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Hiv incidence assay

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676408/respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-adults-with-severe-acute-respiratory-illness-in-a-high-hiv-prevalence-setting
#1
Jocelyn Moyes, Sibongile Walaza, Marthi Pretorius, Michelle Groome, Anne von Gottberg, Nicole Wolter, Sumayya Haffejee, Ebrahim Variava, Adam L Cohen, Stefano Tempia, Kathleen Kahn, Halima Dawood, Marietjie Venter, Cheryl Cohen, Shabir A Madhi
BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) illness in HIV-infected adults or the elderly in Africa. We studied the epidemiology of RSV-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) hospitalizations in adults in South Africa from 2009 through 2013. METHODS: Individuals admitted to sentinel surveillance hospitals were investigated by respiratory tract swabs for RSV, using a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672745/hiv-avidity-index-performance-using-a-modified-fourth-generation-immunoassay-to-detect-recent-hiv-infections
#2
Barbara Suligoi, Vincenza Regine, Mariangela Raimondo, Anna Rodella, Luigina Terlenghi, Arnaldo Caruso, Patrizia Bagnarelli, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Nadia Zanchetta, Valeria Ghisetti, Claudio Galli
BACKGROUND: Detecting recent HIV infections is important to evaluate incidence and monitor epidemic trends. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance and accuracy of the avidity index (AI) for discriminating for recent HIV infections. METHODS: We collected serum samples from HIV-1 positive individuals: A) with known date of infection (midpoint in time between last HIV-negative and first HIV-positive test); B) infected for >1 year. Samples were divided into two aliquots: one diluted with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and the other with 1 M guanidine...
June 24, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670965/false-recent-ratio-of-the-limiting-antigen-avidity-assay-and-viral-load-testing-algorithm-among-cameroonians-with-long-term-hiv-infection
#3
Briana Lynch, Eshan U Patel, Colleen Rose Courtney, Aubin Nanfack, Jude Bimela, Xiaohong Wang, Issa Eid, Thomas C Quinn, Oliver Laeyendecker, Phillipe N Nyambi, Ralf Duerr, Andrew Redd
Current serological assays that are used for cross-sectional HIV incidence estimation have been shown to misclassify individuals with chronic infection. Limited information exists on the performance of cross-sectional incidence assays in Central Africa. HIV-positive individuals from Cameroon who were infected for at least one year or two years were evaluated to determine the false recent ratio of a two-assay algorithm which includes the Limiting Antigen Avidity (LAg-Avidity) assay (ODn<1.5) and HIV viral load (>1000 copies/mL)...
July 2, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660379/hiv-incidence-and-care-linkage-among-msm-first-time-testers-in-shenyang-china-2012-2014
#4
Jing Zhang, Jun-Jie Xu, Wei Song, Shi Pan, Zhen-Xing Chu, Qing-Hai Hu, Huan Yu, Xiang Mao, Yong-Jun Jiang, Wen-Qing Geng, Hong Shang, Ning Wang
HIV testing is the first step to the fulfillment of Treat as Prevention (TasP) and reaching the 90-90-90 goal in HIV control. However, there are still a large number of Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) have never been tested for HIV before, and little is known about the HIV incidence and care linkage among this population. A Mixed method was used to recruit MSM who had never tested for HIV before from January 2012 to December 2014 in Shenyang, China. Potential MSM participants were invited to attend the enrollment for HIV and syphilis testing at a general hospital-based voluntary counseling and test (VCT)...
June 30, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650937/weak-hiv-antibody-responses-in-perinatally-infected-young-adults
#5
Allison R Kirkpatrick, Aylin B Unsal, Joel N Blankson, Richard D Moore, Thomas C Quinn, Colleen Hadigan, Oliver Laeyendecker
We compared the antibody response to HIV using two serologic cross-sectional incidence assays in adults with perinatally-acquired HIV, to elite controllers and individuals exposed to antiretroviral therapy who were all infected as adults. Low antibody responses were seen more frequently in adults with perinatally-acquired HIV, both overall and when stratified by viral suppression status.
June 23, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592547/performance-of-the-abbott-realtime-mtb-and-mtb-rif-inh-assays-in-a-high-tb-and-hiv-coinfection-setting-in-south-africa
#6
Lesley Scott, Anura David, Lara Noble, Matilda Nduna, Pedro Da Silva, Andrew Black, Francois Venter, Wendy Stevens
Background: South Africa is a country with a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB), complicated by coinfection with HIV. The Xpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is used in South Africa as the test for initial diagnosis of TB, and other molecular platforms such as the m2000 (Abbott Molecular, Des Plaines, IL, USA) are widely used for molecular monitoring of HIV viral load. This latter platform is now also equipped with the RealTime MTB and RealTime MTB RIF/INH assays for TB and first line drug resistance screening, but has not been evaluated in settings of HIV and TB coinfection...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584337/-hbv-hcv-and-hiv-infection-prevalence-among-prison-staff-in-the-light-of-occupational-risk-factors
#7
Maria Gańczak, Zbigniew Szych
BACKGROUND: Objectives of the study: to assess the occupational risk for blood-borne infections (BBIs) among prison staff (number/ circumstances of blood exposures and preventive methods used), and to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The survey, which included serological testing with the use of 3-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) was completed on active staff at a correctional facility in Goleniów, Poland, between June-July 2015...
May 15, 2017: Medycyna Pracy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493891/antibody-to-hsv-gd-peptide-induced-by-vaccination-does-not-protect-against-hsv-2-infection-in-hsv-2-seronegative-women
#8
Peter B Gilbert, Jean-Louis Excler, Georgia D Tomaras, Lindsay N Carpp, Barton F Haynes, Hua-Xin Liao, David C Montefiori, Supachai Rerks-Ngarm, Punnee Pitisuttithum, Sorachai Nitayaphan, Jaranit Kaewkungwal, Gustavo H Kijak, Sodsai Tovanabutra, Donald P Francis, Carter Lee, Faruk Sinangil, Phillip W Berman, Nakorn Premsri, Prayura Kunasol, Robert J O'Connell, Nelson L Michael, Merlin L Robb, Rhoda Morrow, Lawrence Corey, Jerome H Kim
BACKGROUND: In the HIV-1 vaccine trial RV144, ALVAC-HIV prime with an AIDSVAX® B/E boost reduced HIV-1 acquisition by 31% at 42 months post first vaccination. The bivalent AIDSVAX® B/E vaccine contains two gp120 envelope glycoproteins, one from the subtype B HIV-1 MN isolate and one from the subtype CRF01_AE A244 isolate. Each envelope glycoprotein harbors a highly conserved 27-amino acid HSV-1 glycoprotein D (gD) tag sequence that shares 93% sequence identity with the HSV-2 gD sequence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472089/performance-characteristics-of-an-antibody-based-multiplex-kit-for-determining-recent-hiv-1-infection
#9
Kelly A Curtis, Debra L Hanson, Krystin Ambrose Price, S Michele Owen
The availability of reliable laboratory methods for determining recent HIV infection is vital for accurate estimation of population-based incidence. The mean duration of recent infection (MDRI) and false recent rate (FRR) are critical parameters for HIV incidence assays, as they impact HIV incidence estimates and provide a measure of assay performance. The HIV-1 Multiplex assay is an in-house developed, magnetic bead-based assay that measures virus-specific antibody levels and avidity to multiple analytes. To ensure quality control and to facilitate transfer of the assay to external laboratories or testing facilities, the in-house assay has been adapted and produced in kit form...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471839/brief-report-impact-of-early-antiretroviral-therapy-on-the-performance-of-hiv-rapid-tests-and-hiv-incidence-assays
#10
Jessica M Fogel, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Barbara Debevec, Tamara Walsky, Katherine Schlusser, Oliver Laeyendecker, Ethan A Wilson, Marybeth McCauley, Theresa Gamble, Gerald Tegha, Dean Soko, Johnstone Kumwenda, Mina C Hosseinipour, Ying Q Chen, Myron S Cohen, Susan H Eshleman
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can downregulate antibody responses to HIV infection. We evaluated the impact of early vs. delayed ART on the performance of HIV diagnostic and incidence assays. METHODS: Samples were obtained from 207 participants in the HPTN 052 trial, who were stably suppressed on ART for ≥4 years [Malawi sites; pre-ART CD4 cell count 350-550 cells/mm (early ART arm, N = 180) or <250 cells/mm or an AIDS-defining illness (delayed ART arm, N = 27)]...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443672/heightened-hiv-antibody-responses-in-postpartum-women-as-exemplified-by-recent-infection-assays-implications-for-incidence-estimates
#11
John W Hargrove, Cari van Schalkwyk, Jean H Humphrey, Kuda Mutasa, Robert Ntozini, Sherry Michele Owen, Silvina Masciotra, Bharat S Parekh, Yen T Duong, Trudy Dobbs, Peter H Kilmarx, Elizabeth Gonese
Laboratory assays that identify recent HIV infections are important for assessing impacts of interventions aimed at reducing HIV incidence. Kinetics of HIV humoral responses can vary with inherent assay properties, and between HIV subtypes, populations, and physiological states. They are important in determining mean duration of recent infection (MDRI) for antibody-based assays for detecting recent HIV infections. We determined MDRIs for multi-subtype peptide representing subtypes B, E and D (BED)-capture enzyme immunoassay, limiting antigen (LAg), and Bio-Rad Avidity Incidence (BRAI) assays for 101 seroconverting postpartum women, recruited in Harare from 1997 to 2000 during the Zimbabwe Vitamin A for Mothers and Babies trial, comparing them against published MDRIs estimated from seroconverting cases in the general population...
May 24, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408224/one-drug-for-two-targets-biological-evaluation-of-antiretroviral-agents-endowed-with-antiproliferative-activity
#12
Lorenzo Botta, Giorgio Maccari, Pierpaolo Calandro, Marika Tiberi, Annalaura Brai, Claudio Zamperini, Filippo Canducci, Mario Chiariello, Rosa Martí-Centelles, Eva Falomir, Miguel Carda
AIDS-related cancer diseases are malignancies with low incidence on healthy people that affect mostly subjects already immunocompromised. The connection between HIV/AIDS and these cancers has not been established yet, but a weakened immune system is certainly the main cause. We envisaged the possibility to screen a small library of compounds synthesized in our laboratory against opportunistic tumors mainly due to HIV infection like Burkitt's Lymphoma. From cellular assays and gene expression analysis we identified two promising compounds...
April 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400821/the-great-impostor-transaminitis-masking-the-coinfection-of-syphilis-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus
#13
Sunit Tolia, Hassan Kassem, Ana Capatina-Rata
Introduction. The incidence of syphilis continues to rise in the United States over the past 15 years. This disease process is classified into stages and may present with a coinfection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Case Report. We present a case of a 32-year-old African American male who presented with cutaneous manifestations of secondary syphilis and transaminitis. A workup revealed that the transaminitis was secondary to underlying syphilitic hepatitis in the presence of HIV coinfection. The patient had a reactive rapid plasma reagin (RPR) of 1 : 64 TU and reactive Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA)...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389206/residual-risk-of-hiv-hcv-and-hbv-in-canada
#14
Sheila F O'Brien, Qi-Long Yi, Wenli Fan, Vito Scalia, Mindy Goldman, Margaret A Fearon
BACKGROUND: Residual risk is estimated as the product of the incidence and the infectious window period, the time during which a blood donation could be infectious but the assay may not detect it. In 2011 nucleic acid multiplex testing (MPX) was implemented in 6 unit minipools (previously 24 unit minipools). MPX also included hepatitis B (HBV) NAT for the first time (complementing HBsAg screening) in addition to HIV-1 and hepatitis C (HCV) as before. We aimed to estimate window period risk-day equivalents for MPX, and the residual risk of viral infections in blood donations updated to reflect current incidence and testing...
March 18, 2017: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369198/contribution-of-serologic-assays-in-the-evaluation-of-influenza-virus-infection-rates-and-vaccine-efficacy-in-pregnant-women-report-from-randomized-controlled-trials
#15
Shabir A Madhi, Marta C Nunes, Adriana Weinberg, Locadiah Kuwanda, Andrea Hugo, Stephanie Jones, Nadia van Niekerk, Justin R Ortiz, Kathleen M Neuzil, Keith P Klugman, Eric A F Simões, Clare L Cutland
Background.: The utility of serologic testing to evaluate vaccine efficacy of seasonal inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) is controversial. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of IIV against serologically diagnosed influenza infection (SDI) and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction-confirmed influenza illness (PCR-CI) in women vaccinated during pregnancy. Methods.: We undertook a post hoc analysis of 2 randomized clinical trials evaluating IIV efficacy among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected and HIV-infected pregnant women...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364412/the-validation-and-evaluation-of-anti-hiv-testing-algorithm-used-in-mobile-clinic-setting-for-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-metropolitan-bangkok-thailand
#16
Tippawan Pankam, Sarun Saensiriphan, Suphackok Areeyolwattana, Napapat Barisri, Supabhorn Pengnonyang, Sunee Sirivichayakul, Nittaya Phanuphak, Praphan Phanuphak
BACKGROUND: Same-day anti-HIV testing algorithm is recommended by Thai National Guidelines. We compared performance characteristics of algorithms used in a mobile clinic and a facility-based clinic for men who have sex with men (MSM) in Bangkok. METHODS: Mobile clinic samples collected from 4 saunas and 2 spa venues were tested by Alere DetermineTM HIV 1/2, followed by DoubleCheck GoldTM Ultra HIV 1/2 and SD Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0. All samples were re-tested at the Thai Red Cross Anonymous Clinic (TRCAC) by Architect HIV Ag/Ab or Elecsys HIV combi PT, followed by Alere DetermineTM HIV 1/2 and Serodia HIV 1/2...
April 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318310/short-communication-comparison-of-maxim-and-sedia-limiting-antigen-assay-performance-for-measuring-hiv-incidence
#17
Katherine E Schlusser, Jacob Konikoff, Allison R Kirkpatrick, Charles Morrison, Tsungai Chipato, Pai-Lien Chen, Marshall Munjoma, Susan H Eshleman, Oliver Laeyendecker
Accurate methods for cross-sectional incidence estimation are needed for HIV prevention research. The Limiting Antigen Avidity (LAg-Avidity) assay has been marketed by two vendors, Maxim Biomedical and Sedia BioSciences Corporation. Performance differences between the two versions of the assay are unknown. We tested a total 1,410 treatment-naive samples with both versions of the assay. The samples came from 176 seroconverters from the Zimbabwe Hormonal Contraception and HIV Study. The correlation between the two versions of the assay was 0...
June 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231277/comparison-of-cross-sectional-hiv-incidence-assay-results-from-dried-blood-spots-and-plasma
#18
Katherine E Schlusser, Christopher Pilcher, Esper G Kallas, Breno R Santos, Steven G Deeks, Shelley Facente, Sheila M Keating, Michael P Busch, Gary Murphy, Alex Welte, Thomas Quinn, Susan H Eshleman, Oliver Laeyendecker
BACKGROUND: Assays have been developed for cross-sectional HIV incidence estimation using plasma samples. Large scale surveillance programs are planned using dried blood spot (DBS) specimens for incidence assessment. However, limited information exists on the performance of HIV cross-sectional incidence assays using DBS. METHODS: The assays evaluated were: Maxim HIV-1 Limiting Antigen Avidity EIA (LAg-Avidity), Sedia HIV-1 BED-Capture EIA (BED-CEIA), and CDC modified BioRad HIV-1/2 Plus O Avidity-based Assay (CDC-BioRad Avidity) using pre-determined cutoff values...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222702/the-virological-durability-of-first-line-art-among-hiv-positive-adult-patients-in-resource-limited-settings-without-virological-monitoring-a-retrospective-analysis-of-dart-trial-data
#19
David I Dolling, Ruth L Goodall, Michael Chirara, James Hakim, Peter Nkurunziza, Paula Munderi, David Eram, Dinah Tumukunde, Moira J Spyer, Charles F Gilks, Pontiano Kaleebu, David T Dunn, Deenan Pillay
BACKGROUND: Few low-income countries have virological monitoring widely available. We estimated the virological durability of first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) after five years of follow-up among adult Ugandan and Zimbabwean patients in the DART study, in which virological assays were conducted retrospectively. METHODS: DART compared clinically driven monitoring with/without routine CD4 measurement. Annual plasma viral load was measured on 1,762 patients. Analytical weights were calculated based on the inverse probability of sampling...
February 21, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215501/serial-quantiferon-testing-and-tuberculosis-disease-risk-among-young-children-an-observational-cohort-study
#20
Jason R Andrews, Elisa Nemes, Michele Tameris, Bernard S Landry, Hassan Mahomed, J Bruce McClain, Helen A Fletcher, Willem A Hanekom, Robin Wood, Helen McShane, Thomas J Scriba, Mark Hatherill
BACKGROUND: The value of quantitative interferon-γ release assay results for predicting progression from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection to active disease is unknown. We aimed to investigate the relation between QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) conversion interferon-γ values and risk of subsequent active tuberculosis disease and of QFT reversion. METHODS: We analysed data from a reported vaccine efficacy trial of the tuberculosis vaccine MVA85A in South Africa...
April 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
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