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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156634/an-overview-of-chitosan-nanoparticles-and-its-application-in-non-parenteral-drug-delivery
#1
REVIEW
Munawar A Mohammed, Jaweria T M Syeda, Kishor M Wasan, Ellen K Wasan
The focus of this review is to provide an overview of the chitosan based nanoparticles for various non-parenteral applications and also to put a spotlight on current research including sustained release and mucoadhesive chitosan dosage forms. Chitosan is a biodegradable, biocompatible polymer regarded as safe for human dietary use and approved for wound dressing applications. Chitosan has been used as a carrier in polymeric nanoparticles for drug delivery through various routes of administration. Chitosan has chemical functional groups that can be modified to achieve specific goals, making it a polymer with a tremendous range of potential applications...
November 20, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156583/new-paradigms-for-the-study-of-ocular-alphaherpesvirus-infections-insights-into-the-use-of-non-traditional-host-model-systems
#2
REVIEW
Matthew R Pennington, Eric C Ledbetter, Gerlinde R Van de Walle
Ocular herpesviruses, most notably human alphaherpesvirus 1 (HSV-1), canid alphaherpesvirus 1 (CHV-1) and felid alphaherpesvirus 1 (FHV-1), infect and cause severe disease that may lead to blindness. CHV-1 and FHV-1 have a pathogenesis and induce clinical disease in their hosts that is similar to HSV-1 ocular infections in humans, suggesting that infection of dogs and cats with CHV-1 and FHV-1, respectively, can be used as a comparative natural host model of herpesvirus-induced ocular disease. In this review, we discuss both strengths and limitations of the various available model systems to study ocular herpesvirus infection, with a focus on the use of these non-traditional virus-natural host models...
November 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156371/bacterial-microbiota-of-the-nasal-passages-across-the-span-of-human-life
#3
REVIEW
Lindsey Bomar, Silvio D Brugger, Katherine P Lemon
The human nasal passages host major human pathogens. Recent research suggests that the microbial communities inhabiting the epithelial surfaces of the nasal passages are a key factor in maintaining a healthy microenvironment by affecting both resistance to pathogens and immunological responses. The nasal bacterial microbiota shows distinct changes over the span of human life and disruption by environmental factors might be associated with both short- and long-term health consequences, such as susceptibility to viral and bacterial infections and disturbances of the immunological balance...
November 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156242/optimization-of-pmaxx-pretreatment-to-distinguish-between-human-norovirus-with-intact-and-altered-capsids-in-shellfish-and-sewage-samples
#4
Walter Randazzo, Mohammad Khezri, Joanna Ollivier, Françoise S Le Guyader, Jesús Rodríguez-Díaz, Rosa Aznar, Gloria Sánchez
Shellfish contamination by human noroviruses (HuNoVs) is a serious health and economic problem. Recently an ISO procedure based on RT-qPCR for the quantitative detection of HuNoVs in shellfish has been issued, but these procedures cannot discriminate between inactivated and potentially infectious viruses. The aim of the present study was to optimize a pretreatment using PMAxx to better discriminate between intact and heat-treated HuNoVs in shellfish and sewage. To this end, the optimal conditions (30min incubation with 100μM of PMAxx and 0...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156234/candida-albicans-epithelial-interactions-and-induction-of-mucosal-innate-immunity
#5
REVIEW
Julian R Naglik, Annika König, Bernhard Hube, Sarah L Gaffen
Candida albicans is a human fungal pathogen that causes millions of mucosal and life-threatening infections annually. C. albicans initially interacts with epithelial cells, resulting in fungal recognition and the formation of hyphae. Hypha formation is critical for host cell damage and immune activation, which are both driven by the secretion of Candidalysin, a recently discovered peptide toxin. Epithelial activation leads to the production of inflammatory mediators that recruit innate immune cells including neutrophils, macrophages and innate Type 17 cells, which together work with epithelial cells to clear the fungal infection...
November 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156159/amnion-the-ideal-scaffold-for-treating-full-thickness-wounds-of-the-lower-extremity
#6
REVIEW
Bryon McKenna, N Jake Summers
Amnion and amniotic tissue has been studied for more than 100 years in the treatment of acute and chronic wounds. Recent studies have focused on the use of amnion tissue in the management of full-thickness diabetic wounds, particularly of the lower extremities. With new harvesting, processing, and distribution technologies, amnion is increasingly available in treating these wounds. Current data and research show increased healing potential and decreased healing times, pain, drainage, and infection in wounds treated with amnion products...
January 2018: Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156049/management-of-pregnant-women-and-children-focusing-on-preventing-mother-to-infant-transmission
#7
Huey-Ling Chen, Wan-Hsin Wen, Mei-Hwei Chang
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunization has been effectively preventing chronic HBV infection with >90% efficacy in countries with universal neonatal immunization. Perinatal mother-to-infant transmission of HBV remains the major cause of chronic HBV infection despite immunization. Maternal hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) and high viral load have been noted to be the most important risk factors for transmission. In recent years, short-term antiviral therapy for pregnant women in the third trimester has been shown to be highly effective in reducing 90% of vaccine failure in children...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156046/toward-a-cure-for-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-combination-therapy-involving-viral-suppression-and-immune-modulation-and-long-term-outcome
#8
Di Wu, Qin Ning
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a major global health burden. Currently, the approved therapeutic regimens include nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs) and either interferon or pegylated interferon. NA therapy is generally safe and well tolerated, but the rate of posttreatment virologic relapse is high, making NA treatment a lifetime commitment. The benefits of pegylated interferon treatment include a finite duration, more-durable response and absence of viral resistance. However, sustained response to interferon alone is achieved only in a minority of patients, and side effects are common, which limit its clinical use...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155827/the-asian-house-shrew-suncus-murinus-as-a-reservoir-and-source-of-human-outbreaks-of-plague-in-madagascar
#9
Soanandrasana Rahelinirina, Minoarisoa Rajerison, Sandra Telfer, Cyril Savin, Elisabeth Carniel, Jean-Marc Duplantier
Identifying key reservoirs for zoonoses is crucial for understanding variation in incidence. Plague re-emerged in Mahajanga, Madagascar in the 1990s but there has been no confirmed case since 1999. Here we combine ecological and genetic data, from during and after the epidemics, with experimental infections to examine the role of the shrew Suncus murinus in the plague epidemiological cycle. The predominance of S. murinus captures during the epidemics, their carriage of the flea vector and their infection with Yersinia pestis suggest they played an important role in the maintenance and transmission of plague...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155816/liposomal-amphotericin-b-in-travelers-with-cutaneous-and-muco-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-not-a-panacea
#10
Romain Guery, Benoit Henry, Guillaume Martin-Blondel, Claire Rouzaud, Florence Cordoliani, Gundel Harms, Jean-Pierre Gangneux, Françoise Foulet, Emmanuelle Bourrat, Michel Baccard, Gloria Morizot, Paul-Henri Consigny, Antoine Berry, Johannes Blum, Olivier Lortholary, Pierre Buffet
BACKGROUND: Complex cutaneous and muco-cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL and MCL) often requires systemic therapy. Liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) has a strong potential for a solid clinical benefit in this indication. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of data from a French centralized referral treatment program and from the "LeishMan" European consortium database. All patients with parasitologically proven CL or MCL who received at least one dose of L-AmB were included...
November 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155732/fabrication-and-characterization-of-griffithsin-modified-fiber-scaffolds-for-prevention-of-sexually-transmitted-infections
#11
Hung R Vuong, Kevin M Tyo, Jill M Steinbach-Rankins
Electrospun fibers (EFs) have been widely used in a variety of therapeutic applications; however, they have only recently been applied as a technology to prevent and treat sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Moreover, many EF technologies focus on encapsulating the active agent, relative to utilizing the surface to impart biofunctionality. Here we describe a method to fabricate and surface-modify poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) electrospun fibers, with the potent antiviral lectin Griffithsin (GRFT)...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155459/erysipelothrix-rhusiopathiae-serotype-5-associated-metritis-in-a-norwegian-red-heifer
#12
Øyvor Kolbjørnsen, Bjarne Bergsjø, Jeanette Sveen, Tanja Opriessnig
This report summarized the findings of a case of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection in a farmed Norwegian Red heifer located in the south-east of Norway. The 2.5-year-old pregnant heifer was found dead after a short episode of inappetence. On gross exam, the heifer was severely dehydrated with uterine torsion. Microscopically, necrosis of the endometrium was present throughout the uterus along with presence of intralesional Gram-positive bacteria, interstitial nephritis, and pyelonephritis. E. rhusiopathiae was isolated from the uterus and placenta and was also demonstrated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the uterus, placenta, and kidney...
November 20, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155352/patient-reported-outcomes-following-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-with-sofosbuvir-and-velpatasvir-with-or-without-voxilaprevir
#13
Zobair M Younossi, Maria Stepanova, Stuart Gordon, Stefan Zeuzem, Michael P Mann, Ira Jacobson, Marc Bourliere, Curtis Cooper, Steven Flamm, K Rajender Reddy, Kris Kowdley, Issah Younossi, Sharon Hunt
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) has many hepatic and extrahepatic manifestations, measured by patient-reported outcomes (PROs). We measured changes in PROs during HCV treatment with recently developed pangenotypic regimens and from a sustained virologic response 12 weeks after treatment ended (SVR12). METHODS: We collected PRO data from 2 multi-center, blinded, international phase 3 trials of sofosbuvir, velpatasvir, and voxilaprevir, from 748 patients previously treated with direct-acting antivirals for chronic infection with HCV of any genotype (59% HCV genotype 1, 43% with compensated cirrhosis) (POLARIS-1 and POLARIS-4)...
November 16, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155250/surgical-management-of-acute-appendicitis-in-adults-a-review-of-current-techniques
#14
REVIEW
Maximilian Sohn, Ayman Agha, Stefan Bremer, Kai S Lehmann, Marcus Bormann, Alfred Hochrein
Acute appendicitis is one of the most frequent disorders in abdominal surgery. Therefore, appendectomy is a matter of significant interest in that field. Yet, four different techniques are available: open appendectomy, (conventional) laparoscopic appendectomy, single port laparoscopic appendectomy and NOTES-appendectomy with its different variations. To evaluate the current state of the art in appendectomy a bibliographic search was conducted. All prospectively randomized trials and national register cohort studies published between 1/2010 and 5/2016 were included into the analysis...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155103/rasgrp1-mutation-in-autoimmune-lymphoproliferative-syndrome-like-disease
#15
Huawei Mao, Wanling Yang, Sylvain Latour, Jing Yang, Sarah Winter, Jian Zheng, Ke Ni, Minmin Lv, Chenjing Liu, Hongmei Huang, Koon-Wing Chan, Pamela Pui-Wah Lee, Wenwei Tu, Alain Fischer, Yu-Lung Lau
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a genetic disorder of lymphocyte homeostasis due to impaired apoptosis. It was initially regarded as a very rare disease, but recent studies show it may be more common than previously thought. Defects in a couple of genes have been identified in a proportion of ALPS patients, but around one third of such patients remain undefined genetically. OBJECTIVE: We described two siblings presenting with ALPS-like disease...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155018/emerging-infections-are-an-increasingly-important-topic
#16
REVIEW
Eskild Petersen, Nicola Petrosillo, Marion Koopmans
OBJECTIVES: This paper review trends in emerging infections and the need for increased clinical and laboratory surveillance. METHODS: Factors that contributed to the emergence of recent outbreaks have been reviewed. Known, major outbreaks over the past two decades were reviewed. RESULTS: We identified at least four major drivers of emergent infections: i. increasing density of the human population; ii. stress from farmland expansion on the environment; iii...
November 15, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155013/3-4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde-synthase-and-cuticle-formation-in-insects
#17
Chenghong Liao, Archana Upadhyay, Jing Liang, Qian Han, Jianyong Li
Cuticle is the most important structure that protects mosquitoes and other insect species from adverse environmental conditions and infections of microorganism. The physiology and biochemistry of insect cuticle formation have been studied for many years and our understanding of cuticle formation and hardening has increased considerably. This is especially true for flexible cuticle. The recent discovery of a novel enzyme that catalyzes the production of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL) in insects provides intriguing insights concerning the flexible cuticle formation in insects...
November 15, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154808/genetic-host-factors-in-helicobacter-pylori-induced-carcinogenesis-emerging-new-paradigms
#18
REVIEW
Michiel C Mommersteeg, Jun Yu, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Gwenny M Fuhler
Helicobacter Pylori is a gram negative rod shaped microaerophilic bacterium that colonizes the stomach of approximately half the world's population. Infection with c may cause chronic gastritis which via a quite well described process known as Correas cascade can progress through sequential development of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia to gastric cancer. H. pylori is currently the only bacterium that is classified as a class 1 carcinogen by the WHO, although the exact mechanisms by which this bacterium contributes to gastric carcinogenesis are still poorly understood...
November 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154745/differential-gene-expression-in-chicken-primary-b-cells-infected-ex-vivo-with-attenuated-and-very-virulent-strains-of-infectious-bursal-disease-virus-ibdv
#19
Katherine L Dulwich, Efstathios S Giotis, Alice Gray, Venugopal Nair, Michael A Skinner, Andrew J Broadbent
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) belongs to the family Birnaviridae and is economically important to the poultry industry worldwide. IBDV infects B cells in the bursa of Fabricius (BF), causing immunosuppression and morbidity in young chickens. In addition to strains that cause classical Gumboro disease, the so-called 'very virulent' (vv) strain, also in circulation, causes more severe disease and increased mortality. IBDV has traditionally been controlled through the use of live attenuated vaccines, with attenuation resulting from serial passage in non-lymphoid cells...
November 20, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154480/in-vitro-activity-and-time-kill-curve-analysis-of-sitafloxacin-against-a-global-panel-of-antimicrobial-resistant-and-multidrug-resistant-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-isolates
#20
Agnez Jönsson, Sunniva Foerster, Daniel Golparian, Ryoichi Hamasuna, Susanne Jacobsson, Magnus Lindberg, Jörgen Skov Jensen, Makoto Ohnishi, Magnus Unemo
Treatment of gonorrhoea is a challenge worldwide because of emergence of resistance in N. gonorrhoeae to all therapeutic antimicrobials available and novel antimicrobials are imperative. The newer-generation fluoroquinolone sitafloxacin, mostly used for respiratory tract infections in Japan, can have a high in vitro activity against gonococci. However, only a limited number of recent antimicrobial-resistant isolates from Japan have been examined. We investigated the sitafloxacin activity against a global gonococcal panel (250 isolates cultured in 1991-2013), including multidrug-resistant geographically, temporally and genetically diverse isolates, and performed time-kill curve analysis for sitafloxacin...
November 20, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
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