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Hiv mortality

Natapol Pumipuntu, Supawadee Piratae
Cryptosporidiosis is considered to be a crucial zoonotic disease caused by worldwide distributing parasitic protozoa called Cryptosporidium spp. Cryptosporidiosis becomes a major public health and veterinary concern by affecting in human and various host range species of animals. Essentially, its importance of infection is increasing because of the high incidence in young children, immunocompromised persons, or immunodeficiency syndrome patients, especially in HIV/AIDS, and it is also one of the most causes of mortality in those patients who infected with Cryptosporidium spp...
May 2018: Veterinary World
Fatma Gümüşer, Merve Altınkaynak, Dilek Yıldız Sevgi, Özlem Altuntaş Aydın, Bilgül Mete, Alper Gündüz, Hayat Kumbasar Karaosmanoğlu, Sibel Bolukçu, Ömer Fehmi Tabak, Mustafa Haluk Vahaboğlu
Background/aim: This study was undertaken to identify subjects with human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis (HIV/TB) coinfection in a group of HIV-positive patients followed at five different healthcare centers, and to determine the demographic and clinical characteristics of these subjects as well as the predictors of mortality. Materials and methods: A database search for subjects with TB coinfection was performed among 1475 HIV-positive adult patients and a total of 66 individuals were identified with HIV/TB coinfection...
June 14, 2018: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Hailay Abrha Gesesew, Paul Ward, Kifle Woldemichael, Lillian Mwanri
BACKGROUND: Several studies reported that the majority of deaths in HIV-infected people are documented in their early antiretroviral therapy (ART) follow-ups. Early mortality refers to death of people on ART for follow up period of below 24 months due to any cause. The current study assessed predictors of early HIV mortality in Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: We have conducted a retrospective analysis of 5299 patient records dating from June 2003- March 2015. To estimate survival time and compare the time to event among the different groups of patients, we used a Kaplan Meir curve and log-rank test...
2018: PloS One
Tatiana Metcalf, Jaime Soria, Silvia M Montano, Eduardo Ticona, Carlton A Evans, Luz Huaroto, Matthew Kasper, Eric S Ramos, Nicanor Mori, Podjanee Jittamala, Kesinee Chotivanich, Irwin F Chavez, Pratap Singhasivanon, Sasithon Pukrittayakamee, Joseph R Zunt
BACKGROUND: Meningitis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We evaluated the performance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing with the GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay versus traditional approaches for diagnosing tuberculosis meningitis (TBM). METHODS: Patients were adults (n = 37) presenting with suspected TBM to the Hospital Nacional Dos de Mayo, Lima, Peru, during 12 months until 1st January 2015. Each participant had a single CSF specimen that was divided into aliquots that were concurrently tested for M...
2018: PloS One
Jonas Hector, Michael Vinikoor, Roma Chilengi, Jochen Ehmer, Matthias Egger, Gilles Wandeler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Leah Shepherd, Lene Ryom, Matthew Law, Kathy Petoumenos, Camilla Ingrid Hatleberg, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Caroline Sabin, Mark Bower, Fabrice Bonnet, Peter Reiss, Stephane de Wit, Christian Pradier, Rainer Weber, Wafaa El-Sadr, Jens Lundgren, Amanda Mocroft
Background: Cancers are a major source of morbidity and mortality for HIV-positive persons on combination antiretroviral therapy, while the clinical benefits of smoking cessation are not well established. Methods: Participants were followed from 1 January 2004 until first cancer diagnosis, death, or 1 February 2016. Smoking status was defined as ex (<1,1-2,2-3,3-5,>5 years since stopping), current, and never smokers. Outcomes considered were any cancer, lung cancer, other smoking-related excluding lung and smoking-unrelated cancers...
June 14, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Bakht Ali, Nighat Nisar, Faryal Nawab
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is fifth leading cause of mortality and disability among infectious diseases worldwide. HIV burden is increasing annually and compliance with antiretroviral therapy (ART) is low among intravenous drug users, especially in developing countries. Aim: To determine the adherence level to ART among HIV-positive intravenous drug users in Karachi Pakistan. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015...
June 10, 2018: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
Jonathan Huang, Brenda Eskenazi, Riana Bornman, Stephen Rauch, Jonathan Chevrier
BACKGROUND: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticides, conducted in low- and middle-income countries to control malaria, may result in high exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), its breakdown product dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), or pyrethroids. Animal studies suggest in utero exposure to these chemicals may increase childhood infection frequency. OBJECTIVES: We investigated associations between maternal DDT/E and pyrethroid metabolite concentration and child infection associations in an IRS setting in which susceptibility factors are common and infections are leading causes of child morbidity and mortality...
June 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Brian Wahl, Katherine L O'Brien, Adena Greenbaum, Anwesha Majumder, Li Liu, Yue Chu, Ivana Lukšić, Harish Nair, David A McAllister, Harry Campbell, Igor Rudan, Robert Black, Maria Deloria Knoll
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine are now used in most countries. To monitor global and regional progress towards improving child health and to inform national policies for disease prevention and treatment, we prepared global, regional, and national disease burden estimates for these pathogens in children from 2000 to 2015. METHODS: Using WHO and Maternal and Child Epidemiology Estimation collaboration country-specific estimates of pneumonia and meningitis mortality and pneumonia morbidity from 2000 to 2015, we applied pneumococcal and Hib cause-specific proportions to estimate pathogen-specific deaths and cases...
July 2018: Lancet Global Health
Noémie Boillat-Blanco, Zainab Mbarack, Josephine Samaka, Tarsis Mlaganile, Aline Mamin, Blaise Genton, Laurent Kaiser, Thierry Calandra, Valérie D'Acremont
BACKGROUND: Quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) is a three-item clinical instrument for bedside identification of sepsis patients at risk of poor outcome. qSOFA could be a valuable triage tool in emergency departments of low-income countries, yet its performance in resource-limited settings remains unknown. The prognostic accuracy of qSOFA for 28-day all-cause mortality in febrile adults treated at the EDs in a low-income country was evaluated. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort study of consecutive patients (≥18 years) with fever (tympanic temperature ≥38°C and fever ≤7 days) who presented between July 2013 and May 2014 at four emergency departments in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania...
2018: PloS One
Laura Kann, Tim McManus, William A Harris, Shari L Shanklin, Katherine H Flint, Barbara Queen, Richard Lowry, David Chyen, Lisa Whittle, Jemekia Thornton, Connie Lim, Denise Bradford, Yoshimi Yamakawa, Michelle Leon, Nancy Brener, Kathleen A Ethier
PROBLEM: Health-risk behaviors contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults in the United States. In addition, significant health disparities exist among demographic subgroups of youth defined by sex, race/ethnicity, and grade in school and between sexual minority and nonsexual minority youth. Population-based data on the most important health-related behaviors at the national, state, and local levels can be used to help monitor the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to protect and promote the health of youth at the national, state, and local levels...
June 15, 2018: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
Angie Pinto, Patricia Grey, Ansari Shaik, David A Cooper, Anthony D Kelleher, Kathy Petoumenos
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to understand factors associated with increased mortality in a cohort of primary HIV infection (PHI) in New South Wales over three decades. METHODS: 602 patients with PHI were enrolled from 1984 to 2009. Probabilistic data linkage was performed to NSW Registry of births deaths and marriages, and Australian Bureau of Statistics mortality database. Mortality was measured by crude death rate. Pre highly active antiretroviral therapy (pre-HAART) era was defined as prior to 1 January 1997...
June 14, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Lindi-Marie Coetzee, Naseem Cassim, Charlotte Sriruttan, Mabatho Mhlanga, Nelesh P Govender, Deborah Kim Glencross
INTRODUCTION: Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is an opportunistic fungal disease with a high mortality among HIV-positive patients with severe immunosuppression (CD4 count <100 cells/μl). Reflexed screening for cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) in remnant blood samples was initially piloted at selected CD4 testing laboratories of the National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS) prior to the implementation of a national screening programme using a lateral flow assay (LFA) (IMMY, Norman, OK, USA)...
2018: PloS One
Qiang Xia, Bisrat Abraham, Dipal Shah, Chitra Ramaswamy, Sarah L Braunstein, Lucia V Torian
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the transition process from pediatric to adult care among persons with perinatal HIV infection in New York City (NYC). DESIGN: A retrospective pre-post study and a matched exposed/unexposed nested cohort study. METHODS: Using data from the NYC HIV registry, a retrospective pre-post study was performed among persons who transitioned from pediatric to adult care to assess pre- and post-transition retention in care (≥1 CD4/viral load in a 12-month period), CD4 count, and viral suppression (≤200 copies/mL)...
June 11, 2018: AIDS
Sophie Jose, Valerie Delpech, Alison Howarth, Fiona Burns, Teresa Hill, Kholoud Porter, Caroline A Sabin
BACKGROUND: The cross-sectional HIV care continuum is widely used to assess the success of HIV care programmes among populations of people with HIV and the potential for ongoing transmission. We aimed to investigate whether a longitudinal continuum, which incorporates loss to follow-up and mortality, might provide further insights about the performance of care programmes. METHODS: In this longitudinal cohort study, we included individuals who entered the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (CHIC) study between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2004, and were linked to the national HIV cohort database (HIV and AIDS Reporting System)...
June 2018: Lancet HIV
Stephanie Gati, Rhoda Chetty, Douglas Wilson, Jacqueline M Achkar
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a major risk factor for the development of active tuberculosis (TB), one of the deadliest infectious diseases globally. The high mortality associated with the disease can be reduced by early diagnosis and prompt antituberculous treatment initiation. Facilities in TB-endemic regions are increasing the use of nucleic acid amplification (e.g., GeneXpert), which provides rapid results but may have suboptimal sensitivity in HIV-associated TB. Our objective was to evaluate the current practices for TB diagnosis at Edendale Hospital, a large regional hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa-a TB-endemic region with high HIV prevalence...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Nicholas Tan, Monisha Sharma, Rachel Winer, Denise Galloway, Helen Rees, Ruanne V Barnabas
BACKGROUND: Women in sub-Saharan Africa have high dual burden of HPV and HIV infections, which can interact to increase cervical cancer (CC) risk. The 9-valent HPV (9vHPV) vaccine has high demonstrated effectiveness against HPV types causing 90% of CC. Additionally, one dose of the 9vHPV vaccine has the potential to achieve greater coverage at lower costs than a two-dose schedule. However, the potential impact of single-dose 9vHPV vaccine accounting for HPV-HIV interactions has not been estimated...
June 8, 2018: Vaccine
Frédérique Chammartin, Kathrin Zürcher, Olivia Keiser, Ralf Weigel, Kathryn Chu, Agnes N Kiragga, Cristina Ardura-Garcia, Nanina Anderegg, Christian Laurent, Morna Cornell, Hannock Tweya, Andreas D Haas, Brian D Rice, Elvin H Geng, Matthew P Fox, James R Hargreaves, Matthias Egger
Background: Low retention on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has emerged as a threat to the Joint United Nations Programme on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS (UNAIDS) 90-90-90 targets. We examined outcomes of patients who started cART but were subsequently lost to follow-up (LTFU) in African treatment programs. Methods: This was a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis of studies that traced patients who were LTFU. Outcomes were analyzed using cumulative incidence functions and proportional hazards models for the competing risks of (i) death, (ii) alive but stopped cART, (iii) silent transfer to other clinics, and (iv) retention on cART...
June 8, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Dickens Otieno Onyango, Courtney M Yuen, Enos Masini, Martien Willem Borgdorff
OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiology of childhood tuberculosis (TB) in Kenya, assess the magnitude of TB/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection and identify risk factors for mortality during TB treatment. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective analysis of the Kenyan national TB program data for patients enrolled from 2013 through 2015. A total of 23 753 children aged less than 15 years were included in the analysis. Survival analysis was performed with censorship at 9 months and mortality was the main outcome...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Ozan M Demir, Luciano Candilio, Daniel Fuster, Robert Muga, Giuseppe Barbaro, Antonio Colombo, Lorenzo Azzalini
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection affects 36.7 million people worldwide, it accounted for 1.1 million deaths in 2015. The advent of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) has been associated with a decrease in HIV-related morbidity and mortality. However, there are increasing concerns about long-lasting effects of chronic inflammation and immune activation, leading to premature aging and HIV-related mortality. Cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary artery disease, are among the leading causes of death in HIV-infected patients, accounting for up to 15% of total deaths in high income countries...
August 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
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