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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457055/tuberculin-skin-test-conversion-and-primary-progressive-tuberculosis-disease-in-the-first-5-years-of-life-a-birth-cohort-study-from-cape-town-south-africa
#1
Leonardo Martinez, David M le Roux, Whitney Barnett, Attie Stadler, Mark P Nicol, Heather J Zar
Background: Tuberculosis is a leading cause of global childhood mortality. However, the epidemiology and burden of tuberculosis in infancy is not well understood. We aimed to investigate tuberculin skin test conversion and tuberculosis in the Drakenstein Child Health study, a South African birth cohort in a community in which tuberculosis incidence is hyperendemic. Methods: In this prospective birth cohort study, we enrolled pregnant women older than 18 years who were between 20 and 28 weeks' gestation and who were attending antenatal care in a peri-urban, impoverished South African setting...
January 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456342/immune-mediated-neuropathies-our-experience-over-3-years
#2
Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra, Venkata Raviteja Karru, M A Mukheem Mudabbir, Subashree Ramakrishnan, Anitha Mahadevan
Introduction: Immune-mediated peripheral neuropathy is the term applied to a spectrum of peripheral nerve disorders where immune dysregulation plays a role. Therefore, they are treatable. We analyzed the cases seen in the past 3 years by us and evaluated the clinical, laboratory, and outcome parameters in these patients. Patients and Methods: Consecutive patients seen by the authors and diagnosed as immune-mediated neuropathy were analyzed for etiology, pathology, and outcome assessed...
January 2018: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455264/mortality-rate-and-predictors-in-children-under-15-years-old-who-acquired-hiv-from-mother-to-child-transmission-in-paraguay
#3
Gloria Aguilar, Angélica Espinosa Miranda, George W Rutherford, Sergio Munoz, Nancy Hills, Tania Samudio, Fernando Galeano, Anibal Kawabata, Carlos Miguel Rios González
We estimated mortality rate and predictors of death in children and adolescents who acquired HIV through mother-to-child transmission in Paraguay. In 2000-2014, we conducted a cohort study among children and adolescents aged < 15 years. We abstracted data from medical records and death certificates. We used the Cox proportional hazards model for the multivariable analysis of mortality predictors. A total of 302 subjects were included in the survey; 216 (71.5%) were younger than 5 years, 148 (51.0%) were male, and 214 (70...
February 17, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451598/performance-of-cryptococcal-antigen-lateral-flow-assay-in-serum-cerebrospinal-fluid-whole-blood-and-urine-in-hiv-infected-patients-with-culture-proven-cryptococcal-meningitis-admitted-at-a-brazilian-referral-center
#4
José E Vidal, Carolina Toniolo, Adriana Paulino, Arnaldo L Colombo, Marilena Dos Anjos Martins, Cristina da Silva Meira, Renata Guise Soares Azevedo, Vera Lucia Pereira-Chioccola, Hélio Rodrigues Gomes, Marcia Dos Santos Lazera, Augusto C Penalva de Oliveira, David R Boulware
Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common cause of opportunistic meningitis in HIV-infected patients in Brazil and causes unacceptable high mortality rates. In this study, HIV-infected patients with a first episode of culture-proven cryptococcal meningitis in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were prospectively included in order to evaluate sensitivity of cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) lateral flow assay (LFA) in serum, CSF, whole blood (fingerstick), and fresh urine. In addition, HIV-infected patients with other neurological confirmed diseases were included in order to evaluate the specificity of CrAg LFA in serum...
2018: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451005/hiv-infection-and-risk-of-postpartum-infection-complications-and-mortality-in-rural-uganda
#5
Lisa M Bebell, Joseph Ngonzi, Mark J Siedner, Winnie R Muyindike, Bosco M Bwana, Laura E Riley, Yap Boum, David R Bangsberg, Ingrid V Bassett
HIV infection may increase risk of postpartum infection and infection-related mortality. We hypothesized that postpartum infection incidence and attributable mortality in Mbarara, Uganda would be higher in HIV-infected than HIV-uninfected women. We performed a prospective cohort study of 4231 women presenting to a regional referral hospital in 2015 for delivery or postpartum care. All febrile or hypothermic women, and a subset of randomly selected normothermic women were followed during hospitalization and with 6-week postpartum phone interviews...
February 16, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447170/imported-endemic-mycoses-in-spain-evolution-of-hospitalized-cases-clinical-characteristics-and-correlation-with-migratory-movements-1997-2014
#6
Daniel Molina-Morant, Adrián Sánchez-Montalvá, Fernando Salvador, Augusto Sao-Avilés, Israel Molina
Endemic mycoses are systemic fungal infections. Histoplasmosis is endemic in all temperate areas of the world; coccidioidomycosis and paracoccidioidomycosis are only present in the American continent. These pathogens are not present in Spain, but in the last years there has been an increase of reported cases due to migration and temporary movements. We obtained from the Spanish hospitals records clinical and demographic data of all hospitalized cases between 1997 and 2014. There were 286 cases of histoplasmosis, 94 of Coccidioidomycosis and 25 of paracoccidioidomycosis...
February 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443936/ageing-with-hiv
#7
REVIEW
Padraig McGettrick, Elena Alvarez Barco, Patrick W G Mallon
The population of people living with HIV (PLWH) is growing older with an estimated 4 million over the age of 50 years, a figure which has doubled since the introduction of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) and which is increasing globally. Despite effective ART, PLWH still experience excess morbidity and mortality compared to the general population with increased prevalence of age-related, non-AIDS illnesses (NAI) such as cardiovascular disease, malignancies, cognitive impairment and reduced bone mineral density, which impact disability and everyday functioning...
February 14, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439706/use-of-eradication-in-hiv-cure-related-research-a-public-health-debate
#8
Karine Dubé, Stuart Luter, Breanne Lesnar, Luke Newton, Jerome Galea, Brandon Brown, Sara Gianella
BACKGROUND: The landscape of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) research has changed drastically over the past three decades. With the remarkable success of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in decreasing AIDS-related mortality, some researchers have shifted their HIV research focus from treatment to cure research. The HIV cure research community often uses the term eradication to describe the science, and talks about eradicating the virus from the body. In public discourse, the term eradication could be conflated with disease eradication at the population level...
February 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439693/health-insurance-is-important-in-improving-maternal-health-service-utilization-in-tanzania-analysis-of-the-2011-2012-tanzania-hiv-aids-and-malaria-indicator-survey
#9
Stephen M Kibusi, Bruno Fokas Sunguya, Eunice Kimunai, Courtney S Hines
BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality rates vary significantly from region to region. Interventions such as early and planned antenatal care attendance and facility delivery with skilled health workers can potentially reduce maternal mortality rates. Several factors can be attributed to antenatal care attendance, or lack thereof, including the cost of health care services. The aim of this study was to examine the role of health insurance coverage in utilization of maternal health services in Tanzania...
February 13, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436844/the-prevalence-and-patterns-of-substance-use-by-birth-cohort-among-hiv-positive-adults-in-florida
#10
Zachary L Mannes, Vaughn E Bryant, Larry E Burrell, Huiyin Lu, Erin G Ferguson, Zhi Zhou, Robert L Cook, Nicole Ennis
OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral therapy is affording longer lifespans for people living with HIV (PLWH), yet factors such as substance use play an increasing role in morbidity and mortality in this population. Though previous studies have examined substance use differences between age cohorts of PLWH, no study has examined the influence of birth cohort on current substance use patterns. Thus, this study investigated the prevalence of past 12-month self-reported substance use between four birth cohorts, <1970 (M age = 54...
February 13, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435953/role-of-noncommunicable-diseases-ncds-in-resource-limited-settings-rls
#11
REVIEW
Mosepele Mosepele, Elizabeth Botsile
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As access to effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) expands globally, a decline in AIDS-related morbidity and mortality has been complicated by rising rates of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). This review provides a brief description of NCDs and existing gaps on knowledge about NCDs among HIV-infected adults mostly in Africa. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent reports show that one in every five persons living with HIV has a chronic illness, predominantly diabetes and/or hypertension, depression, and most of these conditions are either not diagnosed or not being managed...
February 12, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434818/current-characteristics-of-hemophilia-patients-co-infected-with-hiv-hcv-in-japan
#12
Satoshi Miuma, Masaaki Hidaka, Mitsuhisa Takatsuki, Koji Natsuda, Akihiko Soyama, Hisamitsu Miyaaki, Yasuko Kanda, Yoko Tamada, Hidetaka Shibata, Eisuke Ozawa, Naota Taura, Susumu Eguchi, Kazuhiko Nakao
Over 30 years have passed since co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) was first documented in hemophilia patients in Japan. In such cases, the leading cause of mortality is reportedly HCV-associated end-stage liver disease. However, the current characteristics of hemophilia patients co-infected with HIV/HCV are unknown. The aim of the present study was to reveal the current characteristics, notably HCV geno-prevalence and liver function, among hemophilia patients co-infected with HIV/HCV in Japan...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434718/farnesyltransferase-inhibitors-prevent-hiv-protease-inhibitor-lopinavir-ritonavir-induced-lipodystrophy-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-mice
#13
Tomokazu Tanaka, Harumasa Nakazawa, Naohide Kuriyama, Masao Kaneki
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has successfully reduced the mortality rate of patients with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and HIV protease inhibitors (HIV PIs) are key components of HAART. Complications of HAART, particularly those associated with HIV PIs including lipodystrophy and metabolic disturbance, have emerged as an important public health issue. No specific treatment is available to prevent and/or treat HIV PI-associated lipodystrophy and metabolic syndrome. The present study demonstrated that a relatively low-dose of farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTI), tipifarnib (3 mg/kg/day, subcutaneous injection) and lonafarnib (5 mg/kg/day, subcutaneous injection), prevented the onset of lipodystrophy and metabolic syndrome induced by the combination of two HIV PIs, lopinavir (50 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneal injection) and ritonavir (12...
February 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433509/prognostic-indicators-in-the-world-health-organization-s-algorithm-for-seriously-ill-hiv-infected-inpatients-with-suspected-tuberculosis
#14
Rulan Griesel, Annemie Stewart, Helen van der Plas, Welile Sikhondze, Marc Mendelson, Gary Maartens
BACKGROUND: Criteria for the 2007 WHO algorithm for diagnosing tuberculosis among HIV-infected seriously ill patients are the presence of one or more danger signs (respiratory rate > 30/min, heart rate > 120/min, temperature > 39 °C, and being unable to walk unaided) and cough ≥ 14 days. Determining predictors of poor outcomes among HIV-infected inpatients presenting with WHO danger signs could result in improved treatment and diagnostic algorithms. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of inpatients presenting with any duration of cough and WHO danger signs to two regional hospitals in Cape Town, South Africa...
February 12, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433300/treatment-rate-for-hcv-in-the-direct-acting-antivirals-era-in-hiv-co-infected-patients-data-from-an-italian-cohort
#15
Gianluca Cuomo, Cinzia Puzzolante, Claudia Lazzaretti, Giovanni Guaraldi, Vanni Borghi, Cristina Mussini
BACKGROUND: New Direct Antiviral Agents (DAA) are now effective in HCV infection; persons living with HIV (PLWH) were undertreated. Aim of this study was to describe the management of HCV treatment in a HIV/HCV cohort during a 16 years period. METHODS: An electronic review of all HIV patients with > 1 clinic check from the year 2000 was made. De- mographic, virologic and treatment data were collected. RESULTS: From 2000 to 2015 a total of 2352 PLWH were enrolled; 776 (33%) resulted positive at HCV anti- bodies, and were mostly genotype 1 and 3...
January 31, 2018: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432974/similarities-and-changes-between-15-and-24-year-survival-and-retention-rates-of-patients-in-a-large-medical-affiliated-methadone-maintenance-treatment-mmt-center
#16
Einat Peles, Shaul Schreiber, Anat Sason, Miriam Adelson
BACKGROUND: Environmental and social trends and patients' characteristics may affect predictors for methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) outcome. METHODS: We have expanded our previous study of predictors for MMT outcome (from 619 to 890 patients) and the study period (from 15 to 24 years). Survival and retention in MMT since admission to the MMT clinic (6/1993-6/2016) and until death or study closure (6/2017) were compiled and analyzed. RESULTS: Of 890 patients ever admitted (10,146...
February 7, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432857/a-joint-frailty-model-provides-for-risk-stratification-of-hiv-infected-patients-based-on-unobserved-heterogeneity
#17
Tae Hyun Jung, Tassos Kyriakides, Mark Holodniy, Denise Esserman, Peter Peduzzi
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between recurrent AIDS-defining events and a semi-competing risk of death in patients with advanced, multi-drug resistant HIV infection and to identify individuals at increased risk for these events using a joint frailty model. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: 368 patients with antiretroviral treatment failure in the OPTIMA Trial randomized to two antiretroviral treatment strategies using a 2x2 factorial design, intensive vs. standard and interruption vs...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432228/growth-and-pubertal-development-in-hiv-infected-adolescents
#18
Paige L Williams, Julie Jesson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We present an overview of recent research in the inter-related areas of growth and pubertal development among adolescents with HIV. Growth deficits early in childhood can lead to delayed puberty, with subsequent effects on pubertal growth spurts and bone health. RECENT FINDINGS: Impaired growth remains a critical concern, particularly in low-resource settings, where stunting, wasting and underweight remain pervasive. Antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation results in improved growth, with greatest growth recovery in the first years and more improvement in weight than in height...
February 9, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432227/the-global-epidemiology-of-adolescents-living-with-hiv-time-for-more-granular-data-to-improve-adolescent-health-outcomes
#19
Amy L Slogrove, Annette H Sohn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to summarize recent evidence on the global epidemiology of adolescents (age 10-19 years) living with HIV (ALHIV), the burden of HIV on the health of adolescents and HIV-associated mortality. RECENT FINDINGS: In 2016, there were an estimated 2.1 million (uncertainty bound 1.4-2.7 million) ALHIV; 770 000 younger (age 10-14 years) and 1.03 million older (age 15-19 years) ALHIV, 84% living in sub-Saharan Africa. The population of ALHIV is increasing, as more peri/postnatally infected ALHIV survive into older ages; an estimated 35% of older female ALHIV were peri/postnatally infected, compared with 57% of older male ALHIV...
February 9, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431588/aptamers-in-hiv-research-diagnosis-and-therapy
#20
Jyoti Bala, Srinivasan Chinnapaiyan, Rajib Kumar Dutta, Hoshang Unwalla
Aptamers are high affinity single-stranded nucleic acid or protein ligands which exhibit specificity and avidity comparable to, or exceeding that of antibodies and can be generated against most targets. The functionality of aptamers is based on their unique tertiary structure, complexity and their ability to attain unique binding pockets by folding. Aptamers are selected in vitro by a process called Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment (SELEX). The Kd values for the selected aptamer are often in the picomolar to low nanomolar range...
February 12, 2018: RNA Biology
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