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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897226/viral-and-host-characteristics-of-recent-and-established-hiv-1-infections-in-kisumu-based-on-a-multiassay-approach
#1
Newton Otecko, Seth Inzaule, Collins Odhiambo, George Otieno, Valarie Opollo, Alex Morwabe, Kennedy Were, Kenneth Ndiege, Fredrick Otieno, Andrea A Kim, Clement Zeh
Integrated approaches provide better understanding of HIV/AIDS epidemics. We optimised a multiassay algorithm (MAA) and assessed HIV incidence, correlates of recent infections, viral diversity, plus transmission clusters among participants screened for Kisumu Incidence Cohort Study (KICoS1) (2007-2009). We performed BED-CEIA, Limiting antigen (LAg) avidity, Biorad avidity, and viral load (VL) tests on HIV-positive samples. Genotypic analyses focused on HIV-1 pol gene. Correlates of testing recent by MAA were assessed using logistic regression model...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865361/diagnosis-of-hpv-driven-oropharyngeal-cancers-comparing-p16-based-algorithms-with-the-rnascope-hpv-test
#2
Haïtham Mirghani, Odile Casiraghi, Joanne Guerlain, Furrat Amen, Ming-Xiao He, Xiao-Jun Ma, Yuling Luo, Céline Mourareau, Françoise Drusch, Aïcha Ben Lakdhar, Antoine Melkane, Lacau St Guily, Cécile Badoual, Jean Yves Scoazec, Isabelle Borget, Anne Aupérin, Veronique Dalstein, Philippe Vielh
BACKGROUND: Accurate identification of HPV-driven oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) is a major issue and none of the current diagnostic approaches is ideal. An in situ hybridization (ISH) assay that detects high-risk HPV E6/E7 mRNA, called the RNAscope HPV-test, has been recently developed. Studies have suggested that this assay may become a standard to define HPV-status. METHODS: To further assess this test, we compared its performance against the strategies that are used in routine clinical practice: p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC) as a single test and algorithms combining p16-IHC with HPV-DNA identification by PCR (algorithm-1) or ISH (algorithm-2)...
November 2016: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854290/investigating-the-utility-of-oblique-tree-based-ensembles-for-the-classification-of-hyperspectral-data
#3
Nitesh Poona, Adriaan van Niekerk, Riyad Ismail
Ensemble classifiers are being widely used for the classification of spectroscopic data. In this regard, the random forest (RF) ensemble has been successfully applied in an array of applications, and has proven to be robust in handling high dimensional data. More recently, several variants of the traditional RF algorithm including rotation forest (rotF) and oblique random forest (oRF) have been applied to classifying high dimensional data. In this study we compare the traditional RF, rotF, and oRF (using three different splitting rules, i...
November 15, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825317/epidemiology-and-outcome-of%C3%A2-clostridium-difficile%C3%A2-infections-in-patients-hospitalized-in-internal-medicine-%C3%A2-findings-from-the-nationwide-fadoi-practice-study
#4
Giorgio Cioni, Pierluigi Viale, Stefania Frasson, Francesco Cipollini, Francesco Menichetti, Nicola Petrosillo, Sergio Brunati, Patrizia Spigaglia, Chiara Vismara, Alessandra Bielli, Fabrizio Barbanti, Giancarlo Landini, Grazia Panigada, Gualberto Gussoni, Erminio Bonizzoni, Giovanni Pietro Gesu
BACKGROUND: Clostridium difficile (CD) is a leading cause of diarrhoea among hospitalized patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rate, the optimal diagnostic work-up, and outcome of CD infections (CDI) in Internal Medicine (IM) wards in Italy. METHODS: PRACTICE is an observational prospective study, involving 40 IM Units and evaluating all consecutive patients hospitalized during a 4-month period. CDI were defined in case of diarrhoea when both enzyme immunoassay for GDH, and test for A/B toxin were positive...
November 8, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821079/comparison-of-dna-testing-strategies-in-monitoring-human-papillomavirus-infection-prevalence-through-simulation
#5
Carol Y Lin, Ling Li
BACKGROUND: HPV DNA diagnostic tests for epidemiology monitoring (research purpose) or cervical cancer screening (clinical purpose) have often been considered separately. Women with positive Linear Array (LA) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) research test results typically are neither informed nor referred for colposcopy. Recently, a sequential testing by using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) HPV clinical test as a triage before genotype by LA has been adopted for monitoring HPV infections. Also, HC2 has been reported as a more feasible screening approach for cervical cancer in low-resource countries...
November 7, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795350/development-of-a-sensitive-and-specific-serological-assay-based-on-the-luminex-technology-for-the-detection-of-antibodies-to-zaire-ebola-virus-ebov
#6
Ahidjo Ayouba, Abdoulaye Touré, Christelle Butel, Alpha Kabinet Keita, Florian Binetruy, Mamadou S Sow, Vincent Foulongne, Eric Delaporte, Martine Peeters
The recent Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa illustrates clearly the need for additional studies in humans and animals to elucidate the ecology of Ebola viruses. Here we developed a serological assay based on the Luminex technology. Nine recombinant proteins representing different viral regions (NP, VP40 and GP) from four of the five EBV lineages were used. Samples from 94 survivors of the EBOV outbreak in Guinea and negative samples from 108 patients in France were used to calculate test performance for EBOV detection and cross-reaction with other Ebola virus lineages...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780490/evaluation-of-the-limiting-antigen-avidity-eia-lag-in-people-who-inject-drugs-in-greece
#7
G K Nikolopoulos, A Katsoulidou, M Kantzanou, C Rokka, C Tsiara, V Sypsa, D Paraskevis, M Psichogiou, S Friedman, A Hatzakis
This analysis assessed the utility of the limiting antigen avidity assay (LAg). Samples of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Greece with documented duration of HIV-1 infection were tested by LAg. A LAg-normalized optical density (ODn) ⩽1·5 corresponds to a recency window period of 130 days. The proportion true recent (PTR) and proportion false recent (PFR) were estimated in 28 seroconverters and in 366 samples collected >6 months after HIV diagnosis, respectively. The association between LAg ODn and HIV RNA level was evaluated in 232 persons...
October 26, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773873/performance-characteristics-of-the-reverse-syphilis-screening-algorithm-in-a-population-with-a-moderately-high-prevalence-of-syphilis
#8
Angela R Rourk, Frederick S Nolte, Christine M Litwin
OBJECTIVES: With the recent introduction of automated treponemal tests, a new reverse syphilis algorithm has been proposed and now used by many clinical laboratories. We analyzed the impact of instituting the reverse screening syphilis algorithm in a laboratory that serves a geographic area with a moderately high prevalence of syphilis infection. METHODS: Serum samples sent for syphilis testing were tested using a treponemal enzyme immunoassay (EIA) as the screening assay...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773805/pathophysiology-evaluation-and-management-of-chronic-watery-diarrhea
#9
Michael Camilleri, Joseph H Sellin, Kim E Barrett
Chronic watery diarrhea poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge and is often a disabling condition for patients. Although acute diarrhea is likely to be caused by infection, the causes of chronic diarrhea (more than 4 weeks in duration) are more elusive. We review on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic diarrhea. Drawing on recent insights into the molecular mechanisms of intestinal epithelial transport and barrier function, we discuss how diarrhea can result from a decrease in luminal solute absorption, an increase in secretion, or both, as well as derangements in barrier properties...
October 20, 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721936/role-of-radionuclide-imaging-for-diagnosis-of-device-and-prosthetic-valve-infections
#10
Jean-François Sarrazin, François Philippon, Mikaël Trottier, Michel Tessier
Cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infection and prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) remain a diagnostic challenge. Cardiac imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of patients with CIED infection or PVE. Over the past few years, cardiac radionuclide imaging has gained a key role in the diagnosis of these patients, and in assessing the need for surgery, mainly in the most difficult cases. Both (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) and radiolabelled white blood cell single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (WBC SPECT/CT) have been studied in these situations...
September 26, 2016: World Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558397/tuberculosis-progression-rates-in-u-s-immigrants-following-screening-with-interferon-gamma-release-assays
#11
Robert J Blount, Minh-Chi Tran, Charles K Everett, Adithya Cattamanchi, John Z Metcalfe, Denise Connor, Cecily R Miller, Jennifer Grinsdale, Julie Higashi, Payam Nahid
BACKGROUND: Interferon-gamma release assays may be used as an alternative to the tuberculin skin test for detection of M. tuberculosis infection. However, the risk of active tuberculosis disease following screening using interferon-gamma release assays in immigrants is not well defined. To address these uncertainties, we determined the incidence rates of active tuberculosis disease in a cohort of high-risk immigrants with Class B TB screened with interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) upon arrival in the United States...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558183/lyme-borreliosis-serology-performance-with-several-commonly-used-laboratory-diagnostic-tests-and-a-large-resource-panel-of-well-characterized-patient-samples
#12
Claudia R Molins, Mark J Delorey, Christopher Sexton, Martin E Schriefer
Current recommendation for the laboratory confirmation of Lyme disease is serology-based diagnostics. Specifically, a standardized two-tiered testing (STTT) algorithm is applied that utilizes a first-tier immunofluorescence assay (IFA) or enzyme immunoassay (EIA) that if positive or equivocal is followed by second-tier immunoblotting. Despite the standardization and performance achievements, STTT is considered technically complex and subjective, as well as insensitive for early acute infection. These issues have prompted development of novel algorithms and testing platforms...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27538253/-diagnosis-of-periprosthetic-infection-what-s-obligation-what-s-optional
#13
K-D Heller
BACKGROUND: Periprothetic infection after primary or revision arthroplasty is of increasing importance. The incidence of infection in primary arthroplasty is approximately 1 %. Revision arthroplasty has higher infection rates, which increase with the number of revision surgeries. Aim of this Paper: An overview of the current diagnosis of periprosthetic infection. METHODS: This selective analysis is based on a lecture by the author at the DKOU 2015. RESULTS: Periprosthetic infection is taken as having been demonstrated when either two periprosthetic cultures contain the same microorganism, or if there is a fistula communicating with a joint...
August 2016: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537060/a-versatile-panel-of-reference-gene-assays-for-the-measurement-of-chicken-mrna-by-quantitative-pcr
#14
Karen Staines, Ambalika Batra, William Mwangi, Helena J Maier, Steven Van Borm, John R Young, Mark Fife, Colin Butter
Quantitative real-time PCR assays are widely used for the quantification of mRNA within avian experimental samples. Multiple stably-expressed reference genes, selected for the lowest variation in representative samples, can be used to control random technical variation. Reference gene assays must be reliable, have high amplification specificity and efficiency, and not produce signals from contaminating DNA. Whilst recent research papers identify specific genes that are stable in particular tissues and experimental treatments, here we describe a panel of ten avian gene primer and probe sets that can be used to identify suitable reference genes in many experimental contexts...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509247/performance-of-the-bio-rad-geenius-hiv1-2-supplemental-assay-in-detecting-recent-hiv-infection-and-calculating-population-incidence
#15
Sheila M Keating, Reshma Kassanjee, Mila Lebedeva, Shelley N Facente, Jeffrey C MacArthur, Eduard Grebe, Gary Murphy, Alex Welte, Jeffrey N Martin, Susan Little, Matthew A Price, Esper G Kallas, Michael P Busch, Christopher D Pilcher
OBJECTIVE: HIV seroconversion biomarkers are being used in cross-sectional studies for HIV incidence estimation. Bio-Rad Geenius HIV-1/2 Supplemental Assay is an immunochromatographic single-use assay that measures antibodies (Ab) against multiple HIV-1/2 antigens. The objective of this study was to determine whether the Geenius assay could additionally be used for recency estimation. DESIGN: This assay was developed for HIV-1/2 confirmation; however, quantitative data acquired give information on increasing concentration and diversity of antibody responses over time during seroconversion...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499768/the-diagnosis-of-hiv-infection-in-infants-and-children
#16
REVIEW
Alireza Abdollahi, Hana Saffar
It is estimated that the number of HIV infected children globally has increased from 1.6 million in 2001 to 3.3 million in 2012. The number of children below 15 years of age living with HIV has increased worldwide. Published data from recent studies confirmed dramatic survival benefit for infants started anti-retroviral therapy (ART) as early as possible after diagnosis of HI. Early confirmation of HIV diagnosis is required in order to identify infants who need immediate ART. WHO has designed recommendations to improve programs for both early diagnoses of HIV infection and considering ART whenever indicated? It is strongly recommended that HIV virologocal assays for diagnosis of HIV have sensitivity of at least 95% and ideally greater than 98% and specificity of 98% or more under standardized and validated conditions...
2016: Iranian Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454561/viral-load-criteria-and-threshold-optimization-to-improve-hiv-incidence-assay-characteristics
#17
Reshma Kassanjee, Christopher D Pilcher, Michael P Busch, Gary Murphy, Shelley N Facente, Sheila M Keating, Elaine Mckinney, Kara Marson, Matthew A Price, Jeffrey N Martin, Susan J Little, Frederick M Hecht, Esper G Kallas, Alex Welte
OBJECTIVE: Assays for classifying HIV infections as 'recent' or 'nonrecent' for incidence surveillance fail to simultaneously achieve large mean durations of 'recent' infection (MDRIs) and low 'false-recent' rates (FRRs), particularly in virally suppressed persons. The potential for optimizing recent infection testing algorithms (RITAs), by introducing viral load criteria and tuning thresholds used to dichotomize quantitative measures, is explored. DESIGN: The Consortium for the Evaluation and Performance of HIV Incidence Assays characterized over 2000 possible RITAs constructed from seven assays (Limiting Antigen, BED, Less-sensitive Vitros, Vitros Avidity, BioRad Avidity, Architect Avidity, and Geenius) applied to 2500 diverse specimens...
September 24, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27434299/best-practices-for-intrathecal-baclofen-therapy-troubleshooting
#18
REVIEW
Michael Saulino, David J Anderson, Jennifer Doble, Reza Farid, Fatma Gul, Peter Konrad, Aaron L Boster
INTRODUCTION: Troubleshooting helps optimize intrathecal baclofen (ITB) therapy in cases of underdose, overdose, and infection. METHODS: An expert panel of 21 multidisciplinary physicians currently managing >3200 ITB patients was convened, and using standard methodologies for guideline development, created an organized approach to troubleshooting ITB. They conducted a structured literature search that identified 263 peer-reviewed papers, and used results from an online survey of 42 physicians currently managing at least 25 ITB patients each...
August 2016: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27393938/hepatitis-e-virus-assessment-of-the-epidemiological-situation-in-humans-in-europe-2014-15
#19
Cornelia Adlhoch, Ana Avellon, Sally A Baylis, Anna R Ciccaglione, Elisabeth Couturier, Rita de Sousa, Jevgenia Epštein, Steen Ethelberg, Mirko Faber, Ágnes Fehér, Samreen Ijaz, Heidi Lange, Zdenka Manďáková, Kassiani Mellou, Antons Mozalevskis, Ruska Rimhanen-Finne, Valentina Rizzi, Bengü Said, Lena Sundqvist, Lelia Thornton, Maria E Tosti, Wilfrid van Pelt, Esther Aspinall, Dragoslav Domanovic, Ettore Severi, Johanna Takkinen, Harry R Dalton
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is endemic in EU/EEA countries, but the understanding of the burden of the infection in humans is inconsistent as the disease is not under EU surveillance but subject to national policies. STUDY: Countries were asked to nominate experts and to complete a standardised questionnaire about the epidemiological situation and surveillance of HEV in their respective EU/EEA country. This study reviewed surveillance systems for human cases of HEV in EU/EEA countries and nominated experts assessed the epidemiology in particular examining the recent increase in the number of autochthonous cases...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27382484/development-of-a-clinical-decision-support-system-using-genetic-algorithms-and-bayesian-classification-for-improving-the-personalised-management-of-women-attending-a-colposcopy-room
#20
Panagiotis Bountris, Elena Topaka, Abraham Pouliakis, Maria Haritou, Petros Karakitsos, Dimitrios Koutsouris
Cervical cancer (CxCa) is often the result of underestimated abnormalities in the test Papanicolaou (Pap test). The recent advances in the study of the human papillomavirus (HPV) infection (the necessary cause for CxCa development) have guided clinical practice to add HPV related tests alongside the Pap test. In this way, today, HPV DNA testing is well accepted as an ancillary test and it is used for the triage of women with abnormal findings in cytology. However, these tests are either highly sensitive or highly specific, and therefore none of them provides an optimal solution...
June 2016: Healthcare Technology Letters
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