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Hiv incidence assay

Annelisa Silva E Alves de Carvalho Santos, Erika Aparecida Silveira, Marianne de Oliveira Falco
This study aimed to estimate the incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) and associated factors in an outpatient cohort of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) followed between October 2009 and July 2011. We evaluated nausea and/or vomiting, dyspepsia, heartburn, diarrhea, constipation, and flatulence. The outcome variable was the presence of three or more GIS. Sociodemographic (sex, skin color, age, income, years of schooling), lifestyle (smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity level), clinical (antiretroviral therapy, time of HIV infection, CD4 lymphocyte count, viral load), and anthropometric (nutritional status and waist circumference) variables were investigated...
2016: PloS One
Hasan Afzali, Mansooreh Momen-Heravi, Asefeh Farokhzad
BACKGROUND: Parenteral transmission is a common route of transmission for both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV); therefore, hepatitis C viral infection is highly prevalent among people infected with HIV. OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to examine the epidemiology and describe the clinical manifestation as well as the HCV genotypes in patients from the city of Kashan, Iran, who are coinfected with HIV and HCV. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted in 2014 in the city of Kashan...
July 2016: Hepatitis Monthly
Yolanda Cifuentes, Martha Isabel Murcia, Jorge Piar, Patricia Pardo
Tuberculosis is a serious public health problem worldwide. In 2012, the World Health Organization estimated 8.6 million new cases and 1.3 million deaths due to the disease. In 2011, the incidence in Colombia was 24 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. There is little information about tuberculosis in pregnant women, and congenital infection is considered a rare disease that is difficult to diagnose, leads to high mortality, and may be confused with tuberculosis acquired after birth. In addition, it has been associated with HIV infection in mothers and infants...
2016: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
Wei Zhen Chow, Abdul Hamid Bon, Sheila Keating, Fread Anderios, Hazwan Abdul Halim, Yutaka Takebe, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Michael P Busch, Kok Keng Tee
Transfusion-transmissible infections including HIV-1 continue to pose major risks for unsafe blood transfusions due to both window phase infections and divergent viruses that may not be detected by donor screening assays. Given the recent emergence of several HIV-1 circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) in high-risk populations in the Southeast Asia region, we investigated the genetic diversity of HIV-1 among the blood donors in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A total of 211 HIV-positive plasma samples detected among 730,188 donations to the National Blood Centre between 2013 and 2014 were provided (90...
2016: PloS One
Sikhulile Moyo, Alain Vandormael, Eduan Wilkinson, Susan Engelbrecht, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Kenanao P Kotokwe, Rosemary Musonda, Frank Tanser, Max Essex, Vladimir Novitsky, Tulio de Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional, biomarker methods to determine HIV infection recency present a promising and cost-effective alternative to the repeated testing of uninfected individuals. We evaluate a viral-based assay that uses a measure of pairwise distances (PwD) to identify HIV infection recency, and compare its performance with two serologic incidence assays, BED and LAg. In addition, we assess whether combination BED plus PwD or LAg plus PwD screening can improve predictive accuracy by reducing the likelihood of a false-recent result...
2016: PloS One
Manolya Acar, Murat Sütçü, Hacer Aktürk, Selda Hançerli Törün, Nurinisa Karagöz, Hayati Beka, Ensar Yekeler, Ali Ağaçfidan, Nuran Salman, Ayper Somer
Cryptococcus neoformans is an important opportunistic pathogen that causes serious mortality and morbidity in AIDS patients. Although its incidence has decreased with proper antiretroviral treatment (ART), it is still a major concern in areas with low socioeconomic HIV endemic countries with poor sources of therapy. In our country, pediatric HIV infection and so, HIV-related opportunistic infections are very rare. In order to pay attention to this unusual collaboration; herein, we presented a pediatric case who was diagnosed with HIV and disseminated cryptococcus infection concomitantly...
July 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
Zhiyun Gao, Hao Yan, Xia Feng, Lijin Wu, Maofeng Qiu, Wenge Xing, Guiyun Zhang, Zhi Zhang, Yan Jiang
Several laboratory assays on cross-sectional specimens for detecting recent HIV infections were developed, but these assays could not be applied in resource-limited and high HIV-incidence areas. This study describes the development of a rapid assay that can simultaneously detect the presence of HIV-1 antibodies of current and/or recent infection. The dot immuno-gold filtration assay (DIGFA) was used to detect recent infection on the principle of antibody avidity changes between recent and long-term infections...
2016: PloS One
Sheila M Keating, Reshma Kassanjee, Mila Lebedeva, Shelley N Facente, Jeffrey C MacArthur, Eduard Grebe, Gary Murphy, Alex Welte, Jeffrey N Martin, Susan Little, Matthew A Price, Esper G Kallas, Michael P Busch, Christopher D Pilcher
OBJECTIVE: HIV seroconversion biomarkers are being used in cross-sectional studies for HIV incidence-estimation. Bio-Rad Geenius HIV1/2 Supplemental Assay is an immunochromatographic single-use assay that measures antibodies (Ab) against multiple HIV-1/2 antigens. The objective of this study was to determine whether the Geenius assay could additionally be used for recency estimation. DESIGN: This assay was developed for HIV-1/2 confirmation; however, quantitative data acquired gives information on increasing concentration and diversity of antibody responses over time during seroconversion...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Ian Baudi, Sayuki Iijima, Nyasha Chin'ombe, Sekesai Mtapuri-Zinyowera, Shuko Murakami, Masanori Isogawa, Atsuko Hachiya, Yasumasa Iwatani, Yasuhito Tanaka
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of co-infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the genetic characteristics of both viruses among pre-HIV-treatment patients in Harare, Zimbabwe. This cross-sectional survey involved 176 remnant plasma samples collected from consenting HIV patients (median age 35 [18-74]) between June and September 2014. HBV seromarkers were determined by high-sensitivity chemiluminescence assays. Molecular evolutionary analyses were conducted on the basal core promoter/precore (BCP/PC) and S regions of HBV, as well as part of the HIV pol region...
July 26, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Reshma Kassanjee, Christopher D Pilcher, Michael P Busch, Gary Murphy, Shelley N Facente, Sheila M Keating, Elaine Mckinney, Kara Marson, Matthew A Price, Jeffrey N Martin, Susan J Little, Frederick M Hecht, Esper G Kallas, Alex Welte
OBJECTIVE: Assays for classifying HIV infections as 'recent' or 'nonrecent' for incidence surveillance fail to simultaneously achieve large mean durations of 'recent' infection (MDRIs) and low 'false-recent' rates (FRRs), particularly in virally suppressed persons. The potential for optimizing recent infection testing algorithms (RITAs), by introducing viral load criteria and tuning thresholds used to dichotomize quantitative measures, is explored. DESIGN: The Consortium for the Evaluation and Performance of HIV Incidence Assays characterized over 2000 possible RITAs constructed from seven assays (Limiting Antigen, BED, Less-sensitive Vitros, Vitros Avidity, BioRad Avidity, Architect Avidity, and Geenius) applied to 2500 diverse specimens...
September 24, 2016: AIDS
N Ari Wijetunga, Thomas J Belbin, Robert D Burk, Kathleen Whitney, Maria Abadi, John M Greally, Mark H Einstein, Nicolas F Schlecht
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comprehensive mapping of the genomic DNA methylation in CDKN2A, which codes for the p16(INK4A) and p14(ARF) proteins, and 14 of the most promising DNA methylation marker candidates previously reported to be associated with progression of low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN1) to cervical cancer. METHODS: We analyzed DNA methylation in 68 HIV-seropositive and negative women with incident CIN1, CIN2, CIN3 and invasive cervical cancer, assaying 120 CpG dinucleotide sites spanning APC, CDH1, CDH13, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, DAPK1, FHIT, GSTP1, HIC1, MGMT, MLH1, RARB, RASSF1, TERT and TIMP3 using the Illumina Infinium array...
September 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
Usangiphile E Buthelezi, Candace L Davidson, Ayesha Bm Kharsany
Surveillance for HIV as a public health initiative requires timely, detailed and robust data to systematically understand burden of infection, transmission patterns, direct prevention efforts, guide funding, identify new infections and predict future trends in the epidemic. The methods for HIV surveillance have evolved to reliably track the epidemic and identify new infections in real time. Initially HIV surveillance relied primarily on the reporting of AIDS cases followed by measuring antibodies to HIV to determine prevalence in key populations...
July 2016: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Yuehan Zhang, Tim Waterboer, Michael Pawlita, Elizabeth Sugar, Howard Minkoff, Ross D Cranston, Dorothy Wiley, Robert Burk, Susheel Reddy, Joseph Margolick, Howard Strickler, Kathleen Weber, Maura Gillison, Gypsyamber D'Souza
INTRODUCTION: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E6 serum antibodies are common in people with HPV-related oropharyngeal cancers (HPV-OPC), but not the general population. We explored HPV16 seroprevalence in people with and without oral HPV16 infection, the cause of HPV-OPC. METHODS: Oral rinse samples were collected semiannually and tested for 36 types of HPV DNA by PCR. HPV16 E6 serum antibodies were tested at the visit of first oral HPV detection in participants with prevalent (n=54), or incident (n=39) oral HPV16 DNA; or at baseline in matched participants with no oral HPV16 DNA (n=155) using multiplex serology assay...
August 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
Ruth Simmons, Ruslan Malyuta, Nelli Chentsova, Iryna Karnets, Gary Murphy, Antonia Medoeva, Yuri Kruglov, Alexander Yurchenko, Andrew Copas, Kholoud Porter
OBJECTIVE: To estimate HIV incidence and highlight the characteristics of persons at greatest risk of HIV in the Ukraine capital, Kiev. METHOD: Residual samples from newly-diagnosed persons attending the Kiev City AIDS Centre were tested for evidence of recent HIV infection using an avidity assay. Questions on possible risk factors for HIV acquisition and testing history were introduced. All persons (≥16yrs) presenting for an HIV test April'13-March'14 were included...
2016: PloS One
Eshan U Patel, Oliver Laeyendecker, Yu-Hsiang Hsieh, Richard E Rothman, Gabor D Kelen, Thomas C Quinn
BACKGROUND: The Johns Hopkins Hospital Emergency Department (JHHED) has served as an observational window on the HIV epidemic in a socioeconomically depressed, urban population. We previously reported that HIV incidence among JHHED patients is decreasing and that prevalence has declined from 11.4% in 2003-5.6% in 2013. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to observe temporal trends in hepatitis C virus (HCV) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) seroprevalence, which are surrogate markers for parenteral and sexual risk behavior, respectively...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Bouchra Serhir, Denis Hamel, Florence Doualla-Bell, Jean Pierre Routy, Sylvie-Nancy Beaulac, Mario Legault, Micheline Fauvel, Cécile Tremblay
BACKGROUND: Accurate and practical biologic tools to estimate HIV incidence is crucial to better monitor the epidemic and evaluate the effectiveness of HIV prevention and treatment programs. METHODS: We evaluated two avidity assays to measure recent HIV infection: the Sedia HIV-1 LAg-Avidity EIA (Sedia Biosciences, Portland) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-modified Bio-Rad-Avidity assay (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Mississauga, ON). Longitudinal specimens (n = 473) obtained from 123 treatment-naive seroconverted individuals enrolled in the Primary HIV-1 Infection (PHI) cohort of Quebec were used to determine the average time an individual is considered to be recently infected (mean duration of recent infection; MDRI), for the two avidity assays alone and in combination using a nonparametric survival method analysis...
2016: PloS One
Roy Gerona, Anita Wen, Aaron T Chin, Catherine A Koss, Peter Bacchetti, John Metcalfe, Monica Gandhi
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death from an infectious pathogen worldwide and the most prevalent opportunistic infection in people living with HIV. Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) reduces the incidence of active TB and reduces morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients independently of antiretroviral therapy. However, treatment of latent or active TB is lengthy and inter-patient variability in pharmacokinetics and adherence common. Current methods of assessing adherence to TB treatment using drug levels in plasma or urine assess short-term exposure and pose logistical challenges...
2016: PloS One
Isabelle Malhamé, Maxime Cormier, Jordan Sugarman, Kevin Schwartzman
BACKGROUND: In countries with low tuberculosis (TB) incidence, immigrants from higher incidence countries represent the major pool of individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI). The antenatal period represents an opportunity for immigrant women to access the medical system, and hence for potential screening and treatment of LTBI. However, such screening and treatment during pregnancy remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: In order to further understand the prevalence, natural history, screening and management of LTBI in pregnancy, we conducted a systematic literature review addressing the screening and treatment of LTBI, in pregnant women without known HIV infection...
2016: PloS One
Debra L Hanson, Ruiguang Song, Silvina Masciotra, Angela Hernandez, Trudy L Dobbs, Bharat S Parekh, S Michele Owen, Timothy A Green
HIV incidence estimates are used to monitor HIV-1 infection in the United States. Use of laboratory biomarkers that distinguish recent from longstanding infection to quantify HIV incidence rely on having accurate knowledge of the average time that individuals spend in a transient state of recent infection between seroconversion and reaching a specified biomarker cutoff value. This paper describes five estimation procedures from two general statistical approaches, a survival time approach and an approach that fits binomial models of the probability of being classified as recently infected, as a function of time since seroconversion...
2016: PloS One
Jennifer O Lam, Jay H Bream, Elizabeth A Sugar, Christian L Coles, Kathleen M Weber, Robert D Burk, Dorothy J Wiley, Ross D Cranston, Susheel Reddy, Joseph B Margolick, Howard D Strickler, Alicia Wentz, Lisa Jacobson, Yingshi Guo, Weihong Xiao, Maura L Gillison, Gypsyamber D'Souza
BACKGROUND: Initial studies suggest higher serum levels of some pro-inflammatory cytokines may be associated with decreased cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) clearance. However, the relationship of cytokines with oral HPV clearance has not been explored. METHODS: From 2010 to 2014, oral rinse and serum samples were collected semi-annually from 1601 adults. Oral rinse samples were tested for HPV DNA using PCR. Based on oral HPV results, 931 serum samples were selected for cytokine evaluation to include a roughly equal number of prevalent (n=307), incident (n=313), and no oral HPV infections (n=311)...
July 2016: Cytokine
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