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Hiv incidence assay

Wannee Kantakamalakul, Suwalee Jangkhum, Silawun Ampol, Porurtai Burupharat, Rutt Chuachoowong, Ruengpung Sutthent, Kovit Pattanapanyasat
BACKGOUND: Intravenous drug users (IVDUs) are among the high-risk groups who are most vulnerable to HIV infection. Several illicit drugs alter host immune function with increased incidence of infections including that of HIV. Many studies of the immune response of NK cells in HIV-1 seronegative IVDUs and HIV-1 seropositive IVDUs have been published from the Western countries and yet no data is available from Thailand. OBJECTIVE: To determine natural killer cell cytotoxicity and lymphocyte subsets in Thai HIV-1 infected intravenous drug users...
March 12, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
Lola Madrid, Rosauro Varo, Sonia Maculuve, Tacilta Nhampossa, Carmen Muñoz-Almagro, Enrique J Calderón, Cristina Esteva, Carla Carrilho, Mamudo Ismail, Begoña Vieites, Vicente Friaza, María Del Carmen Lozano-Dominguez, Clara Menéndez, Quique Bassat
BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most prevalent congenital infection acquired worldwide, with higher incidence in developing countries and among HIV-exposed children. Less is known regarding vertical transmission of parvovirus B19 (B19V) and enterovirus (EV). We aimed to assess the prevalence of CMV, B19V and EV vertical transmission and compare results of screening of congenital CMV obtained from two different specimens in a semirural Mozambican maternity...
2018: PloS One
Oliver Laeyendecker, Jacob Konikoff, Douglas E Morrison, Ronald Brookmeyer, Jing Wang, Connie Celum, Charles S Morrison, Quarraisha Abdool Karim, Audrey E Pettifor, Susan H Eshleman
INTRODUCTION: Cross-sectional methods can be used to estimate HIV incidence for surveillance and prevention studies. We evaluated assays and multi-assay algorithms (MAAs) for incidence estimation in subtype C settings. METHODS: We analysed samples from individuals with subtype C infection with known duration of infection (2442 samples from 278 adults; 0.1 to 9.9 years after seroconversion). MAAs included 1-4 of the following assays: Limiting Antigen Avidity assay (LAg-Avidity), BioRad-Avidity assay, CD4 cell count and viral load (VL)...
February 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Sung Yong Park, Tanzy M T Love, Shivankur Kapoor, Ha Youn Lee, John Hancock
Motivation: Around 2.1 million new HIV-1 infections were reported in 2015, alerting that the HIV-1 epidemic remains a significant global health challenge. Precise incidence assessment strengthens epidemic monitoring efforts and guides strategy optimization for prevention programs. Estimating the onset time of HIV-1 infection can facilitate optimal clinical management and identify key populations largely responsible for epidemic spread and thereby infer HIV-1 transmission chains. Our goal is to develop a genomic assay estimating the incidence and infection time in a single cross-sectional survey setting...
February 9, 2018: Bioinformatics
Trevor A Crowell, Justin Hardick, Kara Lombardi, Zahra Parker, Afoke Kokogho, Senate Amusu, Sunday Odeyemi, Andrew Ivo, Stefan D Baral, Rebecca G Nowak, Sylvia Adebajo, Manhattan E Charurat, Julie Ake, Charlotte A Gaydos
OBJECTIVES: Recent outbreaks of anorectal lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been characterised by proctocolitis requiring extended antibiotic treatment compared with infections caused by other serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT). We describe the prevalence and clinical features of LGV among Nigerian MSM diagnosed with anorectal CT. METHODS: MSM were recruited for this observational cohort in Lagos, Nigeria, using respondent-driven sampling and screened for HIV and bacterial STIs every three months for up to 18 months...
January 29, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Rita O Oladele, Felix Bongomin, Sara Gago, David W Denning
Cryptococcal disease remains a significant source of global morbidity and mortality for people living with HIV, especially in resource-limited settings. The recently updated estimate of cryptococcal disease revealed a global incidence of 223,100 cases annually with 73% of these cases being diagnosed in sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, 75% of the estimated 181,100 deaths associated with cryptococcal disease occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Point-of-care diagnostic assays have revolutionised the diagnosis of this deadly opportunistic infection...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Yumna Moosa, Ramla F Tanko, Veron Ramsuran, Ravesh Singh, Mashudu Madzivhandila, Nonhlanhla Yende-Zuma, Melissa-Rose Abrahams, Philippe Selhorst, Kamini Gounder, Penny L Moore, Carolyn Williamson, Salim S Abdool Karim, Nigel J Garrett, Wendy A Burgers
BACKGROUND: The majority of people living with HIV require antiretroviral therapy (ART) for controlling viral replication, however there are rare HIV controllers who spontaneously and durably control HIV in the absence of treatment. Understanding what mediates viral control in these individuals has provided us with insights into the immune mechanisms that may be important to induce for a vaccine or functional cure for HIV. To date, few African elite controllers from high incidence settings have been described...
January 25, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Zahra Rikhtegaran Tehrani, Kayhan Azadmanesh, Ehsan Mostafavi, Safoora Gharibzadeh, Shahrzad Soori, Mohammad Azizi, Alireza Khabiri
Estimation of HIV incidence provides real-time information of HIV transmission trends for decision makers. Anti-integrase antibodies are the last ones produced during seroconversion and presence of high-avidity anti-integrase antibodies indicates the chronicity of HIV infection. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of these antibodies in discriminating of recent from non-recent HIV infection. For this purpose, different ELISA formats were developed to detect high-avidity anti-integrase antibodies in a commercially available performance panel, and the best assay was selected for further evaluation...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
Antonella Zorzi, Maddalena Cordioli, Lorenzo Gios, Paola Del Bravo, Igor Toskin, Rosanna W Peeling, Karel Blondeel, Giuseppe Cornaglia, James Kiarie, Ronald Ballard, Massimo Mirandola
OBJECTIVES: The incidence of HIV and syphilis among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Europe has recently increased. Rapid point-of-care tests (POCTs) for syphilis can improve access to screening. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of two syphilis POCTs compared with laboratory tests among MSM. METHODS: The study was undertaken in Verona, Italy. Asymptomatic MSM, potentially exposed to syphilis, were enrolled prospectively. The POCTs evaluated were SD Bioline Syphilis 3...
December 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Chris Verhofstede, Katrien Fransen, Annelies Van Den Heuvel, Kristel Van Laethem, Jean Ruelle, Ellen Vancutsem, Karolien Stoffels, Sigi Van den Wijngaert, Marie-Luce Delforge, Dolores Vaira, Laura Hebberecht, Marlies Schauvliege, Virginie Mortier, Kenny Dauwe, Steven Callens
BACKGROUND: There is today no gold standard method to accurately define the time passed since infection at HIV diagnosis. Infection timing and incidence measurement is however essential to better monitor the dynamics of local epidemics and the effect of prevention initiatives. METHODS: Three methods for infection timing were evaluated using 237 serial samples from documented seroconversions and 566 cross sectional samples from newly diagnosed patients: identification of antibodies against the HIV p31 protein in INNO-LIA, SediaTM BED CEIA and SediaTM LAg-Avidity EIA...
November 29, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
Charles S Morrison, Rick Homan, Natasha Mack, Pairin Seepolmuang, Megan Averill, Jamilah Taylor, Jennifer Osborn, Peter Dailey, Neil Parkin, Stefano Ongarello, Timothy D Mastro
INTRODUCTION: Accurate incidence estimates are needed to characterize the HIV epidemic and guide prevention efforts. HIV Incidence assays are cost-effective laboratory assays that provide incidence estimates from cross-sectional surveys. We conducted a global market assessment of HIV incidence assays under three market scenarios and estimated the economic value of improved incidence assays. METHODS: We interviewed 27 stakeholders, and reviewed journal articles, working group proceedings, and manufacturers' sales figures...
November 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Anna M Mandalakas, Heather Y Highsmith, Nadine M Harris, Anna Pawlicka, H Lester Kirchner
BACKGROUND: The T-SPOT.TB, an interferon-gamma release assay, is an indirect test of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Due to sparse and conflicting evidence, the use of interferon-gamma release assay is limited in young and HIV-infected children. We determined the prevalence of invalid, borderline, positive and negative results and associations with key demographic variables during routine pediatric use in a low tuberculosis burden setting. METHODS: For pediatric samples received at Oxford Diagnostic Laboratories between 2010 and 2015, the associations between initial test outcome and demographics were estimated by bivariate analysis and logistic regression...
April 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Ditte M Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Anne Langkilde, Niels Mejer, Ove Andersen, Jesper Eugen-Olsen, Thomas Benfield
Persistent inflammation and immune activation have been associated with non-AIDS comorbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We aimed to investigate the potential association between soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) and incident non-AIDS comorbidity and all-cause mortality in a well-treated HIV-infected population. suPAR was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and events of comorbidity and mortality were ascertained by registry linkage. The study showed an independent association between a high suPAR level at baseline and increased hazard rates for both non-AIDS comorbidities (cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, chronic lung disease, liver disease, and cancer) and all-cause mortality...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Jawad Behbehani, Sheikh Shreaz, Mohammad Irshad, Maribassapa Karched
The incidence of oral candidosis has increased in recent years due to the escalation in HIV-infection, cancer treatments, organ transplantation, and diabetes. In addition, corticosteroid use, dentures, and broad-spectrum antibiotic use have also contributed to the problem. Treatment of oral candidosis has continued to be problematic because of the potential toxicity of antifungals in clinical use, and, above all, development of drug resistance among patients. In this study, the antifungal effect of magnolol was investigated against 64 strains of Candida spp...
December 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
Frederico O Gleber-Netto, Mei Zhao, Sanchit Trivedi, Jiping Wang, Samar Jasser, Christina McDowell, Humam Kadara, Jiexin Zhang, Jing Wang, William N William, J Jack Lee, Minh Ly Nguyen, Sara I Pai, Heather M Walline, Dong M Shin, Robert L Ferris, Thomas E Carey, Jeffrey N Myers, Curtis R Pickering
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals (HIVIIs) have a higher incidence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and clinical and histopathological differences have been observed in their tumors in comparison with those of HNSCC patients without a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The reasons for these differences are not clear, and molecular differences between HIV-related HNSCC and non-HIV-related HNSCC may exist. This study compared the mutational patterns of HIV-related HNSCC and non-HIV-related HNSCC...
January 1, 2018: Cancer
Andrea L Conroy, Chloe R McDonald, Joel L Gamble, Peter Olwoch, Paul Natureeba, Deborah Cohan, Moses R Kamya, Diane V Havlir, Grant Dorsey, Kevin C Kain
BACKGROUND: Angiogenic processes in the placenta are critical regulators of fetal growth and impact birth outcomes, but there are limited data documenting these processes in HIV-infected women or women from low-resource settings. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether angiogenic factors are associated with adverse birth outcomes in HIV-infected pregnant women started on antiretroviral therapy. STUDY DESIGN: This is a secondary analysis of samples collected as part of a clinical trial randomizing pregnant women and adolescents infected with HIV to lopinavir/ritonavir-based (n = 166) or efavirenz-based (n = 160) antiretroviral therapy in Tororo, Uganda...
December 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Mabel Toribio, Min Hi Park, Markella V Zanni, Gregory K Robbins, Tricia H Burdo, Kenneth C Williams, Meghan N Feldpausch, Lauren Stone, Kathleen Melbourne, Steven K Grinspoon, Michael L Fitzgerald
Context: In the general population, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol efflux capacity (HCEC) relates inversely to incident cardiovascular events. Previous studies have suggested that HCEC is decreased in HIV and that antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation might improve HCEC. Objective: To evaluate HCEC in the context of ART initiation and immune activation in HIV. Design and Outcome Measures: Baseline HCEC from 10 ART-naive HIV-infected males and 12 prospectively matched non-HIV-infected males were analyzed...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Eduard Grebe, Alex Welte, Jake Hall, Sheila M Keating, Shelley N Facente, Kara Marson, Jeffrey N Martin, Susan J Little, Matthew A Price, Esper G Kallas, Michael P Busch, Christopher D Pilcher, Gary Murphy
BACKGROUND: Custom HIV staging assays, including the Sedia HIV-1 Limiting Antigen (LAg) Avidity EIA and avidity modifications of the Ortho VITROS anti-HIV-1+2 and Abbott ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo assays, are used to identify "recent" infections in clinical settings and for cross-sectional HIV incidence estimation. However, the high dynamic range of chemiluminescent platforms allows differentiating recent and long-standing infection on signal intensity, and this raises the prospect of using unmodified diagnostic assays for infection timing and surveillance applications...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
J W Kang, J H Seo, K W Youn, Y I Seo, K Huh, G R Choi, H K Min, D J Oh, H J Jo, J N Kim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Korean Red Cross began nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) for HIV and HCV in February 2005, and added HBV NAT beginning in June 2012. The current NAT system utilizes a multiplex assay for simultaneous detection of HBV DNA, HCV RNA and HIV-1 RNA. For samples that are reactive in the multiplex assay, we do specific tests for each virus. However, there have been cases of non-discriminated reactive (NDR) results which appear to be the result of non-specific reactions or cross-contamination, although some cases are considered to arise from the presence of low levels of HBV DNA due to occult hepatitis B infection...
September 10, 2017: Vox Sanguinis
Myriam Hormi, Valérie Guérin-El Khourouj, Virginie Pommelet, Mohamed Jeljeli, Béatrice Pédron, Jean-Sébastien Diana, Albert Faye, Ghislaine Sterkers
BACKGROUND: Data regarding the use of QuantiFERON to assist the diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected children is limited, especially in countries with low incidence of TB/HIV co-infection. METHODS: QuantiFERON results were analyzed in 63 HIV-infected children who presented to our hospital in Paris, France. Seventeen HIV-uninfected children with active TB (4 culture-confirmed) were included for comparison. RESULTS: The 63 HIV-infected children (median age: 11 years) had 113 QuantiFERON tests...
September 5, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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