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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535261/recruitment-of-a-lineage-specific-virulence-regulatory-pathway-promotes-intracellular-infection-by-a-plant-pathogen-experimentally-evolved-into-a-legume-symbiont
#1
Delphine Capela, Marta Marchetti, Camille Clérissi, Anthony Perrier, Dorian Guetta, Carine Gris, Marc Valls, Alain Jauneau, Stéphane Cruveiller, Eduardo P C Rocha, Catherine Masson-Boivin
Ecological transitions between different lifestyles, such as pathogenicity, mutualism and saprophytism, have been very frequent in the course of microbial evolution, and often driven by horizontal gene transfer. Yet, how genomes achieve the ecological transition initiated by the transfer of complex biological traits remains poorly known. Here we used experimental evolution, genomics, transcriptomics and high-resolution phenotyping to analyze the evolution of the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum into legume symbionts, following the transfer of a natural plasmid encoding the essential mutualistic genes...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535079/the-tomato-kinase-pti1-contributes-to-production-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-response-to-two-flagellin-derived-peptides-and-promotes-resistance-to-pseudomonas-syringae-infection
#2
Simon Schwizer, Christine M Kraus, Diane M Dunham, Yi Zheng, Noe Fernandez-Pozo, Marina A Pombo, Zhangjun Fei, Suma Chakravarthy, Gregory Martin
The Pti1 kinase was identified from a reverse genetic screen as contributing to pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst). This was unexpected because Pti1 was originally identified as an interactor of the Pto kinase and was implicated in effector-triggered immunity. The tomato genome has two Pti1 genes, referred to as Pti1a and Pti1b. A hairpin-Pti1 (hpPti1) construct was developed and used to generate two independent stable transgenic tomato lines, which had reduced transcript abundance of both genes...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534317/wt1-alternative-splicing-role-of-its-isoforms-in-neuroblastoma
#3
REVIEW
Daniela Maria Rasà, Agata Grazia D'Amico, Grazia Maugeri, Sebastiano Cavallaro, Velia D'Agata
Wilms tumor 1 (WT1), a tumor suppressor gene, was originally identified in the homonymous renal neoplasm but is also involved in other cancers. Its function is still unclear, since it acts both as a pro- and an anti-oncogene. At least 14 WT1 transcriptional variants have been described; yet most investigations have focused on a small number of isoforms. We describe their structural features and review the evidence of their involvement in cancer with emphasis on neuroblastoma. In future, full characterization of all WT1 isoforms is expected to identify new molecular tumor markers and/or therapeutic targets...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534089/comparison-of-microbiomes-between-red-poultry-mite-populations-dermanyssus-gallinae-predominance-of-bartonella-like-bacteria
#4
Jan Hubert, Tomas Erban, Jan Kopecky, Bruno Sopko, Marta Nesvorna, Martina Lichovnikova, Sabine Schicht, Christina Strube, Olivier Sparagano
Blood feeding red poultry mites (RPM) serve as vectors of pathogenic bacteria and viruses among vertebrate hosts including wild birds, poultry hens, mammals, and humans. The microbiome of RPM has not yet been studied by high-throughput sequencing. RPM eggs, larvae, and engorged adult/nymph samples obtained in four poultry houses in Czechia were used for microbiome analyses by Illumina amplicon sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene V4 region. A laboratory RPM population was used as positive control for transcriptome analysis by pyrosequencing with identification of sequences originating from bacteria...
May 22, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533983/comparative-transcriptome-analyses-of-a-late-maturing-mandarin-mutant-and-its-original-cultivar-reveals-gene-expression-profiling-associated-with-citrus-fruit-maturation
#5
Lu Wang, Qingzhu Hua, Yuewen Ma, Guibing Hu, Yonghua Qin
Characteristics of late maturity in fruit are good agronomic traits for extending the harvest period and marketing time. However, underlying molecular basis of the late-maturing mechanism in fruit is largely unknown. In this study, RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to late-maturing characteristics from a late-maturing mutant 'Huawan Wuzishatangju' (HWWZSTJ) (Citrus reticulata Blanco) and its original line 'Wuzishatangju' (WZSTJ). A total of approximately 17...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533789/beans-phaseolus-ssp-as-a-model-for-understanding-crop-evolution
#6
REVIEW
Elena Bitocchi, Domenico Rau, Elisa Bellucci, Monica Rodriguez, Maria L Murgia, Tania Gioia, Debora Santo, Laura Nanni, Giovanna Attene, Roberto Papa
Here, we aim to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the most significant outcomes in the literature regarding the origin of Phaseolus genus, the geographical distribution of the wild species, the domestication process, and the wide spread out of the centers of origin. Phaseolus can be considered as a unique model for the study of crop evolution, and in particular, for an understanding of the convergent phenotypic evolution that occurred under domestication. The almost unique situation that characterizes the Phaseolus genus is that five of its ∼70 species have been domesticated (i...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533357/tlr9-expression-and-secretion-of-lif-by-prostate-cancer-cells-stimulates-accumulation-and-activity-of-polymorphonuclear-mdscs
#7
Haejung Won, Dayson Moreira, Chan Gao, Priyanka Duttagupta, Xingli Zhao, Edwin Manuel, Don Diamond, Yate-Ching Yuan, Zheng Liu, Jeremy Jones, Massimo D'Apuzzo, Sumanta Pal, Marcin Kortylewski
Proinflammatory signals promote prostate tumorigenesis and progression, but their origins and downstream effects remain unclear. We recently demonstrated that the expression of an innate immune receptor, TLR9, by prostate cancer cells is critical for their tumor-propagating potential. We investigated whether cancer cell-intrinsic TLR9 signaling alters composition of the prostate tumor microenvironment. We generated Ras/Myc (RM9) and Myc-driven (Myc-CaP) prostate cancer cells expressing the tetracycline-inducible gene Tlr9 (Tlr9(ON) ) or the control LacZ (LacZ(ON) )...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533082/contrasting-evolutionary-patterns-of-multiple-loci-uncover-new-aspects-in-the-genome-origin-and-evolutionary-history-of-leymus-triticeae-poaceae
#8
Li-Na Sha, Xing Fan, Jun Li, Jin-Qiu Liao, Jian Zeng, Yi Wang, Hou-Yang Kang, Hai-Qin Zhang, You-Liang Zheng, Yong-Hong Zhou
Leymus Hochst. (Triticeae: Poaceae), a group of allopolyploid species with the NsXm genomes, is a perennial genus with diversity in morphology, cytology, ecology, and distribution in the Triticeae. To investigate the genome origin and evolutionary history of Leymus, three unlinked low-copy nuclear genes (Acc1, Pgk1, and GBSSI) and three chloroplast regions (trnL-F, matK, and rbcL) of 32 Leymus species were analyzed with those of 36 diploid species representing 18 basic genomes in the Triticeae. The phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed using Bayesian inference, Maximum parsimony, and NeighborNetmethods...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529490/microgravity-induced-transcriptome-adaptation-in-mouse-paraspinal-longissimus-dorsi-muscle-highlights-insulin-resistance-linked-genes
#9
Guido Gambara, Michele Salanova, Stefano Ciciliot, Sandra Furlan, Martina Gutsmann, Gudrun Schiffl, Ute Ungethuem, Pompeo Volpe, Hanns-Christian Gunga, Dieter Blottner
Microgravity as well as chronic muscle disuse are two causes of low back pain originated at least in part from paraspinal muscle deconditioning. At present no study investigated the complexity of the molecular changes in human or mouse paraspinal muscles exposed to microgravity. The aim of this study was to evaluate longissimus dorsi adaptation to microgravity at both morphological and global gene expression level. C57BL/N6 male mice were flown aboard the BION-M1 biosatellite for 30 days (BF) or housed in a replicate flight habitat on ground (BG)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528327/three-quarters-adrenalectomy-for-infantile-onset-cushing-syndrome-due-to-bilateral-adrenal-hyperplasia-in-mccune-albright-syndrome
#10
Tomoyo Itonaga, Hironori Goto, Manabu Toujigamori, Yasuharu Ohno, Seigo Korematsu, Tatsuro Izumi, Satoshi Narumi, Tomonobu Hasegawa, Kenji Ihara
BACKGROUND: Bilateral adrenalectomy is performed in cases with infantile-onset Cushing syndrome due to bilateral adrenal hyperplasia in McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) because severe Cushing syndrome with heart failure and liver dysfunction can have a lethal outcome. This procedure can completely ameliorate hypercortisolism, although lifetime steroid replacement therapy and steps to prevent adrenal crisis are necessary. Recently, the efficacy of unilateral adrenalectomy has been reported in adult cases of bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia, but there is no consensus regarding the appropriate surgical treatment for bilateral adrenal hyperplasia in MAS...
May 19, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527972/genetic-and-epigenetic-alterations-in-meningiomas
#11
REVIEW
Vasiliki Galani, Evangeli Lampri, Anna Varouktsi, George Alexiou, Antigoni Mitselou, Athanasios P Kyritsis
Meningiomas originate from the arachnoid layer of the meninges and divided histologically into three grades: benign (grade I), atypical (grade II), and malignant meningiomas (grade III). Genetic alterations in grade I meningiomas include frequent deletions of chromosomal locus 22q12 and NF2 gene mutations and uncommon somatic SMARCB1 and SMARCE1gene mutations; In grade II meningiomas, chromosomal losses occur on 1p, 22q, 14q, 18q, 10, and 6q, and gains on 20q, 12q, 15q, 1q, 9q, and 17q; In grade III meningiomas, losses have been recognized on 6q, 10, and 14q and alterations of PTEN, CDKN2A and CDKN2B genes...
May 3, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527813/enhancer-evolution-and-the-origins-of-morphological-novelty
#12
REVIEW
Mark Rebeiz, Miltos Tsiantis
A central goal of evolutionary biology is to understand the genetic origin of morphological novelties-i.e. anatomical structures unique to a taxonomic group. Elaboration of morphology during development depends on networks of regulatory genes that activate patterned gene expression through transcriptional enhancer regions. We summarize recent case studies and genome-wide investigations that have uncovered diverse mechanisms though which new enhancers arise. We also discuss how these enhancer-originating mechanisms have clarified the history of genetic networks underlying diversification of genital structures in flies, limbs and neural crest in chordates, and plant leaves...
May 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526791/pseudomonas-chlororaphis-produces-two-distinct-r-tailocins-that-contribute-to-bacterial-competition-in-biofilms-and-on-roots
#13
Robert J Dorosky, Jun Myoung Yu, Leland S Pierson, Elizabeth A Pierson
R-type tailocins are high molecular weight bacteriocins that resemble bacteriophage tails and are encoded within the genomes of many Pseudomonas species. In this study, analysis of the P. chlororaphis 30-84 R-tailocin gene cluster revealed that it encodes the structural components to produce two R-tailocins of different ancestral origin. Two distinct R-tailocin populations differing in length were observed in UV induced lysates of P. chlororaphis 30-84 via transmission electron microscopy. Mutants defective in the production of one or both R-tailocins demonstrated that the killing spectrum of each tailocin is limited to Pseudomonas species...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523731/wble2-transcription-factor-in-streptomyces-griseus-s4-7-plays-an-important-role-in-plant-protection
#14
Hyun Ji Cho, Young Sang Kwon, Da-Ran Kim, Gyeongjun Cho, Seong Won Hong, Dong-Won Bae, Youn-Sig Kwak
Streptomyces griseus S4-7 was originally isolated from the strawberry rhizosphere as a microbial agent responsible for Fusarium wilt suppressive soils. S. griseus S4-7 shows specific and pronounced antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae. In the Streptomyces genus, the whi transcription factors are regulators of sporulation, cell differentiation, septation, and secondary metabolites production. wblE2 function as a regulator has emerged as a new group in whi transcription factors. In this study, we reveal the involvement of the wblE2 transcription factor in the plant-protection by S...
May 19, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521055/tying-the-knot-occurrence-and-possible-significance-of-gene-fusions-in-plant-metabolism-and-beyond
#15
Jillian M Hagel, Peter J Facchini
Gene fusions have recently attracted attention especially in the field of plant specialized metabolism. The occurrence of a gene fusion, in which originally separate gene products are combined into a single polypeptide, often corresponds to the functional association of individual components within a single metabolic pathway. Examples include gene fusions implicated in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid (BIA), terpenoid, and amino acid biosynthetic pathways, in which distinct domains within a fusion catalyze consecutive, yet independent reactions...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515787/a-computational-approach-for-the-functional-classification-of-the-epigenome
#16
Francesco Gandolfi, Anna Tramontano
BACKGROUND: In the last decade, advanced functional genomics approaches and deep sequencing have allowed large-scale mapping of histone modifications and other epigenetic marks, highlighting functional relationships between chromatin organization and genome function. Here, we propose a novel approach to explore functional interactions between different epigenetic modifications and extract combinatorial profiles that can be used to annotate the chromatin in a finite number of functional classes...
2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515215/an-outbreak-of-ndm-1-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-a-dutch-hospital-with-interspecies-transfer-of-the-resistance-plasmid-and-unexpected-occurrence-in-unrelated-healthcare-centers
#17
Thijs Bosch, Suzanne P M Lutgens, Mirjam H A Hermans, Peter C Wever, Peter M Schneeberger, Nicole H M Renders, Alexander C A P Leenders, Jan A J W Kluytmans, Annelot Schoffelen, Daan Notermans, Sandra Witteveen, Erik Bathoorn, Leo M Schouls
Introduction. In the Netherlands, the number of cases with New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM)-positive Enterobacteriaceae is low. Here, we report an outbreak of NDM-1 producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Dutch hospital with interspecies transfer of the resistance plasmid and unexpected occurrence in other unrelated healthcare centers (HCCs).Methods. Next-generation sequencing was performed on 250 carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolates including 42 NDM-positive isolates obtained from 29 persons at the outbreak site...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512236/focus-on-cutaneous-and-uveal-melanoma-specificities
#18
REVIEW
Charlotte Pandiani, Guillaume E Béranger, Justine Leclerc, Robert Ballotti, Corine Bertolotto
Cutaneous melanoma (CM) and uveal melanoma (UM) derive from cutaneous and uveal melanocytes that share the same embryonic origin and display the same cellular function. However, the etiopathogenesis and biological behaviors of these melanomas are very different. CM and UM display distinct landscapes of genetic alterations and show different metastatic routes and tropisms. Hence, therapeutic improvements achieved in the last few years for the treatment of CM have failed to ameliorate the clinical outcomes of patients with UM...
April 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511665/clone-temporal-centrality-measures-for-incomplete-sequences-of-graph-snapshots
#19
Moritz Hanke, Ronja Foraita
BACKGROUND: Different phenomena like the spread of a disease, social interactions or the biological relation between genes can be thought of as dynamic networks. These can be represented as a sequence of static graphs (so called graph snapshots). Based on this graph sequences, classical vertex centrality measures like closeness and betweenness centrality have been extended to quantify the importance of single vertices within a dynamic network. An implicit assumption for the calculation of temporal centrality measures is that the graph sequence contains all information about the network dynamics over time...
May 16, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507536/temporal-genomic-phylogeny-reconstruction-indicates-a-geospatial-transmission-path-of-salmonella-cerro-in-the-united-states-and-a-clade-specific-loss-of-hydrogen-sulfide-production
#20
Jasna Kovac, Kevin J Cummings, Lorraine D Rodriguez-Rivera, Laura M Carroll, Anil Thachil, Martin Wiedmann
Salmonella Cerro has become one of the most prevalent Salmonella serotypes isolated from dairy cattle in several U.S. states, including New York where it represented 36% of all Salmonella isolates of bovine origin in 2015. This serotype is commonly isolated from dairy cattle with clinical signs of salmonellosis, including diarrhea and fever, although it has also been identified in herds without evidence of clinical disease or decreased production. To better understand the transmission patterns and drivers of its geographic spread, we have studied the genomic similarity and microevolution of S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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