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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238342/breastfeeding-behaviors-and-the-innate-immune-system-of-human-milk-working-together-to-protect-infants-against-inflammation-hiv-1-and-other-infections
#1
REVIEW
Bethany M Henrick, Xiao-Dan Yao, Laila Nasser, Ava Roozrogousheh, Kenneth L Rosenthal
The majority of infants' breastfeeding from their HIV-infected mothers do not acquire HIV-1 infection despite exposure to cell-free virus and cell-associated virus in HIV-infected breast milk. Paradoxically, exclusive breastfeeding regardless of the HIV status of the mother has led to a significant decrease in mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) compared with non-exclusive breastfeeding. Although it remains unclear how these HIV-exposed infants remain uninfected despite repeated and prolonged exposure to HIV-1, the low rate of transmission is suggestive of a multitude of protective, short-lived bioactive innate immune factors in breast milk...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238237/adolescent-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention-current-perspectives
#2
REVIEW
Daisy Maria Machado, Alexandre Machado de Sant'Anna Carvalho, Rachel Riera
Adolescents are a critical population that is disproportionately impacted by the HIV epidemic. More than 2 million adolescents between the age group of 10 and 19 years are living with HIV, and millions are at risk of infection. HIV risks are considerably higher among girls, especially in high-prevalence settings such as eastern and southern Africa. In addition to girls, there are other vulnerable adolescent subgroups, such as teenagers, who use intravenous (IV) drugs, gay and bisexual boys, transgender youth, male sex workers, and people who fall into more than one of these categories...
2017: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237847/a-trimeric-hiv-1-envelope-gp120-immunogen-induces-potent-and-broad-anti-v1v2-loop-antibodies-against-hiv-1-in-rabbits-and-rhesus-macaques
#3
Andrew T Jones, Venkateswarlu Chamcha, Sannula Kesavardhana, Xiaoying Shen, David Beaumont, Raksha Das, Linda S Wyatt, Celia C LaBranche, Sherry Stanfield-Oakley, Guido Ferrari, David C Montefiori, Bernard Moss, Georgia D Tomaras, Raghavan Varadarajan, Rama Rao Amara
Trimeric HIV-1 envelope (Env) immunogens are attractive due to their ability to display quaternary epitopes targeted by broadly neutralizing antibodies while obscuring unfavorable epitopes. Results from the RV144 trial highlighted the importance of vaccine induced HIV-1 Env V1V2 directed antibodies, with key regions of the V2 loop as targets for vaccine-mediated protection. We recently reported that a trimeric JRFL-gp120 immunogen, generated by inserting a N-terminal trimerization domain in the V1 loop region of a cyclically permuted gp120 (cycP-gp120), induces neutralizing activity against multiple tier-2 HIV-1 isolates in guinea pigs in a DNA prime/protein boost approach...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237833/neutralizing-activity-of-broadly-neutralizing-anti-hiv-1-antibodies-against-clade-b-clinical-isolates-produced-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#4
Yehuda Z Cohen, Julio C C Lorenzi, Michael S Seaman, Lilian Nogueira, Till Schoofs, Lisa Krassnig, Allison Butler, Katrina Millard, Tomas Fitzsimons, Xiaoju Daniell, Juan P Dizon, Irina Shimeliovich, David C Montefiori, Marina Caskey, Michel C Nussenzweig
Recently discovered broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies (bNAbs) demonstrate extensive breadth and potency against diverse HIV-1 strains, and represent a promising approach for the treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection. The breadth and potency of these antibodies have primarily been evaluated using panels of HIV-1 Env-pseudotyped viruses produced in 293T cells expressing molecularly cloned Envs. Here we report on the ability of 5 bNAbs currently in clinical development to neutralize circulating primary HIV-1 isolates derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and compare the results to the pseudovirus panels used to characterize the bNAbs...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234320/increasing-the-clinical-potential-and-applications-of-anti-hiv-antibodies
#5
REVIEW
Casey K Hua, Margaret E Ackerman
Preclinical and early human clinical studies of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to prevent and treat HIV infection support the clinical utility and potential of bNAbs for prevention, postexposure prophylaxis, and treatment of acute and chronic infection. Observed and potential limitations of bNAbs from these recent studies include the selection of resistant viral populations, immunogenicity resulting in the development of antidrug (Ab) responses, and the potentially toxic elimination of reservoir cells in regeneration-limited tissues...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233687/interferon-free-direct-acting-antiviral-therapy-for-acute-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-hiv-infected-individuals-a-literature-review
#6
REVIEW
Temi Lampejo, Kosh Agarwal, Ivana Carey
Dramatic rises in hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection rates in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals have been observed recently, largely attributable to increasing recreational drug use combined with increased testing for HCV. In the era of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy, treatment of acute HCV infection in HIV-infected individuals with short durations of these drugs may potentially reduce the disease and economic burden associated with HCV infection as well as reducing the likelihood of onward HCV transmission...
November 27, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233296/protein-protein-and-protein-chromatin-interactions-of-ledgf-p75-as-novel-drug-targets
#7
REVIEW
Jolien Blokken, Jan De Rijck, Frauke Christ, Zeger Debyser
Lens epithelium-derived growth factor p75 (LEDGF/p75), a transcriptional co-activator, plays an important role in tethering protein complexes to the chromatin. Through this tethering function LEDGF/p75 is implicated in a diverse set of human diseases including HIV infection and mixed lineage leukemia, an aggressive form of cancer with poor prognosis. Here we provide an overview of recent progress in resolving protein-protein and protein-chromatin interaction mechanisms of LEDGF/p75. This review will focus on two well-characterized domains, the PWWP domain and the integrase binding domain (IBD)...
June 2017: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232209/recent-progress-in-understanding-hiv-reservoirs
#8
Hsiao-Hsuan Kuo, Mathias Lichterfeld
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Reservoirs of HIV-1-infected cells persist long-term despite highly effective antiretroviral suppression therapy and represent the main barrier against a cure for HIV-1. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the complexity and diversity of viral reservoir cells. RECENT FINDINGS: Latently infected memory CD4 T cells are the predominant cell compartment responsible for viral persistence, but some studies suggest that myeloid cells, and possibly hematopoietic progenitors, can also serve as long-term viral reservoirs...
December 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230263/-kaposi-s-sarcoma-of-the-penis-in-a-hiv-seronegative-patient
#9
Mohammed Alae Touzani, Othmane Yddoussalah
Sarcomas of the penis account for less than 5% of all tumors of the penis. They are dominated by Kaposi's sarcoma that mainly affects HIV-positive patients. However, recent studies have shown a relationship between Kaposi's sarcoma and HHV-8 infection (Human herpes virus-8), which explains why this sarcoma occurs in non-immunocompromised and HIV-seronegative patients. We here report the case of a 72-year old patient, with no previous medical history, reporting of gradual onset of tumor-like granulation tissue of 3 years duration at the level of the gland, without secondary location...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230203/ibalizumab-targeting-cd4-receptors-an-emerging-molecule-in-hiv-therapy
#10
REVIEW
Simona A Iacob, Diana G Iacob
The HIV infection is responsible for the most devastating global pandemic of the last century. More than 39 million people have died of HIV/AIDS since 1981. The development of the antiretroviral (ARV) treatment begins with the discovery of zidovudine a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. This breakthrough was followed by other ARV drug classes and representatives. Presently, HIV treatment employs 27 ARV representatives belonging to five different classes. Despite the proven benefits of ARV treatment and its long-term control of the HIV infection, there is an increasing concern about the numerous adverse effects and resistance to current ARV drugs...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229609/recent-advances-in-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv
#11
REVIEW
Monica Desai, Nigel Field, Robert Grant, Sheena McCormack
Although pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)-the use of antiretroviral drugs by non-infected people to prevent the acquisition of HIV-is a promising preventive option, important public health questions remain. Daily oral emtricitabine (FTC)-tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is highly efficacious in preventing the acquisition of HIV in people at risk as a result of a range of different types of sexual exposure. There is good evidence of efficacy in women and men, and when men who have sex with men use event based dosing...
December 11, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228218/nonhuman-primate-models-and-understanding-the-pathogenesis-of-hiv-infection-and-aids
#12
Ronald S Veazey, Andrew A Lackner
Research using nonhuman primates (NHPs) as models for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has resulted in tremendous achievements not only in the prevention and treatment of HIV, but also in biomedical research more broadly. Once considered a death sentence, HIV infection is now fairly well controlled with combination antiretroviral treatments, almost all of which were first tested for efficacy and safety in nonhuman primates or other laboratory animals...
December 8, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227356/novel-advances-on-tissue-immune-dynamics-in-hiv-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-lessons-from-imaging-studies
#13
Eirini Moysi, Kartika Padhan, Giulia Fabozzi, Constantinos Petrovas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe recent findings on the effect of HIV/SIV infection on lymph node viral and T-cell dynamics using imaging-based methodologies. RECENT FINDINGS: Chronic infection, particularly HIV/SIV, alters dramatically the microenvironment, immune cell frequency, distribution, function and tissue organization of secondary lymphoid tissues. These changes are not always reversible. Over the past few years, the implementation of advanced imaging protocols on human lymph node biopsies as well as on longitudinal lymphoid tissues samples from nonhuman primates (NHP) have provided a wealth of information on how local immune responses evolve over time in response to a persisting retroviral pathogen...
December 8, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226632/novel-bovine-associated-pvapn-plasmid-type-in-rhodococcus-equi-identified-from-lymph-nodes-of-slaughtered-cattle-and-lungs-of-people-living-with-hiv-aids
#14
M G Ribeiro, G H B Lara, P da Silva, M M J Franco, A L de Mattos-Guaraldi, A P C de Vargas, R I Sakate, F R Pavan, B S Colhado, F V R Portilho, R G Motta, T Kakuda, S Takai
Rhodococcus equi is a well-recognized Gram-positive intracellular facultative bacterium that is opportunistic in nature, which causes pyogranulomatous infections in humans and multiple host animals. The pathogenicity of the microorganism has been attributed to the presence of plasmid-encoded virulence-associated proteins (Vap). To date, three host-associated virulence plasmid types of R. equi have been identified as follows: the circular pVAPA and pVAPB, related, respectively, to equine and porcine isolates, and a recently described linear pVAPN plasmid associated with bovine strains, although these three types are found in human isolates...
December 10, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223945/-heart-transplantation-in-an-hiv-infected-patient
#15
Pablo Mouras, Laura Barcán, César Belziti, Rodolfo Pizarro, Noelia Mañez, Ricardo Marenchino
Because of its own unfavourable evolution, HIV infection was until recently considered a contraindication for organ transplantation. The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy prolonged the life expectancy of these patients and allowed the manifestation of disorders directly or indirectly related to HIV infection, mainly liver, kidney and cardiovascular diseases. We present a case of cardiac transplantation due to dilated cardiomyopathy that was performed in a patient with a recently detected HIV infection...
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221480/prevalence-and-etiologies-of-pulmonary-hypertension-in-africa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Jean Joel Bigna, Jean Jacques Noubiap, Jobert Richie Nansseu, Leopold Ndemnge Aminde
BACKGROUND: Despite the recent increasing worldwide attention towards pulmonary hypertension (PH), its epidemiology remains poorly described in Africa. Accordingly, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of PH prevalence, incidence and etiologies in Africa. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, African Journals Online, and Africa Index Medicus. Published observational studies until September 20, 2017, including adult participants residing in Africa were considered...
December 8, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220484/human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-and-hypertension-is-there-a-connection
#17
Elias Sanidas, Dimitris P Papadopoulos, Maria Velliou, Kostas Tsioufis, John Barbetseas, Vasilios Papademetriou
Data support that hypertension is prevalent among HIV patients contributing to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Immunodeficiency and prolonged antiretroviral treatment along with common risk factors including older age, male gender and high body mass index might conduce to greater incidence of hypertension. The purpose of this review was to summarize recent evidence of the increased cardiovascular risk in these patents linking HIV infection to hypertension.
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218602/correlates-of-serosorting-and-knowledge-of-sexual-partner-s-hiv-status-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-ukraine
#18
Olena Iakunchykova, Viktor Burlaka, Elizabeth J King
Ukraine has among the highest rates of newly diagnosed HIV infections in the WHO European region. Men who have sex with men (MSM) is the least studied group in the context of the HIV epidemics in Ukraine. The present paper aims to estimate the prevalence and correlates of knowledge of sexual partner's HIV status and potentially discordant anal intercourse (failure to serosort) among MSM. Data of the cross-sectional study among 8100 MSM in Ukraine in 2013 were used for this analysis. Less than half of the participants (42...
December 7, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218036/the-macrophage-a-disputed-fortress-in-the-battle-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#19
REVIEW
Christophe J Queval, Roland Brosch, Roxane Simeone
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the etiological agent of human tuberculosis (TB), has plagued humans for thousands of years. TB still remains a major public health problem in our era, causing more than 4,400 deaths worldwide every day and killing more people than HIV. After inhaling Mtb-contaminated aerosols, TB primo-infection starts in the terminal lung airways, where Mtb is taken up by alveolar macrophages. Although macrophages are known as professional killers for pathogens, Mtb has adopted remarkable strategies to circumvent host defenses, building suitable conditions to survive and proliferate...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216405/the-human-immunodeficiency-virus-care-continuum-in-china-1985-2015
#20
Ye Ma, Zhihui Dou, Wei Guo, Yurong Mao, Fujie Zhang, Jennifer M McGoogan, Yan Zhao, Decai Zhao, Yasong Wu, Zhongfu Liu, Zunyou Wu
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care continuum attrition is a major global public health challenge. Few studies have examined this problem in resource-limited settings. We aimed to assess cumulative, current, and historical achievement along China's HIV continuum of care. Methods: A nationwide, serial cross-sectional study of all individuals with HIV infection diagnosed in China between 1 January 1985 and 31 December 2015 was conducted using data from China's HIV/AIDS information systems...
December 5, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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