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Recent infection testing algorithm

Naveed Zafar Janjua, Nazrul Islam, Margot Kuo, Amanda Yu, Stanley Wong, Zahid A Butt, Mark Gilbert, Jane Buxton, Nuria Chapinal, Hasina Samji, Mei Chong, Maria Alvarez, Jason Wong, Mark W Tyndall, Mel Krajden
BACKGROUND: Large linked healthcare administrative datasets could be used to monitor programs providing prevention and treatment services to people who inject drugs (PWID). However, diagnostic codes in administrative datasets do not differentiate non-injection from injection drug use (IDU). We validated algorithms based on diagnostic codes and prescription records representing IDU in administrative datasets against interview-based IDU data. METHODS: The British Columbia Hepatitis Testers Cohort (BC-HTC) includes ∼1...
February 23, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Katherine E Schlusser, Shweta Sharma, Pola de la Torre, Giuseppe Tambussi, Rika Draenert, Angie N Pinto, Julia A Metcalf, Danielle German, James D Neaton, Oliver Laeyendecker
Identifying individuals with recent HIV infection is critical to research related to viral reservoirs, outbreak investigations and intervention applications. A multi-assay algorithm (MAA) for recency of infection was used in conjunction with self-reported date of infection and documented date of diagnosis to estimate the number of participants recently infected in the Strategic Timing of AntiRetroviral Treatment (START) trial. We tested samples for three groups of participants from START using a MAA: (1) 167 individuals who reported being infected ≤ 6 months before randomization; (2) 771 individuals who did not know their date of infection but were diagnosed within 6 months before randomization; and (3) as controls for the MAA, 199 individuals diagnosed with HIV ≥ 2 years before randomization...
February 9, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Leif Erik Walther
Vertigo is a multisensory syndrome that otolaryngologists are confronted with every day. With regard to the complex functions of the sense of orientation, vertigo is considered today as a disorder of the sense of direction, a disturbed spatial perception of the body. Beside the frequent classical syndromes for which vertigo is the leading symptom (e.g. positional vertigo, vestibular neuritis, Menière's disease), vertigo may occur as main or accompanying symptom of a multitude of ENT-related diseases involving the inner ear...
2017: GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
Zahra Rikhtegaran Tehrani, Kayhan Azadmanesh, Ehsan Mostafavi, Safoora Gharibzadeh, Shahrzad Soori, Mohammad Azizi, Alireza Khabiri
Estimation of HIV incidence provides real-time information of HIV transmission trends for decision makers. Anti-integrase antibodies are the last ones produced during seroconversion and presence of high-avidity anti-integrase antibodies indicates the chronicity of HIV infection. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of these antibodies in discriminating of recent from non-recent HIV infection. For this purpose, different ELISA formats were developed to detect high-avidity anti-integrase antibodies in a commercially available performance panel, and the best assay was selected for further evaluation...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
Miranda S Moore, Angelica Bocour, Lizeyka Jordan, Emily McGibbon, Jay K Varma, Ann Winters, Fabienne Laraque
CONTEXT: Treatment options for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) have improved in recent years. The burden of HCV in New York City (NYC) is high. Measuring treatment and cure among NYC residents with HCV infection will allow the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) to appropriately plan interventions, allocate resources, and identify disparities to combat the hepatitis C epidemic in NYC. OBJECTIVE: To validate algorithms designed to estimate treatment and cure of HCV using RNA test results reported through routine surveillance...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Chikara Ogimi, Claudia Crowell, Markus D Boos
Lyme disease is a common tick-borne infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi in the United States, where infection is most prevalent in the northeastern and mid-Atlantic states. Although classically associated with erythema migrans, Lyme disease caused by Borrelia species found in Europe may also present with other cutaneous findings. Here we report the case of a girl who was clinically diagnosed with Lyme disease based on her history of recent travel and the appearance of an areolar lymphocytoma; this was confirmed by testing...
January 2018: Pediatric Dermatology
Justin J Choi, Matthew W McCarthy
Procalcitonin has emerged as a reliable marker of acute bacterial infection in hospitalized patients and the assay has recently been incorporated into several clinical algorithms to reduce antimicrobial overuse, but its use in patients with end-organ dysfunction is controversial. Areas covered: In this review, the authors examine what is known about procalcitonin testing in patients with organ dysfunction, including those with end-stage renal disease, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and cirrhosis, and explore how the assay is now being used in the management of non-infectious diseases...
January 2018: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Theresa F Madaline, Sarah E Hochman, Karl B Seydel, Alice Liomba, Alex Saidi, Grace Matebule, Wenzhu B Mowrey, Bernadette O'Hare, Danny A Milner, Kami Kim
Recent World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all HIV-infected people; previously CD4+ T lymphocyte quantification (CD4 count) or clinical staging determined eligibility for children ≥ 5 years old in low- and middle-income countries. We examined positive predictive value (PPV) of a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) algorithm and ART eligibility for hospitalized children with newly diagnosed HIV infection. We enrolled 363 hospitalized Malawian children age 2 months to 16 years with two serial positive HIV RDT from 2013 to 2015...
December 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Niklas von Spreckelsen, Norma Jung, Sergej Telentschak, Jürgen Hampl, Roland Goldbrunner, Stefan Grau
BACKGROUND: Iatrogenic ventriculitis is a common complication of the external ventricular drainage. While the procedure and indications for external ventricular drains (EVD) are highly standardized, the treatment of ventriculitis is not clearly defined. OBJECTIVE: To depict the treatment of iatrogenic ventriculitis currently performed in German hospitals. METHODS: A standardized questionnaire consisting of 18 multiple choice questions, each with the ability to provide additional individual answers, covering the diagnosis and treatment of iatrogenic ventriculitis as well as general handling of EVDs, was sent to 121 neurosurgical hospitals registered in the German Society for Neurosurgery (DGNC)...
November 9, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
Meryta L May, Jenny Evans, Thomas Holgate, Suhail A Doi, Paul Ross, Jennifer M Robson
The importance of pertussis toxin (PT) IgA testing in the diagnosis of recent pertussis infection remains unclear. The contribution of PT IgA to the diagnosis of recent pertussis was reviewed in two separate analyses. Firstly, an evaluation of two new automated assays [DiaSorin Liaison (DL), Italy] for PT IgG and PT IgA provided an opportunity to assess the contribution of PT IgA testing to PT IgG results. Secondly, a retrospective review of results from the PT IgA assay currently in use [Sullivan Nicolaides Pathology (SNP) PT IgA] was performed from 2013 to 2015 (n=63,474)...
October 15, 2017: Pathology
Raynell Lang, Carmen Charlton, Brenda Beckthold, Kiana Kadivar, Stephanie Lavoie, Debbie Caswell, Paul N Levett, Greg B Horsman, John Kim, M John Gill
BACKGROUND: Standard diagnostic testing for HIV infection has traditionally relied on a high sensitivity HIV antibody screening test using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) followed by a high specificity antibody confirmatory test such as a Western Blot. Recently several of the screening assays have been enhanced with an ability to identify p24 antigen thereby narrowing the diagnostic window. OBJECTIVES: To explore the implications of enhanced HIV screening methods that may be leading to HIV misdiagnoses...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Agnieszka Bierzynska, Moin A Saleem
After renal transplantation, recurrence of the original disease is the second most common cause of graft loss, after rejection. The most dramatic manifestation of this phenomenon is in patients with nephrotic syndrome (NS). NS is a descriptive term describing a clinical picture centred on proteinuria arising from damage to the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB). There are many different drivers of that damage, ranging from immune dysregulation to genetic disorders and chronic disease/infections. The main categories in childhood are "idiopathic" (presumed immune mediated) and genetic NS, with further stratification of the idiopathic group according to steroid responses...
October 11, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Wen-Yang Tsai, Han Ha Youn, Carlos Brites, Jih-Jin Tsai, Jasmine Tyson, Celia Pedroso, Jan Felix Drexler, Mars Stone, Graham Simmons, Michael P Busch, Marion Lanteri, Susan L Stramer, Angel Balmaseda, Eva Harris, Wei-Kung Wang
Background: The explosive spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) and associated microcephaly present an urgent need for sensitive and specific serodiagnostic tests, particularly for pregnant women in dengue virus (DENV)-endemic regions. Recent reports of enhanced ZIKV replication by dengue-immune sera have raised concerns about the role of previous DENV infection on the risk and severity of microcephaly and other ZIKV complications. Methods: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on ZIKV and DENV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) were established to test acute, convalescent phase, and post-convalescent phase serum/plasma samples from reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction-confirmed cases including 20 primary ZIKV, 25 ZIKV with previous DENV, 58 secondary DENV, and 16 primary DENV1 infections...
November 13, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Chiara C Volpi, Chiara M Ciniselli, Ambra V Gualeni, Maddalena Plebani, Salvatore Alfieri, Paolo Verderio, Laura Locati, Federica Perrone, Pasquale Quattrone, Antonino Carbone, Silvana Pilotti, Annunziata Gloghini
The aim of this study is comparing two in situ hybridization (ISH) detection methods for human papilloma virus (HPV) 16 E6/E7 mRNA, i.e. the RNAscope® 2.0 High Definition (HD) and the upgraded RNAscope® 2.5 HD version. The RNAscope® 2.5 HD has recently replaced the RNAscope® 2.0 HD detection kit. Therefore, this investigation starts from the need to analytically validate the new mRNA ISH assay and, possibly, to refine the current algorithm for HPV detection in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) with the final goal to apply it to daily laboratory practice...
October 6, 2017: Human Pathology
Helena Huerga, Fisseha Shiferie, Eduard Grebe, Ruggero Giuliani, Jihane Ben Farhat, Gilles Van-Cutsem, Karen Cohen
BACKGROUND: Accurately identifying individuals who are on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is important to determine ART coverage and proportion on ART who are virally suppressed. ART is also included in recent infection testing algorithms used to estimate incidence. We compared estimates of ART coverage, viral load suppression rates and HIV incidence using ART self-report and detection of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs and we identified factors associated with discordance between the methods...
September 29, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
Tendesayi Kufa, Ayesha Bm Kharsany, Cherie Cawood, David Khanyile, Lara Lewis, Anneke Grobler, Zawadi Chipeta, Alfred Bere, Mary Glenshaw, Adrian Puren
INTRODUCTION: We describe the overall accuracy and performance of a serial rapid HIV testing algorithm used in community-based HIV testing in the context of a population-based household survey conducted in two sub-districts of uMgungundlovu district, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, against reference fourth-generation HIV-1/2 antibody and p24 antigen combination immunoassays. We discuss implications of the findings on rapid HIV testing programmes. METHODS: Cross-sectional design: Following enrolment into the survey, questionnaires were administered to eligible and consenting participants in order to obtain demographic and HIV-related data...
August 29, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
P Soodla, R Simmons, K Huik, M Pauskar, E-L Jõgeda, H Rajasaar, E Kallaste, M Maimets, R Avi, G Murphy, K Porter, I Lutsar
OBJECTIVES: Estonia has one the highest number of new HIV diagnoses in the European Union, mainly among injecting drug users and heterosexuals. Little is known of HIV incidence, which is crucial for limiting the epidemic. Using a recent HIV infection testing algorithm (RITA) assay, we aimed to estimate HIV incidence in 2013. METHODS: All individuals aged ≥18 years newly-diagnosed with HIV in Estonia January- December 2013, except blood donors and those undergoing antenatal screening, were included...
January 2018: HIV Medicine
Elisa Nemes, Virginie Rozot, Hennie Geldenhuys, Nicole Bilek, Simbarashe Mabwe, Deborah Abrahams, Lebohang Makhethe, Mzwandile Erasmus, Alana Keyser, Asma Toefy, Yolundi Cloete, Frances Ratangee, Thomas Blauenfeldt, Morten Ruhwald, Gerhard Walzl, Bronwyn Smith, Andre G Loxton, Willem A Hanekom, Jason R Andrews, Maria D Lempicki, Ruth Ellis, Ann M Ginsberg, Mark Hatherill, Thomas J Scriba
RATIONALE: Conversion from a negative to positive QuantiFERON-TB test is indicative of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, which predisposes individuals to tuberculosis disease. Interpretation of serial tests is confounded by immunological and technical variability. OBJECTIVES: To improve the consistency of serial QuantiFERON-TB testing algorithms and provide a data-driven definition of conversion. METHODS: Sources of QuantiFERON-TB variability were assessed, and optimal procedures were identified...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Sarah E Rutstein, Jintanat Ananworanich, Sarah Fidler, Cheryl Johnson, Eduard J Sanders, Omar Sued, Asier Saez-Cirion, Christopher D Pilcher, Christophe Fraser, Myron S Cohen, Marco Vitoria, Meg Doherty, Joseph D Tucker
INTRODUCTION: The unchanged global HIV incidence may be related to ignoring acute HIV infection (AHI). This scoping review examines diagnostic, clinical, and public health implications of identifying and treating persons with AHI. METHODS: We searched PubMed, in addition to hand-review of key journals identifying research pertaining to AHI detection and treatment. We focused on the relative contribution of AHI to transmission and the diagnostic, clinical, and public health implications...
June 28, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
J A Adeniji, A O Oragwa, U E George, U I Ibok, T O C Faleye, M O Adewumi
Recently, a reverse transcriptase semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-snPCR) assay was recommended by the WHO for direct detection of enteroviruses in clinical specimens. In this study, we use this assay and a modification thereof to screen acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) samples that had previously tested negative for enteroviruses by the RD-L20B algorithm. Thirty paired stool suspensions collected in 2015 as part of the national AFP surveillance program in different states of Nigeria were analyzed in this study...
July 10, 2017: Archives of Virology
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