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Bacteria evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087421/physiology-anaerobes-and-the-origin-of-mitosing-cells-50-years-on
#1
William F Martin
Endosymbiotic theory posits that some organelles or structures of eukaryotic cells stem from free-living prokaryotes that became endosymbionts within a host cell. Endosymbiosis has a long and turbulent history of controversy and debate going back over 100 years. The 1967 paper by Lynn Sagan (later Lynn Margulis) forced a reluctant field to take endosymbiotic theory seriously and to incorporate it into the fabric of evolutionary thinking. Margulis envisaged three cellular partners associating in series at eukaryotic origin: the host (an engulfing bacterium), the mitochondrion (a respiring bacterium), and the flagellum (a spirochaete), with lineages descended from that flagellated eukaryote subsequently acquiring plastids from cyanobacteria, but on multiple different occasions in her 1967 account...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087277/identification-of-ubact-a-ubiquitin-like-protein-along-with-other-homologous-components-of-a-conjugation-system-and-the-proteasome-in-different-gram-negative-bacteria
#2
Gilad Lehmann, Ronald G Udasin, Ido Livneh, Aaron Ciechanover
Systems analogous to the eukaryotic ubiquitin-proteasome system have been previously identified in Archaea, and Actinobacteria (gram-positive), but not in gram-negative bacteria. Here, we report the bioinformatic identification of a novel prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein, which we name UBact. The phyletic distribution of UBact covers at least five gram-negative bacterial phyla, including Nitrospirae, Armatimonadetes, Verrucomicroba, Nitrospinae, and Planctomycetes. Additionally, it was identified in seven candidate (uncultured) phyla and one Archaeon...
January 10, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077029/the-behavior-of-mobile-genetic-elements-mges-in-different-environments
#3
Masaki Shintani
Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) including plasmids have an important role in the rapid evolution and adaptation of bacteria. Here, the behavior of MGEs in different environments is reviewed, in particular, behavior of the plasmid pCAR1, a carbazole-degradative plasmid isolated from Pseudomonas resinovorans CA10. pCAR1 belongs to incompatibility P-7 group and is self-transmissible among different bacteria. Comparisons of changes in the transcriptome of different host strains caused by carrying pCAR1 revealed common responses in the hosts and host-specific responses...
January 12, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076891/comparative-genomics-of-mortierella-elongata-and-its-bacterial-endosymbiont-mycoavidus-cysteinexigens
#4
J Uehling, A Gryganskyi, K Hameed, T Tschaplinski, P K Misztal, S Wu, A Desirò, N Vande Pol, Z Du, A Zienkiewicz, K Zienkiewicz, E Morin, E Tisserant, R Splivallo, M Hainaut, B Henrissat, R Ohm, A Kuo, J Yan, A Lipzen, M Nolan, K LaButti, K Barry, A H Goldstein, J Labbé, C Schadt, G Tuskan, I Grigoriev, F Martin, R Vilgalys, G Bonito
Endosymbiosis of bacteria by eukaryotes is a defining feature of cellular evolution. In addition to well known bacterial origins for mitochondria and chloroplasts, multiple origins of bacterial endosymbiosis are known within the cells of diverse animals, plants, and fungi. Early-diverging lineages of terrestrial fungi harbor endosymbiotic bacteria belonging to the Burkholderiaceae. We sequenced the metagenome of the soil-inhabiting fungus Mortierella elongata and assembled the complete circular chromosome of its endosymbiont, Mycoavidus cysteinexigens, which we place within in a lineage of endofungal symbionts that are sister clade to Burkholderia...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076289/from-bacteria-to-chloroplasts-evolution-of-the-chloroplast-srp-system
#5
Dominik Ziehe, Beatrix Dünschede, Danja Schünemann
Chloroplasts derive from a prokaryotic symbiont that lost most of its genes during evolution. As a result, the great majority of chloroplast proteins are encoded in the nucleus and are posttranslationally imported into the organelle. The chloroplast genome encodes only a few proteins. These include several multispan thylakoid membrane proteins which are synthesized on thylakoid-bound ribosomes and cotranslationally inserted into the membrane. During evolution, ancient prokaryotic targeting machineries were adapted and combined with novel targeting mechanisms to facilitate post- and cotranslational protein transport in chloroplasts...
January 10, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073551/the-common-bloom-forming-cyanobacterium-microcystis-is-prone-to-a-wide-array-of-microbial-antagonists
#6
REVIEW
Jeroen Van Wichelen, Pieter Vanormelingen, Geoffrey A Codd, Wim Vyverman
Many degraded waterbodies around the world are subject to strong proliferations of cyanobacteria - notorious for their toxicity, high biomass build-up and negative impacts on aquatic food webs - the presence of which puts serious limits on the human use of affected water bodies. Cyanobacterial blooms are largely regarded as trophic dead ends since they are a relatively poor food source for zooplankton. As a consequence, their population dynamics are generally attributed to changes in abiotic conditions (bottom-up control)...
May 2016: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071009/evolution-of-free-amino-acids-biogenic-amines-and-n-nitrosoamines-throughout-ageing-in-organic-fermented-beef
#7
Karolina M Wójciak, Elżbieta Solska
BACKGROUND: In recent years, interest in uncured meat products has grown and studies were carried out on the use of substances which could replace nitrites, such as acid whey. In spite of this problem in fermented meat products, there is no information regarding the effects of prolonged ageing on the formation of chemical (nitrosoamines, biogenic amines, secondary lipid oxidation products) and microbiological (L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, OLD) toxicants in fermented beef marinated with acid whey...
April 2016: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066124/cymbomonas-tetramitiformis-a-peculiar-prasinophyte-with-a-taste-for-bacteria-sheds-light-on-plastid-evolution
#8
REVIEW
Przemysław Gagat, Paweł Mackiewicz
Cymbomonas tetramitiformis is a peculiar green alga that unites in one cell the abilities of photosynthesis and phagocytosis, which makes it a very useful model for the study of the evolution of plastid endosymbiosis. We have pondered over this issue and propose an evolutionary scenario of trophic strategies in eukaryotes, including primary and secondary plastid endosymbioses. C. tetramitiformis is a prototroph, just like the common ancestor of Archaeplastida was, and can synthesize most small organic molecules contrary to other eukaryotic phagotrophs, e...
2017: Symbiosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065710/ecoimmunology-and-microbial-ecology-contributions-to-avian-behavior-physiology-and-life-history
#9
REVIEW
Jessica K Evans, Katherine L Buchanan, Simon C Griffith, Kirk C Klasing, BriAnne Addison
Bacteria have had a fundamental impact on vertebrate evolution not only by affecting the evolution of the immune system, but also generating complex interactions with behavior and physiology. Advances in molecular techniques have started to reveal the intricate ways in which bacteria and vertebrates have coevolved. Here, we focus on birds as an example system for understanding the fundamental impact bacteria have had on the evolution of avian immune defenses, behavior, physiology, reproduction and life histories...
January 5, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065507/crystal-structure-of-4-6-%C3%AE-glucanotransferase-supports-diet-driven-evolution-of-gh70-enzymes-from-%C3%AE-amylases-in-oral-bacteria
#10
Yuxiang Bai, Joana Gangoiti, Bauke W Dijkstra, Lubbert Dijkhuizen, Tjaard Pijning
Food processing and refining has dramatically changed the human diet, but little is known about whether this affected the evolution of enzymes in human microbiota. We present evidence that glycoside hydrolase family 70 (GH70) glucansucrases from lactobacilli, synthesizing α-glucan-type extracellular polysaccharides from sucrose, likely evolved from GH13 starch-acting α-amylases, via GH70 4,6-α-glucanotransferases. The crystal structure of a 4,6-α-glucanotransferase explains the mode of action and unique product specificity of these enzymes...
December 21, 2016: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057934/the-driving-force-of-prophages-and-crispr-cas-system-in-the-evolution-of-cronobacter-sakazakii
#11
Haiyan Zeng, Jumei Zhang, Chensi Li, Tengfei Xie, Na Ling, Qingping Wu, Yingwang Ye
Cronobacter sakazakii is an important foodborne pathogens causing rare but life-threatening diseases in neonates and infants. CRISPR-Cas system is a new prokaryotic defense system that provides adaptive immunity against phages, latter play an vital role on the evolution and pathogenicity of host bacteria. In this study, we found that genome sizes of C. sakazakii strains had a significant positive correlation with total genome sizes of prophages. Prophages contributed to 16.57% of the genetic diversity (pan genome) of C...
January 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057731/extremely-low-genomic-diversity-of-rickettsia-japonica-distributed-in-japan
#12
Arzuba Akter, Tadasuke Ooka, Yasuhiro Gotoh, Seigo Yamamoto, Hiromi Fujita, Fumio Terasoma, Kouji Kida, Masakatsu Taira, Fumiko Nakadouzono, Mutsuyo Gokuden, Manabu Hirano, Mamoru Miyashiro, Kouichi Inari, Yukie Shimazu, Kenji Tabara, Atsushi Toyoda, Dai Yoshimura, Takehiko Itoh, Tomokazu Kitano, Mitsuhiko P Sato, Keisuke Katsura, Shakhinur Islam Mondal, Yoshitoshi Ogura, Shuji Ando, Tetsuya Hayashi
Rickettsiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that have small genomes as a result of reductive evolution. Many Rickettsia species of the spotted fever group (SFG) cause tick-borne diseases known as "spotted fevers." The life cycle of SFG rickettsiae is closely associated with that of the tick, which is generally thought to act as a bacterial vector and reservoir that maintains the bacterium through transstadial and transovarial transmission. Each SFG member is thought to have adapted to a specific tick species, thus restricting the bacterial distribution to a relatively limited geographic region...
January 4, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054641/quorum-quenching-limits-quorum-sensing-exploitation-by-signal-negative-invaders
#13
Mélanie Tannières, Julien Lang, Claudie Barnier, Jacqui A Shykoff, Denis Faure
Some bacteria produce and perceive quorum-sensing (QS) signals that coordinate several behaviours, including the costly processes that are exoenzyme production and plasmid transfer. In the case of plasmid transfer, the emergence of QS signal-altered invaders and their policing are poorly documented. In Agrobacterium tumefaciens, the virulence Ti-plasmid encodes both synthesis and sensing of QS-signals, which promote its transfer from a donor to a recipient cell. Here, we reported that QS-altered A. tumefaciens mutants arose during experimental evolution...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049427/identification-of-candidate-infection-genes-from-the-model-entomopathogenic-nematode-heterorhabditis-bacteriophora
#14
Jonathan Vadnal, Ramesh Ratnappan, Melissa Keaney, Eric Kenney, Ioannis Eleftherianos, Damien O'Halloran, John M Hawdon
BACKGROUND: Despite important progress in the field of innate immunity, our understanding of host immune responses to parasitic nematode infections lags behind that of responses to microbes. A limiting factor has been the obligate requirement for a vertebrate host which has hindered investigation of the parasitic nematode infective process. The nematode parasite Heterorhabditis bacteriophora offers great potential as a model to genetically dissect the process of infection. With its mutualistic Photorhabdus luminescens bacteria, H...
January 3, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049420/horizontal-gene-transfer-drives-the-evolution-of-rh50-permeases-in-prokaryotes
#15
Giorgio Matassi
BACKGROUND: Rh50 proteins belong to the family of ammonia permeases together with their Amt/MEP homologs. Ammonia permeases increase the permeability of NH3/NH4(+) across cell membranes and are believed to be involved in excretion of toxic ammonia and in the maintenance of pH homeostasis. RH50 genes are widespread in eukaryotes but absent in land plants and fungi, and remarkably rare in prokaryotes. The evolutionary history of RH50 genes in prokaryotes is just beginning to be unveiled...
January 3, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043878/quantitative-proteome-analysis-of-an-antibiotic-resistant-escherichia-coli-exposed-to-tetracycline-reveals-multiple-affected-metabolic-and-peptidoglycan-processes
#16
Daniela Jones-Dias, Ana Sofia Carvalho, Inês Barata Moura, Vera Manageiro, Gilberto Igrejas, Manuela Caniça, Rune Matthiesen
: Tetracyclines are among the most commonly used antibiotics administrated to farm animals for disease treatment and prevention, contributing to the worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance in animal and human pathogens. Although tetracycline mechanisms of resistance are well known, the role of metabolism in bacterial reaction to antibiotic stress is still an important assignment and could contribute to the understanding of tetracycline related stress response. In this study, spectral counts-based label free quantitative proteomics has been applied to study the response to tetracycline of the environmental-borne Escherichia coli EcAmb278 isolate soluble proteome...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040175/impact-of-nacl-reduction-on-lactic-acid-bacteria-during-fermentation-of-nocellara-del-belice-table-olives
#17
Paola Zinno, Barbara Guantario, Giuditta Perozzi, Gianni Pastore, Chiara Devirgiliis
Table olives are widely consumed worldwide but, due to the presence of NaCl in fermenting brines, they contain high levels of sodium. A promising strategy to lower sodium content is the reduction or substitution of NaCl in brines with other chlorides. However, these procedures may impact safety, spoilage, as well as quality and technological properties, including the evolution and final composition of the fermenting microbiota. In the present work the effects of partially replacing NaCl with KCl in fermenting brines on the microbiological quality of Nocellara del Belice olives produced by Spanish style (Sivigliano) or Castelvetrano methods have been analyzed...
May 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035594/the-therapeutic-applications-of-antimicrobial-peptides-amps-a-patent-review
#18
REVIEW
Hee-Kyoung Kang, Cheolmin Kim, Chang Ho Seo, Yoonkyung Park
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are small molecules with a broad spectrum of antibiotic activities against bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and viruses and cytotoxic activity on cancer cells, in addition to anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. Therefore, AMPs have garnered interest as novel therapeutic agents. Because of the rapid increase in drug-resistant pathogenic microorganisms, AMPs from synthetic and natural sources have been developed using alternative antimicrobial strategies. This article presents a broad analysis of patents referring to the therapeutic applications of AMPs since 2009...
January 2017: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027474/solubilization-of-pb-bearing-apatite-pb5-po4-3cl-by-bacteria-isolated-from-polluted-environment
#19
Łukasz Drewniak, Aleksandra Skłodowska, Maciej Manecki, Tomasz Bajda
The main purpose of this study was to test if microorganisms isolated from heavily polluted environments can enhance dissolution of Pb-apatite (pyromorphite) resulting in remobilization of lead. Three bacterial strains belonging to the genus Pseudomonas isolated from underground mines in SW Poland were used in batch experiments of pyromorphite solubilization carried out in phosphate reach and phosphate poor media. Bacteria growth and evolution of Pb and phosphate concentrations as well as pH were determined...
December 21, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027024/whop-a-genomic-region-associated-with-woody-hosts-in-the-pseudomonas-syringae-complex-contributes-to-the-virulence-and-fitness-of-pseudomonas-savastanoi-pv-savastanoi-in-olive-plants
#20
Eloy Caballo-Ponce, Pieter van Dillewijn, Regina-Michaela Wittich, Cayo Ramos
Bacteria from the Pseudomonas syringae complex belonging to phylogroups 1 (PG1) and 3 (PG3) isolated from woody hosts share a genomic region herein referred to as WHOP (from woody host and Pseudomonas), which is absent in strains infecting herbaceous organs. In this work, we show that this region is also encoded in P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum (PG1) and six additional members of PG3: Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. retacarpa, three P. syringae pathovars, Pseudomonas meliae and Pseudomonas amygdali. Partial conservation of the WHOP occurs in only a few PG2 strains...
December 27, 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
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