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Hiv incidence assay

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872321/msm-in-bogot%C3%A3-are-living-with-hiv-for-extended-periods-without-diagnosis-or-treatment
#1
Maria Cecilia Zea, Patricia Olaya, Carol A Reisen, Paul J Poppen
We examined recency of infection in serum samples obtained from 69 newly identified HIV-positive cases in a sample of 1000 men who have sex with men (MSM) in Bogotá. HIV antibody avidity assays were performed using the Architect HIV Ag/AB combo. Avidity indices ranged from 0.62 to 1.22, with a cut-off score below 0.80 indicative of recent infection. Two samples were classified as recent, six fell within the gray zone (0.75 to 0.85), and the remaining 61 were considered established infections. Results provided evidence of widespread, long-term, undiagnosed HIV infection, as well as an estimate of one-year incidence at ...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828875/antiretroviral-drug-use-in-a-cross-sectional-population-survey-in-africa-nimh-project-accept-hptn-043
#2
Jessica M Fogel, William Clarke, Michal Kulich, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Autumn Breaud, Matthew T Olson, Mark A Marzinke, Oliver Laeyendecker, Agnès Fiamma, Deborah Donnell, Jessie K K Mbwambo, Linda Richter, Glenda Gray, Michael Sweat, Thomas J Coates, Susan H Eshleman
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral (ARV) drug treatment benefits the treated individual and can prevent HIV transmission. We assessed ARV drug use in a community-randomized trial that evaluated the impact of behavioral interventions on HIV incidence. METHODS: Samples were collected in a cross-sectional survey after a 3-year intervention period. ARV drug testing was performed using samples from HIV-infected adults at four study sites (Zimbabwe; Tanzania; KwaZulu-Natal and Soweto, South Africa; survey period 2009-2011), using an assay that detects 20 ARV drugs (6 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors [NRTIs]; 3 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors [NNRTIs]; 9 protease inhibitors; maraviroc; raltegravir)...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824677/do-biomarkers-of-inflammation-monocyte-activation-and-altered-coagulation-explain-excess-mortality-between-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-people
#3
Kaku A So-Armah, Janet P Tate, Chung-Chou H Chang, Adeel A Butt, Mariana Gerschenson, Cynthia L Gibert, David Leaf, David Rimland, Maria C Rodriguez-Barradas, Matthew J Budoff, Jeffrey H Samet, Lewis H Kuller, Steven G Deeks, Kristina Crothers, Russell P Tracy, Heidi M Crane, Mohammad M Sajadi, Hilary A Tindle, Amy C Justice, Matthew S Freiberg
BACKGROUND: HIV infection and biomarkers of inflammation [measured by interleukin-6 (IL-6)], monocyte activation [soluble CD14 (sCD14)], and coagulation (D-dimer) are associated with morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that these immunologic processes mediate (explain) some of the excess risk of mortality among HIV infected (HIV+) versus uninfected people independently of comorbid diseases. METHODS: Among 2350 (1521 HIV+) participants from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study Biomarker Cohort (VACS BC), we investigated whether the association between HIV and mortality was altered by adjustment for IL-6, sCD14, and D-dimer, accounting for confounders...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824254/estimating-hiv-incidence-using-a-cross-sectional-survey-comparison-of-three-approaches-in-a-hyperendemic-setting-ndhiwa-sub-county-kenya-2012
#4
Stéphanie Blaizot, Andrea A Kim, Clement Zeh, Benjamin Riche, David Maman, Kevin DeCock, Jean-François Etard, René Ecochard
OBJECTIVES: Estimating HIV incidence is critical for identifying groups at risk for HIV infection, planning and targeting interventions, and evaluating these interventions over time. The use of reliable estimation methods for HIV incidence is thus of high importance. The aim of this study was to compare methods for estimating HIV incidence in a population-based cross-sectional survey. DESIGN/METHODS: The incidence estimation methods evaluated included assay-derived methods, a testing history-derived method, and a probability-based method applied to data from the Ndhiwa HIV Impact in Population Survey (NHIPS)...
November 8, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801374/incidence-and-risk-factors-for-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-seroconversion-among-pregnant-women-in-uganda-a-prospective-study
#5
Sarah Nakubulwa, Dan K Kaye, Freddie Bwanga, Nazarius Mbona Tumwesigye, Edith Nakku-Joloba, Florence M Mirembe
INTRODUCTION: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) acquired during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes such as perinatal HSV-2 transmission. HSV-2 seroconversion occurs within four weeks of HSV-2 acquisition. There was neither documented incidence nor risk factors for HSV-2 seroconversion during pregnancy in Uganda. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for HSV-2 seroconversion among pregnant women in Mulago Hospital, Uganda. METHODOLOGY: A prospective study of 200 consenting HSV-2-negative women between 26 and 28 weeks of gestation was done between November 2013 and October 2014...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780490/evaluation-of-the-limiting-antigen-avidity-eia-lag-in-people-who-inject-drugs-in-greece
#6
G K Nikolopoulos, A Katsoulidou, M Kantzanou, C Rokka, C Tsiara, V Sypsa, D Paraskevis, M Psichogiou, S Friedman, A Hatzakis
This analysis assessed the utility of the limiting antigen avidity assay (LAg). Samples of people who inject drugs (PWID) in Greece with documented duration of HIV-1 infection were tested by LAg. A LAg-normalized optical density (ODn) ⩽1·5 corresponds to a recency window period of 130 days. The proportion true recent (PTR) and proportion false recent (PFR) were estimated in 28 seroconverters and in 366 samples collected >6 months after HIV diagnosis, respectively. The association between LAg ODn and HIV RNA level was evaluated in 232 persons...
October 26, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749931/gastrointestinal-symptoms-in-hiv-infected-patients-female-sex-and-smoking-as-risk-factors-in-an-outpatient-cohort-in-brazil
#7
Annelisa Silva E Alves de Carvalho Santos, Erika Aparecida Silveira, Marianne de Oliveira Falco
This study aimed to estimate the incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) and associated factors in an outpatient cohort of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) followed between October 2009 and July 2011. We evaluated nausea and/or vomiting, dyspepsia, heartburn, diarrhea, constipation, and flatulence. The outcome variable was the presence of three or more GIS. Sociodemographic (sex, skin color, age, income, years of schooling), lifestyle (smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity level), clinical (antiretroviral therapy, time of HIV infection, CD4 lymphocyte count, viral load), and anthropometric (nutritional status and waist circumference) variables were investigated...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642343/epidemiological-distribution-and-genotype-characterization-of-the-hepatitis-c-virus-among-hiv-patients-in-kashan-iran
#8
Hasan Afzali, Mansooreh Momen-Heravi, Asefeh Farokhzad
BACKGROUND: Parenteral transmission is a common route of transmission for both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV); therefore, hepatitis C viral infection is highly prevalent among people infected with HIV. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to examine the epidemiology and describe the clinical manifestation as well as the HCV genotypes in patients from the city of Kashan, Iran, who are coinfected with HIV and HCV. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted in 2014 in the city of Kashan...
July 2016: Hepatitis Monthly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622435/cerebral-microcalcifications-in-a-newborn-with-congenital-tuberculosis
#9
Yolanda Cifuentes, Martha Isabel Murcia, Jorge Piar, Patricia Pardo
Tuberculosis is a serious public health problem worldwide. In 2012, the World Health Organization estimated 8.6 million new cases and 1.3 million deaths due to the disease. In 2011, the incidence in Colombia was 24 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. There is little information about tuberculosis in pregnant women, and congenital infection is considered a rare disease that is difficult to diagnose, leads to high mortality, and may be confused with tuberculosis acquired after birth. In addition, it has been associated with HIV infection in mothers and infants...
2016: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575746/extensive-genetic-diversity-of-hiv-1-in-incident-and-prevalent-infections-among-malaysian-blood-donors-multiple-introductions-of-hiv-1-genotypes-from-highly-prevalent-countries
#10
Wei Zhen Chow, Abdul Hamid Bon, Sheila Keating, Fread Anderios, Hazwan Abdul Halim, Yutaka Takebe, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Michael P Busch, Kok Keng Tee
Transfusion-transmissible infections including HIV-1 continue to pose major risks for unsafe blood transfusions due to both window phase infections and divergent viruses that may not be detected by donor screening assays. Given the recent emergence of several HIV-1 circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) in high-risk populations in the Southeast Asia region, we investigated the genetic diversity of HIV-1 among the blood donors in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of 211 HIV-positive plasma samples detected among 730,188 donations to the National Blood Centre between 2013 and 2014 were provided (90...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552218/analysis-of-viral-diversity-in-relation-to-the-recency-of-hiv-1c-infection-in-botswana
#11
Sikhulile Moyo, Alain Vandormael, Eduan Wilkinson, Susan Engelbrecht, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Kenanao P Kotokwe, Rosemary Musonda, Frank Tanser, Max Essex, Vladimir Novitsky, Tulio de Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional, biomarker methods to determine HIV infection recency present a promising and cost-effective alternative to the repeated testing of uninfected individuals. We evaluate a viral-based assay that uses a measure of pairwise distances (PwD) to identify HIV infection recency, and compare its performance with two serologic incidence assays, BED and LAg. In addition, we assess whether combination BED plus PwD or LAg plus PwD screening can improve predictive accuracy by reducing the likelihood of a false-recent result...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27525403/-a-pediatric-case-of-hiv-who-diagnosed-by-virtue-of-disseminated-cryptococcus-infection
#12
Manolya Acar, Murat Sütçü, Hacer Aktürk, Selda Hançerli Törün, Nurinisa Karagöz, Hayati Beka, Ensar Yekeler, Ali Ağaçfidan, Nuran Salman, Ayper Somer
Cryptococcus neoformans is an important opportunistic pathogen that causes serious mortality and morbidity in AIDS patients. Although its incidence has decreased with proper antiretroviral treatment (ART), it is still a major concern in areas with low socioeconomic HIV endemic countries with poor sources of therapy. In our country, pediatric HIV infection and so, HIV-related opportunistic infections are very rare. In order to pay attention to this unusual collaboration; herein, we presented a pediatric case who was diagnosed with HIV and disseminated cryptococcus infection concomitantly...
July 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27513563/development-of-a-new-limiting-antigen-avidity-dot-immuno-gold-filtration-assay-for-hiv-1-incidence
#13
Zhiyun Gao, Hao Yan, Xia Feng, Lijin Wu, Maofeng Qiu, Wenge Xing, Guiyun Zhang, Zhi Zhang, Yan Jiang
Several laboratory assays on cross-sectional specimens for detecting recent HIV infections were developed, but these assays could not be applied in resource-limited and high HIV-incidence areas. This study describes the development of a rapid assay that can simultaneously detect the presence of HIV-1 antibodies of current and/or recent infection. The dot immuno-gold filtration assay (DIGFA) was used to detect recent infection on the principle of antibody avidity changes between recent and long-term infections...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27509247/performance-of-the-bio-rad-geenius-hiv1-2-supplemental-assay-in-detecting-recent-hiv-infection-and-calculating-population-incidence
#14
Sheila M Keating, Reshma Kassanjee, Mila Lebedeva, Shelley N Facente, Jeffrey C MacArthur, Eduard Grebe, Gary Murphy, Alex Welte, Jeffrey N Martin, Susan Little, Matthew A Price, Esper G Kallas, Michael P Busch, Christopher D Pilcher
OBJECTIVE: HIV seroconversion biomarkers are being used in cross-sectional studies for HIV incidence estimation. Bio-Rad Geenius HIV-1/2 Supplemental Assay is an immunochromatographic single-use assay that measures antibodies (Ab) against multiple HIV-1/2 antigens. The objective of this study was to determine whether the Geenius assay could additionally be used for recency estimation. DESIGN: This assay was developed for HIV-1/2 confirmation; however, quantitative data acquired give information on increasing concentration and diversity of antibody responses over time during seroconversion...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458715/molecular-epidemiology-of-co-infection-with-hepatitis-b-virus-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-among-adult-patients-in-harare-zimbabwe
#15
Ian Baudi, Sayuki Iijima, Nyasha Chin'ombe, Sekesai Mtapuri-Zinyowera, Shuko Murakami, Masanori Isogawa, Atsuko Hachiya, Yasumasa Iwatani, Yasuhito Tanaka
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the genetic characteristics of both viruses among pre-HIV-treatment patients in Harare, Zimbabwe. This cross-sectional survey involved 176 remnant plasma samples collected from consenting HIV patients (median age 35 [18-74]) between June and September 2014. HBV seromarkers were determined by high-sensitivity chemiluminescence assays. Molecular evolutionary analyses were conducted on the basal core promoter/precore (BCP/PC) and S regions of HBV, as well as part of the HIV pol region...
February 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27454561/viral-load-criteria-and-threshold-optimization-to-improve-hiv-incidence-assay-characteristics
#16
Reshma Kassanjee, Christopher D Pilcher, Michael P Busch, Gary Murphy, Shelley N Facente, Sheila M Keating, Elaine Mckinney, Kara Marson, Matthew A Price, Jeffrey N Martin, Susan J Little, Frederick M Hecht, Esper G Kallas, Alex Welte
OBJECTIVE: Assays for classifying HIV infections as 'recent' or 'nonrecent' for incidence surveillance fail to simultaneously achieve large mean durations of 'recent' infection (MDRIs) and low 'false-recent' rates (FRRs), particularly in virally suppressed persons. The potential for optimizing recent infection testing algorithms (RITAs), by introducing viral load criteria and tuning thresholds used to dichotomize quantitative measures, is explored. DESIGN: The Consortium for the Evaluation and Performance of HIV Incidence Assays characterized over 2000 possible RITAs constructed from seven assays (Limiting Antigen, BED, Less-sensitive Vitros, Vitros Avidity, BioRad Avidity, Architect Avidity, and Geenius) applied to 2500 diverse specimens...
September 24, 2016: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27401842/novel-epigenetic-changes-in-cdkn2a-are-associated-with-progression-of-cervical-intraepithelial-neoplasia
#17
N Ari Wijetunga, Thomas J Belbin, Robert D Burk, Kathleen Whitney, Maria Abadi, John M Greally, Mark H Einstein, Nicolas F Schlecht
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comprehensive mapping of the genomic DNA methylation in CDKN2A, which codes for the p16(INK4A) and p14(ARF) proteins, and 14 of the most promising DNA methylation marker candidates previously reported to be associated with progression of low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN1) to cervical cancer. METHODS: We analyzed DNA methylation in 68 HIV-seropositive and negative women with incident CIN1, CIN2, CIN3 and invasive cervical cancer, assaying 120 CpG dinucleotide sites spanning APC, CDH1, CDH13, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, DAPK1, FHIT, GSTP1, HIC1, MGMT, MLH1, RARB, RASSF1, TERT and TIMP3 using the Illumina Infinium array...
September 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27399039/strengthening-hiv-surveillance-measurements-to-track-the-epidemic-in-real-time
#18
Usangiphile E Buthelezi, Candace L Davidson, Ayesha Bm Kharsany
Surveillance for HIV as a public health initiative requires timely, detailed and robust data to systematically understand burden of infection, transmission patterns, direct prevention efforts, guide funding, identify new infections and predict future trends in the epidemic. The methods for HIV surveillance have evolved to reliably track the epidemic and identify new infections in real time. Initially HIV surveillance relied primarily on the reporting of AIDS cases followed by measuring antibodies to HIV to determine prevalence in key populations...
July 2016: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27344614/human-papillomavirus-hpv-16-e6-seropositivity-is-elevated-in-subjects-with-oral-hpv16-infection
#19
Yuehan Zhang, Tim Waterboer, Michael Pawlita, Elizabeth Sugar, Howard Minkoff, Ross D Cranston, Dorothy Wiley, Robert Burk, Susheel Reddy, Joseph Margolick, Howard Strickler, Kathleen Weber, Maura Gillison, Gypsyamber D'Souza
INTRODUCTION: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E6 serum antibodies are common in people with HPV-related oropharyngeal cancers (HPV-OPC), but not the general population. We explored HPV16 seroprevalence in people with and without oral HPV16 infection, the cause of HPV-OPC. METHODS: Oral rinse samples were collected semiannually and tested for 36 types of HPV DNA by PCR. HPV16 E6 serum antibodies were tested at the visit of first oral HPV detection in participants with prevalent (n=54), or incident (n=39) oral HPV16 DNA; or at baseline in matched participants with no oral HPV16 DNA (n=155) using multiplex serology assay...
August 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27276170/hiv-incidence-estimates-using-the-limiting-antigen-avidity-eia-assay-at-testing-sites-in-kiev-city-ukraine-2013-2014
#20
Ruth Simmons, Ruslan Malyuta, Nelli Chentsova, Iryna Karnets, Gary Murphy, Antonia Medoeva, Yuri Kruglov, Alexander Yurchenko, Andrew Copas, Kholoud Porter
OBJECTIVE: To estimate HIV incidence and highlight the characteristics of persons at greatest risk of HIV in the Ukraine capital, Kiev. METHOD: Residual samples from newly-diagnosed persons attending the Kiev City AIDS Centre were tested for evidence of recent HIV infection using an avidity assay. Questions on possible risk factors for HIV acquisition and testing history were introduced. All persons (≥16yrs) presenting for an HIV test April'13-March'14 were included...
2016: PloS One
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