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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647907/a-constant-companion-immune-recognition-and-response-to-cytomegalovirus-with-aging-and-implications-for-immune-fitness
#1
REVIEW
Aisha Souquette, Justin Frere, Megan Smithey, Delphine Sauce, Paul G Thomas
Approximately 50% of individuals aged 6-49 years in the United States are infected with cytomegalovirus (CMV), with seroprevalence increasing with age, reaching 85-90% by 75-80 years according to Bate et al. (Clin Infect Dis 50 (11): 1439-1447, 2010) and Pawelec et al. (Curr Opin Immunol 24:507-511, 2012). Following primary infection, CMV establishes lifelong latency with periodic reactivation. Immunocompetent hosts experience largely asymptomatic infection, but CMV can cause serious illness in immunocompromised populations, such as transplant patients and the elderly...
June 24, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647845/recent-progress-in-the-development-of-white-spot-syndrome-virus-vaccines-for-protecting-shrimp-against-viral-infection
#2
REVIEW
Shuying Feng, Chen Wang, Shu Hu, Qiongya Wu, Aifang Li
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been extensively investigated since the white spot disease outbreak in shrimp in 1990. These investigations have mainly focused on determining the function of viral structural proteins, and on utilizing the envelope proteins as subunit vaccines to protect the host. These studies have shown that a WSSV vaccine can be a practical and effective approach for controlling WSSV infection. The development of such a vaccine has become an intense focus of research in the field. This research has resulted in significant progress in the development of WSSV vaccines...
June 24, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647779/transcriptome-profiling-and-digital-gene-expression-analysis-of-the-skin-of-dybowski-s-frog-rana-dybowskii-exposed-to-aeromonas-hydrophila
#3
Yi-Gang Xu, Long-Hui Chai, Wen Shi, Dan-Dan Wang, Jing-Yu Zhang, Xiang-Hong Xiao
Recently, populations of Rana dybowskii, an important amphibian species in Northeast China, have decreased, mainly owing to the disease caused by Aeromonas hydrophila. However, effective control methods have not yet been developed. In order to explore the immune responses of R. dybowskii upon exposure to A. hydrophila infection, Illumina high-throughput transcriptome sequencing and digital gene expression (DGE) technology were employed to investigate transcriptomic changes in the skin of R. dybowskii exposed to A...
June 24, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647541/response-tailored-protocol-versus-the-fixed-12weeks-of-dual-sofosbuvir-daclatasvir-treatment-in-egyptian-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-genotype-4-infection-a-randomized-open-label-non-inferiority-trial
#4
Mostafa Yakoot, Alaa M Abdo, Siham Abdel-Rehim, Sherine Helmy
BACKGROUND: The most recent European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) 2016 Guidelines on treatment of hepatitis C (HCV), allowed for shortening the course of treatment for some subsets of patients with sofosbuvir/ledipasvir and with grazoprevir/elbasvir based on cutoff baseline HCV RNA values. We hypothesized that it would be prudent to also consider an objectively assuring very rapid, on-treatment, virologic response to therapy at week 2 (vRVR) before taking the decision of shortening the treatment duration...
May 17, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647534/molecular-cell-biology-of-complement-membrane-attack
#5
REVIEW
B Paul Morgan, Courtney Boyd, Doryen Bubeck
The membrane attack complex (MAC) is the pore-forming toxin of the complement system, a relatively early evolutionary acquisition that confers upon complement the capacity to directly kill pathogens. The MAC is more than just a bactericidal missile, having the capacity when formed on self-cells to initiate a host of cell activation events that can have profound consequences for tissue homeostasis in the face of infection or injury. Although the capacity of complement to directly kill pathogens has been recognised for over a century, and the pore-forming killing mechanism for at least 50 years, there remains considerable uncertainty regarding precisely how MAC mediates its killing and cell activation activities...
June 21, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647427/first-molecular-detection-of-leishmania-infantum-in-sergentomyia-minuta-diptera-psychodidae-in-alentejo-southern-portugal
#6
S Pereira, D Pita-Pereira, T Araujo-Pereira, C Britto, T Costa-Rego, J Ferrolho, M Vilhena, E F Rangel, M L Vilela, M O Afonso
Protozoan parasites, such as Leishmania spp., are the causative agents of many insect-borne infectious diseases with medical and veterinary importance. Leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania spp., is transmitted by female phlebotomine sand flies. In the Alentejo region of Portugal, located at the north of Algarve, cases of human and canine leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum have been notified. However, no recent studies regarding the sand fly fauna in the region are available. We therefore aimed to explore the phlebotomine sand fly species found in both, Évora and Beja Districts, to gain an insight about the leishmaniasis epidemiology in these areas...
June 21, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647336/milk-composition-and-health-status-from-mammary-gland-quarters-adjacent-to-glands-affected-with-naturally-occurring-clinical-mastitis
#7
Marcel G Paixão, Luiz R Abreu, Roxann Richert, Pamela L Ruegg
Mammary gland quarters have usually been considered to be anatomically and physiologically independent, but some recent research has indicated more interdependence than previously reported. The objective of this study was to compare milk composition (fat, total protein, lactose, solids-not-fat, and chloride) and health status (somatic cell count, differential leukocyte count, and lactate dehydrogenase) of milk samples from unaffected mammary glands of an udder with a single clinically inflamed quarter to results of milk samples from healthy mammary glands of healthy cows...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647211/tubuloreticular-inclusions-in-peritubular-capillaries-of-renal-allografts
#8
Jee Youn Lee, Seung Hwan Song, Yu Seun Kim, Beom Jin Lim, Soon Il Kim, Myoung Soo Kim, Hyeon Joo Jeong
BACKGROUND: Tubuloreticular inclusions (TRIs) are anastomosing networks of microtubules that are frequently found in autoimmune diseases and viral infections. In renal allografts, TRIs have been reported in glomerular endothelial cells in association with viral infections and donor specific antibodies (DSAs), but their presence in peritubular capillaries has not been explored. METHODS: We collected seven cases with TRIs out of 148 consecutive renal allograft biopsies taken from Dec...
June 6, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647173/an-update-on-zika-virus-infection
#9
REVIEW
David Baud, Duane J Gubler, Bruno Schaub, Marion C Lanteri, Didier Musso
The epidemic history of Zika virus began in 2007, with its emergence in Yap Island in the western Pacific, followed in 2013-14 by a larger epidemic in French Polynesia, south Pacific, where the first severe complications and non-vector-borne transmission of the virus were reported. Zika virus emerged in Brazil in 2015 and was declared a national public health emergency after local researchers and physicians reported an increase in microcephaly cases. In 2016, WHO declared the recent cluster of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders reported in Brazil a global public health emergency...
June 21, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646967/the-respiratory-microbiome-and-respiratory-infections
#10
Stefan A Unger, Debby Bogaert
Despite advances over the past ten years lower respiratory tract infections still comprise around a fifth of all deaths worldwide in children under five years of age with the majority in low- and middle-income countries. Known risk factors for severe respiratory infections and poor chronic respiratory health do not fully explain why some children become sick and others do not. The respiratory tract hosts bacteria that can cause respiratory infections but also normal commensal bacteria. Together, this microbial population is called the microbiome...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646965/cholera-management-and-prevention
#11
Hannah G Davies, Conor Bowman, Stephen P Luby
Cholera is an acute secretory diarrhoeal infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. It is likely to have originated in the Indian sub-continent; however, it spread to cause six worldwide pandemics between 1817-1923. The ongoing seventh worldwide pandemic of cholera began in 1961. The intensity, duration and severity of cholera epidemics have been increasing, signaling the need for more effective control and prevention measures. The response to the cholera pandemics of the 19th century led to the development of safe and effective sanitation and water systems which have effectively removed the risk of cholera in many settings...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646962/the-long-shadow-of-lemierre-s-syndrome
#12
Joshua Osowicki, Sarah Kapur, Linny Kimly Phuong, Simon Dobson
Lemierre's syndrome is a rare and feared complication of pharyngitis, occurring most commonly in adolescents and young adults. It is typically defined by the constellation of septic internal jugular vein thrombophlebitis, pulmonary and other septic emboli, and sterilesite infection by Fusobacterium necrophorum. The rarity and severity of Lemierre's syndrome has made it an attractive subject for case reports but there is a paucity of evidence to inform areas of persistent uncertainty. In recent years, heightened attention and controversy has focused upon speculation that a purported rise in the incidence of Lemierre's syndrome is due to reduced antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections, that F...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646958/new-tools-for-malaria-control-using-them-wisely
#13
Brian Greenwood
The incidence of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa is falling and in many countries on the continent the pattern of malaria infection within the country is becoming more heterogeneous. National malaria control programmes need to take this into account and the 'one size fits all' approach to malaria control may no longer be appropriate, with individual approaches being needed in different parts of a country. This applies particularly to decisions on the introduction of new control tools. Recent experience with Seasonal Malaria Chemoprevention and with the RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine provides examples of interventions which need to be deployed on a restricted rather than a national basis, taking account of differences in climate and the intensity of malaria infection between regions within a country...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646954/development-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-vaccines-for-infants
#14
Hannah E Gerretsen, Charles J Sande
2017 will mark the 60(th) anniversary since the first isolation of RSV in children. In spite of concerted efforts over all these years, the goal of developing an effective vaccine against paediatric RSV disease has remained elusive. One of the main hurdles standing in the way of an effective vaccine is the fact that the age incidence of severe disease peaks within the first 3 months of life, providing limited opportunity for intervention. In addition to this complexity, the spectre of failed historical vaccines, which increased the risk of illness and death upon subsequent natural infection, has substantially increased the safety criteria against which modern vaccines will be assessed...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646953/nontuberculous-mycobacterial-disease-in-childhood-update-on-diagnostic-approaches-and-treatment
#15
Petra Zimmermann, Nigel Curtis, Marc Tebruegge
Recent studies suggest that the incidence of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in children may be increasing. Nontuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis, skin and soft tissue infection, and pulmonary disease each present unique challenges in relation to diagnosis and treatment. In this update, we critically review the recent literature on the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnostic approaches and treatment of nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in children. In addition, we outline key areas warranting further research...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646950/pertussis-disease-and-transmission-and-host-responses-insights-from-the-baboon-model-of-pertussis
#16
Marta V Pinto, Tod J Merkel
Whooping cough is a highly contagious, acute respiratory disease, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Bordetella pertussis (Bp). Despite the introduction and widespread use of vaccines starting in the 1950s pertussis cases continue to be reported, with a significant global impact. The role of specific virulence factors in disease and the immune mechanisms associated with protection following natural infection or vaccination are still not completely understood. The recently-developed baboon model of clinical pertussis provides a valuable tool for the study of pertussis...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646697/seroepidemiology-of-whooping-cough-in-the-czech-republic-estimates-of-incidence-of-infection-in-adults
#17
R Chlibek, J Smetana, R Sosovickova, K Fabianova, J Zavadilova, P Dite, P Gal, P Naplava, D Lzicarova
OBJECTIVES: Despite widespread vaccination programmes, pertussis remains a significant health burden in many countries. Low awareness of the disease, the high rate of asymptomatic cases in adults and difficulties with diagnosis could explain the under-reporting of pertussis. The lack of data on actual incidence constitutes an obstacle for public health authorities for the implementation of a vaccination strategy against pertussis in adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of antibodies against Bordetella pertussis infection in adults and to estimate the actual incidence of the disease compared with the reported incidence...
June 21, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646669/validation-of-a-commercial-kit-aimed-to-the-detection-of-pathogenic-anisakid-nematodes-in-fish-products
#18
Serena Cavallero, Alessandro Bruno, Enrico Arletti, Monica Caffara, Maria Letizia Fioravanti, Antonella Costa, Gaetano Cammilleri, Stefania Graci, Vincenzo Ferrantelli, Stefano D'Amelio
Anisakids are parasitic nematodes responsible for a zoonosis that occurs following the ingestion of fish and fish products infected with larvae belonging to the genera Anisakis and Pseudoterranova. Rarely Contracaecum is found in association with gastric/intestinal illness, while Hysterothylacium is commonly considered not pathogenic. Although Real Time PCR assays have been recently used with the aim to detect and quantify these parasites in food products, methods applied did not undergo through extensive validation process, a feature highly desirable or mandatory in the case of testing laboratories accredited for the ISO EN 17025:2005...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646615/definition-of-healthcare-associated-influenza-a-review-and-results-from-an-international-survey
#19
Elodie Munier-Marion, Thomas Bénet, Philippe Vanhems
AIM: To describe definitions of healthcare-associated influenza (HAI) in recent literature and in hospitals participating in a survey of Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) Research Network (SRN) members. METHOD: A review with PubMed search was undertaken to retrieve articles published between 2008 and 2016, focusing on the subject headings "influenza, human" and "cross infection". Definitions of clinical influenza-like illness (ILI) and HAI were identified...
June 24, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646360/does-the-risk-of-rerevision-vary-between-porous-tantalum-cups-and-other-cementless-designs-after-revision-hip-arthroplasty
#20
Inari Laaksonen, Michelle Lorimer, Kirill Gromov, Ola Rolfson, Keijo T Mäkelä, Stephen E Graves, Henrik Malchau, Maziar Mohaddes
BACKGROUND: Earlier results with porous tantalum acetabular cups in revision THA generally have been favorable. Recently there has been some evidence presented that porous tantalum cups might decrease the risk of rerevision in the setting of revision hip surgery performed owing to prosthetic joint infection (PJI). As the data supporting this assertion come from a study with a limited study population, examining this issue with a large registry approach may be enlightening. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: By combining results from two large, national registries, we asked: (1) Do porous tantalum cups show improved survival after revision THA compared with other cementless designs? (2) Does the use of porous tantalum cups influence survivorship when rerevision for PJI is the endpoint? METHODS: A total of 2442 first-time THA revisions with porous tantalum cups and 4401 first-time revisions with other uncemented cups were included in this collaborative study between the Australian and Swedish national joint registries...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
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