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Hiv incidence assay

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248529/high-avidity-anti-integrase-antibodies-discriminate-recent-and-non-recent-hiv-infection-implications-for-hiv-incidence-assay
#1
Zahra Rikhtegaran Tehrani, Kayhan Azadmanesh, Ehsan Mostafavi, Safoora Gharibzadeh, Shahrzad Soori, Mohammad Azizi, Alireza Khabiri
Estimation of HIV incidence provides real-time information of HIV transmission trends for decision makers. Anti-integrase antibodies are the last ones produced during seroconversion and presence of high-avidity anti-integrase antibodies indicates the chronicity of HIV infection. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of these antibodies in discriminating of recent from non-recent HIV infection. For this purpose, different ELISA formats were developed to detect high-avidity anti-integrase antibodies in a commercially available performance panel, and the best assay was selected for further evaluation...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223963/field-evaluation-of-two-point-of-care-tests-for-syphilis-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-verona-italy
#2
Antonella Zorzi, Maddalena Cordioli, Lorenzo Gios, Paola Del Bravo, Igor Toskin, Rosanna W Peeling, Karel Blondeel, Giuseppe Cornaglia, James Kiarie, Ronald Ballard, Massimo Mirandola
OBJECTIVES: The incidence of HIV and syphilis among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Europe has recently increased. Rapid point-of-care tests (POCTs) for syphilis can improve access to screening. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of two syphilis POCTs compared with laboratory tests among MSM. METHODS: The study was undertaken in Verona, Italy. Asymptomatic MSM, potentially exposed to syphilis, were enrolled prospectively. The POCTs evaluated were SD Bioline Syphilis 3...
December 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187159/decision-tree-for-accurate-infection-timing-in-individuals-newly-diagnosed-with-hiv-1-infection
#3
Chris Verhofstede, Katrien Fransen, Annelies Van Den Heuvel, Kristel Van Laethem, Jean Ruelle, Ellen Vancutsem, Karolien Stoffels, Sigi Van den Wijngaert, Marie-Luce Delforge, Dolores Vaira, Laura Hebberecht, Marlies Schauvliege, Virginie Mortier, Kenny Dauwe, Steven Callens
BACKGROUND: There is today no gold standard method to accurately define the time passed since infection at HIV diagnosis. Infection timing and incidence measurement is however essential to better monitor the dynamics of local epidemics and the effect of prevention initiatives. METHODS: Three methods for infection timing were evaluated using 237 serial samples from documented seroconversions and 566 cross sectional samples from newly diagnosed patients: identification of antibodies against the HIV p31 protein in INNO-LIA, SediaTM BED CEIA and SediaTM LAg-Avidity EIA...
November 29, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165892/assays-for-estimating-hiv-incidence-updated-global-market-assessment-and-estimated-economic-value
#4
Charles S Morrison, Rick Homan, Natasha Mack, Pairin Seepolmuang, Megan Averill, Jamilah Taylor, Jennifer Osborn, Peter Dailey, Neil Parkin, Stefano Ongarello, Timothy D Mastro
INTRODUCTION: Accurate incidence estimates are needed to characterize the HIV epidemic and guide prevention efforts. HIV Incidence assays are cost-effective laboratory assays that provide incidence estimates from cross-sectional surveys. We conducted a global market assessment of HIV incidence assays under three market scenarios and estimated the economic value of improved incidence assays. METHODS: We interviewed 27 stakeholders, and reviewed journal articles, working group proceedings, and manufacturers' sales figures...
November 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140933/t-spot-tb%C3%A2-performance-in-routine-pediatric-practice-in-a-low-tb-burden-setting
#5
Anna M Mandalakas, Heather Y Highsmith, Nadine M Harris, Anna Pawlicka, H Lester Kirchner
BACKGROUND: The T-SPOT.TB, an interferon-γ release assay (IGRA), is an indirect test of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Due to sparse and conflicting evidence, IGRA use is limited in young and HIV-infected children. We determined the prevalence of invalid, borderline, positive, and negative results and associations with key demographic variables during routine pediatric use in a TB low-burden setting. METHODS: For pediatric samples received at Oxford Diagnostic Laboratories from 2010-2015, the associations between initial test outcome and demographics were estimated by bivariate analysis and logistic regression...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099961/soluble-urokinase-plasminogen-activator-receptor-is-a-predictor-of-incident-non-aids-comorbidity-and-all-cause-mortality-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-infection
#6
Ditte M Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Anne Langkilde, Niels Mejer, Ove Andersen, Jesper Eugen-Olsen, Thomas Benfield
Persistent inflammation and immune activation have been associated with non-AIDS comorbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We aimed to investigate the potential association between soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) and incident non-AIDS comorbidity and all-cause mortality in a well-treated HIV-infected population. suPAR was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and events of comorbidity and mortality were ascertained by registry linkage. The study showed an independent association between a high suPAR level at baseline and increased hazard rates for both non-AIDS comorbidities (cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, chronic lung disease, liver disease, and cancer) and all-cause mortality...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074435/the-natural-compound-magnolol-affects-growth-biofilm-formation-and-ultrastructure-of-oral-candida-isolates
#7
Jawad Behbehani, Sheikh Shreaz, Mohammad Irshad, Maribassapa Karched
The incidence of oral candidosis has increased in recent years due to the escalation in HIV-infection, cancer treatments, organ transplantation, and diabetes. In addition, corticosteroid use, dentures, and broad-spectrum antibiotic use have also contributed to the problem. Treatment of oral candidosis has continued to be problematic because of the potential toxicity of antifungals in clinical use, and, above all, development of drug resistance among patients. In this study, the antifungal effect of magnolol was investigated against 64 strains of Candida spp...
October 23, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053175/distinct-pattern-of-tp53-mutations-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-related-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#8
Frederico O Gleber-Netto, Mei Zhao, Sanchit Trivedi, Jiping Wang, Samar Jasser, Christina McDowell, Humam Kadara, Jiexin Zhang, Jing Wang, William N William, J Jack Lee, Minh Ly Nguyen, Sara I Pai, Heather M Walline, Dong M Shin, Robert L Ferris, Thomas E Carey, Jeffrey N Myers, Curtis R Pickering
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals (HIVIIs) have a higher incidence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and clinical and histopathological differences have been observed in their tumors in comparison with those of HNSCC patients without a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The reasons for these differences are not clear, and molecular differences between HIV-related HNSCC and non-HIV-related HNSCC may exist. This study compared the mutational patterns of HIV-related HNSCC and non-HIV-related HNSCC...
January 1, 2018: Cancer Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031892/altered-angiogenesis-as-a-common-mechanism-underlying-preterm-birth-small-for-gestational-age-and-stillbirth-in-women-living-with-hiv
#9
Andrea L Conroy, Chloe R McDonald, Joel L Gamble, Peter Olwoch, Paul Natureeba, Deborah Cohan, Moses R Kamya, Diane V Havlir, Grant Dorsey, Kevin C Kain
BACKGROUND: Angiogenic processes in the placenta are critical regulators of fetal growth and impact birth outcomes, but there are limited data documenting these processes in HIV-infected women or women from low-resource settings. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether angiogenic factors are associated with adverse birth outcomes in HIV-infected pregnant women started on antiretroviral therapy. STUDY DESIGN: This is a secondary analysis of samples collected as part of a clinical trial randomizing pregnant women infected with HIV to lopinavir/ritonavir-based (n = 166) or efavirenz-based (n = 160) antiretroviral therapy in Tororo, Uganda...
October 12, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945911/hdl-cholesterol-efflux-capacity-in-newly-diagnosed-hiv-and-effects-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#10
Mabel Toribio, Min Hi Park, Markella V Zanni, Gregory K Robbins, Tricia H Burdo, Kenneth C Williams, Meghan N Feldpausch, Lauren Stone, Kathleen Melbourne, Steven K Grinspoon, Michael L Fitzgerald
Context: In the general population, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol efflux capacity (HCEC) relates inversely to incident cardiovascular events. Previous studies have suggested that HCEC is decreased in HIV and that antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation might improve HCEC. Objective: To evaluate HCEC in the context of ART initiation and immune activation in HIV. Design and Outcome Measures: Baseline HCEC from 10 ART-naive HIV-infected males and 12 prospectively matched non-HIV-infected males were analyzed...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914669/infection-staging-and-incidence-surveillance-applications-of-high-dynamic-range-diagnostic-immuno-assay-platforms
#11
Eduard Grebe, Alex Welte, Jake Hall, Sheila M Keating, Shelley N Facente, Kara Marson, Jeffrey N Martin, Susan J Little, Matthew A Price, Esper G Kallas, Michael P Busch, Christopher D Pilcher, Gary Murphy
BACKGROUND: Custom HIV staging assays, including the Sedia HIV-1 Limiting Antigen (LAg) Avidity EIA and avidity modifications of the Ortho VITROS anti-HIV-1+2 and Abbott ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab Combo assays, are used to identify "recent" infections in clinical settings and for cross-sectional HIV incidence estimation. However, the high dynamic range of chemiluminescent platforms allows differentiating recent and long-standing infection on signal intensity, and this raises the prospect of using unmodified diagnostic assays for infection timing and surveillance applications...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891069/use-of-supplemental-anti-hbc-testing-of-donors-showing-non-discriminating-reactive-results-in-multiplex-nucleic-acid-testing
#12
J W Kang, J H Seo, K W Youn, Y I Seo, K Huh, G R Choi, H K Min, D J Oh, H J Jo, J N Kim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Korean Red Cross began nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) for HIV and HCV in February 2005, and added HBV NAT beginning in June 2012. The current NAT system utilizes a multiplex assay for simultaneous detection of HBV DNA, HCV RNA and HIV-1 RNA. For samples that are reactive in the multiplex assay, we do specific tests for each virus. However, there have been cases of non-discriminated reactive (NDR) results which appear to be the result of non-specific reactions or cross-contamination, although some cases are considered to arise from the presence of low levels of HBV DNA due to occult hepatitis B infection...
September 10, 2017: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877156/performance-of-the-quantiferon-tb-gold-assay-among-hiv-infected-children-with-active-tuberculosis-in-france
#13
Myriam Hormi, Valérie Guérin-El Khourouj, Virginie Pommelet, Mohamed Jeljeli, Béatrice Pédron, Jean-Sébastien Diana, Albert Faye, Ghislaine Sterkers
BACKGROUND: Data regarding the use of QuantiFERON to assist the diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected children is limited, especially in countries with low incidence of TB/HIV co-infection. METHODS: QuantiFERON results were analyzed in 63 HIV-infected children who presented to our hospital in Paris, France. Seventeen HIV-uninfected children with active TB (4 culture-confirmed) were included for comparison. RESULTS: The 63 HIV-infected children (median age: 11 years) had 113 QuantiFERON tests...
September 5, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863168/a-novel-polyepitope-vaccine-elicited-hiv-peptide-specific-cd4-t-cell-responses-in-hla-a2-drb1-transgenic-mice
#14
Haitao Liu, Wei Shen, Jiayi Shu, Zhihua Kou, Xia Jin
Human immunodeficiency (HIV) infection is a leading global health problem that causes approximately one million deaths each year. Although antiretroviral therapy can slow down the disease progression and improve the quality of life of infected individuals, it cannot eradicate the virus. A successful vaccine is one of the most cost-effective alternatives to control the incidence and mortality of HIV infection. CD4+ T cells play a key role in orchestrating other forms of human immune responses, therefore, an HIV vaccine that includes a component capable of eliciting CD4+ T cell responses is highly desirable...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855835/distribution-of-non-tuberculosis-mycobacteria-strains-from-suspected-tuberculosis-patients-by-heat-shock-protein-65-pcr-rflp
#15
Ali Nour-Neamatollahie, Nayereh Ebrahimzadeh, Seyed Davar Siadat, Farzam Vaziri, Mona Eslami, Abbas Akhavan Sepahi, Sharareh Khanipour, Morteza Masoumi, Fatemeh Sakhaee, Morteza Ghazanfari Jajin, Ahmadreza Bahrmand, Abolfazl Fateh
The genus Mycobacterium contains more than 150 species. Non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM) often cause extrapulmonary and pulmonary disease. Mycobacteria detection at species level is necessary and provides useful information on epidemiology and facilitates successful treatment of patients. This retrospective study aimed to determine the incidence of the NTM isolates and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) in clinical specimens collected from Iranian patients during February 2011-December 2013, by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PRA) of the hsp65 gene...
September 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843576/effect-of-hsv-2-infection-on-subsequent-hiv-acquisition-an-updated-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Katharine J Looker, Jocelyn A R Elmes, Sami L Gottlieb, Joshua T Schiffer, Peter Vickerman, Katherine M E Turner, Marie-Claude Boily
BACKGROUND: HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections cause a substantial global disease burden and are epidemiologically correlated. Two previous systematic reviews of the association between HSV-2 and HIV found evidence that HSV-2 infection increases the risk of HIV acquisition, but these reviews are now more than a decade old. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase (from Jan 1, 2003, to May 25, 2017) to identify studies investigating the risk of HIV acquisition after exposure to HSV-2 infection, either at baseline (prevalent HSV-2 infection) or during follow-up (incident HSV-2 infection)...
August 23, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817643/peripheral-clinic-versus-centralized-laboratory-based-xpert-mtb-rif-performance-experience-gained-from-a-pragmatic-stepped-wedge-trial-in-botswana
#17
Tefera Agizew, Rosanna Boyd, Ndwapi Ndwapi, Andrew Auld, Joyce Basotli, Sambayawo Nyirenda, Zegabriel Tedla, Anikie Mathoma, Unami Mathebula, Chawangwa Lesedi, Sherri Pals, Anand Date, Heather Alexander, Thomas Kuebrich, Alyssa Finlay
BACKGROUND: In 2011, the Botswana National Tuberculosis Program adopted World Health Organization guidelines and introduced Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) assay to support intensified case finding among people living with HIV enrolling in care. An evaluation was designed to assess performance under operational conditions to inform the national Xpert scale-up. METHODS: Xpert was implemented from August 2012 through November 2014 with 13 GeneXpert instruments (GeneXpert) deployed in a phased approach over nine months: nine centralized laboratory and four point-of-care (POC) peripheral clinics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807850/anti-hiv-activity-of-southern-african-plants-current-developments-phytochemistry-and-future-research
#18
REVIEW
Gerhard Prinsloo, Cynthia K Marokane, Renée A Street
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The African continent is home to a large number of higher plant species used over centuries for many applications, which include treating and managing diseases such as HIV. Due to the overwhelming prevalence and incidence rates of HIV, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, it is necessary to develop new and affordable treatments. AIM OF THE STUDY: The article provides an extensive overview of the status on investigation of plants from the southern African region with ethnobotanical use for treating HIV or HIV-related symptoms, or the management of HIV...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768983/longitudinally-extensive-transverse-myelitis-and-optic-neuropathy-associated-with-syphilitic-meningomyelitis-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
Rie Tohge, Yuya Shinoto, Makio Takahashi
The incidence of co-infection with Treponema pallidum and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is increasing in developing and developed countries. The neurological complications of both infections occasionally occur simultaneously during a clinical course. We herein report the case of an HIV carrier with syphilitic meningomyelitis and subclinical optic neuropathy. The patient presumably had latent syphilis and slowly developed longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM). A cerebrospinal fluid examination confirmed the diagnosis of active neurosyphilis based on an elevated T...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762652/hiv-incidence-in-the-estonian-population-in-2013-determined-using-the-hiv-1-limiting-antigen-avidity-assay
#20
P Soodla, R Simmons, K Huik, M Pauskar, E-L Jõgeda, H Rajasaar, E Kallaste, M Maimets, R Avi, G Murphy, K Porter, I Lutsar
OBJECTIVES: Estonia has one the highest number of new HIV diagnoses in the European Union, mainly among injecting drug users and heterosexuals. Little is known of HIV incidence, which is crucial for limiting the epidemic. Using a recent HIV infection testing algorithm (RITA) assay, we aimed to estimate HIV incidence in 2013. METHODS: All individuals aged ≥18 years newly-diagnosed with HIV in Estonia January- December 2013, except blood donors and those undergoing antenatal screening, were included...
January 2018: HIV Medicine
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