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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225708/medical-male-circumcision-coverage-in-rakai-uganda
#1
Xiangrong Kong, Godfrey Kigozi, Joseph Ssekasanvu, Fred Nalugoda, Gertrude Nakigozi, Larry W Chang, Carl Latkin, David Serwadda, Maria J Wawer, Ronald H Gray
We assessed medical male circumcision (MMC) scale-up in Rakai, Uganda using population-based surveys during 2007-2014. MMC coverage increased from 28.5 to 52.0%. Coverage was initially lower in 15-19-year-olds but increased in 2014, was higher in married men and in trading communities, and lowest in the sexually inactive. Coverage did not vary by self-perceived risk of HIV or HIV serostatus. Increasing generalized coverage suggested that MMC became normative, but coverage falls short of WHO/Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) 80% targets, indicating the need for demand generation...
March 13, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213925/rotator-cuff-disease-opinion-regarding-surgical-criteria-and-likely-outcome
#2
Alison Thorpe, Mark Hurworth, Peter O'Sullivan, Tim Mitchell, Anne Smith
BACKGROUND: Clinical guidelines for the management of rotator cuff disease are not clear. Surgeon surveys in the USA and UK lack agreement regarding surgical indications. Physical examination tests aid surgical decision-making but also lack robust evidence. Study aims were to evaluate: Western Australian orthopaedic surgeons' perceptions about surgical indications; utility of physical examination tests; findings at surgery predictive of outcome and surgeon opinion of a successful surgical outcome...
February 17, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212161/hearing-impairment-and-the-amelioration-of-avoidable-medical-error-a-cross-sectional-survey
#3
Patrick Henn, Colm OʼTuathaigh, Darrelle Keegan, Simon Smith
OBJECTIVES: Hearing loss contributes to suboptimal medical treatment. We investigated the nature and magnitude of potential health-care harm of hearing loss alone on a patient's understanding of medical consultations, investigations, and treatments of health conditions unrelated to their hearing loss. METHODS: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based design of a convenience sample of students with hearing loss, registered with the institutional disability support service in 8 Irish and 15 UK third-level institutions...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210894/expansion-of-sugarcane-monoculture-associated-impacts-and-management-measures-in-the-semi-arid-east-african-rift-valley-ethiopia
#4
Solomon A Beza, Mohammed A Assen
The study examined the expansion of sugarcane monoculture over the period 1957-2010 and its implications for land degradation and land management measures in the semi-arid northern Main Ethiopian Rift Valley. It used multi-scale and multi-temporal imageries aided by qualitative surveying to investigate the dynamics of land use and cover changes. The study applied both a pixel-based supervised classification and feature extraction methods at subclass levels and merged them into major compatible and comparable land use and cover groups...
March 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210814/post-mortem-external-examination-competence-education-and-accuracy-of-general-practitioners-in-a-metropolitan-area
#5
Ann Sophie Schröder, Sandra Wilmes, Susanne Sehner, Maren Ehrhardt, Hanna Kaduszkiewicz, Sven Anders
In several countries, general practitioners conduct post-mortem external examination (PMEE) and certify death in out-of-hospital cases. A possible lack of accuracy has been repeatedly criticised, although data on everyday practice of PMEE on outpatients are scarce. To evaluate medical practitioner's competence, education and accuracy regarding PMEE, we conducted a fax-survey among 1343 medical doctors in the metropolitan area of Hamburg, Germany. The results indicate considerable shortcomings in up to 63% regarding the inspection of body orifices and hidden areas, palpation of osseous structures, ectropionisation of the eyelids and use of aids...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202465/metabolic-rate-and-hypoxia-tolerance-are-affected-by-group-interactions-and-sex-in-the-fruit-fly-drosophila-melanogaster-new-data-and-a-literature-survey
#6
Warren Burggren, BriAnna M Souder, Dao H Ho
Population density and associated behavioral adjustments are potentially important in regulating physiological performance in many animals. In r-selected species like the fruit fly (Drosophila), where population density rapidly shifts in unpredictable and unstable environments, density-dependent physiological adjustments may aid survival of individuals living in a social environment. Yet, how population density (and associated social behaviors) affects physiological functions like metabolism is poorly understood in insects...
February 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192478/factors-associated-with-the-utilization-of-institutional-delivery-services-in-bangladesh
#7
Sanni Yaya, Ghose Bishwajit, Michael Ekholuenetale
INTRODUCTION: Bangladesh has made remarkable progress towards reducing its maternal mortality rate (MMR) over the last two decades and is one of the few countries on track to achieving the MMR-related Millennium Development Goals (MDG-5A). However, the provision of universal access to reproductive healthcare (MDG-5B) and the utilization of maternal healthcare services (MHS) such as institutional delivery, which are crucial to the reduction of maternal mortality, are far behind the internationally agreed-upon target...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186947/survey-of-community-pharmacists-perception-of-electronic-cigarettes-in-london
#8
Ana C N Marques Gomes, Shereen Nabhani-Gebara, Reem Kayyali, Federico Buonocore, Gianpiero Calabrese
OBJECTIVES: To seek community pharmacists' perception on use, safety and possible effectiveness of e-cigarettes as quit smoking tools, and their future regulation. SETTING: A survey of a sample of 154 community pharmacies across London, UK. CONTEXT: E-cigarettes have exclusively established themselves in the market through consumers-led demand. To date, e-cigarettes still remain unregulated and can be easily purchased in shops, over the internet, but more controversially also in pharmacies in the UK...
November 10, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186365/survey-on-laparoscopic-total-gastrectomy-at-the-11th-china-korea-japan-laparoscopic-gastrectomy-joint-seminar
#9
Zheng-Hao Cai, Lu Zang, Han-Kwang Yang, Seigo Kitano, Min-Hua Zheng
INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic total gastrectomy (LTG) has been widely performed for gastric cancer in China, Korea, and Japan. The current status of this surgical approach needs to be investigated. METHODS: During the 11th China-Korea-Japan Laparoscopic Gastrectomy Joint Seminar in Shanghai, China, on 5 March 2016, a questionnaire was completed by 65 experts in LTG. The survey included questions on surgical indication, operation team, laparoscopic instruments, and operative procedures...
February 10, 2017: Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183284/study-of-user-experience-of-an-objective-test-qbtest-to-aid-adhd-assessment-and-medication-management-a-multi-methods-approach
#10
Charlotte L Hall, Althea Z Valentine, Gemma M Walker, Harriet M Ball, Heather Cogger, David Daley, Madeleine J Groom, Kapil Sayal, Chris Hollis
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis and monitoring of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) typically relies on subjective reports and observations. Objective continuous performance tests (CPTs) have been incorporated into some services to support clinical decision making. However, the feasibility and acceptability of adding such a test into routine practice is unknown. The study aimed to investigate the feasibility and acceptability of adding an objective computerised test to the routine assessment and monitoring of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
February 10, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168543/diminishing-perceived-threat-of-aids-and-increasing-sexual-risks-of-hiv-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-1997-2015
#11
Seth C Kalichman, Devon Price, Lisa A Eaton, Kaylee Burnham, Matthew Sullivan, Stephanie Finneran, Talea Cornelius, Aerielle Allen
Community-wide awareness that antiretroviral therapies (ART) provides protection against HIV has the potential to increase perceived safety and thereby increase condomless anal sex among men who have sex with men (MSM). Furthermore, reductions in condom use can increase exposure to sexually transmitted infections, which in turn can reduce the protective effects of ART on HIV transmission. The current study extends previous community-based behavioral surveillance research on beliefs regarding use of ART for HIV prevention and sexual practices among MSM...
February 6, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153816/feasibility-of-ecological-momentary-assessment-of-daily-sexting-and-substance-use-among-young-adult-african-american-gay-and-bisexual-men-a-pilot-study
#12
Sabrina L Smiley, Hoda Elmasry, Monica Webb Hooper, Raymond S Niaura, Alison B Hamilton, Norweeta G Milburn
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that sexualized text communication ("sexting") is associated with substance use and sexual risk behaviors among young adults, yet little is known about this relationship among young adult African American gay and bisexual men, a population disproportionately impacted by HIV in the United States. Rapid advances in mobile phone technology indicate a clear need for research using mobile health (mHealth) methods such as ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to serve as a viable counterpart to retrospective evaluation methods by using real-time data collection to assess sexting and substance use among this population...
February 2, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144961/rurality-and-determinants-of-hearing-healthcare-in-adult-hearing-aid-recipients
#13
Stephen Chan, Brian Hixon, Margaret Adkins, Jennifer B Shinn, Matthew L Bush
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the timing of hearing aid (HA) acquisition between adults in rural and urban communities. We hypothesized that time of acquisition of HA after onset of hearing loss is greater in rural adults compared with urban adults. Secondary objectives included assessment of socioeconomic/educational status and impact of hearing loss and hearing rehabilitation of urban and rural HA recipients. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional questionnaire survey...
January 31, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118827/monitoring-travellers-from-ebola-affected-countries-in-new-south-wales-australia-what-is-the-impact-on-travellers
#14
Jocelyn Chan, Mahomed Patel, Sean Tobin, Vicky Sheppeard
BACKGROUND: Amidst an Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic of unprecedented magnitude in west Africa, concerns about the risk of importing EVD led to the introduction of programs for the screening and monitoring of travellers in a number of countries, including Australia. Emerging reports indicate that these programs are feasible to implement, however rigorous evaluations are not yet available. We aimed to evaluate the program of screening and monitoring travellers in New South Wales. METHODS: We conducted a mixed methods study to evaluate the program of screening and monitoring travellers in New South Wales...
January 24, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114932/alternative-financing-mechanisms-for-art-programs-in-health-facilities-in-uganda-a-mixed-methods-approach
#15
Henry Zakumumpa, Sara Bennett, Freddie Ssengooba
BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa is heavily dependent on global health initiatives (GHIs) for funding antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up. There are indications that global investments for ART scale-up are flattening. It is unclear what new funding channels can bridge the funding gap for ART service delivery. Many previous studies have focused on domestic government spending and international funding especially from GHIs. The objective of this study was to identify the funding strategies adopted by health facilities in Uganda to sustain ART programs between 2004 and 2014 and to explore variations in financing mechanisms by ownership of health facility...
January 23, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095593/automated-face-detection-for-occurrence-and-occupancy-estimation-in-chimpanzees
#16
Anne-Sophie Crunchant, Monika Egerer, Alexander Loos, Tilo Burghardt, Klaus Zuberbühler, Katherine Corogenes, Vera Leinert, Lars Kulik, Hjalmar S Kühl
: Surveying endangered species is necessary to evaluate conservation effectiveness. Camera trapping and biometric computer vision are recent technological advances. They have impacted on the methods applicable to field surveys and these methods have gained significant momentum over the last decade. Yet, most researchers inspect footage manually and few studies have used automated semantic processing of video trap data from the field. The particular aim of this study is to evaluate methods that incorporate automated face detection technology as an aid to estimate site use of two chimpanzee communities based on camera trapping...
March 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077632/phyloepidemiological-analysis-reveals-that-viral-divergence-led-to-the-paucity-of-sivmus-gsn-mon-infections-in-wild-populations
#17
Fabian Schmidt, Florian Liegeois, Edward J D Greenwood, Matthew LeBreton, James Lester, Luc Deleplancque, Martine Peeters, Avelin Aghokeng, Ubald Tamoufe, Joseph L D Diffo, Jean M Takuo, Nathan D Wolfe, Eric Leroy, François Rouet, Jonathan L Heeney
: Human immunodeficiency virus subtype-1 (HIV-1) is the result of cross-species transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus from chimpanzees (SIVcpz). SIVcpz is a chimeric virus which shares common ancestors with viruses infecting red capped mangabeys and a subset of guenon species. The epidemiology of SIV infection in hominoids is characterized by low prevalence and uneven geographical distribution. Surveys in Cameroon indicated that two closely related members of the guenon species subset, mustached guenons and greater spot-nosed guenons, infected with SIVmus and SIVgsn respectively, have also low rates of SIV infections in their populations...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072856/socioeconomic-inequalities-in-body-mass-index-across-adulthood-coordinated-analyses-of-individual-participant-data-from-three-british-birth-cohort-studies-initiated-in-1946-1958-and-1970
#18
David Bann, William Johnson, Leah Li, Diana Kuh, Rebecca Hardy
BACKGROUND: High body mass index (BMI) is an important contributor to the global burden of ill-health and health inequality. Lower socioeconomic position (SEP) in both childhood and adulthood is associated with higher adult BMI, but how these associations have changed across time is poorly understood. We used longitudinal data to examine how childhood and adult SEP relates to BMI across adulthood in three national British birth cohorts. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The sample comprised up to 22,810 participants with 77,115 BMI observations in the 1946 MRC National Survey of Health and Development (ages 20 to 60-64), the 1958 National Child Development Study (ages 23 to 50), and the 1970 British Cohort Study (ages 26 to 42)...
January 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066158/turning-points-in-the-lives-of-lesbian-and-gay-adults-age-50-and-over
#19
Anna Muraco, Karen I Fredriksen-Goldsen
Little is known about how lesbians and gay men perceive the turning points that define their life trajectories. This study uses qualitative interview data to understand which experiences lesbian women and gay men age 50 and older identify as turning points and explore gender differences. In depth, face-to-face qualitative interviews were conducted with a subset of participants (n=33) from the Caring and Aging with Pride survey. The most common turning points identified were relationship and occupation related...
December 2016: Advances in Life Course Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056949/the-treatment-of-non-malarial-febrile-illness-in-papua-new-guinea-findings-from-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-studies-of-health-worker-practice
#20
Olga P M Saweri, Manuel W Hetzel, Ivo Mueller, Peter M Siba, Justin Pulford
BACKGROUND: The Papua New Guinea Department of Health recently shifted from a presumptive to a 'test and treat' malaria case management policy. This shift was supported by the widespread introduction of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in health facilities across the country. Health workers received training and job-aids detailing how to conduct and interpret a malaria rapid diagnostic test and how to treat test positive cases; however, little instruction on treating non-malaria febrile cases was provided...
January 5, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
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