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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656181/elevated-systemic-microbial-translocation-in-pregnant-hiv-infected-women-compared-to-hiv-uninfected-women-and-its-inverse-correlations-with-plasma-progesterone-levels
#1
Zejun Zhou, Anna Maya Powell, Vishwanathan Ramakrishnan, Allison Eckard, Carol Wagner, Wei Jiang
In HIV infection, increased adverse perinatal outcomes reported among HIV-associated pregnancies are not fully understood. Currently, microbial product translocation (MT) from a permeable mucosa is demonstrated as a driver of inflammation, and may contribute to preterm delivery in HIV. Here, our results showed that plasma LPS levels (a representative marker of MT) were increased in HIV-infected women in the first and second trimester. Progesterone levels were significantly decreased in HIV-infected subjects in the first trimester and second trimester...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655949/incidence-and-predictors-of-6-months-mortality-after-an-acute-heart-failure-event-in-rural-uganda-the-mbarara-heart-failure-registry-mahfer
#2
Fardous Charles Abeya, Boniface Amanee Elias Lumori, Suzan Joan Akello, Brian H Annex, Andrew J Buda, Samson Okello
OBJECTIVE: We sought to estimate the incidence and predictors of all-cause mortality 6 months after heart failure hospitalization in Uganda. METHODS: Mbarara Heart Failure Registry is a cohort of patients hospitalized with a clinical diagnosis of heart failure at Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital, Uganda. We measured serum electrolytes, cardiac markers, and echocardiograms. All participants were followed until death or end of 6 months. We used Fine and Gray models to estimate the incidence and predictors all-cause mortality...
March 29, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655391/incidence-and-prevalence-of-bacteriologically-confirmed-pulmonary-tuberculosis-among-adolescents-and-young-adults-a-systematic-review
#3
Kathryn J Snow, Lisa J Nelson, Charalambos Sismanidis, Susan M Sawyer, Stephen M Graham
The burden of tuberculosis (TB) among adolescents and young adults in endemic settings is poorly characterised. This study aimed to review published and unpublished estimates of the incidence and prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed TB among young people aged 10-24 years. We searched PubMed and World Health Organization archives for publications and unpublished data from population-based epidemiologic studies reporting confirmed pulmonary TB among young people, conducted from January 2000 onwards. We identified 27 publications and unpublished data from two national surveys, representing a total of 26 studies in 19 countries...
April 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652100/how-should-hiv-resources-be-allocated-lessons-learnt-from-applying-optima-hiv-in-23-countries
#4
REVIEW
Robyn M Stuart, Laura Grobicki, Hassan Haghparast-Bidgoli, Jasmina Panovska-Griffiths, Jolene Skordis, Olivia Keiser, Janne Estill, Zofia Baranczuk, Sherrie L Kelly, Iyanoosh Reporter, David J Kedziora, Andrew J Shattock, Janka Petravic, S Azfar Hussain, Kelsey L Grantham, Richard T Gray, Xiao F Yap, Rowan Martin-Hughes, Clemens J Benedikt, Nicole Fraser-Hurt, Emiko Masaki, David J Wilson, Marelize Gorgens, Elizabeth Mziray, Nejma Cheikh, Zara Shubber, Cliff C Kerr, David P Wilson
INTRODUCTION: With limited funds available, meeting global health targets requires countries to both mobilize and prioritize their health spending. Within this context, countries have recognized the importance of allocating funds for HIV as efficiently as possible to maximize impact. Over the past six years, the governments of 23 countries in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe and Latin America have used the Optima HIV tool to estimate the optimal allocation of HIV resources. METHODS: Each study commenced with a request by the national government for technical assistance in conducting an HIV allocative efficiency study using Optima HIV...
April 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650452/hiv-incidence-and-scale-up-of-prevention-in-western-kenya
#5
Nelson K Sewankambo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 9, 2018: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650451/hiv-incidence-in-western-kenya-during-scale-up-of-antiretroviral-therapy-and-voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-a-population-based-cohort-analysis
#6
Martien W Borgdorff, Daniel Kwaro, David Obor, George Otieno, Viviane Kamire, Frederick Odongo, Patrick Owuor, Jacques Muthusi, Lisa A Mills, Rachael Joseph, Mary E Schmitz, Peter W Young, Emily Zielinski-Gutierrez, Kevin M De Cock
BACKGROUND: In Kenya, coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among people with HIV infection has increased from 7% in 2006, to 57% in 2016; and, in western Kenya, coverage of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) increased from 45% in 2008, to 72% in 2014. We investigated trends in HIV prevalence and incidence in a high burden area in western Kenya in 2011-16. METHODS: In 2011, 2012, and 2016, population-based surveys were done via a health and demographic surveillance system and home-based counselling and testing in Gem, Siaya County, Kenya, including 28 688, 17 021, and 16 772 individuals aged 15-64 years...
April 9, 2018: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649309/high-quality-of-life-treatment-tolerability-safety-and-efficacy-in-hiv-patients-switching-from-triple-therapy-to-lopinavir-ritonavir-monotherapy-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#7
Juan Pasquau, Carmen Hidalgo-Tenorio, María Luisa Montes, Alberto Romero-Palacios, Jorge Vergas, Isabel Sanjoaquín, José Hernández-Quero, Koldo Aguirrebengoa, Francisco Orihuela, Arkaitz Imaz, María José Ríos-Villegas, Juan Flores, María Carmen Fariñas, Pilar Vázquez, María José Galindo, Isabel García-Mercé, Fernando Lozano, Ignacio de Los Santos, Samantha Elizabeth de Jesus, Coral García-Vallecillos
TRIAL DESIGN: The QoLKAMON study evaluated quality of life, efficacy and treatment safety in HIV patients receiving lopinavir/ritonavir in monotherapy (MT) versus continuing combined antiretroviral triple treatment with a boosted protease inhibitor (TT). METHODS: This was a 24-week, open-label, multicentre study in virologically-suppressed HIV-infected participants (N = 225) with a 2:1 randomization: 146 patients who switched to MT were compared with 79 patients who remained on a TT regimen...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29645080/risk-of-oral-tongue-cancer-among-immunocompromised-transplant-recipients-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-individuals-in-the-united-states
#8
Joseph E Tota, Eric A Engels, Margaret M Madeleine, Christina A Clarke, Charles F Lynch, Ana P Ortiz, Brenda Y Hernandez, Anil K Chaturvedi
BACKGROUND: Oral tongue cancer incidence has increased among whites in the United States; however, the cause remains unknown. If an infectious agent is implicated, then elevated risk would be expected among immunosuppressed individuals. METHODS: By using population-based registry linkage information from the US Transplant Cancer Match and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) Cancer Match studies, the authors examined the risk of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) among immunocompromised transplantation recipients and HIV-infected individuals...
April 12, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644251/twenty-year-evolution-of-hepatitis-b-virus-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-prevalence-and-incidence-in-voluntary-blood-donors-in-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#9
Benjamin Seri, Albert Minga, Delphine Gabillard, Bamori Dembele, Seidou Konate, Jérôme Le Carrou, Lambert Dohoun, Yao Abo, Sophie Karcher, Patrick Coffie, Thérèse N'Dri-Yoman, Alain Attia, Serge P Eholié, Christine Danel, Karine Lacombe, Xavier Anglaret, Anders Boyd
Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) share common risk factors. The parallel description of their frequency over time may help capture their similarities and differences. Methods: Using data from the National Transfusion Center of Abidjan, we estimated the following over a 20-year period: (1) the prevalence of HIV and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity at first contact; and (2) the incidence of HIV and HBsAg seroconversion in negative first-time blood donors...
April 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642897/small-contribution-of-gold-mines-to-the-ongoing-tuberculosis-epidemic-in-south-africa-a-modeling-based-study
#10
Stewart T Chang, Violet N Chihota, Katherine L Fielding, Alison D Grant, Rein M Houben, Richard G White, Gavin J Churchyard, Philip A Eckhoff, Bradley G Wagner
BACKGROUND: Gold mines represent a potential hotspot for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) transmission and may be exacerbating the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic in South Africa. However, the presence of multiple factors complicates estimation of the mining contribution to the TB burden in South Africa. METHODS: We developed two models of TB in South Africa, a static risk model and an individual-based model that accounts for longer-term trends. Both models account for four populations - mine workers, peri-mining residents, labor-sending residents, and other residents of South Africa - including the size and prevalence of latent TB infection, active TB, and HIV of each population and mixing between populations...
April 12, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629518/atypical-presentation-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-infection-in-hiv-infected-patients-three-different-manifestations
#11
Bongyoung Kim, Jieun Kim, Seung Sam Paik, Hyunjoo Pai
Advances in the treatment and prevention of Pneumocystis jirovecii infection (PJI) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients decreased incidence and mortality dramatically, however, it may be associated with an increased frequency of unusual manifestation such as cystic formation, pneumothorax, focal infiltration, nodular formation, or extrapulmonary lesions. We report three cases of PJI with atypical manifestations. Each case demonstrates different clinical features: multiple nodular pulmonary lesion (32-year-old man with abnormal chest X-ray finding), subpleural mass-like lesion (43-year-old man with left visual loss and right pleuritic chest pain), and extrapulmonary mass-like lesions in the liver, lymph nodes, and small bowel (39-year-old man with cough, sputum, and dyspnea)...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628513/hot-news-impact-of-low-level-viremia-on-treatment-outcomes-during-art-is-it-time-to-revise-the-definition-of-virological-failure
#12
Eva Poveda, Manuel Crespo
The level of HIV-RNA in plasma (HIV viral load) is the main marker used to monitor the virological response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected patients. The threshold used to define virological suppression has historically been dictated by the limits of detection of the commercial assays used to quantify the plasma viral load. Thus, as more sensitive assays have proliferated and become more widely available, the definition has shifted from < 400 cop/mL with the first generation assays, to < 50 cop/mL, to < 20 cop/mL currently...
January 2018: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628512/hot-news-sexually-transmitted-infections-on-the-rise-in-prep-users
#13
Pablo Barreiro
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with oral Truvada (tenofovir plus emtricitabine) is effective at preventing HIV infection in high-risk homosexual men. In the United States, PrEP was approved in 2012 and is reimbursed by Medicaid and the majority of private insurers. The situation is diverse and not uniform in the European Union, being PrEP more widely used in France than in the rest of countries. Concerns have been raised that PrEP use may be accompanied by the phenomena of risk compensation or behavioral disinhibition, whereby PrEP users' perception of decreased risk of HIV acquisition may lead them to engage in overall riskier sexual practices and increase their chances of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (Blumenthal, et al...
January 2018: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628338/stroke-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-individuals-in-sub-saharan-africa-ssa-a-systematic-review
#14
Amir Abdallah, Jonathan L Chang, Cumara B O'Carroll, Abdu Musubire, Felicia C Chow, Anthony L Wilson, Mark J Siedner
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with worse outcomes after stroke, but this association is less well-described in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We reviewed literature on stroke among people living with HIV (PLWH) in SSA. METHODS: We systematically reviewed published literature for original clinical stroke studies conducted in SSA that included PLWH. We included studies that reported data on presenting characteristics, risk factors, and/or outcomes after stroke...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627523/mircorna-3162-3p-is-a-potential-biomarker-to-identify-new-infections-in-hiv-1-infected-patients
#15
Jiegang Huang, Jingzhen Lai, Bingyu Liang, Junjun Jiang, Chuanyi Ning, Yanyan Liao, Ning Zang, Minlian Wang, Fengxiang Qin, Jun Yu, Wudi Wei, Li Ye, Hao Liang
BACKGROUND: Identification of new HIV infections (HIV incidence) is critical for monitoring AIDS epidemic and assessing the effectiveness of intervention measures. However, current methods for distinguishing new infections from newly diagnosed HIV-1 patients are still imperfect. We explored utilizing miRNAs as biomarker to identify HIV new infections. METHODS: According to the HIV-1 status and the estimated duration of infection (EDI), we enrolled participants and divided them into three groups: healthy control, new infection (within 1 year), and old infection (longer than 1 year)...
April 5, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626042/incidence-and-risk-factors-of-first-line-antiretroviral-treatment-failure-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-children-in-amhara-regional-state-ethiopia-a-retrospective-follow-up-study
#16
Malede Mequanent Sisay, Tadesse Awoke Ayele, Yalemzewod Assefa Gelaw, Adino Tesfahun Tsegaye, Kassahun Alemu Gelaye, Melkitu Fentie Melak
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the incidence and risk factors of treatment failure among HIV/AIDS-infected children who were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia. METHODS: A retrospective follow-up study was conducted from January 2010 to March 2016. A total of 824 children under the age of 15 who had started ART were included in the study. Data were collected from children's medical charts and ART registration logbook using a standard checklist...
April 5, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625767/review-of-mathematical-models-of-hsv-2-vaccination-implications-for-vaccine-development
#17
Ian H Spicknall, Katharine J Looker, Sami L Gottlieb, Harrell W Chesson, Joshua T Schiffer, Jocelyn Elmes, Marie-Claude Boily
Development of a vaccine against herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), a life-long sexually-transmitted infection (STI), would be a major step forward in improving global sexual and reproductive health. In this review, we identified published literature of dynamic mathematical models assessing the impact of either prophylactic or therapeutic HSV-2 vaccination at the population level. We compared each study's model structure and assumptions as well as predicted vaccination impact. We examined possible causes of heterogeneity across model predictions, key gaps, and the implications of these findings for future modelling efforts...
April 3, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625531/the-burden-of-aids-a-time-series-analysis-of-thirty-five-years-of-the-epidemic-in-brazil
#18
Jefferson Traebert, Eliane Traebert, Fabiana Schuelter-Trevisol, Juan Jose Cortez Escalante, Ione Jayce Ceola Schneider
Although traditional epidemiological information, such as mortality rate and prevalence or incidence rates, is relevant to the understanding of AIDS epidemiology in Brazil, a more complete indicator would be recommended. The aim of this study was to estimate the burden of AIDS and its trends in Brazil from 1980 to 2015. An ecological study using secondary data on mortality, morbidity and demography was carried out. Data were collected from official health information sources. Disability-adjusted life years (DALY) index was estimated by year...
April 6, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624952/an-audit-of-perineal-trauma-and-vertical-transmisson-of-hiv
#19
Amaka N Ocheke, Ephraim Samuels, Isaac E Ocheke, Patricia A Agaba, Clement Ekere, James Bitrus, Emmanuel I Agaba, Atiene S Sagay
Restrictive episiotomy is recommended for the prevention of vertical transmission of HIV. The study compared the frequency of episiotomy use and the occurrence of perineal tears; and related factors in HIV positive and HIV negative women and to assess their effect on Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. A total of 110 HIV positive and 134 HIV negative parturients were enrolled in the study. The incidence of episiotomy was more in the HIV negative group (p=0.0000) while that of perineal tear was not affected by HIV status (p=0...
December 2017: African Journal of Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624603/factors-associated-with-tuberculosis-treatment-delay-in-patients-co-infected-with-hiv-in-a-high-prevalence-area-in-brazil
#20
Betânia M F Nogueira, Valéria C Rolla, Kevan M Akrami, Susan M Kiene
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, about 11% of Tuberculosis (TB) cases occur in people living with HIV (PLHIV) and it is the leading cause of death in this population. An important step towards reducing the incidence and mortality of TB in PLHIV is to reduce the time from onset of symptoms to treatment. Factors related to TB treatment delay therefore need to be understood. METHODS: Using data from a prospective cohort study of patients diagnosed with TB at the National Institute of Infectious Disease, at the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil we conducted a survival analysis to identify factors associated with patient and health care treatment delay...
2018: PloS One
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