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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615430/characterization-of-patients-with-longstanding-idiopathic-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#1
Alex Iranzo, Ambra Stefani, Monica Serradell, Maria Jose Martí, Francisco Lomeña, Philipp Mahlknecht, Heike Stockner, Carles Gaig, Ana Fernández-Arcos, Werner Poewe, Eduard Tolosa, Birgit Högl, Joan Santamaria
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of prodromal markers of Parkinson disease (PD) in patients with longstanding idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (IRBD), a small subgroup of individuals with IRBD with long-term follow-up thought not to be at risk of developing PD. METHODS: Demographic, clinical, and neuroimaging markers of PD were evaluated in 20 patients with polysomnographic-confirmed long-standing IRBD and in 32 matched controls. RESULTS: Patients were 16 men and 4 women with mean age of 72...
June 14, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579759/a-randomized-trial-of-individual-versus-group-format-exercise-and-self-management-in-individuals-with-parkinson-s-disease-and-comorbid-depression
#2
Martha Sajatovic, Angela L Ridgel, Ellen M Walter, Curtis M Tatsuoka, Kari Colón-Zimmermann, Riane K Ramsey, Elisabeth Welter, Steven A Gunzler, Christina M Whitney, Benjamin L Walter
BACKGROUND: Depression is common in people with Parkinson's disease (PD), and exercise is known to improve depression and PD. However, lack of motivation and low self-efficacy can make exercise difficult for people with PD and comorbid depression (PD-Dep). A combined group exercise and chronic disease self-management (CDSM) program may improve the likeli-hood that individuals will engage in exercise and will show a reduction in depression symptoms. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in depression in PD-Dep between individual versus group exercise plus CDSM and to examine participant adherence and perception of the interventions...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577926/macf1-versatility-in-tissue-specific-function-and-in-human-disease
#3
REVIEW
Lifang Hu, Yunyun Xiao, Zhipeng Xiong, Fan Zhao, Chong Yin, Yan Zhang, Peihong Su, Dijie Li, Zhihao Chen, Xiaoli Ma, Ge Zhang, Airong Qian
Spectraplakins are a family of evolutionarily conserved gigantic proteins and play critical roles in many cytoskeleton-related processes. Microtubule actin crosslinking factor 1 (MACF1) is one of the most versatile spectraplakin with multiple isoforms. As a broadly expressed mammalian spectraplakin, MACF1 is important in maintaining normal functions of many tissues. The loss-of-function studies using knockout mouse models reveal the pivotal roles of MACF1 in embryo development, skin integrity maintenance, neural development, bone formation, and colonic paracellular permeability...
May 31, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536273/metal-transporter-zip14-slc39a14-deletion-in-mice-increases-manganese-depositionnd-produces-neurotoxic-signaturesnd-diminished-motorctivity
#4
Tolunay Bekerydemir, Min-Hyun Kim, Jinhee Kim, Luis M Colon-Perez, Guita Banan, Thomas H Mareci, Marcelo Febo, Robert J Cousins
Mutations in human ZIP14 have been linked to symptoms of early onset of Parkinsonismnd Dystonia. This phenotype is likely related to excess manganeseccumulation in the central nervous system. The metal transporter ZIP14 (SLC39A14) is viewed primarilys zinc transporter that is inducible via proinflammatory stimuli. In vitro evidence shows that ZIP14 canlso transport manganese. To examine role for ZIP14 in manganese homeostasis, we used Zip14 knockout (KO) malend female mice to conduct comparative metabolic, imagingnd functional studies...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526609/effects-of-l-dopa-benserazide-co-treatment-on-colonic-excitatory-cholinergic-motility-and-enteric-inflammation-following-dopaminergic-nigrostriatal-neurodegeneration
#5
C Pellegrini, L Antonioli, R Colucci, E Tirotta, D Gentile, C Ippolito, C Segnani, G Levandis, S Cerri, F Blandini, E Barocelli, V Ballabeni, N Bernardini, C Blandizzi, M Fornai
INTRODUCTION: The mainstay therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) relies on L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) plus a DOPA-decarboxylase inhibitor. However, their effects on colonic dysmotility and inflammation observed in PD are undetermined. This study examined the effects of L-DOPA plus benserazide (BE) on colonic motility and inflammation in rats with central nigrostriatal dopaminergic denervation. METHODS: Neurodegeneration was induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injection into the medial forebrain bundle (MFB)...
May 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449715/functional-implications-of-microbial-and-viral-gut-metagenome-changes-in-early-stage-l-dopa-na%C3%A3-ve-parkinson-s-disease-patients
#6
J R Bedarf, F Hildebrand, L P Coelho, S Sunagawa, M Bahram, F Goeser, P Bork, U Wüllner
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) presently is conceptualized as a protein aggregation disease in which pathology involves both the enteric and the central nervous system, possibly spreading from one to another via the vagus nerves. As gastrointestinal dysfunction often precedes or parallels motor symptoms, the enteric system with its vast diversity of microorganisms may be involved in PD pathogenesis. Alterations in the enteric microbial taxonomic level of L-DOPA-naïve PD patients might also serve as a biomarker...
April 28, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427412/lack-of-interleukin-13-receptor-%C3%AE-1-delays-the-loss-of-dopaminergic-neurons-during-chronic-stress
#7
Simone Mori, Shuei Sugama, William Nguyen, Tatiana Michel, M Germana Sanna, Manuel Sanchez-Alavez, Rigo Cintron-Colon, Gianluca Moroncini, Yoshihiko Kakinuma, Pamela Maher, Bruno Conti
BACKGROUND: The majority of Parkinson's disease (PD) cases are sporadic and idiopathic suggesting that this neurodegenerative disorder is the result of both environmental and genetic factors. Stress and neuroinflammation are among the factors being investigated for their possible contributions to PD. Experiments in rodents showed that severe chronic stress can reduce the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc); the same cells that are lost in PD. These actions are at least in part mediated by increased oxidative stress...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387681/prevalence-of-prodromal-parkinson-s-disease-as-defined-by-mds-research-criteria-among-elderly-patients-undergoing-colonoscopy
#8
Skorvanek Matej, Ladomirjakova Zuzana, Han Vladimir, Lesko Norbert, Feketeova Eva, Jarcuskova Dominika, Repkova Barbora, Spisak Peter, Urbancikova Zuzana, Vargova Adriana, Gombosova Laura, Zakuciova Maria, Veseliny Eduard, Trebuna Frantisek, Mechirova Eva, Gdovinova Zuzana
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal symptoms are a well-recognized and common premotor feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). Moreover, multiple studies have assessed the value of colonic α-synuclein as a potential marker of prodromal PD. Recently, the International Parkinson and Movement Disorders Society (MDS) defined research criteria for prodromal PD. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to test the MDS research criteria in patients undergoing diagnostic colonoscopies as potential candidates for inclusion in prospective trials evaluating colonic biopsies as a potential biomarker of prodromal PD...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276272/gut-brain-and-brain-gut-axis-in-parkinson-s-disease-models-effects-of-a-uridine-and-fish-oil-diet
#9
Paula Perez-Pardo, Hemraj B Dodiya, Laus M Broersen, Hidde Douna, Nick van Wijk, Sofia Lopes da Silva, Johan Garssen, Ali Keshavarzian, Aletta D Kraneveld
Recent investigations have focused on the potential role of gastrointestinal (GI) abnormalities in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The 'dual-hit' hypothesis of PD speculates that a putative pathogen enters the brain via two routes: the olfactory system and the GI system. Here, we investigated (1) whether local exposures of the neurotoxin rotenone in the gut or the brain of mice could induce PD-like neurological and GI phenotypes as well as a characteristic neuropathology in accordance with this 'dual-hit hypothesis' and (2) the effects of a diet containing uridine and fish oil providing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in both models...
March 9, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220542/the-gut-microbiome-in-human-neurological-disease-a-review
#10
REVIEW
Helen Tremlett, Kylynda C Bauer, Silke Appel-Cresswell, Brett B Finlay, Emmanuelle Waubant
Almost half the cells and 1% of the unique genes found in our bodies are human, the rest are from microbes, predominantly bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses. These microorganisms collectively form the human microbiota, with most colonizing the gut. Recent technological advances, open access data libraries, and application of high-throughput sequencing have allowed these microbes to be identified and their contribution to neurological health to be examined. Emerging evidence links perturbations in the gut microbiota to neurological disease, including disease risk, activity, and progression...
March 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157109/objective-colonic-dysfunction-is-far-more-prevalent-than-subjective-constipation-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-colon-transit-and-volume-study
#11
Karoline Knudsen, Tatyana D Fedorova, Anne C Bekker, Peter Iversen, Karen Østergaard, Klaus Krogh, Per Borghammer
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal function has received increased interest in the context of Parkinson's disease (PD). Constipation is among the most frequent non-motor symptoms, but our understanding of the underlying pathology is limited. Subjective constipation correlates poorly with objective markers. OBJECTIVE: The aims were to evaluate colonic transit time and volume in PD and to correlate these measures with subjective symptoms and gastric emptying. METHODS: Thirty-two PD patients and 26 controls were included...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126589/biochemical-analysis-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-extracted-from-control-and-parkinson-s-disease-colonic-biopsies
#12
Anne-Gaëlle Corbillé, Cécile Preterre, Malvyne Rolli-Derkinderen, Emmanuel Coron, Michel Neunlist, Thibaud Lebouvier, Pascal Derkinderen
Lewy bodies and neurites, the pathological hallmarks found in the brain of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, are primarily composed of aggregated and hyperphosphorylated alpha-synuclein. The observation that alpha-synuclein inclusions are also found in the gut of the vast majority of parkinsonian patients has led to an increasing number of studies aimed at developing diagnostic procedures based on the detection of pathological alpha-synuclein in gastrointestinal biopsies. The previous studies, which have all used immunohistochemistry for the detection of alpha-synuclein, have provided conflicting results...
January 23, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100726/decreased-intestinal-acetylcholinesterase-in-early-parkinson-disease-an-11-c-donepezil-pet-study
#13
Tatyana D Fedorova, Louise B Seidelin, Karoline Knudsen, Anna C Schacht, Jacob Geday, Nicola Pavese, David J Brooks, Per Borghammer
OBJECTIVE: To investigate systemic levels of acetylcholinesterase in early Parkinson disease (PD) with (11)C-donepezil PET, a potential marker of parasympathetic innervation. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with 19 patients with early-stage PD (disease duration 1.5 ± 0.6 years) and 16 age-matched controls who had clinical assessments, olfaction tests, and (11)C-donepezil PET to measure acetylcholinesterase density in peripheral organs. RESULTS: The patients with PD showed significantly reduced (11)C-donepezil uptake in the small intestine (-14%, p = 0...
February 21, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090391/neurotoxin-induced-catecholaminergic-loss-in-the-colonic-myenteric-plexus-of-rhesus-monkeys
#14
Jeanette M Shultz, Henry Resnikoff, Viktorya Bondarenko, Valerie Joers, Andres Mejia, Heather Simmons, Marina E Emborg
OBJECTIVE: Constipation is a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although pathology of the enteric nervous system (ENS) has been associated with constipation in PD, the contribution of catecholaminergic neurodegeneration to this symptom is currently debated. The goal of this study was to assess the effects of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) on the colonic myenteric plexus and shed light on the role of catecholaminergic innervation in gastrointestinal (GI) function...
November 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinsonism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069931/the-search-for-a-peripheral-biopsy-indicator-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-pathology-for-parkinson-disease
#15
John M Lee, Pascal Derkinderen, Jeffrey H Kordower, Roy Freeman, David G Munoz, Thomas Kremer, Wagner Zago, Samantha J Hutten, Charles H Adler, Geidy E Serrano, Thomas G Beach
The neuropathological hallmark of Parkinson disease (PD) is abnormal accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn). Demonstrating pathological α-syn in live patients would be useful for identifying and monitoring PD patients. To date, however, imaging and biofluid approaches have not permitted premortem assessment of pathological α-syn. α-syn pathology in the peripheral nervous system of patients with PD has been demonstrated in studies dating back more than 40 years. More recent work suggests that colon, submandibular gland and skin biopsies could be useful as expedient biomarkers but histological differentiation of pathological and normal peripheral α-syn has been challenging and multiple research groups have reported variable results...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912057/gut-microbiota-regulate-motor-deficits-and-neuroinflammation-in-a-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Timothy R Sampson, Justine W Debelius, Taren Thron, Stefan Janssen, Gauri G Shastri, Zehra Esra Ilhan, Collin Challis, Catherine E Schretter, Sandra Rocha, Viviana Gradinaru, Marie-Francoise Chesselet, Ali Keshavarzian, Kathleen M Shannon, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown, Pernilla Wittung-Stafshede, Rob Knight, Sarkis K Mazmanian
The intestinal microbiota influence neurodevelopment, modulate behavior, and contribute to neurological disorders. However, a functional link between gut bacteria and neurodegenerative diseases remains unexplored. Synucleinopathies are characterized by aggregation of the protein α-synuclein (αSyn), often resulting in motor dysfunction as exemplified by Parkinson's disease (PD). Using mice that overexpress αSyn, we report herein that gut microbiota are required for motor deficits, microglia activation, and αSyn pathology...
December 1, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891695/downregulation-of-neuronal-vasoactive-intestinal-polypeptide-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-chronic-constipation
#17
F Giancola, F Torresan, R Repossi, F Bianco, R Latorre, A Ioannou, M Guarino, U Volta, P Clavenzani, M Mazzoni, R Chiocchetti, F Bazzoli, R A Travagli, C Sternini, R De Giorgio
BACKGROUND: Chronic constipation (CC) is a common and severe gastrointestinal complaint in Parkinson's disease (PD), but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. This study evaluated functionally distinct submucosal neurons in relation to colonic motility and anorectal function in PD patients with constipation (PD/CC) vs both CC and controls. METHODS: Twenty-nine PD/CC and 10 Rome III-defined CC patients were enrolled. Twenty asymptomatic age-sex matched subjects served as controls...
May 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873359/constipation-in-parkinson-s-disease-subjective-symptoms-objective-markers-and-new-perspectives
#18
REVIEW
Karoline Knudsen, Klaus Krogh, Karen Østergaard, Per Borghammer
Constipation is among the first nonmotor symptoms to develop in the prodromal phase of PD. Pathological alpha-synuclein deposition is present throughout the gastrointestinal tract up to 20 years preceding diagnosis. Nevertheless, constipation in the context of PD remains ill defined and poorly understood. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of subjective symptoms and objective measures of constipation in PD. More than 10 different definitions of constipation have been used in the PD literature, making generalizations difficult...
November 22, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843572/utility-of-high-resolution-anorectal-manometry-and-wireless-motility-capsule-in-the-evaluation-of-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-and-chronic-constipation
#19
Andrew Su, Rita Gandhy, Carrolee Barlow, George Triadafilopoulos
BACKGROUND: The aetiology of constipation in Parkinson's disease remains poorly understood. Defaecatory dyssynergia, anal sphincter spasticity and slow transit constipation may, individually or collectively, play a role. AIMS: In this retrospective cohort analysis of patients with Parkinson's disease and chronic constipation, we determined the utility of high-resolution anorectal manometry, balloon expulsion and wireless motility capsule testing in defining the underlying aetiology for constipation...
2016: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803984/%C3%AE-synuclein-in-the-colon-and-premotor-markers-of-parkinson-disease-in-neurologically-normal-subjects
#20
Joong-Seok Kim, In-Seok Park, Hyung-Eun Park, Su-Young Kim, Jung A Yun, Chan Kwon Jung, Hye-Young Sung, Jin-Kwon Lee, Won-Kyung Kang
Extranigral non-motor signs precede the first motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease by many years in some patients. The presence of α-synuclein deposition within colon tissues in patients with Parkinson's disease can aid in identifying early neuropathological changes prior to disease onset. In the present study, we evaluated the roles of non-motor symptoms and signs and imaging biomarkers of nigral neuronal changes and α-synuclein accumulation in the colon. Twelve subjects undergoing colectomy for primary colon cancer were recruited for this study...
January 2017: Neurological Sciences
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