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Recent infection

Christopher D Witiw, Fabrice Smieliauskas, John E O'Toole, Michael G Fehlings, Richard G Fessler
BACKGROUND: Surgery for cervical radiculopathy is often approached by either anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) or posterior cervical foraminotomy (PCF). ACDF is more common; however, recent single center studies suggest comparable efficacy and significant cost savings with PCF in appropriately selected patients. OBJECTIVE: To compare utilization, adverse events, and costs for each approach from a national perspective. METHODS: Adults undergoing single level ACDF or PCF for cervical radiculopathy were included from a US commercial health insurance claims database spanning 2003 to 2014...
March 14, 2018: Neurosurgery
Edouard Louis
Biologic treatments have revolutionized the way we treat inflammatory bowel disease patients (IBD). Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) antibodies are superior to conventional therapies to achieve sustained remission without steroids and mucosal healing. The objective of IBD treatment has evolved from symptom alleviation to a combination of absence of symptoms and intestinal healing. Nevertheless, biologics are expensive and are associated with an increased risk of infections and possibly skin cancers. Therefore, the duration of these treatments may be questioned, and stopping them may be contemplated by some patients and clinicians, while it is sometimes even imposed by some jurisdictions across the world...
March 14, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Robin Patel, Ferric C Fang
Recent advances in microbial diagnostics are providing clinicians with information about microbes causing infections and their resistance to antimicrobial agents more rapidly than ever before. Diagnostic stewardship refers to the appropriate use of laboratory testing to guide patient management, including treatment, in order to optimize clinical outcomes and limit the spread of antimicrobial resistance. Fulfilling the promise of diagnostic stewardship requires a seamless partnership between clinical laboratories, pharmacists, and infectious diseases clinicians, so that appropriate tests are ordered and diagnostic information is translated into appropriate management in real time...
March 14, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Francesca Micoli, Paolo Costantino, Roberto Adamo
Cell surface carbohydrates have been proven optimal targets for vaccine development. Conjugation of polysaccharides to a carrier protein triggers a T-cell dependent immune response to the glycan moiety. Licensed glycoconjugate vaccines are produced by chemical conjugation of capsular polysaccharides to prevent meningitis caused by meningococcus, pneumococcus and Haemophilus influenzae type b. However, other classes of carbohydrates (O-antigens, exopolysaccharides, wall/teichoic acids) represent attractive targets for developing vaccines...
March 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Mario Alberto Flores-Valdez, Cristian Alfredo Segura-Cerda, Jorge Gaona-Bernal
Effective prevention of tuberculosis (Tb) would undoubtedly be of paramount relevance in the control of its global burden, which resulted in more than 6 million new cases in 2016. Research aimed to improve the current vaccine, Bacillus Calmette- Guérin (BCG), or directed to develop new candidates, has taken into account the interaction between the host and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Recently, autophagy, an intracellular process of the host, has been shown to act as a mechanism that contributes to bacilli clearance in vitro and in vivo...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Elisa Fiume, Jacopo Barberi, Enrica Verné, Francesco Baino
Nowadays, bioactive glasses (BGs) are mainly used to improve and support the healing process of osseous defects deriving from traumatic events, tumor removal, congenital pathologies, implant revisions, or infections. In the past, several approaches have been proposed in the replacement of extensive bone defects, each one with its own advantages and drawbacks. As a result, the need for synthetic bone grafts is still a remarkable clinical challenge since more than 1 million bone-graft surgical operations are annually performed worldwide...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Functional Biomaterials
Tory P Johnson, Avindra Nath
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The immune system serves a critical role in protecting the host against various pathogens. However, under circumstances, once triggered by the infectious process, it may be detrimental to the host. This may be as a result of nonspecific immune activation or due to a targeted immune response to a specific host antigen. In this opinion piece, we discuss the underlying mechanisms that lead to such an inflammatory or autoimmune syndrome affecting the nervous system. We examine these hypotheses in the context of recent emerging infections to provide mechanistic insight into the clinical manifestations and rationale for immunomodulatory therapy...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Maria J Gonzalez-Moa, Bieke Van Dorst, Ole Lagatie, Ann Verheyen, Lieven Stuyver, Marco A Biamonte
Three O. volvulus immunogenic peptide sequences recently discovered by peptide microarray were adapted to a lateral flow assay (LFA). The LFA employs gold nanoshells as novel high-contrast reporter nanoparticles and detects a serological response against the 3 peptides, found in OvOC9384, OvOC198, and OvOC5528, respectively. When tested on 118 sera from O. volvulus infected patients and 208 control sera, the LFA was 90, 63, and 98% sensitive for each peptide, respectively, and 99-100% specific vs. samples from healthy volunteers...
March 16, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
David Williams, Joanne L Fothergill, Benjamin Evans, Jessica Caples, Sam Haldenby, Martin J Walshaw, Michael A Brockhurst, Craig Winstanley, Steve Paterson
Pseudomonas aeruginosa chronic infections of cystic fibrosis (CF) airways are a paradigm for within-host evolution with abundant evidence for rapid evolutionary adaptation and diversification. Recently emerged transmissible strains have spread globally, with the Liverpool Epidemic Strain (LES) the most common strain infecting the UK CF population. Previously we have shown that highly divergent lineages of LES can be found within a single infection, consistent with super-infection among a cross-sectional cohort of patients...
March 16, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Bryan Markinson, Mahmoud Ghannoum, Tate Winter, Anthony Rycerz, Fernando Rock, Aditya K Gupta
Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nail primarily caused by the dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The topical-based treatment of onychomycosis remains a challenge because of the difficulty associated with penetrating the dense, protective structure of the keratinized nail plate. Tavaborole is a novel small-molecule antifungal agent recently approved in the United States for the topical treatment of toenail onychomycosis. The low molecular weight, slight water solubility, and boron chemistry of tavaborole maximize nail penetration after topical application, allowing for effective targeting of the infection in the nail bed...
January 2018: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
Mattia Bonzi, Giulia Cernuschi, Monica Solbiati, Giuliano Giusti, Nicola Montano, Elisa Ceriani
Infective endocarditis (IE) is a serious and potentially life-threatening disease, and accurate diagnosis is essential. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the diagnostic accuracy of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) as the reference standard, in patients with suspected IE of the native valves. We performed a systematic search in MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library searching for studies that enrolled adult patients with suspected native valves IE where data about both TTE and TEE could be extracted...
March 15, 2018: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Adel Abdel-Moneim, Alaa Aboud, Mohamed Abdel-Gabbar, Mohamed Zanaty, Mohamed Ramadan
BACKGROUND: The current standard of care for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a combination of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). However, rare clinical trials have been reported on the combination regimen of sofosbuvir (SOF) with ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir (OBV/PTV/r) plus ribavirin (RBV) for treated patients with HCV genotype 4 (GT4) infection. AIMS: To clarify the retreatment efficacy and safety of the recent regimen, SOF with OBV/PTV/r + RBV, for chronic HCV GT4-experienced patients who failed treatment with DAA-based regimens...
March 15, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Xiqi Li, Cesar A Arias, Samuel L Aitken, Jessica Galloway Peña, Diana Panesso, Michael Chang, Lorena Diaz, Rafael Rios, Yazan Numan, Sammi Ghaoui, Sruti DebRoy, Micah M Bhatti, Dawn E Simmons, Isaam Raad, Ray Hachem, Stephanie A Folan, Pranoti Sahasarabhojane, Awdhesh Kalia, Samuel A Shelburne
Background: Pathobionts, bacteria that are typically human commensals but can cause disease, contribute significantly to antimicrobial resistance. Staphylococcus epidermidis is a prototypical pathobiont as it is a ubiquitous human commensal but also a leading cause of healthcare-associated bacteremia. We sought to determine the etiology of a recent increase in invasive S. epidermidis isolates resistant to linezolid. Methods: Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on 176 S...
March 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Manon Ragonnet-Cronin, Celia Jackson, Amanda Bradley-Stewart, Celia Aitken, Andrew McAuley, Norah Palmateer, Rory Gunson, David Goldberg, Catriona Milosevic, Andrew J Leigh Brown
Harm reduction has dramatically reduced HIV incidence among people who inject drugs (PWID). In Glasgow, Scotland, <10 infections/year have been diagnosed among PWID since the mid-90s. However, in 2015 a sharp rise in diagnoses was noted among PWID: many were subtype C with two identical drug resistant mutations and some displayed low avidity, suggesting the infections were linked and recent.We collected Scottish pol sequences and identified closely related sequences from public databases. Genetic linkage was ascertained among 228 Scottish, 1820 UK and 524 global sequences...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Nicolle H R Litjens, Lotte van der Wagen, Jurgen Kuball, Jaap Kwekkeboom
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection can cause significant complications after transplantation, but recent emerging data suggest that CMV may paradoxically also exert beneficial effects in two specific allogeneic transplant settings. These potential benefits have been underappreciated and are therefore highlighted in this review. First, after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) using T-cell and natural killer (NK) cell-replete grafts, CMV reactivation is associated with protection from leukemic relapse...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Piera Valenti, Luigi Rosa, Daniela Capobianco, Maria Stefania Lepanto, Elisa Schiavi, Antimo Cutone, Rosalba Paesano, Paola Mastromarino
The innate defense system of the female mucosal genital tract involves a close and complex interaction among the healthy vaginal microbiota, different cells, and various proteins that protect the host from pathogens. Vaginal lactobacilli and lactoferrin represent two essential actors in the vaginal environment. Lactobacilli represent the dominant bacterial species able to prevent facultative and obligate anaerobes outnumber in vaginal microbiota maintaining healthy microbial homeostasis. Several mechanisms underlie the protection exerted by lactobacilli: competition for nutrients and tissue adherence, reduction of the vaginal pH, modulation of immunity, and production of bioactive compounds...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Cheleka A M Mpande, One B Dintwe, Munyaradzi Musvosvi, Simbarashe Mabwe, Nicole Bilek, Mark Hatherill, Elisa Nemes, Thomas J Scriba
Background: Maintenance of long-lasting immunity is thought to depend on stem cell memory T cells (TSCM ), which have superior self-renewing capacity, longevity and proliferative potential compared with central memory (TCM ) or effector (TEFF ) T cells. Our knowledge of TSCM derives primarily from studies of virus-specific CD8+ TSCM . We aimed to determine if infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( M. tb ), the etiological agent of tuberculosis, generates antigen-specific CD4+ TSCM and to characterize their functional ontology...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Yamaan S Saadeh, Luis E Savastano, Julian L Gendreau, Aditya S Pandey
Optimal management of patients with stroke due to symptomatic carotid artery disease coexistent with bacterial endocarditis is still not well established. We report the case of a patient who presented with multifocal left middle cerebral artery stroke in the setting of Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis and was found to have near-occlusive ipsilateral carotid artery stenosis in stroke workup. Carotid artery endarterectomy was performed, and atheroma material demonstrated complicated plaque with cultures positive for E...
March 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
T A Defosse, Y Le Govic, V Courdavault, M Clastre, P Vandeputte, D Chabasse, J-P Bouchara, N Giglioli-Guivarc'h, N Papon
Among the subdivision of Saccharomycotina (ascomycetes budding yeasts), the CTG clade (formerly the Candida clade) includes species that display a particular genetic code. In these yeasts, the CTG codon is predominantly translated as a serine instead of a leucine residue. It is now well-known that some CTG clade species have a major impact on human and its activities. Some of them are recognized as opportunistic agents of fungal infections termed candidiasis. In addition, another series of species belonging to the CTG clade draws the attention of some research groups because they exhibit a strong potential in various areas of biotechnology such as biological control, bioremediation, but also in the production of valuable biocompounds (biofuel, vitamins, sweeteners, industrial enzymes)...
March 12, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
David J Tennent, Stefanie M Shiels, Jessica A Jennings, Warren O Haggard, Joseph C Wenke
BACKGROUND: Contaminated traumatic open orthopedic wounds are frequently complicated by polymicrobial contamination and infection. In high-risk wounds, the standard of care comprises debridement and irrigation combined with antibiotics which can be applied directly or combined with systemic antibiotics. Recently, bioabsorbable chitosan sponges have been shown to be an effective single-agent delivery device for local antibiotics with and without negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). Severely contaminated orthopedic wounds, however, are often complicated by polymicrobial infections, necessitating multiple antibiotic agents...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
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