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Bacteria evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527408/subcellular-localization-based-comparative-study-on-radioresistant-bacteria-a-novel-approach-to-mine-proteins-involve-in-radioresistance
#1
Divya Vishambra, Malay Srivastava, Kamal Dev, Varun Jaiswal
Radioresistant bacteria (RRB) are among the most radioresistant organisms and has a unique role in evolution. Along with the evolutionary role, radioresistant organisms play important role in paper industries, bioremediation, vaccine development and possibility in anti-aging and anti-cancer treatment. The study of radiation resistance in RRB was mainly focused on cytosolic mechanisms such as DNA repair mechanism, cell cleansing activity and high antioxidant activity. Although it was known that protein localized on outer areas of cell play role in resistance towards extreme condition but the mechanisms/proteins localized on the outer area of cells are not studied for radioresistance...
May 10, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525580/a-new-formulation-of-random-genetic-drift-and-its-application-to-the-evolution-of-cell-populations
#2
Yuxin Chen, Ding Tong, Chung-I Wu
Random genetic drift, or stochastic change in gene frequency, is a fundamental evolutionary force that is usually defined within the ideal Wright-Fisher (WF) population. However, as the theory is increasingly applied to populations that deviate strongly from the ideal model, a paradox of random drift has emerged. When drift is defined by the WF model, it becomes stronger as the population size, N, decreases. However, the intensity of competition decreases when N decreases and, hence, drift might become weaker...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525572/crosstalk-between-vertical-and-horizontal-gene-transfer-plasmid-replication-control-by-a-conjugative-relaxase
#3
Fabián Lorenzo-Díaz, Cris Fernández-López, Rudi Lurz, Alicia Bravo, Manuel Espinosa
Horizontal gene transfer is a key process in the evolution of bacteria and also represents a source of genetic variation in eukaryotes. Among elements participating in gene transfer, thousands of small (<10 kb) mobile bacterial plasmids that replicate by the rolling circle mechanism represent a driving force in the spread of antibiotic resistances. In general, these plasmids are built as genetic modules that encode a replicase, an antibiotic-resistance determinant, and a relaxase that participates in their conjugative mobilization...
May 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521336/chemical-ecology-of-antibiotic-production-by-actinomycetes
#4
Anne van der Meij, Sarah F Worsley, Matthew I Hutchings, Gilles P van Wezel
Actinomycetes are a diverse family of filamentous bacteria that produce a plethora of natural products relevant for agriculture, biotechnology and medicine, including the majority of the antibiotics we use in the clinic. Rather than as free-living bacteria, many actinomycetes have evolved to live in symbiosis with among others plants, fungi, insects and sponges. As a common theme, these organisms profit from the natural products and enzymes produced by the actinomycetes, for example, for protection against pathogenic microbes, for growth promotion or for the degradation of complex natural polymers such as lignocellulose...
May 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521174/high-degree-of-specificity-in-the-association-between-symbiotic-betaproteobacteria-and-the-host-euplotes-ciliophora-euplotia
#5
Claudia Vannini, Cristiana Sigona, Martin Hahn, Giulio Petroni, Masahiro Fujishima
The Betaproteobacteria-Euplotes association is an obligatory symbiotic system involving a monophyletic group of ciliate species and two betaproteobacteria species which can be alternatively present. Recent data showed that this relationship has been established more than once and that several symbiont-substitution events took place, revealing a complex and intriguing evolutionary path. Due to the different evolutionary pathways followed by the different symbionts, each bacterial strain could have differentially evolved and/or lost functional traits...
April 13, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521164/biotransformation-of-hexabromocyclododecanes-with-hexachlorocyclohexane-transforming-sphingobium-chinhatense-strain-ip26
#6
Norbert V Heeb, Andreas Grubelnik, Birgit Geueke, Hans-Peter E Kohler, Peter Lienemann
Bacterial evolution has resulted in the appearance of several Sphingomonadacea strains that gained the ability to metabolize hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs). HCHs have been widely used as pesticides but were banned under the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in 2009. Here we present evidence for bacterial transformation reactions of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), which are structurally related to HCHs. HBCDs were used as flame retardants. They are now also considered as POPs and their production and use is restricted since 2013...
May 11, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513418/flagellar-expression-in-clinical-isolates-of-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae
#7
Alejandro Carabarin-Lima, Patricia Lozano-Zarain, Miguel Castañeda-Lucio, Claudia Fabiola Martínez de la Peña, Julieta Martinez-Garcia, Norarizbeth Lara Flores, Elías Campos de la Cruz, Sirenia González-Posos, Rosa Del Carmen Rocha-Gracia
PURPOSE: Haemophilus influenzae is a commensal organism found in the upper respiratory tract of humans. When H. influenzae becomes a pathogen, these bacteria can move out of their commensal niche and cause multiple respiratory tract diseases such as otitis media, sinusitis, conjunctivitis and bronchitis in children, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults. However, H. influenzae is currently considered a non-flagellate bacterium. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: In this study, 90 clinical isolates of H...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512703/metal-homeostasis-in-bacteria-the-role-of-arsr-smtb-family-of-transcriptional-repressors-in-combating-varying-metal-concentrations-in-the-environment
#8
REVIEW
Rudra P Saha, Saikat Samanta, Surajit Patra, Diganta Sarkar, Abinit Saha, Manoj Kumar Singh
Bacterial infections cause severe medical problems worldwide, resulting in considerable death and loss of capital. With the ever-increasing rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the lack of development of new antibiotics, research on metal-based antimicrobial therapy has now gained pace. Metal ions are essential for survival, but can be highly toxic to organisms if their concentrations are not strictly controlled. Through evolution, bacteria have acquired complex metal-management systems that allow them to acquire metals that they need for survival in different challenging environments while evading metal toxicity...
May 16, 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512290/evolution-of-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-after-dcd-renal-transplantation
#9
Hong Jiang, Luxi Cao, Lihui Qu, Tingting Qu, Guangjun Liu, Rending Wang, Bingjue Li, Yuchen Wang, Chaoqun Ying, Miao Chen, Yingying Lu, Shi Feng, Yonghong Xiao, Junwen Wang, Jianyong Wu, Jianghua Chen
Infection after renal transplantation remains a major cause of morbidity and death, especially infection from the extensively drug-resistant bacteria, A. baumannii. A total of fourteen A. baumannii isolates were isolated from the donors' preserved fluid from DCD (donation after cardiac death) renal transplantation and four isolates in the recipients' draining liquid at the Kidney Disease Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, from March 2013 to November 2014. An outbreak of A...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511646/emergence-of-microbial-diversity-due-to-cross-feeding-interactions-in-a-spatial-model-of-gut-microbial-metabolism
#10
Milan J A van Hoek, Roeland M H Merks
BACKGROUND: The human gut contains approximately 10(14) bacteria, belonging to hundreds of different species. Together, these microbial species form a complex food web that can break down nutrient sources that our own digestive enzymes cannot handle, including complex polysaccharides, producing short chain fatty acids and additional metabolites, e.g., vitamin K. Microbial diversity is important for colonic health: Changes in the composition of the microbiota have been associated with inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, obesity and Crohn's disease, and make the microbiota more vulnerable to infestation by harmful species, e...
May 16, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510224/dna-supercoiling-is-a-fundamental-regulatory-principle-in-the-control-of-bacterial-gene-expression
#11
REVIEW
Charles J Dorman, Matthew J Dorman
Although it has become routine to consider DNA in terms of its role as a carrier of genetic information, it is also an important contributor to the control of gene expression. This regulatory principle arises from its structural properties. DNA is maintained in an underwound state in most bacterial cells and this has important implications both for DNA storage in the nucleoid and for the expression of genetic information. Underwinding of the DNA through reduction in its linking number potentially imparts energy to the duplex that is available to drive DNA transactions, such as transcription, replication and recombination...
September 2016: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510216/dna-supercoiling-is-a-fundamental-regulatory-principle-in-the-control-of-bacterial-gene-expression
#12
REVIEW
Charles J Dorman, Matthew J Dorman
Although it has become routine to consider DNA in terms of its role as a carrier of genetic information, it is also an important contributor to the control of gene expression. This regulatory principle arises from its structural properties. DNA is maintained in an underwound state in most bacterial cells and this has important implications both for DNA storage in the nucleoid and for the expression of genetic information. Underwinding of the DNA through reduction in its linking number potentially imparts energy to the duplex that is available to drive DNA transactions, such as transcription, replication and recombination...
November 2016: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509909/experimental-evolution-and-the-dynamics-of-adaptation-and-genome-evolution-in-microbial-populations
#13
Richard E Lenski
Evolution is an on-going process, and it can be studied experimentally in organisms with rapid generations. My team has maintained 12 populations of Escherichia coli in a simple laboratory environment for >25 years and 60 000 generations. We have quantified the dynamics of adaptation by natural selection, seen some of the populations diverge into stably coexisting ecotypes, described changes in the bacteria's mutation rate, observed the new ability to exploit a previously untapped carbon source, characterized the dynamics of genome evolution and used parallel evolution to identify the genetic targets of selection...
May 16, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507553/virus-bacteria-rice-co-infection-in-africa-field-estimation-reciprocal-effects-molecular-mechanisms-and-evolutionary-implications
#14
Charlotte Tollenaere, Severine Lacombe, Issa Wonni, Mariam Barro, Cyrielle Ndougonna, Fatoumata Gnacko, Drissa Sérémé, Jonathan M Jacobs, Eugénie Hebrard, Sebastien Cunnac, Christophe Brugidou
Simultaneous infection of a single plant by various pathogen species is increasingly recognized as an important modulator of host resistance and a driver of pathogen evolution. Because plants in agro-ecosystems are the target of a multitude of pathogenic microbes, co-infection could be frequent, and consequently important to consider. This is particularly true for rapidly intensifying crops, such as rice in Africa. This study investigated potential interactions between pathogens causing two of the major rice diseases in Africa: the Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) and the bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzicola (Xoc) in order to: 1/ document virus-bacteria co-infection in rice in the field, 2/ explore experimentally their consequences in terms of symptom development and pathogen multiplication, 3/ test the hypothesis of underlying molecular mechanisms of interactions and 4/ explore potential evolutionary consequences...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506494/sociomics-using-omic-approaches-to-understand-social-evolution
#15
REVIEW
Melanie Ghoul, Sandra B Andersen, Stuart A West
All of life is social, from genes cooperating to form organisms, to animals cooperating to form societies. Omic approaches offer exceptional opportunities to solve major outstanding problems in the study of how sociality evolves. First, omics can be used to clarify the extent and form of sociality in natural populations. This is especially useful in species where it is difficult to study social traits in natural populations, such as bacteria and other microbes. Second, omics can be used to examine the consequences of sociality for genome evolution and gene expression...
May 12, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504929/evolution-of-an-intricate-j-protein-network-driving-protein-disaggregation-in-eukaryotes
#16
Nadinath B Nillegoda, Antonia Stank, Duccio Malinverni, Niels Alberts, Anna Szlachcic, Alessandro Barducci, Paolo De Los Rios, Rebecca C Wade, Bernd Bukau
Hsp70 participates in a broad spectrum of protein folding processes extending from nascent chain folding to protein disaggregation. This versatility in function is achieved through a diverse family of J-protein cochaperones that select substrates for Hsp70. Substrate selection is further tuned by transient complexation between different classes of J-proteins, which expands the range of protein aggregates targeted by metazoan Hsp70 for disaggregation. We assessed the prevalence and evolutionary conservation of J-protein complexation and cooperation in disaggregation...
May 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504498/-pediatric-case-report-spinal-epidural-abscess
#17
Mauricio Pons, Leila Pérez, Facundo Juárez
Spinal epidural abscess is an uncommon pathology. It has an incidence of one case per 100 000 individuals. An increase is observed due to the raise of risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, spinal abnormalities, tattoos, acupuncture, epidural analgesia, and a greater availability of imaging methods. It is a purulent collection located between the dura and the medullary canal. The most common germs are Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacteria. Without timely treatment, it evolves to medullary compression and permanent neurological sequelae...
June 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497241/fighting-against-evolution-of-antibiotic-resistance-by-utilizing-evolvable-antimicrobial-drugs
#18
REVIEW
Mehmet Fatih Cansizoglu, Erdal Toprak
Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide public health problem (Bush et al. in Nat Rev Microbiol 9:894-896, 2011). The lack of effective therapies against resistant bacteria globally leads to prolonged treatments, increased mortality, and inflating health care costs (Oz et al. in Mol Biol Evol 31:2387-2401, 2014; Martinez in Science 321:365-367, 2008; Lipsitch et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:1938-1943, 2000; Taubes in Science 321:356-361, 2008; Laxminarayan et al. in Lancet, 2016; Laxminarayan et al. in Lancet Infect Dis 13:1057-1098, 2013)...
May 11, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497122/the-microbiome-mitochondrion-connection-common-ancestries-common-mechanisms-common-goals
#19
Alfredo Franco-Obregón, Jack A Gilbert
Lynn Margulis in the 1960s elegantly proposed a shared phylogenetic history between bacteria and mitochondria; this relationship has since become a cornerstone of modern cellular biology. Yet, an interesting facet of the interaction between the microbiome and mitochondria has been mostly ignored, that of the systems biology relationship that underpins host health and longevity. The mitochondria are descendants of primordial aerobic pleomorphic bacteria (likely genus Rickettsia) that entered (literally and functionally) into a mutualistic partnership with ancient anaerobic microbes (likely Archaea)...
May 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496940/complete-genome-sequence-of-bacteriochlorophyll-synthesizing-bacterium-porphyrobacter-neustonensis-dsm-9434
#20
Qian Liu, Yue-Hong Wu, Hong Cheng, Lin Xu, Chun-Sheng Wang, Xue-Wei Xu
The genus Porphyrobacter belongs to aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria cluster. Porphyrobacter neustonensis DSM 9434 was isolated from a eutrophic freshwater pond in Australia, and is able to synthesize Bacteriochlorophyll a as well as grow under aerobic conditions. It is the type species of the genus Porphyrobacter. Here we describe the characteristics of the strain DSM 9434, including the genome sequence and annotation, synthesis of BChl a, and metabolic pathways of the organism. The genome of strain DSM 9434 comprises 3,090,363 bp and contains 2,902 protein-coding genes, 47 tRNA genes and 6 rRNA genes...
2017: Standards in Genomic Sciences
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