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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088183/incidence-aetiology-and-outcome-of-community-acquired-acute-kidney-injury-in-medical-admissions-in-malawi
#1
Rhys D R Evans, Ulla Hemmilä, Alison Craik, Mwayi Mtekateka, Fergus Hamilton, Zuze Kawale, Christopher J Kirwan, Hamish Dobbie, Gavin Dreyer
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data on Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) from low-income countries is sparse. The aim of this study was to establish the incidence, severity, aetiology, and outcomes of community-acquired AKI in Malawi. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study of general medical admissions to a tertiary hospital in Blantyre between 27(th) April and 17(th) July 2015. All patients were screened on admission with a serum creatinine; those with creatinine above laboratory reference range were managed by the nephrology team...
January 14, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086758/toxoplasmosis-associated-iris-involving-the-cns-a-case-report-with-longitudinal-analysis-of-t-cell-subsets
#2
Rita Rb-Silva, Claudia Nobrega, Eugénia Reiriz, Soraia Almeida, Rui Sarmento-Castro, Margarida Correia-Neves, Ana Horta
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected patients may present an unforeseen clinical worsening after initiating antiretroviral therapy known as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). This syndrome is characterized by a heightened inflammatory response toward infectious or non-infectious triggers, and it may affect different organs. Diagnosis of IRIS involving the central nervous system (CNS-IRIS) is challenging due to heterogeneous manifestations, absence of biomarkers to identify this condition, risk of long-term sequelae and high mortality...
January 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081036/one-year-mortality-of-hiv-positive-patients-treated-for-rifampicin-and-isoniazid-susceptible-tuberculosis-in-eastern-europe-western-europe-and-latin-america
#3
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVES: The high mortality among HIV/tuberculosis (TB) coinfected patients in Eastern Europe is partly explained by the high prevalence of drug-resistant TB. It remains unclear whether outcomes of HIV/TB patients with rifampicin/isoniazid-susceptible TB in Eastern Europe differ from those in Western Europe or Latin America. METHODS: One-year mortality of HIV-positive patients with rifampicin/isoniazid-susceptible TB in Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and Latin America was analysed and compared in a prospective observational cohort study...
January 28, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080988/medical-mycology-and-fungal-immunology-new-research-perspectives-addressing-a-major-world-health-challenge
#4
REVIEW
Neil A R Gow, Mihai G Netea
Fungi cause more than a billion skin infections, more than 100 million mucosal infections, 10 million serious allergies and more than a million deaths each year. Global mortality owing to fungal infections is greater than for malaria and breast cancer and is equivalent to that owing to tuberculosis (TB) and HIV. These statistics evidence fungal infections as a major threat to human health and a major burden to healthcare budgets worldwide. Those patients who are at greatest risk of life-threatening fungal infections include those who have weakened immunity or have suffered trauma or other predisposing infections such as HIV...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079487/adopting-universal-testing-for-hiv-in-intensive-care-for-patients-admitted-with-severe-pneumonia-results-from-our-change-in-practice
#5
Rory Sharvill, Arnold Fernandes, Kate Allen, Jeremy Astin
Early identification of HIV infection is of obvious benefit to patients' health, yet many remain unaware of their diagnosis, with detrimental consequences. Current guidelines suggest patients with pneumonia are offered an HIV test. Early diagnosis of HIV infection in critically ill patients within intensive care is vital in reducing mortality and morbidity. In 2015, we established automated HIV testing for patients with pneumonia admitted to our intensive care unit. Prior to our change in practice, our HIV testing rate in patients with pneumonia was 29% within two weeks of admission...
January 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077069/a-pilot-study-of-brisk-walking-in-sedentary-combination-antiretroviral-treatement-cart-treated-patients-benefit-on-soluble-and-cell-inflammatory-markers
#6
Matteo Bonato, Laura Galli, Laura Passeri, Valeria Longo, Gaspare Pavei, Simona Bossolasco, Cecilia Bertocchi, Massimo Cernuschi, Giuseppe Balconi, Giampiero Merati, Adriano Lazzarin, Antonio La Torre, Paola Cinque
BACKGROUND: Chronic HIV infection is associated with low-level inflammation and increased risk of chronic diseases and mortality. The objective was to assess the effects of moderate intensity exercise on metabolic and inflammatory markers in HIV-infected treated persons. METHODS: This was a pilot study enrolling cART-treated, sedentary persons with metabolic complications in a 12-week protocol, consisting of three sessions per week of 60 min brisk walking with (strength-walk group) or without (walk group) 30 min circuit-training...
January 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071205/long-term-liver-diseases-after-initiation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-infected-patients-with-and-without-hbv-or-hcv-coinfection
#7
Sithakom Phusanti, Kwanhatai Manosudprasit, Somnuek Sungkanuparph
Coinfection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) with HIV is common and associated with increased mortality and increased risk of progression to chronic liver disease. We aimed to study long-term liver diseases after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected patients with and without HBV or HCV coinfection. A retrospective cohort of 92 patients (32 patients with HBV and/or HCV coinfection) was analyzed. Overall mean age was 38.3 years, and 54.3% were males. Immunological and virological responses were similar between the 2 groups ( P > ...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068521/hiv-and-its-relationship-to-insulin-resistance-and-lipid-abnormalities
#8
REVIEW
Lemuel R Non, Gerome V Escota, William G Powderly
Antiretroviral therapy has revolutionized the care of people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by reducing morbidity and mortality from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related conditions. Despite longer life expectancy, however, HIV-infected individuals continue to have a higher risk of death compared with the general population. This has been attributed to the increasing incidence of noncommunicable diseases, in particular, atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. This is driven, in part, by the emergence of metabolic disorders, particularly dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and lipodystrophy, in those on antiretroviral therapy...
December 23, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066962/outcomes-among-hiv-infected-children-initiating-hiv-care-and-antiretroviral-treatment-in-ethiopia
#9
Zenebe Melaku, Sileshi Lulseged, Chunhui Wang, Matthew Lamb, Yoseph Gutema, Chloe Teasdale, Solomon Ahmed, Tsigereda Gadisa, Zelalem Habtamu, Abubaker Bedri, Ruby Fayorsey, Elaine J Abrams
Globally, the scale-up of antiretroviral treatment represents one of the greatest successes in the history of global health. By the end of 2014 an estimated 15 million individuals, including more than 800,000 children younger than 15 years, initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART).(1) While pediatric treatment still lags behind adult successes, many countries, particularly in Southern Africa, have reported high rates of ART initiation, diminishing mortality and markedly improved health outcomes among children with HIV...
January 9, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066878/safety-and-effectiveness-of-sodium-stibogluconate-and-paromomycin-combination-for-the-treatment-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-eastern-africa-results-from-a-pharmacovigilance-programme
#10
Robert Kimutai, Ahmed M Musa, Simon Njoroge, Raymond Omollo, Fabiana Alves, Asrat Hailu, Eltahir A G Khalil, Ermias Diro, Peninah Soipei, Brima Musa, Khalid Salman, Koert Ritmeijer, Francois Chappuis, Juma Rashid, Rezika Mohammed, Asfaw Jameneh, Eyasu Makonnen, Joseph Olobo, Lawrence Okello, Patrick Sagaki, Nathalie Strub, Sally Ellis, Jorge Alvar, Manica Balasegaram, Emilie Alirol, Monique Wasunna
INTRODUCTION: In 2010, WHO recommended a new first-line treatment for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Eastern Africa. The new treatment, a combination of intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) sodium stibogluconate (SSG) and IM paromomycin (PM) was an improvement over SSG monotherapy, the previous first-line VL treatment in the region. To monitor the new treatment's safety and effectiveness in routine clinical practice a pharmacovigilance (PV) programme was developed. METHODS: A prospective PV cohort was developed...
January 9, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065185/predictors-of-immunodeficiency-related-death-in-a-cohort-of-low-income-people-living-with-hiv-a-competing-risks-survival-analysis
#11
M F P M Albuquerque, D N Alves, C C Bresani Salvi, J D L Batista, R A A Ximenes, D B Miranda-Filho, H R L Melo, M Maruza, U R Montarroyos
We conducted a survival analysis with competing risks to estimate the mortality rate and predictive factors for immunodeficiency-related death in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) in northeast Brazil. A cohort with 2372 PLWH was enrolled between July 2007 and June 2010 and monitored until 31 December 2012 at two healthcare centres. The event of interest was immunodeficiency-related death, which was defined based on the Coding Causes of Death in HIV Protocol (CoDe). The predictor variables were: sociodemographic characteristics, illicit drugs, tobacco, alcohol, nutritional status, antiretroviral therapy, anaemia and CD4 cell count at baseline; and treatment or chemoprophylaxis for tuberculosis (TB) during follow-up...
January 9, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063072/a-hazard-analysis-of-risk-factors-of-mortality-in-individuals-who-inject-drugs-in-denver-co
#12
Jonathan M Davis, Katie Suleta, Karen F Corsi, Robert E Booth
Despite multiple risk factors for mortality among People Who Inject Drugs (PWID), more research is warranted that examines sub-populations within PWID. Mortality data from PWID participating in longitudinal HIV prevention research in Denver were obtained from The Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment. Risk factors for both all-cause and acute-toxicity related mortality were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Two-thousand seven individuals were interviewed at baseline. Eighty-six individuals died during the time frame of the study, 58 of which were due to acute-toxicity...
January 6, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061839/risk-factors-for-mortality-in-tb-patients-a-10-year-electronic-record-review-in-a-south-african-province
#13
J Christo Heunis, N Gladys Kigozi, Perpetual Chikobvu, Sonja Botha, Hcj Dingie van Rensburg
BACKGROUND: Since 1990, reduction of tuberculosis (TB) mortality has been lower in South Africa than in other high-burden countries in Africa. This research investigated the influence of routinely captured demographic and clinical or programme variables on death in TB patients in the Free State Province. METHODS: A retrospective review of case information captured in the Electronic TB register (ETR.net) over the years 2003 to 2012 was conducted. Extracted data were subjected to descriptive and logistic regression analyses...
January 6, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060226/barriers-to-care-and-1-year-mortality-among-newly-diagnosed-hiv-infected-people-in-durban-south-africa
#14
Ingrid V Bassett, Sharon M Coleman, Janet Giddy, MFamMed, Laura M Bogart, Christine E Chaisson, Douglas Ross, Moses J E Flash, Tessa Govender, Rochelle P Walensky, Kenneth A Freedberg, Elena Losina
BACKGROUND: Prompt entry into HIV care is often hindered by personal and structural barriers. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of self-perceived barriers to healthcare on 1-year mortality among newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals in Durban, South Africa. METHODS: Prior to HIV testing at four outpatient sites, adults (≥18y) were surveyed regarding perceived barriers to care including: 1) service delivery; 2) financial; 3) personal health perception; 4) logistical; and 5) structural...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060044/early-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-and-mortality-among-infants-diagnosed-with-hiv-in-the-first-12-weeks-of-life-experiences-from-kinshasa-dr-congo-and-blantyre-malawi
#15
Anna Sheahan, Lydia Feinstein, Queen Dube, Andrew Edmonds, Chawanangwa Mahebere Chirambo, Emily Smith, Frieda Behets, Robert Heyderman, Annelies Van Rie
BACKGROUND: Based on clinical trial results, the WHO recommends infant HIV testing at age 4-6 weeks and immediate antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in all HIV-infected infants. Little is known about the outcomes of HIV infected infants diagnosed with HIV in the first weeks of life in resource-limited settings. We assessed ART initiation and mortality in the first year of life among infants diagnosed with HIV by 12 weeks of age. METHODS: Cohort of HIV-infected infants in Kinshasa and Blantyre diagnosed before 12 weeks to estimate 12-month cumulative incidences of ART initiation and mortality, accounting for competing risks...
January 3, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060018/association-between-engagement-in-care-and-mortality-in-hiv-positive-persons-a-cohort-study
#16
Caroline A Sabin, Alison Howarth, Sophie Jose, Teresa Hill, Vanessa Apea, Steve Morris, Fiona Burns
OBJECTIVE: To assess associations between engagement in-care and future mortality. DESIGN: UK-based observational cohort study. METHODS: HIV-positive participants with >1 visit after 1/1/2000 were identified. Each person-month was classified as being in- or out-of-care based on the dates of the expected and observed next care visits. Cox models investigated associations between mortality and a) the cumulative proportion of months spent in-care (%IC, lagged by 1 year), and b) cumulative %IC prior to antiretroviral treatment (ART) in those attending clinic for >1 year, with adjustment for age, CD4/viral load (VL), year, sex, infection mode, ethnicity, and receipt/type of ART...
January 4, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060016/excess-respiratory-viral-infections-and-low-antibody-responses-among-hiv-exposed-uninfected-infants
#17
Adriana Weinberg, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Qilu Yu, Rachel A Cohen, Volia C Almeida, Fabiana Amaral, Jorge Pinto, Maria L B Teixeira, Regina C M Succi, Laura Freimanis, Jennifer S Read, George Siberry
OBJECTIVE: HIV-exposed uninfected infants (HEUs) have frequent severe infection, hospitalization and death. We performed a serologic investigation to determine the role of common childhood respiratory pathogens in the excess incidence of infections in HEUs. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of mother-infant pairs. METHODS: Among 247 HEUs and 88 HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) infant-mother pairs, we measured maternal antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and pneumococcus (PNC 1, 5, 6B, 14); infant antibodies to RSV, influenza A (Flu), parainfluenza viruses (PIV 1, 2, 3), and PNC 1, 5, 6B and 14 were measured at 0 and 6 months, and anti-tetanus antibodies at 6 months...
January 4, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060014/outcomes-of-cervical-cancer-among-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-women-treated-at-the-brazilian-national-institute-of-cancer-2001-2013
#18
Mariana P Ferreira, Anna E Coghill, Claudia B Chaves, Anke Bergmann, Luiz C Thuler, Esmeralda A Soares, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Eric A Engels, Marcelo A Soares
OBJECTIVE: We assessed mortality, treatment response, and relapse among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women with cervical cancer in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. DESIGN: Cohort study of 87 HIV-infected and 336 HIV-uninfected women with cervical cancer. METHODS: Patients at the Brazilian National Institute of Cancer (2001-2013) were matched on age, calendar year of diagnosis, clinical stage, and tumor histology. Staging and treatment with surgery, radiotherapy, and/or chemotherapy followed international guidelines...
January 4, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059955/diagnosis-of-opportunistic-infections-hiv-co-infections-tuberculosis
#19
Lesley Scott, Pedro da Silva, Catharina C Boehme, Wendy Stevens, Chris Gilpin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tuberculosis (TB) incidence has declined ∼1.5% annually since 2000, but continued to affect 10.4 million individuals in 2015, with 1/3 remaining undiagnosed or underreported. The diagnosis of TB among those co-infected with HIV is challenging as TB remains the leading cause of death in such individuals. Accurate and rapid diagnosis of active TB will avert mortality in both adults and children, reduce transmission, and assist in timeous decisions for antiretroviral therapy initiation...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057253/hiv-and-ischemic-heart-disease
#20
REVIEW
Ahmed Vachiat, Keir McCutcheon, Nqoba Tsabedze, Don Zachariah, Pravin Manga
The association of coronary heart disease (CHD) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been well recognized for many years. The etiology of the increased prevalence of CHD in HIV-infected populations is the result of complex interactions among the viral infection, host factors, traditional risk factors, and therapies for HIV. As the HIV population is living longer, largely attributable to combination antiretroviral therapy, there is concern about the effect of the rising prevalence of CHD on morbidity and mortality, as well its effect on health systems around the world...
January 3, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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