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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778432/the-effect-of-exposure-to-sub-inhibitory-concentrations-of-hypochlorite-and-quaternary-ammonium-compounds-on-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#1
Aya Mahmoud Nasr, Marwa Salah Mostafa, Heba Hamed Arnaout, Amal Ali Ali Elshimy
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas is a group of medically important species that inhabit a wide range of niches, including hospital environments. Controversies have emerged about the possible link between improper use of disinfectants and the emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of exposure of antibiotic-susceptible Pseudomonas isolates to sub-inhibitory concentrations of 2 disinfectants-didecyldimonium chloride and sodium hypochlorite-on their antibiotic susceptibility patterns...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778163/impacts-of-sodium-hydroxide-and-sodium-hypochlorite-aging-on-polyvinylidene-fluoride-membranes-fabricated-with-different-methods
#2
Qilong Wu, Xihui Zhang, Guodong Cao
This study compared the effects of chemical aging on the polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes fabricated with the methods of non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS) (named NIPS-PVDF) and thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) (named TIPS-PVDF). The chemical solutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were chosen at the concentration of 5000mg/L. The equivalence of 5 and 10years was respectively selected as the time of aging. The physicochemical evolutions of membrane aging are characterized on the base of morphology analysis, chemical components, permeation ability and mechanical properties...
May 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776407/comparative-genomics-of-the-miniature-wasp-and-pest-control-agent-trichogramma-pretiosum
#3
Amelia R I Lindsey, Yogeshwar D Kelkar, Xin Wu, Dan Sun, Ellen O Martinson, Zhichao Yan, Paul F Rugman-Jones, Daniel S T Hughes, Shwetha C Murali, Jiaxin Qu, Shannon Dugan, Sandra L Lee, Hsu Chao, Huyen Dinh, Yi Han, Harsha Vardhan Doddapaneni, Kim C Worley, Donna M Muzny, Gongyin Ye, Richard A Gibbs, Stephen Richards, Soojin V Yi, Richard Stouthamer, John H Werren
BACKGROUND: Trichogrammatids are minute parasitoid wasps that develop within other insect eggs. They are less than half a millimeter long, smaller than some protozoans. The Trichogrammatidae are one of the earliest branching families of Chalcidoidea: a diverse superfamily of approximately half a million species of parasitoid wasps, proposed to have evolved from a miniaturized ancestor. Trichogramma are frequently used in agriculture, released as biological control agents against major moth and butterfly pests...
May 18, 2018: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775460/genus-wide-comparison-of-pseudovibrio-bacterial-genomes-reveal-diverse-adaptations-to-different-marine-invertebrate-hosts
#4
Anoop Alex, Agostinho Antunes
Bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudovibrio have been frequently found in association with a wide variety of marine eukaryotic invertebrate hosts, indicative of their versatile and symbiotic lifestyle. A recent comparison of the sponge-associated Pseudovibrio genomes has shed light on the mechanisms influencing a successful symbiotic association with sponges. In contrast, the genomic architecture of Pseudovibrio bacteria associated with other marine hosts has received less attention. Here, we performed genus-wide comparative analyses of 18 Pseudovibrio isolated from sponges, coral, tunicates, flatworm, and seawater...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773743/genomic-insights-into-the-emergence-and-spread-of-antimicrobial-resistant-bacterial-pathogens
#5
REVIEW
Stephen Baker, Nicholas Thomson, François-Xavier Weill, Kathryn E Holt
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has been vital for revealing the rapid temporal and spatial evolution of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacterial pathogens. Some antimicrobial-resistant pathogens have outpaced us, with untreatable infections appearing in hospitals and the community. However, WGS has additionally provided us with enough knowledge to initiate countermeasures. Although we cannot stop bacterial adaptation, the predictability of many evolutionary processes in AMR bacteria offers us an opportunity to channel them using new control strategies...
May 18, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773011/antibacterial-activity-of-novel-strains-of-bacteriophages-an-experimental-approach
#6
Muhammad Imran Qadir, Zunera Chauhdary
The evolution of antibiotic resistance in bacteria has increased research in the development of alternative therapies to conventional drugs. In this study, isolated phages were characterized and antibacterial activity was determined by standard agar disc diffusion method. The phages showed maximum propagation at 37°C to 40°C and highest viability at pH 7. Sugars influenced the bacteriophage viability. Sodium chloride decreased the phage propagation. Calcium chloride and magnesium chloride increased the phage propagation up to a certain limit...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771340/reproductive-manipulators-in-the-bark-beetle-pityogenes-chalcographus-coleoptera-curculionidae-the-role-of-cardinium-rickettsia-spiroplasma-and-wolbachia
#7
Martin Schebeck, Lukas Feldkirchner, Belen Marín, Susanne Krumböck, Hannes Schuler, Christian Stauffer
Heritable bacterial endosymbionts can alter the biology of numerous arthropods. They can influence the reproductive outcome of infected hosts, thus affecting the ecology and evolution of various arthropod species. The spruce bark beetle Pityogenes chalcographus (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) was reported to express partial, unidirectional crossing incompatibilities among certain European populations. Knowledge on the background of these findings is lacking; however, bacterial endosymbionts have been assumed to manipulate the reproduction of this beetle...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769322/insights-into-the-regulatory-function-of-the-%C3%A9-subunit-from-bacterial-f-type-atp-synthases-a-comparison-of-structural-biochemical-and-biophysical-data
#8
REVIEW
Alexander Krah, Mariel Zarco-Zavala, Duncan G G McMillan
ATP synthases catalyse the formation of ATP, the most common chemical energy storage unit found in living cells. These enzymes are driven by an electrochemical ion gradient, which allows the catalytic evolution of ATP by a binding change mechanism. Most ATP synthases are capable of catalysing ATP hydrolysis to varying degrees, and to prevent wasteful ATP hydrolysis, bacteria and mitochondria have regulatory mechanisms such as ADP inhibition. Additionally, ɛ subunit inhibition has also been described in three bacterial systems, Escherichia coli , Bacillus PS3 and Caldalkalibacillus thermarum TA2...
May 2018: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763807/positional-scanning-library-applied-to-the-human-eosinophil-cationic-protein-rnase3-n-terminus-reveals-novel-and-potent-anti-biofilm-peptides
#9
David Pulido, Guillem Prats-Ejarque, Clara Villalba, Marcel Albacar, Mohammed Moussaoui, David Andreu, Rudolf Volkmer, Marc Torrent, Ester Boix
Eradication of established biofilm communities of pathogenic bacteria is one of the pending challenges in the development of new antimicrobial agents. In particular, the dreaded nosocomial Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms microbial communities that offer an enhanced resistance to conventional antibiotics. Recently, we have described an engineered antimicrobial peptide derived from the human RNase3, also named the eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), RN3 (5-36), which combines bactericidal activity with high cell agglutination and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) affinity...
May 8, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763729/in-silico-identification-of-molecular-mimics-involved-in-the-pathogenesis-of-clostridium-botulinum-atcc-3502-strain
#10
Tulika Bhardwaj, Shafiul Haque, Pallavi Somvanshi
Bacterial pathogens invade and disrupt the host defense system by means of protein sequences structurally similar at global and local level both. The sharing of homologous sequences between the host and the pathogenic bacteria mediates the infection and defines the concept of molecular mimicry. In this study, various computational approaches were employed to elucidate the pathogenicity of Clostridium at genome-wide level. Genome-wide study revealed that the pathogen mimics the host (Homo sapiens) and unraveled the complex pathogenic pathway of causing infections...
May 12, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762266/flow-cytometry-evolution-of-microbiological-methods-for-probiotics-enumeration
#11
Marco Pane, Serena Allesina, Angela Amoruso, Stefania Nicola, Francesca Deidda, Luca Mogna
GOALS: The purpose of this trial was to verify that the analytical method ISO 19344:2015 (E)-IDF 232:2015 (E) is valid and reliable for quantifying the concentration of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) in a finished product formulation. BACKGROUND: Flow cytometry assay is emerging as an alternative rapid method for microbial detection, enumeration, and population profiling. The use of flow cytometry not only permits the determination of viable cell counts but also allows for enumeration of damaged and dead cell subpopulations...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760902/exploring-the-evolution-of-multicellularity-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-under-bacteria-environment-an-experimental-phylogenetics-approach
#12
Julian F Quintero-Galvis, Rocío Paleo-López, Jaiber J Solano-Iguaran, María Josefina Poupin, Thomas Ledger, Juan Diego Gaitan-Espitia, Andrzej Antoł, Michael Travisano, Roberto F Nespolo
There have been over 25 independent unicellular to multicellular evolutionary transitions, which have been transformational in the complexity of life. All of these transitions likely occurred in communities numerically dominated by unicellular organisms, mostly bacteria. Hence, it is reasonable to expect that bacteria were involved in generating the ecological conditions that promoted the stability and proliferation of the first multicellular forms as protective units. In this study, we addressed this problem by analyzing the occurrence of multicellularity in an experimental phylogeny of yeasts ( Sacharomyces cerevisiae ) a model organism that is unicellular but can generate multicellular clusters under some conditions...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756429/bacterial-osteomyelitis-microbiological-clinical-therapeutic-and-evolutive-characteristics-of-344-episodes
#13
E García Del Pozo, J Collazos, J A Cartón, D Camporro, V Asensi
OBJECTIVE: Osteomyelitis is a difficult-to-cure infection, with high relapse rate despite adequate therapy. Large published osteomyelitis series in adults are rare. METHODS: A total of 344 adult osteomyelitis patients were studied and followed > 12 months after hospital discharge. Demographic, microbiological, clinical, therapeutic and outcome data were analyzed. RESULTS: Mean age was 52.5 ± 18.3 years and 233 (67.7%) were male. Main osteomyelitis types were post-surgical (31...
May 11, 2018: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755588/enhanced-biological-fixation-of-methane-for-microbial-lipid-production-by-recombinant-methylomicrobium-buryatense
#14
Qiang Fei, Aaron W Puri, Holly Smith, Nancy Dowe, Philip T Pienkos
Background: Due to the success of shale gas development in the US, the production cost of natural gas has been reduced significantly, which in turn has made methane (CH4 ), the major component of natural gas, a potential alternative substrate for bioconversion processes compared with other high-price raw material sources or edible feedstocks. Therefore, exploring effective ways to use CH4 for the production of biofuels is attractive. Biological fixation of CH4 by methanotrophic bacteria capable of using CH4 as their sole carbon and energy source has obtained great attention for biofuel production from this resource...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755430/distribution-patterns-of-polyphosphate-metabolism-pathway-and-its-relationships-with-bacterial-durability-and-virulence
#15
Liang Wang, Jiawei Yan, Michael J Wise, Qinghua Liu, James Asenso, Yue Huang, Shiyun Dai, Zhanzhong Liu, Yan Du, Daoquan Tang
Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a linear polymer of orthophosphate residues. It is reported to be present in all life forms. Experimental studies showed that polyP plays important roles in bacterial durability and virulence. Here we investigated the relationships of polyP with bacterial durability and virulence theoretically. Bacterial lifestyle, environmental persistence, virulence factors (VFs), and species evolution are all included in the analysis. The presence of seven genes involved in polyP metabolism ( ppk1 , ppk2 , pap , surE , gppA , ppnK , and ppgK ) and 2595 core VFs were verified in 944 bacterial reference proteomes for distribution patterns via HMMER...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752940/oxidative-stress-redox-stress-or-redox-success
#16
John M C Gutteridge, Barry Halliwell
The first life forms evolved in a highly reducing environment. This reduced state is still carried by cells today, which makes the concept of "reductive stress" somewhat redundant. When oxygen became abundant on the Earth, due to the evolution of photosynthesis, life forms had to adapt or become extinct. Living organisms did adapt, proliferated and an explosion of new life forms resulted, using reactive oxygen species (ROS) to drive their evolution. Adaptation to oxygen and its reduction intermediates necessitated the simultaneous evolution of select antioxidant defences, carefully regulated to allow ROS to perform their major roles...
May 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752518/diversity-of-the-aromatic-ring-hydroxylating-dioxygenases-in-the-monoaromatic-hydrocarbon-degraders-held-by-a-common-ancestor
#17
Alper Yavas, Bulent Icgen
Aromatic ring hydroxylating dioxygenases (ARHDs), harboured by a variety of bacteria, catalyze the initial reaction in the degradation of a wide range of toxic environmental contaminants like aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Regardless of the source, bacteria harbouring RHDs play major role in the removal of these toxic contaminants. The diversity of ARHDs in contaminated sites is supposed to be huge. However, most of the ARHD diversity studies are based on the PAH degraders and the ARHD diversity in the monoaromatic hydrocarbon degraders has not fully explored yet...
May 11, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750784/death-and-population-dynamics-affect-mutation-rate-estimates-and-evolvability-under-stress-in-bacteria
#18
Antoine Frenoy, Sebastian Bonhoeffer
The stress-induced mutagenesis hypothesis postulates that in response to stress, bacteria increase their genome-wide mutation rate, in turn increasing the chances that a descendant is able to better withstand the stress. This has implications for antibiotic treatment: exposure to subinhibitory doses of antibiotics has been reported to increase bacterial mutation rates and thus probably the rate at which resistance mutations appear and lead to treatment failure. More generally, the hypothesis posits that stress increases evolvability (the ability of a population to generate adaptive genetic diversity) and thus accelerates evolution...
May 11, 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747929/dynamics-and-diversity-of-the-bacterial-community-during-the-spontaneous-decay-of-a%C3%A3-ai-euterpe-oleracea-fruits
#19
Fábio Gomes Moura, Diego Assis das Graças, Agenor Valadares Santos, Artur Luiz da Costa da Silva, Hervé Rogez
The biodiversity and evolution of the microbial community in açai fruits (AF) between three geographical origins and two spontaneous decay conditions were examined by applying culture-independent methods. Culture-independent methods based on 16S rRNA from fifteen samples revealed that Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria were the most abundant phyla. At the genus level, Massilia (taxon with more than 50% of the sequences remaining constant during the 30h of decay), Pantoea, Naxibacter, Enterobacter, Raoultella and Klebsiella were identified, forming the carposphere bacterial microbiota of AF...
April 30, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747082/critical-knowledge-gaps-and-research-needs-related-to-the-environmental-dimensions-of-antibiotic-resistance
#20
D G Joakim Larsson, Antoine Andremont, Johan Bengtsson-Palme, Kristian Koefoed Brandt, Ana Maria de Roda Husman, Patriq Fagerstedt, Jerker Fick, Carl-Fredrik Flach, William H Gaze, Makoto Kuroda, Kristian Kvint, Ramanan Laxminarayan, Celia M Manaia, Kaare Magne Nielsen, Laura Plant, Marie-Cécile Ploy, Carlos Segovia, Pascal Simonet, Kornelia Smalla, Jason Snape, Edward Topp, Arjon J van Hengel, David W Verner-Jeffreys, Marko P J Virta, Elizabeth M Wellington, Ann-Sofie Wernersson
There is growing understanding that the environment plays an important role both in the transmission of antibiotic resistant pathogens and in their evolution. Accordingly, researchers and stakeholders world-wide seek to further explore the mechanisms and drivers involved, quantify risks and identify suitable interventions. There is a clear value in establishing research needs and coordinating efforts within and across nations in order to best tackle this global challenge. At an international workshop in late September 2017, scientists from 14 countries with expertise on the environmental dimensions of antibiotic resistance gathered to define critical knowledge gaps...
May 7, 2018: Environment International
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