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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457923/flipping-social-determinants-on-its-head-medical-student-perspectives-on-the-flipped-classroom-and-simulated-patients-to-teach-social-determinants-of-health
#1
N Gostelow, J Barber, F Gishen, A Berlin
BACKGROUND: Inequalities in healthcare are increasing. Engaging medical students to tackle this urgent challenge alongside clinical sciences can be demanding. This study examines medical student perceptions of a flipped approach to health inequalities co-designed by faculty and sixth-year students. INNOVATION: A flipped learning session was piloted for year 4 medical students combining an online lesson followed by a tutorial with a simulated patient. METHODS: A mixed-methods approach collected questionnaire data using 4-point Likert scales and free text answers...
February 19, 2018: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457312/update-on-tuberculosis-biomarkers-from-correlates-of-risk-to-correlates-of-active-disease-and-of-cure-from-disease
#2
REVIEW
Delia Goletti, Meng-Rui Lee, Jann-Yuan Wang, Nicholas Walter, Tom H M Ottenhoff
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a devastating disease, yet despite its enormous toll on global health, tools to control TB are insufficient and often outdated. TB Biomarkers (TB-BM) would constitute extremely useful tools to measure infection status and predict outcome of infection, vaccination or therapy. There are several types of TB-BM: Correlate of Infection; Correlate of TB Disease; Correlate of Increased Risk of Developing Active TB Disease; Correlate of the Curative Response to Therapy; and Correlate of Protection (CoP)...
February 18, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457272/atopic-dermatitis-in-diverse-racial-and-ethnic-groups-variations-in-epidemiology-genetics-clinical-presentation-and-treatment
#3
REVIEW
Bridget P Kaufman, Emma Guttman-Yassky, Andrew F Alexis
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that affects diverse ethnic groups with varying prevalence. Despite a predominance of studies in individuals of European ancestry, AD has been found to occur more frequently in Asian and black individuals than whites. Therefore, an understanding of the unique clinical features of AD in diverse ethnic groups, as well as the differences in genetic polymorphisms that influence susceptibility to AD and response to current therapies, is paramount for management of an increasingly diverse patient population...
February 19, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456865/a-real-world-example-of-coverage-with-evidence-development-in-australia-ipilimumab-for-the-treatment-of-metastatic-melanoma
#4
Hansoo Kim, Samantha Comey, Karl Hausler, Greg Cook
Background: Australian Government subsidisation of ipilimumab for the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma was conditional on the sponsor entering a 'managed entry scheme' to assess the 2-year overall survival rate in metastatic melanoma patients who received ipilimumab in the first year of Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme listing. Methods: All unresectable stage IIIc / IV metastatic melanoma patients treated with at least one dose of ipilimumab therapy in Australia from the PBS listing date to a time point 12 months later (i...
2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456777/toe-gap-force-is-related-to-ultrasonic-parameter-of-calcaneus-bone-status-in-general-population
#5
Tsuyoshi Tajika, Atsushi Yamamoto, Noboru Oya, Takanori Kitagawa, Hiroki Kobayashi, Hitoshi Shitara, Haku Iizuka, Kenji Takagishi, Hirotaka Chikuda
Background: Elucidating the relation between bone health condition and muscle strength can provide useful knowledge for Japan's super-aged society. This study ascertained the Speed Of Sound (SOS) of the calcaneus and upper and lower limb muscle strength in a general population. Methods: Medical examinations were conducted of 277 adult residents (100 men, 177 women; average age 67.1 years) of a mountain village. Bilateral hand grip and hand key pinch strength were measured...
2018: Open Orthopaedics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456714/foxk1-promotes-glioblastoma-proliferation-and-metastasis-through-activation-of-snail-transcription
#6
Haitao Xu, Shulan Huang, Xiaonan Zhu, Wangcheng Zhang, Xiangyang Zhang
Forkhead box K1 (FOXK1) has been identified to have a crucial function in development and oncogenesis. However, its role in glioblastoma has remained largely elusive and was therefore assessed in the present study. In human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tissue samples, FOXK1 was determined to be highly expressed compared with adjacent normal tissue samples. In addition, high levels of FOXK1 were detected in the T98G and LN18 GBM cell lines as compare with those in normal human astrocytes. Of note, high expression of FOXK1 was revealed to be associated with metastasis and tumor size...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456625/alignment-of-microbial-fitness-with-engineered-product-formation-obligatory-coupling-between-acetate-production-and-photoautotrophic-growth
#7
Wei Du, Joeri A Jongbloets, Coco van Boxtel, Hugo Pineda Hernández, David Lips, Brett G Oliver, Klaas J Hellingwerf, Filipe Branco Dos Santos
Background: Microbial bioengineering has the potential to become a key contributor to the future development of human society by providing sustainable, novel, and cost-effective production pipelines. However, the sustained productivity of genetically engineered strains is often a challenge, as spontaneous non-producing mutants tend to grow faster and take over the population. Novel strategies to prevent this issue of strain instability are urgently needed. Results: In this study, we propose a novel strategy applicable to all microbial production systems for which a genome-scale metabolic model is available that aligns the production of native metabolites to the formation of biomass...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456545/the-dangers-of-being-a-small-oligotrophic-and-light-demanding-freshwater-plant-across-a-spatial-and-historical-eutrophication-gradient-in-southern-scandinavia
#8
Kaj Sand-Jensen, Hans Henrik Bruun, Tora Finderup Nielsen, Ditte M Christiansen, Per Hartvig, Jens C Schou, Lars Baastrup-Spohr
European freshwater habitats have experienced a severe loss of plant diversity, regionally and locally, over the last century or more. One important and well-established driver of change is eutrophication, which has increased with rising population density and agricultural intensification. However, reduced disturbance of lake margins may have played an additional key role. The geographical variation in water chemistry, which has set the scene for - and interacted with - anthropogenic impact, is much less well understood...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456539/generation-of-human-immunosuppressive-myeloid-cell-populations-in-human-interleukin-6-transgenic-nog-mice
#9
Asami Hanazawa, Ryoji Ito, Ikumi Katano, Kenji Kawai, Motohito Goto, Hiroshi Suemizu, Yutaka Kawakami, Mamoru Ito, Takeshi Takahashi
The tumor microenvironment contains unique immune cells, termed myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) that suppress host anti-tumor immunity and promote tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. Although these cells are considered a key target of cancer immune therapy, in vivo animal models allowing differentiation of human immunosuppressive myeloid cells have yet to be established, hampering the development of novel cancer therapies. In this study, we established a novel humanized transgenic (Tg) mouse strain, human interleukin (hIL)-6-expressing NOG mice (NOG-hIL-6 transgenic mice)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456184/quantified-f-actin-morphology-is-predictive-of-phagocytic-capacity-of-stem-cell-derived-retinal-pigment-epithelium
#10
Claudia Müller, Carol Charniga, Sally Temple, Silvia C Finnemann
With stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) replacement therapies in clinical testing, establishing potency of RPE prior to transplantation is imperative. Phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segment fragments (POS) is a key indicator of RPE functionality. Comparing RPE derived from different donor human adult RPE stem cell lines, we found that cells were either high-phagocytic or low-phagocytic despite sharing phagocytic receptors and ligands, junctional ZO-1, and lack of epithelial-mesenchymal transition...
February 9, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456179/the-chromatin-remodeler-bptf-activates-a-stemness-gene-expression-program-essential-for-the-maintenance-of-adult-hematopoietic-stem-cells
#11
Bowen Xu, Ling Cai, Jason M Butler, Dongliang Chen, Xiongdong Lu, David F Allison, Rui Lu, Shahin Rafii, Joel S Parker, Deyou Zheng, Gang Greg Wang
Self-renewal and differentiation of adult stem cells are tightly regulated partly through configuration of chromatin structure by chromatin remodelers. Using knockout mice, we here demonstrate that bromodomain PHD finger transcription factor (BPTF), a component of the nucleosome remodeling factor (NURF) chromatin-remodeling complex, is essential for maintaining the population size of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), including long-term hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Bptf-deficient HSCs are defective in reconstituted hematopoiesis, and hematopoietic-specific knockout of Bptf caused profound defects including bone marrow failure and anemia...
February 8, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455724/adolescent-and-young-adult-male-mental-health-transforming-system-failures-into-proactive-models-of-engagement
#12
REVIEW
Simon M Rice, Rosemary Purcell, Patrick D McGorry
Adolescent and young adult men do poorly on indicators of mental health evidenced by elevated rates of suicide, conduct disorder, substance use, and interpersonal violence relative to their female peers. Data on global health burden clearly demonstrate that young men have a markedly distinct health risk profile from young women, underscoring different prevention and intervention needs. Evidence indicates that boys disconnect from health-care services during adolescence, marking the beginning of a progression of health-care disengagement and associated barriers to care, including presenting to services differently, experiencing an inadequate or poorly attuned clinical response, and needing to overcome pervasive societal attitudes and self-stigma to access available services...
March 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455708/developing-public-health-initiatives-through-understanding-motivations-of-the-audience-at-mass-gathering-events
#13
Alison Hutton, Jamie Ranse, Matthew Brendan Munn
This report identifies what is known about audience motivations at three different mass-gathering events: outdoor music festivals, religious events, and sporting events. In light of these motivations, the paper discusses how these can be harnessed by the event organizer and Emergency Medical Services. Lastly, motivations tell what kinds of interventions can be used to achieve an understanding of audience characteristics and the opportunity to develop tailor-made programs to maximize safety and make long-lasting public health interventions to a particular "cohort" or event population...
February 19, 2018: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455705/barriers-to-fruit-and-vegetable-consumption-among-farmers-market-incentive-programme-users-in-illinois-usa
#14
Chelsea R Singleton, Sydney Fouché, Rucha Deshpande, Angela Odoms-Young, Corey Chatman, Connie Spreen
OBJECTIVE: Previous research indicates that low-income individuals often struggle to consume the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables (F&V). LINK Up Illinois is a farmers' market incentive programme that aims to increase F&V consumption among Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) recipients by improving access to and affordability of locally grown foods. The present research aimed to identify barriers to F&V consumption that exist among users of the LINK Up Illinois programme...
February 19, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455679/nutrient-profiling-and-adherence-to-components-of-the-uk-national-dietary-guidelines-association-with-metabolic-risk-factors-for-cvd-and-diabetes-airwave-health-monitoring-study
#15
Rebeca Eriksen, Rachel Gibson, Kathryn Lamb, Yvonne McMeel, Anne-Claire Vergnaud, Jeanette Spear, Maria Aresu, Queenie Chan, Paul Elliott, Gary Frost
CVD is the leading cause of death worldwide. Diet is a key modifiable component in the development of CVD. No official UK diet quality index exists for use in UK nutritional epidemiological studies. The aims of this study are to: (i) develop a diet quality index based on components of UK dietary reference values (DRV) and (ii) determine the association between the index, the existing UK nutrient profile (NP) model and a comprehensive range of cardiometabolic risk markers among a British adult population. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted using data from the Airwave Health Monitoring Study (n 5848)...
February 19, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455467/predicting-reintroduction-outcomes-for-highly-vulnerable-species-that-do-not-currently-coexist-with-their-key-threats
#16
Elizabeth H Parlato, Doug P Armstrong
Predicting reintroduction outcomes before populations are released is inherently challenging. It becomes even more difficult when the species being considered for reintroduction no longer co-exists with the key threats limiting its distribution. However, data from other species facing the same threats can be used to make predictions under these circumstances. We present an integrated Bayesian modelling approach for predicting growth of a reintroduced population at a range of predator densities when no data are available for the species in the presence of that predator...
February 17, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455250/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-prevalence-of-sarcopenia-in-post-acute-inpatient-rehabilitation
#17
REVIEW
I Churilov, L Churilov, R J MacIsaac, E I Ekinci
Sarcopenia is associated with poor function and increased risk of falls and disability. This work reports a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence of sarcopenia in post acute inpatient rehabilitation. Sarcopenia is found to be present in approximately 50% of rehabilitation patients and its prevalence may vary with admission diagnosis. PURPOSE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of reported prevalence of sarcopenia in post acute inpatient rehabilitation. METHODS: Systematic review conducted according to PRISMA guidelines (PROSPERO registration number CRD42016054135)...
February 18, 2018: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454876/the-development-and-psychometric-validation-of-an-instrument-to-evaluate-nurses-attitudes-towards-communication-with-the-patient-aco
#18
María Del Carmen Giménez-Espert, Vicente Javier Prado-Gascó
BACKGROUND: Patient communication is a key skill for nurses involved in clinical care. Its measurement is a complex phenomenon that can be addressed through attitude evaluation. OBJECTIVES: To develop and psychometrically test a measure of nurses' attitudes towards communication with patients (ACO), to study the relationship between these dimensions, and to analyse nursing attitudes. DESIGN: To develop and psychometrically test the ACO questionnaire...
February 7, 2018: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454618/natural-small-molecule-bigelovin-suppresses-orthotopic-colorectal-tumor-growth-and-inhibits-colorectal-cancer-metastasis-via-il6-stat3-pathway
#19
Mingyue Li, Grace Gar-Lee Yue, Li-Hua Song, Mao-Bo Huang, Julia Kin-Ming Lee, Stephen Kwok-Wing Tsui, Kwok-Pui Fung, Ning-Hua Tan, Clara Bik-San Lau
Bigelovin, a sesquiterpene lactone, has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis, inhibit inflammation and angiogenesis in vitro, but its potential anti-metastatic activity remains unclear. In the present study, two colon cancer mouse models, orthotopic tumor allografts and experimental metastatic models were utilized to investigate the progression and metastatic spread of colorectal cancer after bigelovin treatments. Results showed that bigelovin (intravenous injection; 0.3-3 mg/kg) significantly suppressed tumor growth and inhibited liver/lung metastasis with modulation of tumor microenvironment (e...
February 15, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454581/emerging-roles-of-microglial-cathepsins-in-neurodegenerative-disease
#20
REVIEW
Jessica R Lowry, Andis Klegeris
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the leading causes of dementia, and its prevalence is expected to increase dramatically due to the aging global population. Microglia-driven neuroinflammation may contribute to the progression of AD. Microglia, the immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), become chronically activated by the pathological proteins of AD including amyloid-β peptides (Aβ). Such adversely activated microglia secrete mediators that promote inflammation and damage neurons. Cathepsins are proteases that are expressed by all brain cell types, and most of them are found both intra- and extra-cellularly...
February 15, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
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