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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667004/the-development-of-hiv-vaccines-targeting-gp41-membrane-proximal-external-region-mper-challenges-and-prospects
#1
REVIEW
Huan Liu, Xiaojie Su, Lulu Si, Lu Lu, Shibo Jiang
A human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) vaccine which is able to effectively prevent infection would be the most powerful method of extinguishing pandemic of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Yet, achieving such vaccine remains great challenges. The membrane-proximal external region (MPER) is a highly conserved region of the envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp41 subunit near the viral envelope surface, and it plays a key role in membrane fusion. It is also the target of some reported broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs)...
April 17, 2018: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666937/biomedical-approaches-to-hiv-prevention-in-women
#2
REVIEW
Christine L Heumann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Effective HIV prevention techniques for women are of critical importance, as nearly half of all HIV infections globally are in women. This article reviews the recent literature on biomedical approaches to HIV prevention in women. RECENT FINDINGS: In trials in which women were adherent to oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), PrEP was equally efficacious in men and women. However, in studies of oral PrEP exclusively in women, adherence was low, and it was not efficacious...
April 17, 2018: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664701/prevalence-of-selected-zoonotic-diseases-and-risk-factors-at-a-human-wildlife-livestock-interface-in-mpumalanga-province-south-africa
#3
Gregory J G Simpson, Vanessa Quan, John Frean, Darryn L Knobel, Jennifer Rossouw, Jacqueline Weyer, Tanguy Marcotty, Jacques Godfroid, Lucille H Blumberg
A lack of surveillance and diagnostics for zoonotic diseases in rural human clinics limits clinical awareness of these diseases. We assessed the prevalence of nine zoonotic pathogens in a pastoral, low-income, HIV-endemic community bordering wildlife reserves in South Africa. Two groups of participants were included: malaria-negative acute febrile illness (AFI) patients, called febrilers, at three clinics (n = 74) and second, farmers, herders, and veterinary staff found at five government cattle dip-tanks, called dip-tanksters (n = 64)...
April 17, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664566/generation-of-memory-b-cells-and-their-reactivation
#4
REVIEW
Takeshi Inoue, Imogen Moran, Ryo Shinnakasu, Tri Giang Phan, Tomohiro Kurosaki
The successful establishment of humoral memory response depends on at least two layers of defense. Pre-existing protective antibodies secreted by long-lived plasma cells act as a first line of defense against reinfection ("constitutive humoral memory"). Previously, a second line of defense in which pathogen-experienced memory B cells are rapidly reactivated to produce antibodies ("reactive humoral memory"), was considered as simply a back-up system for the first line (particularly for re-infection with homologous viruses)...
May 2018: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662673/epidemiology-and-management-of-healthcare-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-non-neutropenic-immunosuppressed-patients-a-review-of-the-literature
#5
REVIEW
Nursel Calik Basaran, Sibel Ascioglu
Advancements in medicine have led to a considerable increase in the proportion of patients living with severe chronic diseases, malignancies, and HIV infections. Most of these conditions are associated with acquired immune-deficient states and treatment-related immunosuppression. Although infections as a result of neutropenia have long been recognized and strategies for management were developed, non-neutropenic immunosuppression has been overlooked. Recently, community-acquired infections in patients with frequent, significant exposure to healthcare settings and procedures have been classified as 'healthcare-associated infections' since they are more similar to hospital-acquired infections...
November 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662494/evolution-of-neutralization-response-in-hiv-1-subtype-c-infected-individuals-exhibiting-broad-cross-clade-neutralization-of-hiv-1-strains
#6
Narayanaiah Cheedarla, Babu Hemalatha, Brahmaiah Anangi, Kannan Muthuramalingam, Murugesan Selvachithiram, Pattabiraman Sathyamurthi, Nandagopal Kailasam, Raghavan Varadarajan, Soumya Swaminathan, Srikanth Prasad Tripathy, S Kalyanaraman Vaniambadi, D Ramanathan Vadakkupattu, Luke Elizabeth Hanna
Strain-specific neutralizing antibodies develop in all human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals. However, only 10-30% of infected individuals produce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). Identification and characterization of these bNAbs and understanding their evolution dynamics are critical for obtaining useful clues for the development of an effective HIV vaccine. Very recently, we published a study in which we identified 12 HIV-1 subtype C-infected individuals from India whose plasma showed potent and broad cross-clade neutralization (BCN) ability (1)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662026/the-hard-way-towards-an-antibody-based-hiv-1-env-vaccine-lessons-from-other-viruses
#7
REVIEW
Oliver Ringel, Vincent Vieillard, Patrice Debré, Jutta Eichler, Hildegard Büning, Ursula Dietrich
Although effective antibody-based vaccines have been developed against multiple viruses, such approaches have so far failed for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Despite the success of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) that has turned HIV-1 infection into a chronic disease and has reduced the number of new infections worldwide, a vaccine against HIV-1 is still urgently needed. We discuss here the major reasons for the failure of "classical" vaccine approaches, which are mostly due to the biological properties of the virus itself...
April 15, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660224/shortened-therapy-of-eight-weeks-with-paritaprevir-ritonavir-ombitasvir-and-dasabuvir-is-highly-effective-in-people-with-recent-hcv-genotype-1-infection
#8
Marianne Martinello, Sanjay Bhagani, Edward Gane, Chloe Orkin, Graham Cooke, Gregory J Dore, Kathy Petoumenos, Tanya L Applegate, Elise Tu, Philippa Marks, Nicole Pagani, Jason Grebely, Mark Nelson, Gail V Matthews
Paritaprevir/ritonavir/ombitasvir and dasabuvir with or without ribavirin for 12 weeks is approved for treatment of chronic HCV genotype 1 infection. This study assessed the efficacy of shortened duration paritaprevir/ritonavir/ombitasvir and dasabuvir with or without ribavirin for eight weeks among people with recent HCV infection. In this open-label single-arm trial conducted in Australia, England and New Zealand, adults with recent HCV (duration of infection <12 months) received paritaprevir/ritonavir/ombitasvir and dasabuvir (with weight-based ribavirin for genotype 1a and 1, no subtype) for eight weeks...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659623/loss-of-cxcr6-coreceptor-usage-characterizes-pathogenic-lentiviruses
#9
Katherine S Wetzel, Yanjie Yi, Anjana Yadav, Anya M Bauer, Ezekiel A Bello, Dino C Romero, Frederic Bibollet-Ruche, Beatrice H Hahn, Mirko Paiardini, Guido Silvestri, Martine Peeters, Ronald G Collman
Pandemic HIV-1 originated from the cross-species transmission of SIVcpz, which infects chimpanzees, while SIVcpz itself emerged following the cross-species transmission and recombination of monkey SIVs, with env contributed by the SIVgsn/mus/mon lineage that infects greater spot-nosed, mustached and mona monkeys. SIVcpz and HIV-1 are pathogenic in their respective hosts, while the phenotype of their SIVgsn/mus/mon ancestors is unknown. However, two well-studied SIV infected natural hosts, sooty mangabeys (SMs) and African green monkeys (AGMs), typically remain healthy despite high viral loads; these species express low levels of the canonical coreceptor CCR5, and recent work shows that CXCR6 is a major coreceptor for SIV in these hosts...
April 16, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658302/molecular-epidemiology-of-hiv-1-virus-in-puerto-rico-novel-cases-of-hiv-1-subtype-c-d-and-crf-24bg
#10
Pablo Lopez, Omayra De Jesus, Yasuhiro Yamamura, Nayra Rodriguez, Andrea Arias, Raphael Sanchez, Yadira Rodriguez, Vivian Tamayo-Agrait, Wilfredo Cuevas, Vanessa Rivera-Amill
Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) subtype B virus is the most prevalent subtype in Puerto Rico (PR), accounting for about 90% of infection in the island. Recently, other subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRF) including F (12_BF), A (01_BF), and CRF-39 BF-like have been identified. The purpose of this study is to assess the distribution of drug resistance mutations and subtypes in PR. A total of 846 nucleotide sequences from the period comprising 2013 through 2017 were obtained from our "HIV Genotyping" test file...
April 15, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655906/substance-use-and-sex-index-susi-first-stage-development-of-an-assessment-tool-to-measure-behaviour-change-in-sexualised-drug-use-for-substance-use-treatment-studies
#11
Nadine Ezard, Beatrice Webb, Brendan Clifford, Michael E Cecilio, Amanda Jellie, Toby Lea, Craig Rodgers, Simon Ruth, Raimondo Bruno
BACKGROUND: Existing tools for measuring blood-borne virus (BBV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission risk behaviours in substance use interventions have limited capacity to assess risk behaviours across varied social, cultural and epidemiological contexts; have not evolved alongside HIV treatment and prevention innovations; or accounted for sexual contexts of drug use including among a range of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex and queer (LGBTIQ) sub-communities...
April 11, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649127/gene-therapy-for-chronic-hbv-can-we-eliminate-cccdna
#12
REVIEW
Kristie Bloom, Mohube Betty Maepa, Abdullah Ely, Patrick Arbuthnot
Chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a global health concern and accounts for approximately 1 million deaths annually. Amongst other limitations of current anti-HBV treatment, failure to eliminate the viral covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) and emergence of resistance remain the most worrisome. Viral rebound from latent episomal cccDNA reservoirs occurs following cessation of therapy, patient non-compliance, or the development of escape mutants. Simultaneous viral co-infections, such as by HIV-1, further complicate therapeutic interventions...
April 12, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649077/circulating-cxcr5-expressing-cd8-t-cells-are-major-producers-of-il-21-and-associate-with-limited-hiv-replication
#13
Federico Perdomo-Celis, Natalia A Taborda, Maria T Rugeles
BACKGROUND: Despite advances made with the highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in the control of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV) infection, a cure has not been achieved due to the persistence of viral reservoirs. The major HIV reservoirs remain in the lymphoid follicles due to, among other factors, the partial absence of CD8T-cells in these structures. Recently, lymphoid follicle-confined and circulating CD8T-cells expressing the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CXCR5) were described, possessing antiviral mechanisms which could help to control HIV replication...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643844/emerging-roles-of-n-6-methyladenosine-on-hiv-1-rna-metabolism-and-viral-replication
#14
REVIEW
Sebastián Riquelme-Barrios, Camila Pereira-Montecinos, Fernando Valiente-Echeverría, Ricardo Soto-Rifo
N6 -methyladenosine (m6 A) is the most abundant internal modification present in Eukaryotic mRNA. The functions of this chemical modification are mediated by m6 A-binding proteins (m6 A readers) and regulated by methyltransferases (m6 A writers) and demethylases (m6 A erasers), which together are proposed to be responsible of a new layer of post-transcriptional control of gene expression. Despite the presence of m6 A in a retroviral genome was reported more than 40 years ago, the recent development of sequencing-based technologies allowing the mapping of m6 A in a transcriptome-wide manner made it possible to identify the topology and dynamics of m6 A during replication of HIV-1 as well as other viruses...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643244/sun1-regulates-hiv-1-nuclear-import-in-a-manner-dependent-on-the-interaction-between-the-viral-capsid-and-cellular-cyclophilin-a
#15
Xinlong Luo, Wei Yang, Guangxia Gao
HIV-1 can infect non-dividing cells via passing through the nuclear pore complex. The nuclear membrane imbedded protein SUN2 was recently reported to be involved in the nuclear import of HIV-1. Whether SUN1, which shares many functional similarities with SUN2, is involved in this process remained to be explored. Here, we report that overexpression of SUN1 specifically inhibited the infection of HIV-1, but not simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) or murine leukemia virus (MLV). Overexpression of SUN1 did not affect reverse transcription, but led to reduced accumulation of the 2-LTR circular DNA and integrated viral DNA, suggesting a block in the process of nuclear import...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642897/small-contribution-of-gold-mines-to-the-ongoing-tuberculosis-epidemic-in-south-africa-a-modeling-based-study
#16
Stewart T Chang, Violet N Chihota, Katherine L Fielding, Alison D Grant, Rein M Houben, Richard G White, Gavin J Churchyard, Philip A Eckhoff, Bradley G Wagner
BACKGROUND: Gold mines represent a potential hotspot for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) transmission and may be exacerbating the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic in South Africa. However, the presence of multiple factors complicates estimation of the mining contribution to the TB burden in South Africa. METHODS: We developed two models of TB in South Africa, a static risk model and an individual-based model that accounts for longer-term trends. Both models account for four populations - mine workers, peri-mining residents, labor-sending residents, and other residents of South Africa - including the size and prevalence of latent TB infection, active TB, and HIV of each population and mixing between populations...
April 12, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642890/physicians-and-nurses-thoughts-and-concerns-about-introducing-neonatal-male-circumcision-in-thailand-a-qualitative-study
#17
Kriengkrai Srithanaviboonchai, Namtip Srirak, Boonlure Pruenglampoo, Kanittha Thaikla, Jiraporn Suwanteerangkul, Jiraporn Khorana, Vipa Danthamrongkul, Suchada Paileeklee, Uraiwan Pattanasattayavong, Deanna E Grimes, Richard M Grimes
BACKGROUND: Neonatal male circumcision (NMC) is an alternative approach to adult male circumcision for HIV prevention. Recent studies found that NMC was rarely performed in Thailand and that most Thai health professionals did not recognize that NMC could reduce the risk of HIV infection and would not want NMC services in their hospitals. This study explored the thoughts and concerns of Thai government health staff regarding the introduction of NMC in government health facilities as a public health measure...
April 11, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629677/blood-and-virus-detection-on-barber-clippers
#18
Z Spengane, S Korsman, K Mkentane, L M Davids, W Zemanay, M Africa, S Mbhele, M Nicol, F Gumedze, D Ngwanya, N P Khumalo
BACKGROUND: Bleeding from the popular clean-shave 'chiskop' haircut was recently reported as prevalent in South Africa (SA), a country with 6.9 million HIV-infected people. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of barber hair clipper contamination with blood and HIV and hepatitis B viruses. METHODS: Fifty barbers from three townships in Cape Town, SA, were invited to participate. One clipper from each barber was collected immediately after it had been used for a clean-shave haircut...
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628513/hot-news-impact-of-low-level-viremia-on-treatment-outcomes-during-art-is-it-time-to-revise-the-definition-of-virological-failure
#19
Eva Poveda, Manuel Crespo
The level of HIV-RNA in plasma (HIV viral load) is the main marker used to monitor the virological response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected patients. The threshold used to define virological suppression has historically been dictated by the limits of detection of the commercial assays used to quantify the plasma viral load. Thus, as more sensitive assays have proliferated and become more widely available, the definition has shifted from < 400 cop/mL with the first generation assays, to < 50 cop/mL, to < 20 cop/mL currently...
January 2018: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628511/dolutegravir-neuropsychiatric-adverse-events-specific-drug-effect-or-class-effect
#20
Jean Cyr Yombi
Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are a newer class of antiretroviral treatment for HIV-infected patient. INSTIs currently available for use are raltegravir, elvitegravir, dolutegravir (DTG), and bictegravir. Clinical studies using INSTIs have demonstrated an 80-90% efficiency in treating HIV-positive antiretroviral therapy - naive patients. They are recommended by internatioal guidelines as the preferred agents for the first-line regimen. INSTIs have also been demonstrated as safe and tolerable...
January 2018: AIDS Reviews
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