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Kenya aids indicator survey

Bernadette N Ng'eno, Timothy A Kellogg, Andrea A Kim, Anne Mwangi, Mary Mwangi, Joyce Wamicwe, George W Rutherford
Understanding how HIV is acquired can inform interventions to prevent infection. We constructed a risk profile of 10-24 year olds participating in the 2012 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey and classified them as perinatally infected if their biological mother was infected with HIV or had died, or if their father was infected with HIV or had died (for those lacking mother's data). The remaining were classified as sexually infected if they had sex, and the remaining as parenterally infected if they had a blood transfusion...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Blessing U Mberu, Tilahun Nigatu Haregu, Catherine Kyobutungi, Alex C Ezeh
BACKGROUND: It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages...
2016: Global Health Action
Irene N Mukui, Lucy Ng'ang'a, John Williamson, Joyce N Wamicwe, Shobha Vakil, Abraham Katana, Andrea A Kim
INTRODUCTION: Understanding the levels and associated factors of non-adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is crucial in designing interventions to improve adherence and health outcomes of ART. We assessed non-adherence to ART among HIV-infected persons reporting ART use in a nationally representative survey in Kenya. METHODS: The Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2012 was a population-based, household survey of persons aged 18 months-64 years conducted in 2012-2013...
2016: PloS One
Andrea A Kim, Irene Mukui, Peter W Young, Joy Mirjahangir, Sophie Mwanyumba, Joyce Wamicwe, Nancy Bowen, Lubbe Wiesner, Lucy Ng'ang'a, Kevin M De Cock
OBJECTIVES: This analysis assessed the impact of undisclosed HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) on national estimates of diagnosed HIV and ART coverage in Kenya. METHODS: HIV-positive dried blood spot samples from Kenya's second AIDS Indicator Survey were tested for an antiretroviral biomarker by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Weighted estimates of diagnosed HIV and ART coverage based on self-report were compared with those corrected for undisclosed HIV infection and ART use based on antiretroviral test results...
November 13, 2016: AIDS
Selly Jemutai Kimosop, Z M Getenga, F Orata, V A Okello, J K Cheruiyot
The detection of antibiotics in water systems has instigated great environmental concern due to the toxicological effects associated with these compounds. Their discharge into the environment results from the ubiquity of use in medical, veterinary, and agricultural practices. Some of the effects of antibiotics include development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, making it difficult to treat diseases, variation in natural microbial communities, and enzyme activities. In this study, the first comprehensive survey of some frequently used antibiotics namely ampicillin (AMP), amoxicillin (AMX), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), chloramphenicol (CAP), and ciprofloxacin (CPF) within Lake Victoria Basin of Kenya is presented...
September 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Andrea A Kim, Irene Mukui, Peter W Young, Joy Mirjahangir, Sophie Mwanyumba, Joyce Wamicwe, Nancy Bowen, Lubbe Wiesner, Lucy Ng'ang'a, Kevin M De Cock
OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of undisclosed HIV infection and antiretroviral (ARV) therapy (ART) on national estimates of diagnosed HIV and ART coverage in Kenya. METHODS: HIV-positive dried blood spot samples from Kenya's second AIDS Indicator Survey were tested for an ARV biomarker by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Estimates of diagnosed HIV and ART use based on self-report were compared with those corrected for undisclosed HIV infection and ART use based on ARV testing...
August 11, 2016: AIDS
Peter M Chege, Zipporah W Ndungu, Betty M Gitonga
BACKGROUND: HIV and AIDS affect most the productive people, leading to reduced capacity to either produce food or generate income. Children under-fives are the most vulnerable group in the affected households. There exists minimal information on food security status and its effect on nutritional status of children under-fives in households affected by HIV and AIDS. The aim of this study was to assess food security and nutritional status of children under-five in households affected by HIV and AIDS in Kiandutu informal settlement, Kiambu County...
July 22, 2016: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
Kathleen N Ly, Andrea A Kim, Mamo Umuro, Jan Drobenuic, John M Williamson, Joel M Montgomery, Barry S Fields, Eyasu H Teshale
Current estimates put the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Kenya at 5-8%. We determined the HBV infection prevalence in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative Kenyan adult and adolescent population based on samples collected from a national survey. We analyzed data from HIV-negative participants in the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey to estimate the HBV infection prevalence. We defined past or present HBV infection as presence of total hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb), and chronic HBV infection (CHBI) as presence of both total HBcAb and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)...
August 3, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Andrea A Kim, Bharat S Parekh, Mamo Umuro, Tura Galgalo, Rebecca Bunnell, Ernest Makokha, Trudy Dobbs, Patrick Murithi, Nicholas Muraguri, Kevin M De Cock, Jonathan Mermin
INTRODUCTION: A recent infection testing algorithm (RITA) that can distinguish recent from long-standing HIV infection can be applied to nationally representative population-based surveys to characterize and identify risk factors for recent infection in a country. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We applied a RITA using the Limiting Antigen Avidity Enzyme Immunoassay (LAg) on stored HIV-positive samples from the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey. The case definition for recent infection included testing recent on LAg and having no evidence of antiretroviral therapy use...
2016: PloS One
Peter Cherutich, Andrea A Kim, Timothy A Kellogg, Kenneth Sherr, Anthony Waruru, Kevin M De Cock, George W Rutherford
INTRODUCTION: At the individual level, there is clear evidence that Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) transmission can be substantially reduced by lowering viral load. However there are few data describing population-level HIV viremia especially in high-burden settings with substantial under-diagnosis of HIV infection. The 2nd Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2012) provided a unique opportunity to evaluate the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage on viremia and to examine the risks for failure to suppress viral replication...
2016: PloS One
Elphas Okango, Henry Mwambi, Oscar Ngesa
BACKGROUND: Disease mapping has become popular in the field of statistics as a method to explain the spatial distribution of disease outcomes and as a tool to help design targeted intervention strategies. Most of these models however have been implemented with assumptions that may be limiting or altogether lead to less meaningful results and hence interpretations. Some of these assumptions include the linearity, stationarity and normality assumptions. Studies have shown that the linearity assumption is not necessarily true for all covariates...
April 22, 2016: BMC Public Health
Janel Smith, Doris N Odera, Duncan Chege, Esther N Muigai, Padmaja Patnaik, Susan Michaels-Strasser, Andrea A Howard, Janette Yu-Shears, Jennifer Dohrn
Given the burden of HIV and the critical shortage of health workers in Kenya, in 2011 the National AIDS and STI Control Program recommended shifting HIV care and treatment tasks to nurses in settings without physicians and clinical officers in order to decentralize and scale-up HIV services. In September 2013, ICAP at Columbia University conducted a survey with nurses in four health facilities in eastern Kenya to assess preparedness for task shifting. Findings indicated gaps in nurses' training, perceived competency, and practice in HIV care and treatment...
May 2016: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
Elphas Okango, Henry Mwambi, Oscar Ngesa, Thomas Achia
Several diseases have common risk factors. The joint modeling of disease outcomes within a spatial statistical context may provide more insight on the interaction of diseases both at individual and at regional level. Spatial joint modeling allows for studying of the relationship between diseases and also between regions under study. One major approach for joint spatial modeling is the multivariate conditional autoregressive approach. In this approach, it is assumed that all the covariates in the study have linear effects on the multiple response variables...
2015: PloS One
Caroline Ochieng, Petronella Ahenda, Amy Y Vittor, Raymond Nyoka, Stella Gikunju, Cyrus Wachira, Lilian Waiboci, Mamo Umuro, Andrea A Kim, Leonard Nderitu, Bonventure Juma, Joel M Montgomery, Robert F Breiman, Barry Fields
Arthropod-borne viruses are a major constituent of emerging infectious diseases worldwide, but limited data are available on the prevalence, distribution, and risk factors for transmission in Kenya and East Africa. In this study, we used 1,091 HIV-negative blood specimens from the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2007) to test for the presence of IgG antibodies to dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV).The KAIS 2007 was a national population-based survey conducted by the Government of Kenya to provide comprehensive information needed to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic...
2015: PloS One
Erick Kipkoech Rutto, Joshua Nyagol, Julius Oyugi, Samson Ndege, Noel Onyango, Andrew Obala, Chrispinus J Simiyu, Gye Boor, Winfrida Chelangat Cheriro, Barasa Otsyula, Ben Estambale
BACKGROUND: Malaria and HIV infections are both highly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, with HIV-infected patients being at higher risk of acquiring malaria. HIV-1 infection is known to impair the immune response and may increase the incidence of clinical malaria. However, a positive association between HIV-1 and malaria parasitaemia is still evolving. Equally, the effect of malaria on HIV-1 disease stage has not been well established, but when fever and parasitemia are high, malaria may be associated with transient increases in HIV-1 viral load, and progression of HIV-1 asymptomatic disease phase to AIDS...
2015: BMC Research Notes
Maria Damon, Joshua Graff Zivin, Harsha Thirumurthy
Poverty and altered planning horizons brought on by the HIV/AIDS epidemic can change individual discount rates, altering incentives to conserve natural resources. Using longitudinal household survey data from western Kenya, we estimate the effects of health status on investments in soil quality, as indicated by households' agricultural land fallowing decisions. We first show that this effect is theoretically ambiguous: while health improvements lower discount rates and thus increase incentives to conserve natural resources, they also increase labor productivity and make it more likely that households can engage in labor-intensive resource extraction activities...
January 1, 2015: Journal of Environmental Economics and Management
Silviya P Nikolova, Eusebius Small, Cecilia Mengo
Gender is a critical concept of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) sexual risk; yet, few studies have examined the intersection between risk and protective factors associated with incidence of HIV among couples. The paper examines gender-specific constructs of resiliency among couples in Kenya. Using data from the Demographic and Health Surveys, Kenya (2008/2009), we apply logistic regression techniques to analyse three resilience-related outcomes (condom use, HIV test and knowing an HIV test place) in estimating the gender differences and barriers to HIV/AIDS sexual risk...
June 2015: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Oscar Ngesa, Henry Mwambi, Thomas Achia
Spatial statistics has seen rapid application in many fields, especially epidemiology and public health. Many studies, nonetheless, make limited use of the geographical location information and also usually assume that the covariates, which are related to the response variable, have linear effects. We develop a Bayesian semi-parametric regression model for HIV prevalence data. Model estimation and inference is based on fully Bayesian approach via Markov Chain Monte Carlo (McMC). The model is applied to HIV prevalence data among men in Kenya, derived from the Kenya AIDS indicator survey, with nā€Š=ā€Š3,662...
2014: PloS One
Clara R Burgert, Sarah E K Bradley, Fred Arnold, Erin Eckert
BACKGROUND: Coverage estimates of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are often calculated at the national level, but are intended to be a proxy for coverage among the population at risk of malaria. The analysis uses data for surveyed households, linking survey enumeration areas (clusters) with levels of malaria endemicity and adjusting coverage estimates based on the population at risk. This analysis proposes an approach that is not dependent on being able to identify malaria risk in a location during the survey design (since survey samples are typically selected on the basis of census sampling frames that do not include information on malaria zones), but rather being able to assign risk zones after a survey has already been completed...
July 4, 2014: Malaria Journal
Rose Wafula, Sarah Masyuko, Lucy Ng'ang'a, Andrea A Kim, Anthony Gichangi, Irene Mukui, James Batuka, Evelyn W Ngugi, William K Maina, Sandra Schwarcz
BACKGROUND: Increasing access to care and treatment for HIV-infected persons is a goal in Kenya's response to the HIV epidemic. Using data from the second Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2012), we describe coverage of services received among adults and adolescents who were enrolled in HIV care. METHODS: KAIS 2012 was a population-based survey that collected information from persons aged 15-64 years that included self-reported HIV status, and for persons reporting HIV infection, use of HIV care and antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
May 1, 2014: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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