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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232688/genotype-and-cell-specific-dynamics-of-tandem-repeat-patterns-in-aegilops-speltoides-tausch-poaceae-triticeae
#1
Olga Raskina
In wild plant populations, chromosome rearrangements lead to the wide intraspecific polymorphisms in the abundance and patterns of highly repetitive DNA. However, despite the large amount of accumulated data, the impact of the complex repetitive DNA fraction on genome reorganization and functioning and the mechanisms balancing and maintaining the structural integrity of the genome are not fully understood. Homologous recombination is thought to play a key role in both genome reshuffling and stabilization, while the contribution of nonhomologous recombination seems to be undervalued...
December 13, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232531/key-elements-of-a-population-based-approach-to-improving-birth-outcomes
#2
Marian Bihrle Johnson, Jeffrey Rakover, Kedar Mate
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 12, 2017: Population Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232374/antiretroviral-therapy-and-population-mortality-leveraging-routine-national-data-to-advance-policy
#3
Amitabh B Suthar, Till Bärnighausen
In a Perspective, Amitabh Suthar and Till Bärnighausen discuss progress made so far in reducing HIV-related mortality in South Africa and keys towards further population mortality reductions going forward.
December 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231071/the-mental-health-of-married-immigrant-women-in-south-korea-and-its-risk-and-protective-factors-a-literature-review
#4
Yeeun Lee, Subin Park
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Married immigrant women in South Korea undergo a wide array of psychosocial challenges in the process of adapting to a new culture and marriage with a Korean husband. For an integrative understanding of women's mental health status and to determine the key risk and protective factors, we systematically reviewed empirical articles about the mental health of married immigrant women. METHODS: We searched and reviewed articles from nine online databases: PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, Embase, DBpia, KISS, KMbase, KoreaMed and RISS, which were published up until January 2017...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Social Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230905/muscle-control-and-non-specific-chronic-low-back-pain
#5
REVIEW
Marc Russo, Kristiaan Deckers, Sam Eldabe, Kyle Kiesel, Chris Gilligan, John Vieceli, Peter Crosby
OBJECTIVES: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is the most prevalent of the painful musculoskeletal conditions. CLBP is a heterogeneous condition with many causes and diagnoses, but there are few established therapies with strong evidence of effectiveness (or cost effectiveness). CLBP for which it is not possible to identify any specific cause is often referred to as non-specific chronic LBP (NSCLBP). One type of NSCLBP is continuing and recurrent primarily nociceptive CLBP due to vertebral joint overload subsequent to functional instability of the lumbar spine...
December 12, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230902/the-evolutionary-fate-of-heterogeneous-gene-duplications-a-precarious-overdominant-equilibrium-between-environment-sublethality-and-complementation
#6
Pascal Milesi, Benoît S Assogba, Célestine M Atyame, Nicolas Pocquet, Arnaud Berthomieu, Sandra Unal, Patrick Makoundou, Mylène Weill, Pierrick Labbé
Gene duplications occur at a high rate. Although most appear detrimental, some homogeneous duplications (identical gene copies) can be selected for beneficial increase in produced proteins. Heterogeneous duplications, which combine divergent alleles of a single locus, are seldom studied due to the paucity of empirical data. We investigated their role in an ongoing adaptive process at the ace-1 locus in Culex pipiens mosquitoes. We assessed the worldwide diversity of the ace-1 alleles (single-copy, susceptible S and insecticide-resistant R, and duplicated D that pair one S and one R copy), analyzed their phylogeography, and measured their fitness to understand their early dynamics using population genetics models...
December 12, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230867/sleep-patterns-and-problems-in-infants-and-young-children-in-ireland
#7
S Hanafin
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing recognition that sleep is an important aspect of health and well-being, and this is particularly the case in infancy and early childhood where sleep behaviours and patterns can result in substantial problems. METHODS: This paper draws on Wave 1, 2, and 3 data from Growing Up in Ireland, the national longitudinal study of children in Ireland to provide an overview of sleep patterns in a population of children aged 9 months (n = 11,112), 3 years (n = 9,790), and 5 years (n = 8,996)...
December 12, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230403/farmer-and-veterinarian-attitudes-towards-the-bovine-tuberculosis-eradication-programme-in-spain-what-is-going-on-in-the-field
#8
Giovanna Ciaravino, Patricia Ibarra, Ester Casal, Sergi Lopez, Josep Espluga, Jordi Casal, Sebastian Napp, Alberto Allepuz
The effectiveness of health interventions against bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is influenced by several "non-biological" factors that may hamper bTB detection and control. Although the engagement of stakeholders is a key factor for the eradication programme's success, social factors have been often ignored in the control programmes of animal diseases, especially in developed countries. In this study, we used a qualitative approach to investigate perceptions, opinions, attitudes, and beliefs of farmers, and veterinarians who may influence the effectiveness of the Spanish bTB eradication programme...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230400/perspectives-of-post-acute-transition-of-care-for-cardiac-surgery-patients
#9
REVIEW
Nicoleta Stoicea, Tian You, Andrew Eiterman, Clifton Hartwell, Victor Davila, Stephen Marjoribanks, Cristina Florescu, Sergio Daniel Bergese, Barbara Rogers
Post-acute care (PAC) facilities improve patient recovery, as measured by activities of daily living, rehabilitation, hospital readmission, and survival rates. Seamless transitions between discharge and PAC settings continue to be challenges that hamper patient outcomes, specifically problems with effective communication and coordination between hospitals and PAC facilities at patient discharge, patient adherence and access to cardiac rehabilitation (CR) services, caregiver burden, and the financial impact of care...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230352/interpopulational-and-seasonal-variation-in-the-chemical-signals-of-the-lizard-gallotia-galloti
#10
Roberto García-Roa, Rodrigo Megía-Palma, Jesús Ortega, Manuel Jara, Pilar López, José Martín
Communicative traits are strikingly diverse and may vary among populations of the same species. Within a population, these traits may also display seasonal variation. Chemical signals play a key role in the communication of many taxa. However, we still know far too little about chemical communication in some vertebrate groups. In lizards, only a few studies have examined interpopulational variation in the composition of chemical cues and signals and only one study has explored the seasonal effects. Here we sampled three subspecies of the Tenerife lizards (Gallotia galloti) and analyze the lipophilic fraction of their femoral gland secretions to characterize the potential interpopulational variation in the chemical signals...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229902/mapping-the-ecological-networks-of-microbial-communities
#11
Yandong Xiao, Marco Tulio Angulo, Jonathan Friedman, Matthew K Waldor, Scott T Weiss, Yang-Yu Liu
Mapping the ecological networks of microbial communities is a necessary step toward understanding their assembly rules and predicting their temporal behavior. However, existing methods require assuming a particular population dynamics model, which is not known a priori. Moreover, those methods require fitting longitudinal abundance data, which are often not informative enough for reliable inference. To overcome these limitations, here we develop a new method based on steady-state abundance data. Our method can infer the network topology and inter-taxa interaction types without assuming any particular population dynamics model...
December 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229806/how-reduced-excitonic-coupling-enhances-light-harvesting-in-the-main-photosynthetic-antennae-of-diatoms
#12
Tjaart P J Krüger, Pavel Malý, Maxime T A Alexandre, Tomáš Mančal, Claudia Büchel, Rienk van Grondelle
Strong excitonic interactions are a key design strategy in photosynthetic light harvesting, expanding the spectral cross-section for light absorption and creating considerably faster and more robust excitation energy transfer. These molecular excitons are a direct result of exceptionally densely packed pigments in photosynthetic proteins. The main light-harvesting complexes of diatoms, known as fucoxanthin-chlorophyll proteins (FCPs), are an exception, displaying surprisingly weak excitonic coupling between their chlorophyll (Chl) a's, despite a high pigment density...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229655/new-zealand-policy-experts-appraisal-of-interventions-to-reduce-smoking-in-young-adults-a-qualitative-investigation
#13
Jude Ball, Janet Hoek, El Shadan Tautolo, Heather Gifford
OBJECTIVES: Reducing smoking in young adults, particularly young Māori and Pacific, is vital for reducing tobacco harm and health inequalities in New Zealand (NZ). We investigated how NZ policy experts appraised the feasibility and likely effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce smoking prevalence among 18-24 year olds. DESIGN: We used a qualitative design, conducting semistructured interviews and applying thematic analysis. PARTICIPANTS: We interviewed 15 key informants, including politicians, senior policy analysts and leading tobacco control advocates...
December 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229606/coactivation-of-estrogen-receptor-and-ikk-%C3%AE-induces-a-dormant-metastatic-phenotype-in-er-positive-breast-cancer
#14
Lamiaa El-Shennawy, Oleksii Dubrovskyi, Irida Kastrati, Jeanne M Danes, Yiqun Zhang, Herbert E Whiteley, Chad J Creighton, Jonna Frasor
A growing body of evidence suggests that the inflammatory NFκB pathway is associated with the progression of ER+ tumors to more aggressive stages. However, it is unknown whether NFκB is a driver or a consequence of aggressive ER+ disease. To investigate this question, we developed breast cancer cell lines expressing an inducible, constitutively active form of IκB kinase β (CA-IKKβ), a key kinase in the canonical NFκB pathway. We found that CA-IKKβ blocked E2-dependent cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo in a reversible manner, suggesting that IKKβ may contribute to tumor dormancy and recurrence of ER+ disease...
December 11, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229592/a-human-centered-platform-for-hiv-infection-reduction-in-new-york-development-and-usage-analysis-of-the-ending-the-epidemic-ete-dashboard
#15
Ashish Joshi, Chioma Amadi, Benjamin Katz, Sarah Kulkarni, Denis Nash
BACKGROUND: Dashboards have been increasingly used in clinic-based interventions, such as clinical performance improvement and monitoring risk of hospital readmissions, and are now gaining traction in population-based interventions, especially in disease assessment. OBJECTIVE: We describe the design, development, and usage analysis of a geovisualization dashboard, the Ending the Epidemic (ETE) Dashboard. The ETE dashboard is a tool developed to track New York's progress towards achieving the goal of its ETE Initiative, to reduce new HIV infections from 3000 per year to 750 per year by the end of 2020...
December 11, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229553/human-vs-mouse-nociceptors-similarities-and-differences
#16
Charlotte Rostock, Katrin Schrenk-Siemens, Jörg Pohle, Jan Siemens
The somatosensory system allows us to detect a diverse range of physical and chemical stimuli including noxious ones, which can initiate protective reflexes to prevent tissue damage. However, the sensation of pain can -under pathological circumstances- outlive its usefulness and perpetrate ongoing suffering. Rodent model systems have been tremendously useful to help understand basic mechanisms of pain perception. Unfortunately, the translation of this knowledge into novel therapies has been challenging. We have investigated similarities and differences of human and mouse peptidergic (TRKA expressing) nociceptors using dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization of dorsal root ganglia...
December 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229188/plasmodium-p47-a-key-gene-for-malaria-transmission-by-mosquito-vectors
#17
REVIEW
Alvaro Molina-Cruz, Gaspar E Canepa, Carolina Barillas-Mury
Malaria is caused by infection with Plasmodium parasites that have a complex life cycle. The parasite protein P47 is critical for disease transmission. P47 mediates mosquito immune evasion in both Plasmodium berghei (Pbs47) and Plasmodium falciparum (Pfs47), and has been shown to be important for optimal female gamete fertility in P. berghei. Pfs47 presents strong geographic structure in natural P. falciparum populations, consistent with natural selection of Pfs47 haplotypes by the mosquito immune system as the parasite adapted to new vector species worldwide...
December 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228973/cohort-profile-the-saskatchewan-rural-health-study-adult-component
#18
Punam Pahwa, Masud Rana, William Pickett, Chandima P Karunanayake, Khalid Amin, Donna Rennie, Josh Lawson, Shelley Kirychuk, Bonnie Janzen, Niels Koehncke, James Dosman
OBJECTIVES: Less is known about the respiratory health of general farming and non-framing populations. A longitudinal Saskatchewan Rural Health Study (SRHS) was conducted to explore the association between individual and contextual factors with respiratory health outcomes in these populations. Hence, the objectives are to: (i) describe the updated methodology of longitudinal SRHS-an extension of baseline survey methodology published earlier; (ii) compare baseline characteristics and the prevalences of respiratory health outcomes between drops-outs and completers; and (iii) summarize key findings based on baseline survey data...
December 11, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228897/a-new-buckwheat-dihydroflavonol-4-reductase-dfr-with-a-unique-substrate-binding-structure-has-altered-substrate-specificity
#19
Kenjiro Katsu, Rintaro Suzuki, Wataru Tsuchiya, Noritoshi Inagaki, Toshimasa Yamazaki, Tomomi Hisano, Yasuo Yasui, Toshiyuki Komori, Motoyuki Koshio, Seiji Kubota, Amanda R Walker, Kiyoshi Furukawa, Katsuhiro Matsui
BACKGROUND: Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) is the key enzyme committed to anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. DFR proteins can catalyse mainly the three substrates (dihydrokaempferol, dihydroquercetin, and dihydromyricetin), and show different substrate preferences. Although relationships between the substrate preference and amino acids in the region responsible for substrate specificity have been investigated in several plant species, the molecular basis of the substrate preference of DFR is not yet fully understood...
December 11, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228877/homogenization-techniques-for-population-dynamics-in-strongly-heterogeneous-landscapes
#20
Brian P Yurk, Christina A Cobbold
An important problem in spatial ecology is to understand how population-scale patterns emerge from individual-level birth, death, and movement processes. These processes, which depend on local landscape characteristics, vary spatially and may exhibit sharp transitions through behavioural responses to habitat edges, leading to discontinuous population densities. Such systems can be modelled using reaction-diffusion equations with interface conditions that capture local behaviour at patch boundaries. In this work we develop a novel homogenization technique to approximate the large-scale dynamics of the system...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Dynamics
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