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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346956/early-nephrectomy-in-unilateral-multicystic-dysplastic-kidney-in-children-cures-hypertension-early-an-observation
#1
Basant Kumar, Vijai Datta Upadhyaya, Manish Kumar Gupta, Laxmi Kant Bharti, Ram Nawal Rao, Sheo Kumar
Objective Surgery is still indicated as the treatment of choice in subset of patients with unilateral multicystic dysplastic kidney (UMCDK) because of its potential complications and malignant change. The purpose of this study is to present our observation that early nephrectomy may cure hypertension early in children with UMCDK and review the literature. Materials and Methods We report here four children (two males and two females) with antenatally diagnosed UMCDK with hypertension, treated in the past 4 years...
March 27, 2017: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346868/circulation-of-zoonotic-arboviruses-in-equine-populations-of-mallorca-island-spain
#2
Jessica Vanhomwegen, Cécile Beck, Philippe Desprès, Amanda Figuerola, Ramón García, Sylvie Lecollinet, Marc López-Roig, Jean-Claude Manuguerra, Jordi Serra-Cobo
The presence of major arbovirus vector species, climate change that promotes the expansion and increase of their populations, and potential animal reservoirs mean that vector-borne diseases represent a significant health risk for Mallorca's inhabitants. Microbiological monitoring of circulating arboviruses, particularly flaviviruses causing encephalitis, was initiated using domestic horses from localities near wetlands as "sentinel" hosts. A total of 291 blood samples were taken from 172 horses between 2011 and 2012, using paired samples to highlight seroconversion events...
March 27, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346820/blastomyces-dermatitidis-serine-protease-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iva-dppiva-cleaves-elr-cxc-chemokines-altering-their-effects-on-neutrophils
#3
Jenna Lorenzini, J Scott Fites, Jeniel Nett, Bruce S Klein
Blastomycosis elicits a pyogranulomatous inflammatory response, which involves a prominent recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection. While neutrophils are efficiently recruited to the site of infection, this event is paradoxically coupled with the host's inability to control infection by Blastomyces dermatitidis, the causative agent. The mechanisms underlying this characteristic pyogranulomatous response and inability of neutrophils to kill the yeast are poorly understood. We recently reported that the fungal protease DppIVA promotes B...
March 27, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346819/parametric-overdispersed-frailty-models-for-current-status-data
#4
Steven Abrams, Marc Aerts, Geert Molenberghs, Niel Hens
Frailty models have a prominent place in survival analysis to model univariate and multivariate time-to-event data, often complicated by the presence of different types of censoring. In recent years, frailty modeling gained popularity in infectious disease epidemiology to quantify unobserved heterogeneity using Type I interval-censored serological data or current status data. In a multivariate setting, frailty models prove useful to assess the association between infection times related to multiple distinct infections acquired by the same individual...
March 27, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346011/various-plus-unique-viral-protein-u-as-a-plurifunctional-protein-for-hiv-1-replication
#5
Andrew Soper, Guillermo Juarez-Fernandez, Hirofumi Aso, Miyu Moriwaki, Eri Yamada, Yusuke Nakano, Yoshio Koyanagi, Kei Sato
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, encodes four accessory genes, one of which is viral protein U (Vpu). Recently, the study of Vpu has been of great interest. For instance, various cellular proteins are degraded (e.g. CD4) and down-modulated (e.g. tetherin) by Vpu. Vpu also antagonizes the function of tetherin and inhibits NF-κB. Moreover, Vpu is a viroporin forming ion channels and may represent a promising target for anti-HIV-1 drugs. In this review, we summarize the domains/residues that are responsible for Vpu's functions, describe the current understanding of the role of Vpu in HIV-1-infected cells, and review the effect of Vpu on HIV-1 in replication and pathogenesis...
April 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345769/best-practice-policy-statement-on-urodynamic-antibiotic-prophylaxis-in-the-non-index-patient
#6
REVIEW
Anne P Cameron, Lysanne Campeau, Benjamin M Brucker, J Quentin Clemens, Gregory T Bales, Michael E Albo, Michael J Kennelly
AIMS: Antibiotic prophylaxis before urodynamic testing (UDS) is widely utilized to prevent urinary tract infection (UTI) with only limited guidance. The Society of Urodynamics, Female Pelvic Medicine, and Urogenital Reconstruction (SUFU) convened a Best Practice Policy Panel to formulate recommendations on the urodynamic antibiotic prophylaxis in the non-index patient. METHODS: Recommendations are based on a literature review and the Panel's expert opinion, with all recommendations graded using the Oxford grading system...
March 27, 2017: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345656/structure-and-function-of-the-zika-virus-full-length-ns5-protein
#7
Baoyu Zhao, Guanghui Yi, Fenglei Du, Yin-Chih Chuang, Robert C Vaughan, Banumathi Sankaran, C Cheng Kao, Pingwei Li
The recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) has infected over 1 million people in over 30 countries. ZIKV replicates its RNA genome using virally encoded replication proteins. Nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) contains a methyltransferase for RNA capping and a polymerase for viral RNA synthesis. Here we report the crystal structures of full-length NS5 and its polymerase domain at 3.0 Å resolution. The NS5 structure has striking similarities to the NS5 protein of the related Japanese encephalitis virus. The methyltransferase contains in-line pockets for substrate binding and the active site...
March 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345500/avian-malaria-ecological-host-traits-and-mosquito-abundance-in-southeastern-amazonia
#8
Alan Fecchio, Vincenzo A Ellis, Jeffrey A Bell, Christian B Andretti, Fernando M D'Horta, Allan M Silva, Vasyl V Tkach, Jason D Weckstein
Avian malaria is a vector transmitted disease caused by Plasmodium and recent studies suggest that variation in its prevalence across avian hosts is correlated with a variety of ecological traits. Here we examine the relationship between prevalence and diversity of Plasmodium lineages in southeastern Amazonia and: (1) host ecological traits (nest location, nest type, flocking behaviour and diet); (2) density and diversity of avian hosts; (3) abundance and diversity of mosquitoes; and (4) season. We used molecular methods to detect Plasmodium in blood samples from 675 individual birds of 120 species...
March 27, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345112/experience-with-direct-acting-anti-viral-agents-for-treating-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-renal-transplant-recipients
#9
Amit Goel, Dharmendra Singh Bhadauria, Anupma Kaul, Narayan Prasad, Amit Gupta, Raj Kumar Sharma, Praveer Rai, Rakesh Aggarwal
In recent past, direct-acting anti-viral drugs (DAAs) have become the standard of care for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, the experience with the use of these drugs in Indian renal transplant recipients is limited. We retrospectively reviewed our experience with DAA-based treatment for HCV infection in such patients. Between April 2015 and December 2016, six adults (median age 41 [range 34-52] years, male 5; GT1 2, GT3 3, and GT4 1; including three with prior failed interferon-based treatment) had received genotype-guided, DAA-based anti-HCV treatment 1 to 158 (median 15) months after renal transplantation...
March 27, 2017: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344773/escherichia-coli-st131-a-multidrug-resistant-clone-primed-for-global-domination
#10
REVIEW
Johann D D Pitout, Rebekah DeVinney
A single extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) clone, named sequence type (ST) 131, is responsible for millions of global antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) infections annually. Population genetics indicate that ST131 consists of different clades (i.e. A, B, and C); however, clade C is the most dominant globally. A ST131 subclade, named C1-M27, is emerging in Japan and has been responsible for the recent increase in AMR ExPEC in that country. The sequential acquisition of several virulence and AMR genes associated with mobile genetic elements during the 1960s to 1980s primed clade C (and its subclades C1 and C2) for success in the 1990s to 2000s...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344581/type-i-interferons-as-regulators-of-lung-inflammation
#11
REVIEW
Spyridon Makris, Michelle Paulsen, Cecilia Johansson
Immune responses to lung infections must be tightly regulated in order to permit pathogen eradication while maintaining organ function. Exuberant or dysregulated inflammation can impair gas exchange and underlies many instances of lung disease. An important driver of inflammation in the lung is the interferon (IFN) response. Type I IFNs are antiviral cytokines that induce a large range of proteins that impair viral replication in infected cells. This cell-intrinsic action plays a crucial role in protecting the lungs from spread of respiratory viruses...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344154/characterization-of-toxoplasma-gondii-isolates-from-herds-of-sheep-in-southern-brazil-reveals-the-archetypal-type-ii-genotype-and-new-non-archetypal-genotypes
#12
Tatiana da Silva Ramos, Hilda Fátima de Jesus Pena, Alceu Gonçalves Dos Santos Junior, Laura Maria Jorge de Faria Santos, Beatris Gonzales Cademartori, Solange Oliveira, Solange Maria Gennari, Andréa da Silva Ramos Rocha, Nara Amélia da Rosa Farias
Recent studies have demonstrated that, in Brazil and South America, strains of Toxoplasma gondii are often genotypically and biologically different from those found in countries on other continents. The objective of this study was to genotypically characterize T. gondii isolates from naturally infected sheep in herds in the southern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, by means of the polymerase chain reaction with restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Five T. gondii isolates obtained from sheep in five municipalities in the state of Rio Grande do Sul were used...
March 23, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344097/whence-river-blindness-the-domestication-of-mammals-and-host-parasite-co-evolution-in-the-nematode-genus-onchocerca
#13
Emilie Lefoulon, Alessio Giannelli, Benjamin L Makepeace, Yasen Mutafchiev, Simon Townson, Shigehiko Uni, Guilherme G Verocai, Domenico Otranto, Coralie Martin
The genus Onchocerca includes 34 described species and represents one of the largest genera of the filarial nematodes within the family Onchocercidae. Representative members of this genus are mainly parasites of ungulates, with some exceptions such as Onchocerca lupi and Onchocerca volvulus, infecting carnivores and/or humans. For a long time, the evolutionary relationships amongst onchocercids remained poorly studied, as the systematics of this genus was impaired by the high morphological variability of species included in the taxon...
March 23, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344029/herbasl-remedies-for-urinary-stones-used-in-india-and-china-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Deepak M Kasote, Suresh D Jagtap, Dinesh Thapa, Mahendra S Khyade, Wendy R Russell
ETHANOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The process of formation or appearance of a urinary stone anywhere in the renal tract is known as urolithiasis. It is a longstanding health problem, known to exist since early age of civilization. Records about symptoms, signs and treatment strategies of urinary stones diseases are found in the several ancient texts of traditional medicines such as Ayurveda, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Siddha and Unani. In Ayurveda, urolithiasis has been considered as one of the eight most troublesome diseases...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343916/epidemiologic-trend-of-adult-bacterial-meningitis-in-southern-taiwan-2006-2015
#15
Chia-Yi Lien, Chi-Ren Huang, Wan-Chen Tsai, Che-Wei Hsu, Nai-Wen Tsai, Chiung-Chih Chang, Cheng-Hsien Lu, Chun-Chih Chien, Wen-Neng Chang
The purpose of this study is to analyze recent epidemiologic trend of adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) in Taiwan. The clinical features, laboratory data and therapeutic outcomes of 157 patients with ABM from 2006-2015 were analyzed. The results were compared with those of our previous two epidemiologic studies of ABM (1st study: 202 cases, January 1986-June 1999; 2nd study: 181 cases, July 1999-December 2005). Of the 157 patients with ABM, 96 were men and 61 women, and 68.2% (107/157) of them had a postneurosurgical state as the underlying condition...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343826/diagnosis-of-periprosthetic-joint-infection-an-algorithm-based-approach
#16
Nicholas T Ting, Craig J Della Valle
BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains one of the most challenging and devastating modes of failure after total hip and knee arthroplasties. Despite the profound urgency and impact of PJI on an individual and societal basis, historically, there have not been standardized definitions of and diagnostic algorithms for infection after total joint arthroplasty. METHODS: In a recent symposium, the American Academy of Hip and Knee Surgeons put forth a standardized approach to the prevention, diagnosis, and management of the patient with a suspected PJI...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343780/propagation-of-brazilian-zika-virus-strains-in-static-and-suspension-cultures-using-vero-and-bhk-cells
#17
Alexander Nikolay, Leda R Castilho, Udo Reichl, Yvonne Genzel
The recent spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas and the Pacific has reached alarming levels in more than 60 countries. However, relatively little is known about the disease on a virological and epidemiological level and its consequences for humans. Accordingly, a large demand for in vitro derived Brazilian ZIKV material to support in vitro and in vivo studies has arisen. However, a prompt supply of ZIKV and ZIKV antigens cannot be guaranteed as the production of this virus typically using Vero or C6/36 cell lines remains challenging...
March 23, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343438/hsa-mir-27b-is-up-regulated-in-cytomegalovirus-infected-human-glioma-cells-targets-engrailed-2-and-inhibits-its-expression
#18
Linqian Wang, Ming Yang, Shijing Liao, Wei Liu, Gan Dai, Guojun Wu, Liyu Chen
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) dormant infection can alter the expression of the hosts' microRNAs (miRNAs) and impact on the regulation of target genes. To investigate the differentially expressed miRNAs induced by HCMV in human glioma U251 cells, a comprehensive miRNA screen was performed. As a result, 19 up-regulated and 14 down-regulated miRNAs were determined. Of these, hsa-miR-27b (miR-27b) attracted our attention. MiR-27b levels in U251 cells increased 7.70-fold, 8.64-fold, and 4.78-fold, respectively, post 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h HCMV infection, compared to those in the mimic-infected cells, and this up-regulation was further confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342989/patient-engagement-and-study-design-of-prop-up-a-multi-site-patient-centered-prospective-observational-study-of-patients-undergoing-hepatitis-c-treatment
#19
Donna M Evon, Carol E Golin, Paul Stewart, Michael W Fried, Shani Alston, Bryce Reeve, Anna S Lok, Richard K Sterling, Joseph K Lim, Nancy Reau, Souvik Sarkar, David R Nelson, K Rajender Reddy, Adrian M Di Bisceglie
BACKGROUND: New highly efficacious direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapies are available to treat chronic hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection. Real-world, patient-centered data on harms and benefits associated with these therapies are needed. METHODS: PROP UP is a multi-center prospective observational study that plans to enroll 1600 patients starting treatment with recently-approved DAA regimens. Informed by extensive input from a HCV patient engagement group who prioritized outcomes most important to them, patient-reported outcomes will be characterized using surveys at five time points: Baseline (T1), treatment week 4 (T2), end of treatment (T3), 12weeks post-treatment (T4), 12months post-treatment (T5)...
March 22, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342892/comparison-of-three-cell-based-drug-screening-platforms-for-hsv-1-infection
#20
Leonardo D'Aiuto, Kelly Williamson, Peter Dimitrion, James McNulty, Carla E Brown, Chanti Babu Dokuburra, Alexander J Nielsen, Wen Jing Lin, Paolo Piazza, Mark E Schurdak, Joel Wood, Robert H Yolken, Paul R Kinchington, David C Bloom, Vishwajit L Nimgaonkar
Acyclovir (ACV) and its derivatives have been highly effective for treating recurrent, lytic infections with Herpes Simplex Virus, type 1 (HSV-1), but searches for additional antiviral drugs are motivated by recent reports of resistance to ACV, particularly among immunocompromised patients. In addition, the relative neurotoxicity of ACV and its inability to prevent neurological sequelae among HSV-1 encephalitis survivors compel searches for new drugs to treat HSV-1 infections of the central nervous system (CNS)...
March 22, 2017: Antiviral Research
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