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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911140/effect-of-secondary-preventive-therapy-on-recurrence-of-tuberculosis-in-hiv-infected-individuals-a-systematic-review
#1
Wassilis Sc Bruins, Frank van Leth
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals successfully treated for tuberculosis (TB) remain at risk of recurrence of the disease, especially in high TB incidence settings. We performed a systematic review, investigating whether secondary preventive therapy (sPT) with anti-TB drugs (preventive therapy in former TB patients with treatment success) is an effective strategy to prevent recurrence of TB in this patient group. We searched the databases PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science and Google Scholar using the keywords HIV-infections, HIV, human immunodeficiency virus, AIDS, isoniazid, isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), tuberculosis, TB, recurrence and recurrent disease, resulting in 253 potential publications...
December 2, 2016: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910095/a-comparison-of-methods-for-estimating-the-incidence-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-in-repeat-blood-donors
#2
Donald J Brambilla, Michael P Busch, Roger Y Dodd, Simone A Glynn, Steven H Kleinman
BACKGROUND: The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in repeat blood donors has been estimated using seven methods. Although incidence is always calculated as cases per person-time, approaches to selecting cases and calculating person-time vary. Incidence estimates have not been compared among methods. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The seven methods were compared in a simulation study. Because three methods used information from donations made before an estimation interval, 8 years of donation and infection history were simulated, and Years 7 and 8 were treated as the estimation interval for all methods...
December 1, 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907848/fatal-and-non-fatal-overdose-after-narcology-hospital-discharge-among-russians-living-with-hiv-aids-who-inject-drugs
#3
Alexander Y Walley, Debbie M Cheng, Emily K Quinn, Elena Blokhina, Natalia Gnatienko, Christine E Chaisson, Evgeny Krupitsky, Philip O Coffin, Jeffrey H Samet
OBJECTIVES: Among Russians living with HIV/AIDS who inject drugs, we examined the incidence of fatal and non-fatal overdoses following discharge from a narcology hospital and the associations with more advanced HIV infection. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of data collected at baseline, 3 and 6 months from HIV-infected patients with a history of injection drug use who were not treated with anti-retroviral therapy. Participants were recruited between 2012-2014 from a narcology (addiction) hospital in St...
November 28, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906986/cost-effectiveness-of-community-based-tb-hiv-screening-and-linkage-to-care-in-rural-south-africa
#4
Jennifer A Gilbert, Sheela V Shenoi, Anthony P Moll, Gerald H Friedland, A David Paltiel, Alison P Galvani
South Africa has one of the highest burdens of TB worldwide, driven by the country's widespread prevalence of HIV, and further complicated by drug resistance. Active case finding within the community, particularly in rural areas where healthcare access is limited, can significantly improve diagnosis and treatment coverage in high-incidence settings. We evaluated the potential health and economic consequences of implementing community-based TB/HIV screening and linkage to care. Using a dynamic model of TB and HIV transmission over a time horizon of 10 years, we compared status quo TB/HIV control to community-based TB/HIV screening at frequencies of once every two years, one year, and six months...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906642/associations-between-alcohol-use-and-intimate-partner-violence-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#5
Alissa Davis, Farnaz Kaighobadi, Rob Stephenson, Christine Rael, Theodorus Sandfort
PURPOSE: Intimate partner violence (IPV) research among men who have sex with men (MSM) has primarily focused on the prevalence of IPV victimization and perpetration. Although alcohol use is a known trigger of IPV in opposite sex relationships, less is known about alcohol use and IPV perpetration and victimization in same-sex couples. The aim of this study was to examine associations between alcohol use and different types of IPV victimization and perpetration among MSM. METHODS: MSM in New York City were recruited at gay-friendly venues and events to participate in an online survey assessing sociodemographics, alcohol use, and victimization/perpetration of IPV with both regular and casual sex partners...
December 2016: LGBT Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906027/antiretroviral-treatment-regardless-of-cd4-count-the-universal-answer-to-a-contextual-question
#6
REVIEW
Serge P Eholié, Anani Badje, Gérard M Kouame, Jean-Baptiste N'takpe, Raoul Moh, Christine Danel, Xavier Anglaret
After a period where it was recommended to start antiretroviral therapy (ART) early, the CD4 threshold for treating asymptomatic adults dropped to 200/mm(3) at the beginning of the 2000s. This was mostly due to a great prudence with regards to drug toxicity. The ART-start CD4 threshold in most international guidelines was then raised to 350/mm(3) in 2006-2009 and to 500/mm(3) in 2009-2013. Between 2012 and 2015, international guidelines went the last step further and recommended treating all HIV-infected adults regardless of their CD4 count...
July 26, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906024/rate-of-initial-highly-active-anti-retroviral-therapy-regimen-change-and-its-predictors-among-adult-hiv-patients-at-university-of-gondar-referral-hospital-northwest-ethiopia-a-retrospective-follow-up-study
#7
Degefaye Zelalem Anlay, Zinahbizu Abay Alemayehu, Berihun Assefa Dachew
BACKGROUND: Regimen change is a major challenge for the sustainability of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment program. In a resource limited setting where treatment options are limited, designing strategies to increase the durability of original regimen are essential. However, information's on rate of initial regimen change and its predictors is scarce in Ethiopia. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the rate of initial highly active anti retroviral therapy (HAART) regimen change and its predictors among adult HIV patients at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia...
February 17, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906009/current-trends-and-intricacies-in-the-management-of-hiv-associated-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#8
REVIEW
Narendran Gopalan, Padmapriyadarsini Chandrasekaran, Soumya Swaminathan, Srikanth Tripathy
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic has undoubtedly increased the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) globally, posing a formidable global health challenge affecting 1.2 million cases. Pulmonary TB assumes utmost significance in the programmatic perspective as it is readily transmissible as well as easily diagnosable. HIV complicates every aspect of pulmonary tuberculosis from diagnosis to treatment, demanding a different approach to effectively tackle both the diseases. In order to control these converging epidemics, it is important to diagnose early, initiate appropriate therapy for both infections, prevent transmission and administer preventive therapy...
September 26, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905998/sexually-transmitted-infections-and-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-challenges-and-opportunities-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-the-us
#9
REVIEW
Hyman M Scott, Jeffrey D Klausner
Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) has shown high efficacy in preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in several large clinical trials, and more recently in "real world" reports of clinical implementation and a PrEP demonstration project. Those studies also demonstrated high bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence and raised the discussion of how PrEP may impact STI control efforts, especially in the setting of increasing Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial resistance and the increase in syphilis cases among MSM...
January 19, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905986/predictors-of-perceived-male-partner-concurrency-among-women-at-risk-for-hiv-and-sti-acquisition-in-durban-south-africa
#10
Zakir Gaffoor, Handan Wand, Renée A Street, Nathlee Abbai, Gita Ramjee
BACKGROUND: Women in sub-Saharan Africa continue to be at greater risk for HIV acquisition than men. Concurrency, viz. multiple sexual partnerships that overlap over time, has been studied as a possible risk factor for HIV transmission. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of perceived male partner concurrency among sexually active, HIV negative women. METHODS: Socio-demographic and behavioural data from women enrolled in a biomedical HIV prevention clinical trial were assessed in relation to perceived male partner concurrency using the Chi squared test...
March 8, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904814/a-qualitative-view-of-the-hiv-epidemic-in-coastal-ecuador
#11
Adam L Beckman, Magdalena M Wilson, Vishaal Prabhu, Nicola Soekoe, Humberto Mata, Lauretta E Grau
In 2013 approximately 37,000 people were living with HIV in Ecuador (prevalence 0.4%), representing a generalized epidemic where most new infections arise from sexual interactions in the general population. Studies that examine attitudes towards people living with HIV (PLWH), individual risk perception of acquiring HIV amongst Ecuadorians, and the ways in which levels of risk perception may affect risk behaviors are lacking. This qualitative study aimed to fill this gap in the literature by investigating these issues in the rural, coastal community of Manglaralto, Ecuador, which has among the highest incidence of HIV in Ecuador...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903602/whole-genome-sequencing-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-provides-insight-into-the-evolution-and-genetic-composition-of-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-belarus
#12
Kurt R Wollenberg, Christopher A Desjardins, Aksana Zalutskaya, Vervara Slodovnikova, Andrew J Oler, Mariam Quiñones, Thomas Abeel, Sinead B Chapman, Michael Tartakovsky, Andrei Gabrielian, Sven Hoffner, Aliaksandr Skrahin, Bruce W Birren, Alexander Rosenthal, Alena Skrahina, Ashlee M Earl
The emergence and spread of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (DR-TB) is a critical global health issue. Eastern Europe has some of the highest incidences of DR-TB, particularly multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) TB. To better understand the genetic composition and evolution of MDR- and XDR-TB in the region, we sequenced and analyzed the genomes of 138 M. tuberculosis isolates from 97 patients sampled between 2010 and 2013 in Minsk, Belarus. MDR and XDR-TB isolates were significantly more likely to belong to the Beijing lineage than to the Euro-American lineage, and known resistance-conferring loci accounted for the majority of phenotypic resistance to first- and second-line drugs in MDR and XDR-TB...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903359/-a-cohort-study-of-hiv-incidence-among-injecting-drug-users-in-dehong-prefecture-yunnan-province
#13
Y C Yang, Z Y Jin, R H Tang, L Li, R H Ye, Y F Cao, S J Yang, S T Yao, S Duan, N He
Objective: To investigate the incidence rates of HIV among injection drug users (IDU) in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Province. Methods: We recruited 1 413 HIV-negative IDU attending drug rehabilitation centers and identified a further 1 830 potential participants from a historical database from 2004-2009 using the same criteria. Fingerprint recognition technology was used to confirm the identity of all participants. A total of 3 243 HIV-negative IDU were recruited by the end of 2015, of which 2 546 (78.5%) had been followed up at least once since the initial data collection and 697 (21...
November 6, 2016: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902514/prevalence-and-epidemiology-of-hepatitis-d-among-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-a-report-from-northern-spain
#14
Carlos Ordieres, Carmen A Navascués, María L González-Diéguez, Mercedes Rodríguez, Valle Cadahía, María Varela, Luis Rodrigo, Manuel Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: The incidence of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection has decreased during the last decades. However, an increasing trend has been reported recently. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We carried out a case-control study to analyze changes in its prevalence in 1215 chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) patients, diagnosed consecutively in a tertiary center, between 1983 and 2012. According to the year of diagnosis, patients were distributed into two groups: A [1983-1997 (n=786)] and B [1998-2012 (n=429)]...
November 29, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901200/retrospective-analysis-of-the-clinical-behavior-of-oral-hairy-leukoplakia-in-215-hiv-seropositive-patients
#15
Daniela Assis do Vale, Fabiana Martins E Martins, Paulo Henrique Braz da Silva, Karem López Ortega
Oral manifestations are common findings in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients and frequently influence the overall health. Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is strongly associated with HIV infection demonstrating its relationship with the individual's immune status and progression of immunosuppression. This study aims to retrospectively evaluate OHL in HIV patients, analyzing its incidence, demographic aspects and possible changes in clinical and epidemiological profile of the disease over 17 years...
November 28, 2016: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899422/high-risk-hpv-biomarkers-and-outcome-in-matched-cohorts-of-head-and-neck-cancer-patients-positive-and-negative-for-hiv
#16
Heather M Walline, Thomas E Carey, Christine M Goudsmit, Emily L Bellile, Gypsyamber D'souza, Lisa A Peterson, Jonathan B McHugh, Sara I Pai, J Jack Lee, Dong M Shin, Robert L Ferris
: In this study, high-risk HPV (hrHPV) incidence, prognostic biomarkers, and outcome were assessed in HIV-positive (case) and HIV-negative (control) patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). HIV-positive cases were matched to controls by tumor site, sex, and age at cancer diagnosis. A tissue microarray (TMA) was constructed and DNA isolated from tumor tissue. MultiPlex-PCR MassArray, L1-PCR and In Situ Hybridization were used to assess hrHPV. TMA sections were stained for p16ink4a, TP53, RB, CCND1, EGFR, and scored for intensity and proportion of positive tumor cells...
November 29, 2016: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898577/decline-in-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-among-non-injecting-heroin-and-cocaine-users-in-new-york-city-2005-to-2014-prospects-for-avoiding-a-resurgence-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#17
Don C Des Jarlais, Kamyar Arasteh, Jonathan Feelemyer, Courtney McKnight, Susan Tross, David C Perlman, Aimee N C Campbell, Holly Hagan, Hannah L F Cooper
BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection increases both susceptibility to and transmissibility of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and HSV-2 and HIV are often strongly associated in HIV epidemics. We assessed trends in HSV-2 prevalence among non-injecting drug users (NIDUs) when HIV prevalence declined from 16% to 8% among NIDUs in New York City. METHODS: Subjects were current non-injecting users of heroin and/or cocaine and who had never injected illicit drugs...
November 28, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898566/antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-is-not-associated-with-risky-sexual-behavior-among-heterosexual-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-persons-in-serodiscordant-partnerships
#18
Andrew Mujugira, Connie Celum, Kenneth Ngure, Katherine K Thomas, Elly Katabira, Jared M Baeten
BACKGROUND: Few prospective studies have assessed whether antiretroviral therapy (ART) use is associated with changes in sexual risk behavior of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons in known HIV-serodiscordant partnerships. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal analysis of HIV-infected persons with known uninfected partners enrolled in the Partners Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Study in Kenya and Uganda. Antiretroviral therapy use and self-reported sexual behavior were ascertained every 3 months...
November 28, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897226/viral-and-host-characteristics-of-recent-and-established-hiv-1-infections-in-kisumu-based-on-a-multiassay-approach
#19
Newton Otecko, Seth Inzaule, Collins Odhiambo, George Otieno, Valarie Opollo, Alex Morwabe, Kennedy Were, Kenneth Ndiege, Fredrick Otieno, Andrea A Kim, Clement Zeh
Integrated approaches provide better understanding of HIV/AIDS epidemics. We optimised a multiassay algorithm (MAA) and assessed HIV incidence, correlates of recent infections, viral diversity, plus transmission clusters among participants screened for Kisumu Incidence Cohort Study (KICoS1) (2007-2009). We performed BED-CEIA, Limiting antigen (LAg) avidity, Biorad avidity, and viral load (VL) tests on HIV-positive samples. Genotypic analyses focused on HIV-1 pol gene. Correlates of testing recent by MAA were assessed using logistic regression model...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893864/cost-effectiveness-of-the-one4all-hiv-linkage-intervention-in-guangxi-zhuang-autonomous-region-china
#20
Xiao Zang, Houlin Tang, Jeong Eun Min, Diane Gu, Julio S G Montaner, Zunyou Wu, Bohdan Nosyk
BACKGROUND: In Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, an estimated 80% of newly-identified antiretroviral therapy (ART)-eligible patients are not engaged in ART. Delayed ART uptake ultimately translates into high rates of HIV morbidity, mortality, and transmission. To enhance HIV testing receipt and subsequent treatment uptake in Guangxi, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) executed a cluster-randomized trial to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a streamlined HIV testing algorithm (the One4All intervention) in 12 county-level hospitals...
2016: PloS One
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