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Hiv incidence

Brooke E E Montgomery, Paula M Frew, James P Hughes, Jing Wang, Adaora A Adimora, Danielle F Haley, Irene Kuo, Larissa Jennings, Nabila El-Bassel, Sally L Hodder
BACKGROUND: Using data from HIV Prevention Trials Network 064, a multisite, observational cohort study conducted to estimate HIV incidence rates among women living in areas of high poverty and HIV prevalence in the United States, we examined the use of HIV risk characteristics to predict emotional abuse, physical violence, and forced sex. METHODS: Participants included 2099 women, 18-44 years of age, who reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex with a male partner and an additional personal or perceived male partner HIV risk characteristic in the past 6 months...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
A Provoost, M Dramé, L Cotte, L Cuzin, R Garraffo, D Rey, F Raffi, I Poizot-Martin, P Pugliese, F Bani-Sadr
BACKGROUND: Both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections have been reportedly associated with a higher risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) but results are conflicting. AIMS: To determine whether there is an association between chronic HCV and the incidence of DM, and to study the role of factors such as cirrhosis, IFN-based HCV therapy, sustained virologic response (SVR) and chronic HBV infection among patients living with HIV (PLHIV) followed in a large French multicentre cohort in the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era...
June 14, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Guangye He, Yunsong Chen, Buwei Chen, Hao Wang, Li Shen, Liu Liu, Deji Suolang, Boyang Zhang, Guodong Ju, Liangliang Zhang, Sijia Du, Xiangxue Jiang, Yu Pan, Zuntao Min
Based on a panel of 30 provinces and a timeframe from January 2009 to December 2013, we estimate the association between monthly human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) incidence and the relevant Internet search query volumes in Baidu, the most widely used search engine among the Chinese. The pooled mean group (PMG) model show that the Baidu search index (BSI) positively predicts the increase in HIV/AIDS incidence, with a 1% increase in BSI associated with a 2.1% increase in HIV/AIDS incidence on average...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kathleen E Ryan, Anne Mak, Mark Stoove, Brian Price, Christopher K Fairley, Simon Ruth, Luxshimi Lal, Jason Asselin, Carol El-Hayek, Long Nguyen, Colin Batrouney, David Wilson, John Lockwood, Dean Murphy, Vincent J Cornelisse, Norman Roth, Jeff Willcox, Christina C Chang, Judy Armishaw, Ban K Tee, Matthew Penn, George Forgan-Smith, Christopher Williams, Jeff Montgomery, Kat Byron, Alison Coelho, Brent Allen, Jeremy Wiggins, Jenny Kelsall, Olga Vujovic, Michael West, Anna B Pierce, Daniel Gallant, Charlotte Bell, John B F de Wit, Jennifer F Hoy, Steve L Wesselingh, Robert M Grant, Edwina J Wright
Background: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is the use of HIV anti-retroviral therapy to prevent HIV transmission in people at high risk of HIV acquisition. PrEP is highly efficacious when taken either daily, or in an on-demand schedule. In Australia co-formulated tenofovir-emtricitabine is registered for daily use for PrEP, however, this co-formulation is not listed yet on the national subsidized medicines list. We describe a study protocol that aims to demonstrate if the provision of PrEP to up to 3800 individuals at risk of HIV in Victoria, Australia reduces HIV incidence locally by 25% generally and 30% among GBM...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Lesley S Park, Janet P Tate, Keith Sigel, Sheldon T Brown, Kristina Crothers, Cynthia Gibert, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, David Rimland, Maria C Rodriguez-Barradas, Roger J Bedimo, Amy C Justice, Robert Dubrow
Background: Viral suppression is a primary marker of HIV treatment success. Persons with HIV are at increased risk for AIDS-defining cancer (ADC) and several types of non-AIDS-defining cancer (NADC), some of which are caused by oncogenic viruses. Objective: To determine whether viral suppression is associated with decreased cancer risk. Design: Prospective cohort. Setting: Department of Veterans Affairs. Participants: HIV-positive veterans (n = 42 441) and demographically matched uninfected veterans (n = 104 712) from 1999 to 2015...
June 12, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
David T Dunn, David V Glidden, Oliver T Stirrup, Sheena McCormack
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate combined with emtricitabine is a highly effective oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) agent for preventing the acquisition of HIV. This effectiveness has consequences for the design and analysis of trials assessing experimental PrEP regimens, which now generally include an active-control tenofovir disoproxil fumarate plus emtricitabine group, rather than a placebo group, as a comparator. Herein, we describe major problems in the interpretation of the primary measure of effectiveness proposed for these trials, namely the ratio of HIV incidence in the experimental agent group to that in the active-control group...
June 2018: Lancet HIV
Stephanie Gati, Rhoda Chetty, Douglas Wilson, Jacqueline M Achkar
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a major risk factor for the development of active tuberculosis (TB), one of the deadliest infectious diseases globally. The high mortality associated with the disease can be reduced by early diagnosis and prompt antituberculous treatment initiation. Facilities in TB-endemic regions are increasing the use of nucleic acid amplification (e.g., GeneXpert), which provides rapid results but may have suboptimal sensitivity in HIV-associated TB. Our objective was to evaluate the current practices for TB diagnosis at Edendale Hospital, a large regional hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa-a TB-endemic region with high HIV prevalence...
June 11, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Chien-Yu Cheng, Mao-Song Tsai, Chia-Jui Yang, Shu-Hsing Cheng, Hsin-Yun Sun, Shu-Fang Chang, Li-Hsin Su, Yi-Ching Su, Chien-Ching Hung, Sui-Yuan Chang
Background: Increasing trends of resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) to non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (nNRTIs) have raised concerns about the effectiveness of the regimens in the national HIV treatment programs in resource-limited countries. We aimed to retrospectively investigate the incidence and patterns of emergent RAMs of HIV-1 in HIV-positive adults experiencing virological failure to first-line nNRTI-containing combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in Taiwan...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Unkyung Lee, Yanqing Sun, Thomas H Scheike, Peter B Gilbert
The cumulative incidence function quantifies the probability of failure over time due to a specific cause for competing risks data. The generalized semiparametric regression models for the cumulative incidence functions with missing covariates are investigated. The effects of some covariates are modeled as non-parametric functions of time while others are modeled as parametric functions of time. Different link functions can be selected to add flexibility in modeling the cumulative incidence functions. The estimation procedures based on the direct binomial regression and the inverse probability weighting of complete cases are developed...
June 2018: Computational Statistics & Data Analysis
Nicholas Tan, Monisha Sharma, Rachel Winer, Denise Galloway, Helen Rees, Ruanne V Barnabas
BACKGROUND: Women in sub-Saharan Africa have high dual burden of HPV and HIV infections, which can interact to increase cervical cancer (CC) risk. The 9-valent HPV (9vHPV) vaccine has high demonstrated effectiveness against HPV types causing 90% of CC. Additionally, one dose of the 9vHPV vaccine has the potential to achieve greater coverage at lower costs than a two-dose schedule. However, the potential impact of single-dose 9vHPV vaccine accounting for HPV-HIV interactions has not been estimated...
June 8, 2018: Vaccine
Collins Iwuji, Nuala McGrath, Alexandra Calmy, Francois Dabis, Deenan Pillay, Marie-Louise Newell, Kathy Baisley, Kholoud Porter
INTRODUCTION: HIV treatment guidelines now recommend antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation regardless of CD4 count to maximize benefit both for the individual and society. It is unknown whether the initiation of ART at higher CD4 counts would affect adherence levels. We investigated whether initiating ART at higher CD4 counts was associated with sub-optimal adherence (<95%) during the first 12 months of ART. METHODS: A prospective cohort study nested within a two-arm cluster-randomized trial of universal test and treat was implemented from March 2012 to June 2016 to measure the impact of ART on HIV incidence in rural KwaZulu-Natal...
June 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Bisola O Ojikutu, Sumeeta Srinivasan, Laura M Bogart, S V Subramanian, Kenneth H Mayer
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of prison release on HIV incidence in the southern region of the United States, the region with the highest rates of both incarceration and new HIV diagnoses nationwide. METHODS: 5-year HIV diagnoses rates were calculated at the ZIP code level for nine cities and metropolitan statistical areas in the US South (ZIP codes, N = 600). Multilevel regression models were constructed and adjusted rate ratios (ARRs) were estimated for overall, male and female HIV diagnoses rates...
2018: PloS One
Frédérique Chammartin, Kathrin Zürcher, Olivia Keiser, Ralf Weigel, Kathryn Chu, Agnes N Kiragga, Cristina Ardura-Garcia, Nanina Anderegg, Christian Laurent, Morna Cornell, Hannock Tweya, Andreas D Haas, Brian D Rice, Elvin H Geng, Matthew P Fox, James R Hargreaves, Matthias Egger
Background: Low retention on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has emerged as a threat to the Joint United Nations Programme on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS (UNAIDS) 90-90-90 targets. We examined outcomes of patients who started cART but were subsequently lost to follow-up (LTFU) in African treatment programs. Methods: This was a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis of studies that traced patients who were LTFU. Outcomes were analyzed using cumulative incidence functions and proportional hazards models for the competing risks of (i) death, (ii) alive but stopped cART, (iii) silent transfer to other clinics, and (iv) retention on cART...
June 8, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Yu-Hsiang Hsieh, Anuj V Patel, Gideon S Loevinsohn, David L Thomas, Richard E Rothman
High seroprevalence of HCV antibody (anti-HCV) is common among urban emergency department (ED) patients. Little is known regarding incidence of HCV infection in ED patients. We conducted a longitudinal chart-review (2003-2016) of a subset of ED patients between December 2015 and January 2016 (the 'index period') in an urban ED that began an ED-based HCV screening program since November 2015. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they presented to the ED during the 'index period' and had at least one negative anti-HCV test between 2003 and 2015, and at least one test after the 'index visit'...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Khumbo Kalua, Boston Zimba, David W Denning
Despite efforts to address the burden of fungal infections in Malawi, the prevalence and incidence remain largely unknown. We assessed the annual burden in the general population and among populations at high risk and fungal infection frequencies in each particular population to estimate the national incidence or prevalence. The Malawi population is approximately 17.7 million (2017), with 48% under 15 years of age. Approximately 8% of the population is HIV positive. The most common infections are present in HIV/AIDS patients, with oral candidiasis being the commonest...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
T W Rice, P A Brock, C Gonzalez, K W Merriman, Z Shelal, H Bazerbashi, B P Granwehr
Treatment of human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) in cancer patients improves outcomes and reduces transmission of this oncogenic virus. HIV testing rates of cancer patients are similar to the general population (15-40%), despite the association with cancer. Our aim was to increase HIV screening in the Emergency Department(ED) of a comprehensive cancer center through a quality initiative. Testing increased significantly during the intervention (p<0.001; 0.15/day to 2.69/day). Seropositive HIV rate was 1.4% (12/852), with incidence of 0...
2018: Acute Medicine
Rokhsanna Sadeghi, Amina Alio, Thola Bennie, Melissa Wallace, Shubing Cai, Beau Abar, Linda-Gail Bekker, David Adler
The Human Research Council's National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behavior Survey ranks South Africa first in HIV incidence in the world with 400,000 new infections in 2012 and found the HIV incidence rate among female youth aged 15 to 24 years to be 2.5% that year. The objective of this study was to compare the pattern and predictability of sexual activity between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected young South African women. Sexually active young women between the ages of 16 and 21 years old completed a study survey between October 2012 and 2014 at two Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation centers...
2018: Journal of AIDS and HIV Research
Jun Hirose, Hideyuki Takedani, Masanori Nojima, Tomohiko Koibuchi
This study was conducted to investigate the incidence in patients with hemophilia of postoperative complications and risk factors for these complications. Overall, 12 (6.5%) patients developed a postoperative infection. There were 6 (3.4%) postoperative surgical site infections. The presence of an inhibitor was the only risk factor for surgical site infection. Risk factors for delayed wound healing were older age, higher preoperative serum albumin level and procedures other than joint replacement or arthroscopy...
June 2018: Journal of Orthopaedics
Themba G Ginindza, Benn Sartorius
BACKGROUND: The scarcity of country data (e.g. a cancer registry) for the burden of cervical cancer (CC) in low-income countries (LCIs) such as Swaziland remains a huge challenge. Such data are critical to inform local decision-making regarding resource allocation [1]. We aimed to estimate likely cervical cancer incidence in Swaziland using three different methodologies (triangulation), to help better inform local policy guidance regarding likely higher "true" burden and increased resource allocation required for treatment, cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccine implementation...
June 7, 2018: BMC Cancer
Keith Dunn, Marie-Hélène Lafeuille, Xiaolong Jiao, Hela Romdhani, Bruno Emond, Kimberly Woodruff, Jacqueline Pesa, Neeta Tandon, Patrick Lefebvre
BACKGROUND: Adherence to antiretrovirals (ARVs) is critical to achieving durable virologic suppression. OBJECTIVE: To investigate risk factors of poor adherence and the effect of suboptimal adherence on health care resource utilization (HCRU) and costs in Medicaid patients. METHODS: A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted using Medicaid data. Adults (aged ≥ 18 years) with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 initiating selected ARVs (index date) were identified...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
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