XY or ZZ/ZW chromosomes by which sex is determined. However, the Japanese Rana (R.) rugosa frog is an exception, possessing both sex-determining combinations within one species, varying with region of origin. We collected R. rugosa frogs from 104 sites around Japan and South Korea and determined the nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene. Based on the sequences, R. rugosa frogs were divided into four groups from Japan and one from South Korea...
August 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352077/whole-genome-sequencing-of-suppressor-dna-mixtures-identifies-pathways-that-compensate-for-chromosome-segregation-defects-in-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#2
Xingya Xu, Li Wang, Mitsuhiro Yanagida
Suppressor screening is a powerful method to identify genes that when mutated, rescue the temperature sensitivity of the original mutation. Previously, however, identification of suppressor mutations has been technically difficult. Due to the small genome size of Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we developed a spontaneous suppressor screening technique, followed by a cost-effective sequencing method. Genomic DNAs of 10 revertants which survived at the restrictive temperature of the original temperature sensitive (ts) mutant were mixed together as one sample before constructing a library for sequencing...
January 19, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351733/glutamate-synthases-from-conifers-gene-structure-and-phylogenetic-studies
#3
Ángel García-Gutiérrez, Francisco M Cánovas, Concepción Ávila
BACKGROUND: Plants synthesize glutamate from ammonium by the combined activity of the enzymes glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) through the glutamate synthase cycle. In plants, there are two forms of glutamate synthases that differ in their electron donors, NADH-GOGAT (EC 1.4.1.14) and Fd-GOGAT (EC 1.4.7.1), which have differential roles either in primary ammonia assimilation or in the reassimilation of ammonium from different catabolic processes. Glutamate synthases are complex iron-sulfur flavoproteins containing functional domains involved in the control and coordination of their catalytic activities in annual plants...
January 19, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351077/molecular-and-morphological-characterisation-of-rhabdias-picardiae-junker-lhermitte-vallarino-et-bain-2010-nematoda-rhabdiasidae-from-delaland-s-river-frog-amietia-delalandii-dum%C3%A3-ril-et-bibron-1841-amphibia-pyxicephalidae-in-south-africa
#4
Roman Svitin, Yuriy Kuzmin, Louis du Preez
Rhabdias picardiae previously known from the Guttural Toad, Sclerophrys gutturalis (Bufonidae) is described from a new host, Delaland's River Frog, Amietia delalandii (Pyxicephalidae). The species identification is confirmed by analysis of the COI gene sequence and morphological comparison with the original description. Morphological details of apical structures in adult parasitic R. picardiae, namely, the shape and position of lips, the number and position of external labial papillae, and the buccal capsule morphology are described using light and scanning electron microscopy...
March 26, 2018: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350130/ecology-and-evolution-of-chromosomal-gene-transfer-between-environmental-microorganisms-and-pathogens
#5
José Luis Martínez
Inspection of the genomes of bacterial pathogens indicates that their pathogenic potential relies, at least in part, on the activity of different elements that have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer from other (usually unknown) microorganisms. Similarly, in the case of resistance to antibiotics, besides mutation-driven resistance, the incorporation of novel resistance genes is a widespread evolutionary procedure for the acquisition of this phenotype. Current information in the field supports the idea that most (if not all) genes acquired by horizontal gene transfer by bacterial pathogens and contributing to their virulence potential or to antibiotic resistance originate in environmental, not human-pathogenic, microorganisms...
January 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349926/extracellular-vesicles-from-early-stage-p-falciparum-infected-red-blood-cells-contain-pfemp1-and-induce-transcriptional-changes-in-human-monocytes
#6
Natália G Sampaio, Samantha Emery, Alexandra Garnham, Qiao Y Tan, Xavier Sisquella, Matthew A Pimentel, Neta Regev-Rudzki, Louis Schofield, Emily M Eriksson
Pathogens can release extracellular vesicles (EVs) for cell-cell communication and host modulation. EVs from Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest malaria parasite species, can transfer drug resistance genes between parasites. EVs from late-stage parasite-infected RBC (iRBC-EVs) are immunostimulatory and affect endothelial cell permeability, but little is known about EVs from early-stage iRBC. We detected the parasite virulence factor PfEMP1, which is responsible for iRBC adherence and a major contributor to disease severity, in EVs only up to 12 hours-post RBC invasion...
January 18, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348510/genome-and-secretome-analysis-of-pochonia-chlamydosporia-provide-new-insight-into-egg-parasitic-mechanisms
#7
Runmao Lin, Feifei Qin, Baoming Shen, Qianqian Shi, Chichuan Liu, Xi Zhang, Yang Jiao, Jun Lu, Yaoyao Gao, Marta Suarez-Fernandez, Federico Lopez-Moya, Luis Vicente Lopez-Llorca, Gang Wang, Zhenchuan Mao, Jian Ling, Yuhong Yang, Xinyue Cheng, Bingyan Xie
Pochonia chlamydosporia infects eggs and females of economically important plant-parasitic nematodes. The fungal isolates parasitizing different nematodes are genetically distinct. To understand their intraspecific genetic differentiation, parasitic mechanisms, and adaptive evolution, we assembled seven putative chromosomes of P. chlamydosporia strain 170 isolated from root-knot nematode eggs (~44 Mb, including 7.19% of transposable elements) and compared them with the genome of the strain 123 (~41 Mb) isolated from cereal cyst nematode...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348306/novel-targeted-therapeutics-for-men2
#8
REVIEW
Sara Redaelli, Ivan Plaza-Menacho, Luca Mologni
The rearranged during transfection (RET) proto-oncogene was recognized as the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) causing gene in 1993. Since then, much effort has been put into a clear understanding of its oncogenic signaling, its biochemical function and ways to block its aberrant activation in MEN2 and related cancers. Several small molecules have been designed, developed or redirected as RET inhibitors for the treatment of MEN2 and sporadic MTC. However, current drugs are mostly active against several other kinases, as they were not originally developed for RET...
February 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346527/progesterone-effects-on-extracellular-vesicles-in-the-sheep-uterus
#9
Gregory W Burns, Kelsey E Brooks, Eleanore V O'Neil, Darren E Hagen, Susanta K Behura, Thomas E Spencer
Progesterone (P4) acts via the endometrium to promote conceptus growth and implantation for pregnancy establishment. Many cells release extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are membrane-bound vesicles of endosomal and plasma membrane origin. In sheep, endometrial-derived EVs were found to traffic to the conceptus trophectoderm. Thus, EVs are hypothesized to be an important mode of intercellular communication by transferring select RNAs, proteins, and lipids between the endometrium and conceptus. Electron microscopy analysis found that the endometrial luminal and glandular epithelia were the primary source of EVs in the uterus of cyclic sheep...
January 16, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345939/discovery-of-alternative-producers-of-the-enediyne-antitumor-antibiotic-c-1027-with-high-titers
#10
Xiaohui Yan, Hindra, Huiming Ge, Dong Yang, Tingting Huang, Ivana Crnovcic, Chin-Yuan Chang, Shi-Ming Fang, Thibault Annaval, Xiangcheng Zhu, Yong Huang, Li-Xing Zhao, Yi Jiang, Yanwen Duan, Ben Shen
The potent cytotoxicity and unique mode of action make the enediyne antitumor antibiotic C-1027 an exquisite drug candidate for anticancer chemotherapy. However, clinical development of C-1027 has been hampered by its low titer from the original producer Streptomyces globisporus C-1027. Here we report three new C-1027 alternative producers, Streptomyces sp. CB00657, CB02329, and CB03608, from The Scripps Research Institute actinomycetes strain collection. Together with the previously disclosed Streptomyces sp...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343235/comparison-of-three-assembly-strategies-for-a-heterozygous-seedless-grapevine-genome-assembly
#11
Sagar Patel, Zhixiu Lu, Xiaozhu Jin, Padmapriya Swaminathan, Erliang Zeng, Anne Y Fennell
BACKGROUND: De novo heterozygous assembly is an ongoing challenge requiring improved assembly approaches. In this study, three strategies were used to develop de novo Vitis vinifera 'Sultanina' genome assemblies for comparison with the inbred V. vinifera (PN40024 12X.v2) reference genome and a published Sultanina ALLPATHS-LG assembly (AP). The strategies were: 1) a default PLATANUS assembly (PLAT_d) for direct comparison with AP assembly, 2) an iterative merging strategy using METASSEMBLER to combine PLAT_d and AP assemblies (MERGE) and 3) PLATANUS parameter modifications plus GapCloser (PLAT*_GC)...
January 17, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341142/evolutionary-and-genetic-features-of-drug-targets
#12
REVIEW
Yuan Quan, Zhong-Yi Wang, Xin-Yi Chu, Hong-Yu Zhang
In the modern drug discovery pipeline, identification of novel drug targets is a critical step. Despite rapid progress in developing biomedical techniques, it is still a great challenge to find promising new targets from the ample space of human genes. This fact is partially responsible for the situation of "more investments, fewer drugs" in the pharmaceutical industry. A series of recent researches revealed that successfully targeted genes share some common evolutionary and genetic features, which means that the knowledge accumulated in modern evolutionary biology and genetics is very helpful to identify potential drug targets and to find new drugs as well...
January 17, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339383/new-shuttle-vectors-for-gene-cloning-and-expression-in-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-species
#13
Massimiliano Lucidi, Federica Runci, Giordano Rampioni, Emanuela Frangipani, Livia Leoni, Paolo Visca
Understanding bacterial pathogenesis requires adequate genetic tools to assess the role of individual virulence determinants by mutagenesis and complementation assays, as well as for homologous and heterologous expression of cloned genes. Our knowledge of Acinetobacter baumannii pathogenesis has so far been limited by the scarcity of genetic tools to manipulate multi drug resistant (MDR) epidemic strains which are responsible for most of infections. Here, we report the construction of new multi-purpose shuttle plasmids, namely pVRL1 and pVRL2, which can efficiently replicate in Acinetobacter sp...
January 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338808/ceratomyxa-gracillima-n-sp-cnidaria-myxosporea-provides-evidence-of-panmixia-and-ceratomyxid-radiation-in-the-amazon-basin
#14
Suellen A Zatti, Stephen D Atkinson, Antônio A M Maia, Jerri L Bartholomew, Edson A Adriano
We describe a new freshwater myxosporean species Ceratomyxa gracillima n. sp. from the gall bladder of the Amazonian catfish Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii; the first myxozoan recorded in this host. The new Ceratomyxa was described on the basis of its host, myxospore morphometry, ssrDNA and internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-1) sequences. Infected fish were sampled from geographically distant localities: the Tapajós River, Pará State, the Amazon River, Amapá State and the Solimões River, Amazonas State...
January 17, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337961/how-the-evolution-of-multicellularity-set-the-stage-for-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Anna S Trigos, Richard B Pearson, Anthony T Papenfuss, David L Goode
Neoplastic growth and many of the hallmark properties of cancer are driven by the disruption of molecular networks established during the emergence of multicellularity. Regulatory pathways and molecules that evolved to impose regulatory constraints upon networks established in earlier unicellular organisms enabled greater communication and coordination between the diverse cell types required for multicellularity, but also created liabilities in the form of points of vulnerability in the network that when mutated or dysregulated facilitate the development of cancer...
January 16, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337866/crispr-cas-targeting-of-host-genes-as-an-antiviral-strategy
#16
REVIEW
Shuliang Chen, Xiao Yu, Deyin Guo
Currently, a new gene editing tool-the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) associated (Cas) system-is becoming a promising approach for genetic manipulation at the genomic level. This simple method, originating from the adaptive immune defense system in prokaryotes, has been developed and applied to antiviral research in humans. Based on the characteristics of virus-host interactions and the basic rules of nucleic acid cleavage or gene activation of the CRISPR-Cas system, it can be used to target both the virus genome and host factors to clear viral reservoirs and prohibit virus infection or replication...
January 16, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336373/advances-of-long-noncoding-rnas-mediated-regulation-in-reproduction
#17
REVIEW
Kang-Sheng Liu, Tai-Ping Li, Hua Ton, Xiao-Dong Mao, Ya-Jun Chen
OBJECTIVE: Advances in genomics and molecular biology have led to the discovery of a large group of uncharacterized long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Emerging evidence indicated that many lncRNAs function in multiple biological processes and its dysregulation often causes diseases. Recent studies suggested that almost all regulatory lncRNAs interact with biological macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, and protein. LncRNAs regulate gene expression mainly on three levels, including epigenetic modification, transcription, and posttranscription, through DNA methylation, histone modification, and chromatin remodeling...
January 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335068/imprinted-gene-zinc-finger-protein-127-is-a-novel-regulator-of-master-pluripotency-transcription-factor-oct4
#18
Yoo-Wook Kwon, Hyo-Suk Ahn, Joo-Young Park, Han-Mo Yang, Hyun-Jai Cho, Hyo-Soo Kim
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) show great promise for replacing current stem cell therapies in the field of regenerative medicine. However, the original method for cellular reprogramming, involving four exogenous transcription factors, is characterized by low efficiency. Here, we focused on using epigenetic modifications to enhance the reprogramming efficiency. We hypothesized that there would be a new reprogramming factor involved in DNA demethylation, acting on the promoters of pluripotency-related genes...
January 16, 2018: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334230/dna-methylation-changes-and-evolution-of-rna-based-duplication-in-sus-scrofa-based-on-a-two-step-strategy
#19
Chengchi Fang, Cheng Zou, Yuhua Fu, Jingxuan Li, Yao Li, Yunlong Ma, Shuhong Zhao, Changchun Li
AIM: This study aims to couple DNA methylation changes and evolution of retrogenes. MATERIALS & METHODS: A new two-step strategy was developed to screen retrogenes. Further, reduced representation bisulfite sequencing and RNA-seq data of eight tissues were used to analyze retrogenes. RESULTS: A total of 964 retrocopies were identified and new retrocopies were available for the synthesis of glycans and lipids corresponding to pig phenotypic traits...
January 15, 2018: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330675/recognizing-conserved-non-canonical-localization-patterns-of-toll-like-receptors-in-tissues-and-across-species
#20
REVIEW
Glenn Hamonic, J Alex Pasternak, Heather L Wilson
Toll-like receptors (TLR) 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6 were originally characterized as exclusively expressed on the cell surface and TLR 3, 7, 8 and 9 were said to be localized to the endosomes. However, continued research in this area shows that TLR localization may be altered across cell-types, and in response to stimulation, age or disease. Mucosal surfaces must remain tolerant to the commensal flora and thus intracellular or basal lateral localization of TLRs at mucosal surfaces may be necessary to prevent induction of an inflammatory response to commensal flora while still allowing the possibility for the receptors to prime an immune response when a pathogen has crossed the epithelial barrier...
January 12, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
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