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Limb development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923134/evolution-enhanced-footing-for-snake-limb-development
#1
Maria M Kaltcheva, Mark Lewandoski
Two groups have studied the loss of limbs in snake evolution by focusing on a long-distance cis-acting enhancer of Sonic Hedgehog. They find a progressive degeneration of binding sites for key transcription factors, mirroring the progressive limblessness occurring in these reptiles.
December 5, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922624/association-of-pain-social-support-and-socioeconomic-indicators-in-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury-in-iran
#2
Z Khazaeipour, E Ahmadipour, V Rahimi-Movaghar, F Ahmadipour, A R Vaccaro, B Babakhani
STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVES: Pain is a prevalent complication of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Our objective was to examine the association between social support, socioeconomic factors and psychosocial factors and pain to develop more effective management strategies. SETTING: Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research (BASIR) Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. METHODS: The Persian version of the Brief Pain Inventory was used to measure the pain, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support was used to measure social support through structured face-to-face interviews in SCI individuals...
December 6, 2016: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920806/hereditary-multiple-exostoses-a-review-of-clinical-appearance-and-metabolic-pattern
#3
REVIEW
Giovanni Beltrami, Gabriele Ristori, Guido Scoccianti, Angela Tamburini, Rodolfo Capanna
Hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) is an inherited genetic condition characterized by the presence of multiple exostoses (osteochondromas). MHE is a relatively rare autosomal dominant disorder, mainly caused by loss of function mutations in two genes: exostosin-1 (EXT1) and exostosin-2 (EXT2). These genes are linked to heparan sulfate (HS) synthesis, but the specific molecular mechanism leading to the disruption of the cartilage structure and the consequent exostoses formation is still not resolved. The aim of this paper is to encounter the main aspects of HME reviewing the literature, in order to improve clinical features and evolution, and the metabolic-pathogenetic mechanisms underlying...
May 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919994/clinical-outcome-of-reconstruction-using-frozen-autograft-for-a-humeral-bone-tumor
#4
Hiroaki Kimura, Norio Yamamoto, Toshiharu Shirai, Hideji Nishida, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Yoshikazu Tanzawa, Akihiko Takeuchi, Shinji Miwa, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya
BACKGROUND: We developed a frozen autograft technique in which a tumor-bearing bone was treated with liquid nitrogen for reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcomes of this technique after resection of humeral bone tumors. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eight patients were included in the study. The freezing range was classified into 2 groups, depending on whether the joint surface of the humeral head was frozen. RESULTS: In the joint freezing group, the mean active shoulder abduction and flexion were 43...
December 2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919728/voluntary-running-improves-depressive-behaviours-and-the-structure-of-the-hippocampus-in-rats-a-possible-impact-of-myokines
#5
Magda A Eldomiaty, Shaima M Almasry, Maha K Desouky, Sami A Algaidi
This study investigated the impact of voluntary exercise on depressive behaviours, serum and hippocampal levels of myokines, and histopathological features of hippocampal formation in rats. Depressed rats were allowed to voluntarily run on a wheel for 3 weeks. Locomotor activity was assessed by a forced swimming test and the myokine levels in sera and hippocampal homogenates were measured using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay. Brain sections were analysed for hippocampal structure and neuronal counts. Voluntary running produced significant increase in the distance moved by rats and significant decrease in immobility duration...
December 2, 2016: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919504/successful-treatment-of-paroxysmal-ataxia-and-dysarthria-in-multiple-sclerosis-with-levetiracetam
#6
Shikha J Goodwin, Adam F Carpenter
BACKGROUND: Paroxysmal ataxia and dysarthria (PAD) is a relatively rare symptom in Multiple Sclerosis patients. PAD involves transient dysfunction in control, coordination and initiation of speech and/or limb movements. OBJECTIVE: To describe the successful use of levetiracetam for the treatment of PAD. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 37-year-old woman with MS developed PAD approximately 3 months after a multifocal MS relapse...
November 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919481/effect-of-slow-release-fampridine-on-muscle-strength-rate-of-force-development-functional-capacity-and-cognitive-function-in-an-enriched-population-of-ms-patients-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#7
H B Jensen, J L Nielsen, M Ravnborg, U Dalgas, P Aagaard, E Stenager
DESIGN: This study was conducted as a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled parallel group trial preceded by open label enrichment phase. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were 1) to examine the effect of SR-Fampridine treatment on muscle strength in terms of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and rate of force development (RFD) of the lower extremities and 2) to replicate previously published data on the effect of slow release-Fampridine (SR-Fampridine) on the functional capacity of the lower limbs, the upper limb and cognitive function, in persons with multiple sclerosis (pwMS)...
November 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918914/transformation-of-jaw-muscle-satellite-cells-to-cardiomyocytes
#8
Randall S Daughters, Susan A Keirstead, Jonathan M W Slack
In the embryo a population of progenitor cells known as the second heart field forms not just parts of the heart but also the jaw muscles of the head. Here we show that it is possible to take skeletal muscle satellite cells from jaw muscles of the adult mouse and to direct their differentiation to become heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes). This is done by exposing the cells to extracellular factors similar to those which heart progenitors would experience during normal embryonic development. By contrast, cardiac differentiation does not occur at all from satellite cells isolated from trunk and limb muscles, which originate from the somites of the embryo...
December 2, 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918482/fuzzy-computing-model-of-activity-recognition-on-wsn-movement-data-for-ubiquitous-healthcare-measurement
#9
Shu-Yin Chiang, Yao-Chiang Kan, Yun-Shan Chen, Ying-Ching Tu, Hsueh-Chun Lin
Ubiquitous health care (UHC) is beneficial for patients to ensure they complete therapeutic exercises by self-management at home. We designed a fuzzy computing model that enables recognizing assigned movements in UHC with privacy. The movements are measured by the self-developed body motion sensor, which combines both accelerometer and gyroscope chips to make an inertial sensing node compliant with a wireless sensor network (WSN). The fuzzy logic process was studied to calculate the sensor signals that would entail necessary features of static postures and dynamic motions...
December 3, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918413/a-brain-machine-interface-based-on-erd-ers-for-an-upper-limb-exoskeleton-control
#10
Zhichuan Tang, Shouqian Sun, Sanyuan Zhang, Yumiao Chen, Chao Li, Shi Chen
To recognize the user's motion intention, brain-machine interfaces (BMI) usually decode movements from cortical activity to control exoskeletons and neuroprostheses for daily activities. The aim of this paper is to investigate whether self-induced variations of the electroencephalogram (EEG) can be useful as control signals for an upper-limb exoskeleton developed by us. A BMI based on event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS) is proposed. In the decoder-training phase, we investigate the offline classification performance of left versus right hand and left hand versus both feet by using motor execution (ME) or motor imagery (MI)...
December 2, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917149/wavelet-packet-feature-assessment-for-high-density-myoelectric-pattern-recognition-and-channel-selection-toward-stroke-rehabilitation
#11
Dongqing Wang, Xu Zhang, Xiaoping Gao, Xiang Chen, Ping Zhou
This study presents wavelet packet feature assessment of neural control information in paretic upper limb muscles of stroke survivors for myoelectric pattern recognition, taking advantage of high-resolution time-frequency representations of surface electromyogram (EMG) signals. On this basis, a novel channel selection method was developed by combining the Fisher's class separability index and the sequential feedforward selection analyses, in order to determine a small number of appropriate EMG channels from original high-density EMG electrode array...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912920/the-relationship-between-therapist-rated-function-and-patient-reported-outcome-measures
#12
Yvonne Braun, Jos J Mellema, Rinne M Peters, Suzanne Curley, Gae Burchill, David Ring
STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. INTRODUCTION: Some third-party payers require hand therapists to rate patient's functional disability based on patient self-rating using patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), objective measurements of impairment, and observation of functional tasks-hand therapist-rated function (HTRF). PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: To test the correlation between HTRF and PROMs (upper limb functional index [ULFI] and Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System upper extremity [PROMIS UE]) and its association with psychological factors...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912747/the-three-dimensional-kinematics-and-spatiotemporal-parameters-of-gait-in-6-10-year-old-typically-developed-children-in-the-cape-metropole-of-south-africa-a-pilot-study
#13
Yvonne Smith, Quinette Louw, Yolandi Brink
BACKGROUND: Functional gait is an integral part of life, allowing individuals to function within their environment and participate in activities of daily living. Gait assessment forms an essential part of a physical examination and can help screen for physical impairments. No three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis studies of children have been conducted in South Africa. South African gait analysis laboratory protocols and procedures may differ from laboratories in other countries, therefore a South African data base of normative values is required to make a valid assessment of South African children's gait...
December 3, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911385/application-of-impermeable-barriers-combined-with-candidate-factor-soaked-beads-to-study-inductive-signals-in-the-chick
#14
Susan Wilde, Malcolm P Logan
The chick embryo provides a superb vertebrate model that can be used to dissect developmental questions in a direct way. Its accessibility and robustness following surgical intervention are key experimental strengths. Mica plates were the first barriers used to prevent chick limb bud initiation(1). Protocols that use aluminum foil as an impermeable barrier to wing bud or leg bud induction and or initiation are described. We combine this technique with bead placement lateral to the barrier to exogenously supply candidate endogenous factors that have been blocked by the barrier...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909132/myxofibrosarcoma-of-the-extremity-and-trunk-a-multidisciplinary-approach-leads-to-good-local-rates-of-local-control
#15
C G Ghazala, N R Agni, M Ragbir, P Dildey, D Lee, K S Rankin, T B Beckingsale, C H Gerrand
AIMS: Myxofibrosarcomas (MFSs) are malignant soft-tissue sarcomas characteristically presenting as painless slowly growing masses in the extremities. Locally infiltrative growth means that the risk of local recurrence is high. We reviewed our experience to make recommendations about resection strategies and the role of the multidisciplinary team in the management of these tumours. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with a primary or recurrent MFS who were treated surgically in our unit between 1997 and 2012 were included in the study...
December 2016: Bone & Joint Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909072/the-mirror-illusion-increases-motor-cortex-excitability-in-children-with-and-without-hemiparesis
#16
Sebastian Grunt, Christopher J Newman, Stefanie Saxer, Maja Steinlin, Christian Weisstanner, Alain Kaelin-Lang
Background Mirror therapy provides a visual illusion of a normal moving limb by using the mirror reflection of the unaffected arm instead of viewing the paretic limb and is used in rehabilitation to improve hand function. Little is known about the mechanism underlying its effect in children with hemiparesis. Objective To investigate the effect of the mirror illusion (MI) on the excitability of the primary motor cortex (M1) in children and adolescents. Methods Twelve patients with hemiparesis (10-20 years) and 8 typically developing subjects (8-17 years) participated...
November 30, 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906866/inherited-and-acquired-disorders-of-magnesium-homeostasis
#17
Matthias Tilmann Florian Wolf
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Magnesium (Mg) imbalances are frequently overlooked. Hypermagnesemia usually occurs in preeclamptic women after Mg therapy or in end-stage renal disease patients, whereas hypomagnesemia is more common with a prevalence of up to 15% in the general population. Increasing evidence points toward a role for mild-to-moderate chronic hypomagnesemia in the pathogenesis of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: The kidneys are the major regulator of total body Mg homeostasis...
November 30, 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906130/braf-activates-pax3-to-control-muscle-precursor-cell-migration-during-forelimb-muscle-development
#18
Jaeyoung Shin, Shuichi Watanabe, Soraya Hoelper, Marcus Krüger, Sawa Kostin, Jochen Pöling, Thomas Kubin, Thomas Braun
Migration of skeletal muscle precursor cells is a key step during limb muscle development and depends on the activity of PAX3 and MET. Here, we demonstrate that BRAF serves a crucial function in formation of limb skeletal muscles during mouse embryogenesis downstream of MET and acts as a potent inducer of myoblast cell migration. We found that a fraction of BRAF accumulates in the nucleus after activation and endosomal transport to a perinuclear position. Mass spectrometry based screening for potential interaction partners revealed that BRAF interacts and phosphorylates PAX3...
December 1, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906083/neonatal-diffusion-tensor-brain-imaging-predicts-later-motor-outcome-in-preterm-neonates-with-white-matter-abnormalities
#19
Do-Yeon Kim, Hyun-Kyung Park, Nam-Su Kim, Se-Jin Hwang, Hyun Ju Lee
BACKGROUND: White matter (WM) abnormalities associated with prematurity are one of the most important causes of neurological disability that involves spastic motor deficits in preterm newborns. This study aimed to evaluate regional microstructural changes in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) associated with WM abnormalities. METHODS: We prospectively studied extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1000 g) preterm infants who were admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Hanyang University Hospital between February 2011 and February 2014...
December 1, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905410/association-between-preterm-brain-injury-and-exposure-to-chorioamnionitis-during-fetal-life
#20
Devasuda Anblagan, Rozalia Pataky, Margaret J Evans, Emma J Telford, Ahmed Serag, Sarah Sparrow, Chinthika Piyasena, Scott I Semple, Alastair Graham Wilkinson, Mark E Bastin, James P Boardman
Preterm infants are susceptible to inflammation-induced white matter injury but the exposures that lead to this are uncertain. Histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) reflects intrauterine inflammation, can trigger a fetal inflammatory response, and is closely associated with premature birth. In a cohort of 90 preterm infants with detailed placental histology and neonatal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data at term equivalent age, we used Tract-based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) to perform voxel-wise statistical comparison of fractional anisotropy (FA) data and computational morphometry analysis to compute the volumes of whole brain, tissue compartments and cerebrospinal fluid, to test the hypothesis that HCA is an independent antenatal risk factor for preterm brain injury...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
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