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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244807/socioeconomic-position-and-ten-year-survival-and-virologic-outcomes-in-a-ugandan-hiv-cohort-receiving-antiretroviral-therapy
#1
Andrew G Flynn, Godwin Anguzu, Frank Mubiru, Agnes N Kiragga, Moses Kamya, David B Meya, David R Boulware, Andrew Kambugu, Barbara C Castelnuovo
Lifelong ART is essential to reducing HIV mortality and ending the epidemic, however the interplay between socioeconomic position and long-term outcomes of HIV-infected persons receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. Furthering the understanding of factors related to long-term ART outcomes in this important region will aid the successful scale-up of ART programs. We enrolled 559 HIV-infected Ugandan adults starting ART in 2004-2005 at the Infectious Diseases Institute in Kampala, Uganda and followed them for 10 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243520/caveats-and-pitfalls-associated-with-researching-community-engagement-in-the-context-of-hiv-vaccine-trials
#2
Ashraf Kagee, Anneliese De Wet, Zuhayr Kafaar, Anthea Lesch, Leslie Swartz, Peter A Newman
HIV vaccine efficacy trials require the enrolment of large numbers of HIV-negative individuals and thus it is necessary to engage with communities where HIV incidence is high. We identify some of the caveats and pitfalls associated with researching community engagement in the context of HIV vaccine trials. These are as follows: the lack of consensus of what community engagement is and how it is practiced, the sometimes paradoxical role of community advisory boards as community representatives and challenges associated with information dissemination in communities...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243109/hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-uptake-and-retention-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-a-community-based-sexual-health-clinic
#3
J Carlo Hojilla, David Vlahov, Pierre-Cedric Crouch, Carol Dawson-Rose, Kellie Freeborn, Adam Carrico
In a community-based clinic serving men who have sex with men in San Francisco, California, this study characterized key steps of the pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) cascade and identified correlates of retention in care. In total, 344 patients were evaluated for PrEP. Three-fourths (78%) of those who sought PrEP services initiated PrEP. The overall cumulative incidence of discontinuing PrEP at 13 months was 38%. Men with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) were 44% less likely to be retained (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0...
December 14, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242195/key-programme-science-lessons-from-an-hiv-prevention-learning-site-for-sex-workers-in-mombasa-kenya
#4
Leigh M McClarty, Parinita Bhattacharjee, Shajy Isac, Faran Emmanuel, Japheth Kioko, Margaret Njiraini, Peter Gichangi, Clifford Duncan Okoth, Janet Musimbi-Mbole, James F Blanchard, Stephen Moses, Helgar Muysyoki, Marissa L Becker
OBJECTIVES: In 2013, Kenya's National AIDS and STI Control Programme established a Learning Site (LS) in Mombasa County to support and strengthen capacity for HIV prevention programming within organisations working with sex workers. A defining feature of LS was the use of a Programme Science approach throughout its development and implementation. We provide an overview of the key components of LS, present findings from 23 months of programme monitoring data, and highlight key Programme Science lessons from its implementation and monitoring...
December 14, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240633/sexually-transmitted-infection-testing-of-hiv-positive-medicare-and-medicaid-enrollees-falls-short-of-guidelines
#5
Raphael J Landovitz, Jennifer L Gildner, Arleen A Leibowitz
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men with HIV have high sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence. Thus, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends at least yearly STI screening of HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: We calculated testing rates for syphilis, chlamydia, and gonorrhea among HIV-positive Californians with Medicare or Medicaid insurance in 2010. Logistic regressions estimated how testing for each bacterial STI relates to demographic and provider factors...
January 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239901/prevention-of-hiv-1-transmission-through-breastfeeding-efficacy-and-safety-of-maternal-antiretroviral-therapy-versus-infant-nevirapine-prophylaxis-for-duration-of-breastfeeding-in-hiv-1-infected-women-with-high-cd4-cell-count-impaact-promise-a-randomized-open
#6
Patricia M Flynn, Taha E Taha, Mae Cababasay, Mary Glenn Fowler, Lynne M Mofenson, Maxensia Owor, Susan Fiscus, Lynda Stranix-Chibanda, Anna Coutsoudis, Devasena Gnanashanmugam, Nahida Chakhtoura, Katie McCarthy, Cornelius Mukuzunga, Bonus Makanani, Dhayendre Moodley, Teacler Nematadzira, Bangini Kusakara, Sandesh Patil, Tichaona Vhembo, Raziya Bobat, Blandina T Mmbaga, Maysseb Masenya, Mandisa Nyati, Gerhard Theron, Helen Mulenga, Kevin Butler, David E Shapiro
BACKGROUND: No randomized trial has directly compared the efficacy of prolonged infant antiretroviral prophylaxis versus maternal antiretroviral therapy (mART) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission throughout the breastfeeding period. SETTING: Fourteen sites in sub-Saharan Africa and India. METHODS: A randomized, open label strategy trial was conducted in HIV-1-infected women with CD4 counts >350 cells/mm (or >country-specific ART threshold if higher) and their breastfeeding HIV-1-uninfected newborns...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239900/isoniazid-preventive-therapy-for-people-with-hiv-who-are-heavy-alcohol-drinkers-in-high-tb-hiv-burden-countries-a-risk-benefit-analysis
#7
J Morgan Freiman, Karen R Jacobson, Winnie R Muyindike, C Robert Horsburgh, Jerrold J Ellner, Judith A Hahn, Benjamin P Linas
BACKGROUND: Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) reduces mortality among people living with HIV (PLHIV), and is recommended for those without active tuberculosis (TB) symptoms. Heavy alcohol use, however, is contraindicated for liver toxicity concerns. We evaluated the risks and benefits of IPT at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation to ART alone for PLHIV who are heavy drinkers in three high TB/HIV burden countries. METHODS: We developed a Markov simulation model to compare ART alone to ART with either 6 or 36 months of IPT for heavy drinking PLHIV enrolling in care in Brazil, India, and Uganda...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239891/cancer-burden-attributable-to-cigarette-smoking-among-hiv-infected-people-in-north-america
#8
Sean F Altekruse, Meredith S Shiels, Sharada P Modur, Stephanie R Land, Kristina A Crothers, Mari M Kitahata, Jennifer E Thorne, William C Mathews, Diana M Fernández-Santos, Angel M Mayor, John M Gill, Michael A Horberg, John T Brooks, Richard D Moore, Michael J Silverberg, Keri N Althoff, Eric A Engels
OBJECTIVE: With combination-antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected individuals live longer with an elevated burden of cancer. Given the high prevalence of smoking among HIV-infected populations, we examined the risk of incident cancers attributable to ever smoking cigarettes. DESIGN: Observational cohort of HIV-infected participants with 270,136 person-years of follow-up in the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design consortium. Among 52,441 participants; 2306 were diagnosed with cancer during 2000-2015...
December 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239890/omega-3-decreases-interleukin-6-levels-in-hiv-and-hhv-8-co-infected-patients-results-from-a-randomized-supplementation-trial-in-uganda
#9
Anna E Coghill, Jeanette M Schenk, Zeina Mahkoul, Jackson Orem, Warren Phipps, Corey Casper
OBJECTIVE: Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is an HIV-associated malignancy caused by human herpesvirus-8 that occurs at highest incidence in sub-Saharan Africa. KS patients often present with inflammatory symptoms associated with higher mortality. DESIGN: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study in Uganda to test whether omega-3 (ω-3) supplementation could reduce inflammation in HIV and HHV-8 co-infected adults ≥ 18 years of age. Patients with acute illness, AIDS, or advanced KS were ineligible, as were pregnant women...
December 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239888/eleven-year-incident-glucose-disorders-in-treated-hiv-infection-the-st-vincent-s-hiv-and-diabetes-study
#10
Chelsea N McMahon, Kathy Petoumenos, Karl Hesse, Andrew Carr, David A Cooper, Katherine Samaras
OBJECTIVES: To determine the long-term incidence of glucose disorders in treated HIV-infection, associations with traditional and HIV-specific risk factors and whether glycemic status predicts mortality. METHODS: Observational cohort of 104 men with treated HIV-infection and without diabetes, aged 43 ± 8y at baseline, with (mean ± SD) 11 8 ± 3 5y follow-up, with ascertainment of glucose status by fasting glucose or, in a subset (n = 33), a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test by 10-12 years follow-up...
December 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239887/incidence-of-sexually-transmitted-infections-before-and-after-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-a-cohort-study
#11
Vinh-Kim Nguyen, Zoë R Greenwald, Helen Trottier, Martha Cadieux, Alexandre Goyette, Mariève Beauchemin, Louise Charest, Danièle Longpré, Stéphane Lavoie, Hermione Gbego Tossa, Réjean Thomas
OBJECTIVE: Use of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV raises concerns about sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence due to decreased condom use among men who have sex with men (MSM). This study examines whether PrEP is associated with STIs in the 12-months following PrEP prescription relative to the 12-months prior to PrEP and if STI rates are higher among PrEP users relative to individuals receiving Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study including PrEP users with >12 months of follow-up before PrEP prescription and individuals receiving PEP from 2010-2015 at Clinique l'Actuel (Montréal, Canada)...
December 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238337/the-role-of-type-2-diabetes-for-the-development-of-pathogen-associated-cancers-in-the-face-of-the-hiv-aids-epidemic
#12
REVIEW
Melissa J Blumenthal, Sylvia Ujma, Arieh A Katz, Georgia Schäfer
The contribution of HIV to the development of pathogen-associated cancers has long been recognized, as has the contribution of type 2 diabetes for the development of several types of cancer. While HIV/AIDS-associated immunosuppression reduces immunosurveillance and indirectly contributes favorably to cancerogenesis, diabetes directly increases cancer development due to chronic low-grade inflammation, dysregulated glucose metabolism, hyperactivation of insulin-responsive pathways, and anti-apoptotic signaling...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238237/adolescent-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-prevention-current-perspectives
#13
REVIEW
Daisy Maria Machado, Alexandre Machado de Sant'Anna Carvalho, Rachel Riera
Adolescents are a critical population that is disproportionately impacted by the HIV epidemic. More than 2 million adolescents between the age group of 10 and 19 years are living with HIV, and millions are at risk of infection. HIV risks are considerably higher among girls, especially in high-prevalence settings such as eastern and southern Africa. In addition to girls, there are other vulnerable adolescent subgroups, such as teenagers, who use intravenous (IV) drugs, gay and bisexual boys, transgender youth, male sex workers, and people who fall into more than one of these categories...
2017: Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237762/effect-of-population-viral-load-on-prospective-hiv-incidence-in-a-hyperendemic-rural-african-community
#14
Frank Tanser, Alain Vandormael, Diego Cuadros, Andrew N Phillips, Tulio de Oliveira, Andrew Tomita, Till Bärnighausen, Deenan Pillay
Monitoring HIV population viral load (PVL) has been advocated as an important means of inferring HIV transmission potential and predicting the future rate of new HIV infections (HIV incidence) in a particular community. However, the relationship between PVL measures and directly measured HIV incidence has not been quantified in any setting and, most importantly, in a hyperendemic sub-Saharan African setting. We assessed this relationship using one of Africa's largest population-based prospective population cohorts in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in which we followed 8732 HIV-uninfected participants between 2011 and 2015...
December 13, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236362/implementation-of-repeat-hiv-testing-during-pregnancy-in-southwestern-kenya-progress-and-missed-opportunities
#15
Anna J Rogers, Eliud Akama, Elly Weke, Justin Blackburn, George Owino, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Patrick Oyaro, Zachary A Kwena, Craig R Cohen, Janet M Turan
INTRODUCTION: Repeat HIV testing during the late antenatal period is crucial to identify and initiate treatment for pregnant women with incident HIV infection to prevent perinatal HIV transmission and keep mothers alive. In 2012, the Kenya Ministry of Health adopted international guidelines suggesting that pregnant women be offered retesting three months after an initial negative HIV test. Our objectives were to determine the current rate of antenatal repeat HIV testing; identify successes, missed opportunities and factors associated with retesting; and estimate the incidence of HIV during pregnancy...
December 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233253/assessment-of-hiv-molecular-surveillance-capacity-in-the-european-union-2016
#16
Patrick Keating, Anastasia Pharris, Katrin Leitmeyer, Stefania De Angelis, Annemarie Wensing, Andrew J Amato-Gauci, Eeva Broberg
IntroductionExpanding access to HIV antiretroviral treatment is expected to decrease HIV incidence and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) mortality. However, this may also result in increased HIV drug resistance (DR). Better monitoring and surveillance of HIV DR is required to inform treatment regimens and maintain the long term effectiveness of antiretroviral drugs. As there is currently no formal European Union (EU)-wide collection of HIV DR data, this study aimed to assess the current HIV molecular surveillance capacity in EU/European Economic Area (EEA) countries in order to inform the planning of HIV DR monitoring at EU level...
December 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229609/recent-advances-in-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv
#17
REVIEW
Monica Desai, Nigel Field, Robert Grant, Sheena McCormack
Although pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)-the use of antiretroviral drugs by non-infected people to prevent the acquisition of HIV-is a promising preventive option, important public health questions remain. Daily oral emtricitabine (FTC)-tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is highly efficacious in preventing the acquisition of HIV in people at risk as a result of a range of different types of sexual exposure. There is good evidence of efficacy in women and men, and when men who have sex with men use event based dosing...
December 11, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229573/merkel-cell-carcinoma-an-update-and-review-part-ii-current-and-future-therapy
#18
REVIEW
Tiffany L Tello, Kathleen Coggshall, Sue S Yom, Siegrid S Yu
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare neuroendocrine tumor of the skin associated with a high risk of local recurrence and distant metastases. It most commonly occurs on sun-exposed areas of Caucasian patients over the age of 65.1,2 The Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) is thought to be responsible for malignant transformation in approximately 80% of cases in the northern hemisphere,3 while ultraviolet radiation induced DNA damage is implicated in MCV-negative tumors.4 The overall incidence of MCC is low, with approximately 1600 cases diagnosed annually in the United States...
December 8, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229440/post-exposure-prophylaxis-with-doxycycline-to-prevent-sexually-transmitted-infections-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-an-open-label-randomised-substudy-of-the-anrs-ipergay-trial
#19
Jean-Michel Molina, Isabelle Charreau, Christian Chidiac, Gilles Pialoux, Eric Cua, Constance Delaugerre, Catherine Capitant, Daniela Rojas-Castro, Julien Fonsart, Béatrice Bercot, Cécile Bébéar, Laurent Cotte, Olivier Robineau, François Raffi, Pierre Charbonneau, Alexandre Aslan, Julie Chas, Laurence Niedbalski, Bruno Spire, Luis Sagaon-Teyssier, Diane Carette, Soizic Le Mestre, Veronique Doré, Laurence Meyer
BACKGROUND: Increased rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have been reported among men who have sex with men. We aimed to assess whether post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with doxycycline could reduce the incidence of STIs. METHODS: All participants attending their scheduled visit in the open-label extension of the ANRS IPERGAY trial in France (men aged 18 years or older having condomless sex with men and using pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate plus emtricitabine) were eligible for inclusion in this open-label randomised study...
December 8, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228122/tennessee-s-in-state-vulnerability-assessment-for-a-rapid-dissemination-of-hiv-or-hcv-infection-event-utilizing-data-about-the-opioid-epidemic
#20
Michael Rickles, Peter F Rebeiro, Lindsey Sizemore, Paul Juarez, Mitchell Mutter, Carolyn Wester, Melissa McPheeters
Background: Knowing which factors contribute to county-level vulnerability to an HIV/Hepatitis C (HCV) outbreak, and which counties are most vulnerable, guide public health and clinical interventions. We therefore examined the impact of locally available indicators related to the opioid epidemic on prior national models of HCV/HIV outbreak vulnerability. Methods: Tennessee's 95 counties were the study sample. Predictors from 2012 and 2013 were used, mirroring prior methodology from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)...
December 7, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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