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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053932/the-patterns-of-in-vitro-cell-death-and-inflammatory-cytokines-induced-by-distinct-bcg-vaccine-strains-are-differentially-induced-in-human-mononuclear-cells
#1
C Ponte, M Hacker, M Moraes, L Castello-Branco, F Silva, P Antas
Tuberculosis (TB) remains among the world's leading cause of mortality. For its control, studies of TB vaccines are needed. Since live-attenuated Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only TB vaccine currently in use, studies on the protective role of BCG are required. In this study, we analyzed host cells purified directly from whole blood of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative volunteers, comprising adult healthy donors (HD) and neonates (umbilical cord bloods, UCB), with the aim to directly compare in vitro immune responses with distinct BCG strains in human mononuclear cells...
October 20, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048512/excellent-treatment-outcomes-in-children-treated-for-tuberculosis-under-routine-operational-conditions-in-cape-town-south-africa
#2
Muhammad Osman, Kevin Lee, Karen Du Preez, Rory Dunbar, Anneke C Hesseling, James A Seddon
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of death in children globally. It is recognized that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection increases the risk of developing TB, but our understanding of the impact of HIV on risk of mortality for children treated for TB is limited. We aimed to identify predictors of mortality in children treated for drug-susceptible TB. Methods: A retrospective analysis of all children (<15 years of age) routinely treated between 2005 and 2012 for drug-susceptible TB in Cape Town was conducted using the programmatic electronic TB treatment database...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046460/myeloid-dendritic-cells-repress-human-cytomegalovirus-gene-expression-and-spread-by-releasing-interferon-unrelated-soluble-antiviral-factors
#3
Bahram Kasmapour, Tobias Kubsch, Ulfert Rand, Britta Eiz-Vesper, Martin Messerle, Florian W R Vondran, Bettina Wiegmann, Axel Haverich, Luka Cicin-Sain
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a beta-herpesvirus that latently infects most adult humans worldwide and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. Latent human CMV (HCMV) is believed to reside in precursors of myeloid-lineage, leukocytes and monocytes, which give raise to macrophages and dendritic cells. We report here that human monocyte derived DCs (mo-DC) suppress HCMV infection in coculture with infected fibroblasts target cells in an effector-to-target-ratio dependent manner. Intriguingly, optimal activation of mo-DC was achieved in coculture conditions, not by their direct infection with HCMV, implying that mo-DC may recognize unique molecular patterns on, or within, infected fibroblasts...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046115/bone-and-the-immune-system
#4
M Neale Weitzmann
Osteoporosis increases fracture risk, a cause of crippling morbidity and mortality. The immunoskeletal interface (ISI) is a centralization of cell and cytokine effectors shared between skeletal and immune systems. Consequently, the immune system mediates powerful effects on bone turnover. Physiologically, B cells secrete osteoprotegerin (OPG), a potent anti-osteoclastogenic factor that preserves bone mass. However, activated T cells and B cells secrete pro-osteoclastogenic factors including receptor activator of Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kB) ligand (RANKL), Interleukin (IL)-17A, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α promoting bone loss in inflammatory states such as rheumatoid arthritis...
January 1, 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044011/antiretroviral-therapy-and-arterial-elasticity-in-hiv-infected-patients
#5
Mariana A Kundro, Guillermo A Viloria, Javier J Toibaro, Marcelo H Losso
Cardiovascular risk is increased in HIV-infected patients and has become a leading cause of morbi-mortality in this population. The purpose of this study is to compare HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and ART-naïve HIV-infected patients regarding arterial elasticity. From September 2010 to September 2015, 105 HIV-infected subjects were enrolled, 41 ART-naïve and 64 on ART with stable viral suppression. Elasticity of large and small arteries (LAE and SAE) was assessed by analysis of radial pulse waveforms using a calibrated device...
2017: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043609/the-fat-of-the-matter-obesity-and-visceral-adiposity-in-treated-hiv-infection
#6
REVIEW
Jordan E Lake
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to summarize knowledge of the prevalence, relevant physiology, and consequences of obesity and visceral adiposity in HIV-infected adults, including highlighting gaps in current knowledge and future research directions. RECENT FINDINGS: Similar to the general population, obesity prevalence is increasing among HIV-infected persons, and obesity and visceral adiposity are associated with numerous metabolic and inflammatory sequelae...
October 18, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043204/autopsy-findings-of-miliary-tuberculosis-in-a-renal-transplant-recipient
#7
Khushdeep Shergill, Divya Shelly, Manoj G, Ritu Ranjan Kumar
Miliary tuberculosis is a lethal form of disseminated tuberculosis (TB), deriving its name from the millet-seed-sized granulomas in multiple organs. As TB still remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in India, its disseminated forms need to be diagnosed early to ensure more aggressive treatment at the earliest possible time. However, a considerable number of cases are missed ante-mortem. We discuss the case of a 32-year-old immunocompromised, non-HIV patient with an ante-mortem diagnosis of pulmonary TB...
July 2017: Autopsy & case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040162/aids-defining-events-and-deaths-in-hiv-infected-children-and-adolescents-on-antiretrovirals-a-14-year-study-in-thailand
#8
Patrinee Traisathit, Tristan Delory, Nicole Ngo-Giang-Huong, Rosalin Somsamai, Pornchai Techakunakorn, Sookchai Theansavettrakul, Suparat Kanjanavanit, Jutarat Mekmullica, Chaiwat Ngampiyaskul, Sathaporn Na-Rajsima, Marc Lallemant, Tim R Cressey, Gonzague Jourdain, Intira Jeannie Collins, Sophie Le Coeur
BACKGROUND: Data are scarce on the long-term clinical outcomes of perinatally HIV-infected children and adolescents receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low/middle-income countries. We assessed the incidence of mortality before (early) and after (late) 6-month of ART and of the composite outcome of new/recurrent AIDS-defining-event or death >6 months after ART start (late AIDS/death) and their associated factors. METHODS: Study population was perinatally HIV-infected children (≤18 years) initiating ART within the Program for HIV Prevention and Treatment observational cohort (NCT00433030)...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039974/role-of-kidney-biomarkers-kidney-injury-molecule-1-calbindin-interleukin-18-and-monocyte-chemoattractant-protein-1-in-hiv-associated-pre-eclampsia
#9
Soumaya Abdullatif Eltounali, Jagidesa Moodley, Thajasvarie Naicker
OBJECTIVE: Both HIV infection and pre-eclampsia (PE) are associated with considerable maternal mortality in South Africa. This study was designed to compare the urinary levels of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), calbindin, interleukin-18 (IL-18), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in HIV associated normotensive and preeclamptic pregnancies. METHODS: Following ethical approval and written consent, urine samples were collected from HIV negative (HIV -ve) normotensive pregnant (n = 19), HIV positive (HIV +ve) normotensive pregnant (n = 19), HIV -ve pre-eclamptic (n = 19) and HIV +ve pre-eclamptic (n = 19) women...
October 17, 2017: Hypertension in Pregnancy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037257/ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-insertion-for-hydrocephalus-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-protocol
#10
James J M Loan, Ncedile Mankahla, Graeme Meintjes, A Graham Fieggen
BACKGROUND: Hydrocephalus is a recognised complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related opportunistic infections. Symptomatic raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure can be treated with ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion (VPS). In HIV-infected patients however, there is a concern that VPS might be associated with unacceptably high rates of mortality. We aim to systematically review and appraise published literature to determine reported outcomes and identify predictors of outcome following VPS in relevant subgroups of HIV-infected adults...
October 16, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034998/the-albumin-bilirubin-grade-uncovers-the-prognostic-relationship-between-hepatic-reserve-and-immune-dysfunction-in-hiv-associated-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
D J Pinato, R Sharma, C Citti, H Platt, M Ventura-Cots, E Allara, T-Y Chen, A Dalla Pria, M Jain, B Mínguez, L Kikuchi, E Kaufman West, M Merli, D E Kaplan, H Hasson, K Marks, M Nelson, M Núñez, A Aytaman, M Bower, N Bräu
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of liver-related mortality in people living with HIV, where co-infection with hepatotropic viruses accelerates the course of chronic liver disease. AIM: To evaluate whether the albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade, a more accurate marker of liver dysfunction in HCC, might identify patients with progressive liver dysfunction in the context of HIV/hepatitis co-infection. METHODS: Using uni- and multi-variable analyses, we studied the albumin-bilirubin grade as a predictor of overall survival (OS) in a large, multi-center cohort of patients with HIV-associated HCC recruited from 44 centres in 9 countries within the Liver Cancer in HIV study group...
October 16, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030391/the-effect-of-plasma-auto-iggs-on-cd4-t-cell-apoptosis-and-recovery-in-hiv-infected-patients-under-antiretroviral-therapy
#12
Zhenwu Luo, Zejun Zhou, Elizabeth Ogunrinde, Tao Zhang, Zhen Li, Lisa Martin, Zhuang Wan, Hao Wu, Zhiqiang Qin, Tongwen Ou, Jiafeng Zhang, Lei Ma, Guoyang Liao, Sonya Heath, Lei Huang, Wei Jiang
Although effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses HIV viral replication, prevents AIDS-related complications, and prolongs life, a proportion of patients fails to restore the patients' CD4(+) T cell number to the level of healthy individuals. Increased mortality and morbidity have been observed in these patients. In the current study, we have investigated the role of auto-IgGs in CD4(+) T cell apoptosis and recovery in a cross-sectional study. All HIV(+) subjects were on viral-suppressive ART treatment with a different degree of CD4(+) T cell reconstitution...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029055/prognostic-models-for-9-month-mortality-in-tuberculous-meningitis
#13
Le Thi Phuong Thao, A Dorothee Heemskerk, Ronald B Geskus, Nguyen Thi Hoang Mai, Dang Thi Minh Ha, Tran Thi Hong Chau, Nguyen Hoan Phu, Nguyen Van Vinh Chau, Maxine Caws, Nguyen Huu Lan, Do Dang Anh Thu, Nguyen Thuy Thuong Thuong, Jeremy Day, Jeremy J Farrar, M Estee Torok, Nguyen Duc Bang, Guy E Thwaites, Marcel Wolbers
Background: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most severe form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. We developed and validated prognostic models for 9-month mortality in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected adults with TBM. Methods: We included 1699 subjects from four randomized clinical trials and one prospective observational study conducted at two major referral hospitals in Southern Vietnam from 2001-2015. Modelling was based on multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression...
September 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028998/high-cryptococcal-antigen-titers-in-blood-are-predictive-of-subclinical-cryptococcal-meningitis-among-hiv-infected-patients
#14
Rachel M Wake, Erika Britz, Charlotte Sriruttan, Ivy Rukasha, Tanvier Omar, David C Spencer, Jeremy S Nel, Sello Mashamaite, Adeboye Adelekan, Tom M Chiller, Joseph N Jarvis, Thomas S Harrison, Nelesh P Govender
Background: High mortality rates among asymptomatic cryptococcal antigen (CrAg)-positive patients identified through CrAg screening, despite pre-emptive fluconazole, may be due to undiagnosed cryptococcal meningitis. Methods: Symptoms were reviewed in CrAg-positive patients identified through screening 19,233 individuals with CD4 cell counts < 100 cells/µL at 17 clinics and 3 hospitals in Johannesburg from September 2012 until September 2015, and 2 of these hospitals until June 2016...
October 5, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028978/comparative-epidemiology-and-outcomes-of-hiv-non-hiv-non-transplant-and-organ-transplant-associated-cryptococcosis-a-population-based-study
#15
I A George, A Spec, W G Powderly, C A Q Santos
In this population-based study in the contemporary era in the United States, the proportion of HIV-negative patients with cryptococcosis is approaching that in HIV-infected patients. Cryptococossis is associated with higher mortality in HIV-negative patients (including organ transplant recipients).
October 4, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028970/poor-obstetric-and-infant-outcomes-in-hiv-infected-pregnant-women-with-tuberculosis-in-south-africa-the-tshepiso-study
#16
Nicole Salazar-Austin, Jennifer Hoffmann, Silvia Cohn, Fildah Mashabela, Ziyaad Waja, Sanjay Lala, Christopher Hoffmann, Kelly E Dooley, Richard E Chaisson, Neil Martinson
Background: Prior to the wide availability of antiretroviral therapy, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV disease among pregnant women resulted in poor maternal and neonatal outcomes including high rates of mother-to-child transmission of both HIV and TB. We aimed to describe the impact of TB among HIV-infected mothers on obstetric and infant outcomes in a population with access to antiretroviral therapy. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we followed HIV-infected pregnant women with and without TB disease from January 2011 through January 2014 in Soweto, South Africa...
September 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028964/the-cost-effectiveness-of-hiv-testing-and-treatment-engagement-initiatives-in-british-columbia-canada-2011-2013
#17
B Nosyk, J E Min, E Krebs, X Zang, M Compton, R Gustafson, R Barrios, J S G Montaner
Background: Recognition of the secondary preventive benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has mobilized global efforts to 'seek, test, treat and retain' people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) in HIV care. We aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of a set of HIV testing and treatment engagement interventions initiated in British Columbia (BC), Canada in 2011-2013. Methods: Using a previously-validated dynamic, compartmental HIV transmission model, linked individual-level health administrative data for PLHIV and aggregate-level HIV testing data, we estimated the cost-effectiveness of primary care testing (hospital, emergency department, outpatient), ART initiation and ART retention initiatives, versus a counterfactual scenario approximating the status quo...
September 26, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028957/long-term-mortality-and-disability-in-cryptococcal-meningitis-a-systematic-literature-review
#18
Estelle Pasquier, John Kunda, Pierre De Beaudrap, Angela Loyse, Elvis Temfack, Síle F Molloy, Thomas S Harrison, Olivier Lortholary
Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is the primary cause of meningitis in HIV-infected adults and an emerging disease in HIV-seronegative individuals. No literature review has studied the long-term outcome of CM. We performed a systematic review on the long-term (≥3 months) impact of CM (C. neoformans and C. gattii) on mortality and disability in HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected adults. Though the quality of current evidence is limited, the long-term impact of CM on survival and disability appears to be high. One-year mortality ranged from 13% in an Australian non-HIV C...
October 4, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028666/microbial-translocation-translating-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-to-hiv
#19
Alexandra M Ortiz, Jason M Brenchley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The article describes recent advances in understanding the causes and consequences of microbial translocation in HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus infections. RECENT FINDINGS: Persistent microbial translocation contributes to aberrant immune activation in immunodeficiency lentiviral infections and thereby, pathogenesis and mortality. Efforts to delineate the circumstances surrounding translocation have benefited from use of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected nonhuman primates and highlight the overwhelming immunologic diversion caused by translocating microbes...
October 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028662/stool-xpert-mtb-rif-and-urine-lipoarabinomannan-lam-for-diagnosing-tuberculosis-in-hospitalized-hiv-infected-children
#20
Sylvia M LaCourse, Patricia B Pavlinac, Lisa M Cranmer, Irene N Njuguna, Cyrus Mugo, John Gatimu, Joshua Stern, Judd L Walson, Elizabeth Maleche-Obimbo, Julius Oyugi, Dalton Wamalwa, Grace John-Stewart
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) causes substantial morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected children. Sample collection and paucibacillary nature of TB in children makes diagnosis challenging. Rapid diagnostic tools using easily obtained specimens are urgently needed. METHODS: Hospitalized, HIV-infected children ≤12 years enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (NCT02063880) comparing urgent to poststabilization ART initiation in Kenya underwent TB evaluation. At enrollment, sputum or gastric aspirates (GA) were collected for TB culture and Xpert, stool for Xpert, and urine for lateral flow lipoarabinomannan (LAM )...
October 12, 2017: AIDS
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