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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107086/age-dependent-elevations-of-oligomeric-and-phosphorylated-alpha-synuclein-synchronously-occurs-in-the-brain-and-gastrointestinal-tract-of-cynomolgus-monkeys
#1
Xin Li, Weiwei Yang, Xuran Li, Min Chen, Chengwei Liu, Shun Yu
Fibrillary α-synuclein (α-syn), which constitutes the major component of Lewy pathology characterized for Parkinson's disease (PD), is found also in the aged enteric nervous system (ENS) and central nervous system (CNS). However, what happens to oligomeric α-syn (o-α-syn) in the aged ENS and CNS remains poorly understood. Here, by using ELISA methods specific for o-α-syn and phosphorylated α-syn (p-α-syn), we measured the levels of o-α-syn and p-α-syn in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and brain of aging cynomolgus monkeys...
October 26, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055387/the-colon-revisited-or-the-key-to-wellness-health-and-disease
#2
C A Gonzalez-Correa, E Mulett-Vásquez, D A Miranda, C H Gonzalez-Correa, P A Gómez-Buitrago
The hypothesis being advanced in this paper is that there is a new medical paradigm emerging from the biomedical research carried out in this century, mainly due to the explosion of the so called "omics" and associated techniques. The main idea is that there is a common pathway from wellbeing and health to chronic disease ("chronopathy") and even to death, which comprises following steps: 1) unhealthy diet, sedentary life style and permanent exposition to xenobiotics and all kinds of noxious stimuli;→2) intestinal dysbiosis;→3) alteration of the intestinal mucus layer (especially that of the colon);→4) disruption of the endothelial tight junctions;→5) metabolic endotoxemia+bacterial translocation;→6) inflammation;→7) exacerbation of the enteric nervous system (ENS) and consequent maladaptation and malfunctioning of the colon;→8) epigenetic manifestations;→9) "chronopathy" and premature death...
October 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991675/sodium-butyrate-exerts-protective-effect-against-parkinson-s-disease-in-mice-via-stimulation-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1
#3
Jiaming Liu, Fangyan Wang, Suzhi Liu, Jimei Du, Xuezhen Hu, Jiaojiao Xiong, Renchi Fang, Wenqian Chen, Jing Sun
Sodium butyrate (NaB) has exhibited protective activity in neurological disorders. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect and potential mechanisms of NaB in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). A mouse was intraperitoneally treated with MPTP (30mg/kg) for 7 consecutive days to induce PD model and NaB (200mg/kg) was intragastrically treated for 3weeks. The behavioral tests were then conducted. Dopaminergic degeneration was evaluated by western blot and immunohistochemistry of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the SN...
October 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923294/fundamental-limit-of-alpha-synuclein-pathology-in-gastrointestinal-biopsy-as-a-pathologic-biomarker-of-parkinson-s-disease-comparison-with-surgical-specimens
#4
Chaewon Shin, Sung-Hye Park, Ji Young Yun, Jung Hwan Shin, Han-Kwang Yang, Hyuk-Joon Lee, Seong-Ho Kong, Yun-Suhk Suh, Guangxun Shen, Yoon Kim, Han-Joon Kim, Beomseok Jeon
OBJECTIVE: Alpha-synuclein (AS) accumulation identified by immunohistochemistry (IHC) of gastrointestinal (GI) tract biopsies is considered as a potential pathologic biomarker for Parkinson's disease (PD). We compared AS IHC findings in biopsy specimens and surgically resected full-depth specimens to examine the reliability of GI tract biopsies. METHODS: We included patients with PD who had undergone operation of the GI tract for treatment of tumors. Controls were matched with age at operation, gender, and surgical resection site...
September 4, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891262/more-than-constipation-bowel-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-their-connection-to-gut-microbiota
#5
T H Mertsalmi, V T E Aho, P A B Pereira, L Paulin, E Pekkonen, P Auvinen, F Scheperjans
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The majority of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients suffer from gastrointestinal symptoms of which constipation is considered the most prominent. Recently, in addition to constipation, a diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) was also found to be associated with increased PD risk. Gut microbiota alterations have been reported in IBS and recently also in PD. IBS-like bowel symptoms in PD and their possible connection to other non-motor symptoms and faecal microbiota were assessed...
November 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887374/rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-is-related-to-enteric-neuropathology-in-parkinson-disease
#6
Laurène Leclair-Visonneau, Thomas Clairembault, Emmanuel Coron, Séverine Le Dily, Fabienne Vavasseur, Marie Dalichampt, Yann Péréon, Michel Neunlist, Pascal Derkinderen
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in Parkinson disease (PD) is associated with lesions and dysfunctions of the autonomic nervous system by evaluating enteric phosphorylated α-synuclein histopathology (PASH) and permeability. METHODS: A total of 45 patients with PD were included in this cross-sectional study. RBD was diagnosed on the basis of a standardized clinical interview and confirmed by polysomnography. For each patient, 5 biopsies were taken at the junction between the sigmoid and descending colon during the course of a rectosigmoidoscopy...
October 10, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826374/coffee-caffeine-and-health-outcomes-an-umbrella-review
#7
REVIEW
Giuseppe Grosso, Justyna Godos, Fabio Galvano, Edward L Giovannucci
To evaluate the associations between coffee and caffeine consumption and various health outcomes, we performed an umbrella review of the evidence from meta-analyses of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Of the 59 unique outcomes examined in the selected 112 meta-analyses of observational studies, coffee was associated with a probable decreased risk of breast, colorectal, colon, endometrial, and prostate cancers; cardiovascular disease and mortality; Parkinson's disease; and type-2 diabetes...
August 21, 2017: Annual Review of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816177/electrical-stimulation-of-gut-motility-guided-by-an-in-silico-model
#8
Bradley Brigham Barth, Craig S Henriquez, Warren M Grill, Xiling Shen
OBJECTIVE: Neuromodulation of the central and peripheral nervous systems is becoming increasingly important for treating a diverse set of diseases-ranging from Parkinson's Disease and epilepsy to chronic pain. However, neuromodulation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract has achieved relatively limited success in treating functional GI disorders, which affect a significant population, because the effects of stimulation on the enteric nervous system (ENS) and gut motility are not well understood...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805584/constipation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Fabrizio Stocchi, Margherita Torti
Constipation is one of the main and disabling nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), with a prevalence ranging from 24.6% to 63% according to the different diagnostic criteria used to define chronic constipation. Constipation is currently recognized as a risk factor of PD in relation to the number of evacuation per week and its severity. Moreover, several studies have demonstrated that constipation may precede the occurrence of motor symptoms underlying an earlier involvement of the enteric nervous system and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus in the α-synuclein pathology...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776303/premotor-diagnosis-of-parkinson-s-disease
#10
REVIEW
Heinz Reichmann
Typical Parkinsonian symptoms consist of bradykinesia plus rigidity and/or resting tremor. Some time later postural instability occurs. Pre-motor symptoms such as hyposmia, constipation, REM sleep behavior disorder and depression may antecede these motor symptoms for years. It would be ideal, if we had a biomarker which would allow to predict who with one or two of these pre-motor symptoms will develop the movement disorder Parkinson's disease (PD). Thus, it is interesting to learn that biopsies of the submandibular gland or colon biopsies may be a means to predict PD, if there is a high amout of abnormally folded alpha-synuclein and phosphorylated alpha-synuclein...
August 3, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759975/gastrointestinal-transit-time-in-parkinson-s-disease-using-a-magnetic-tracking-system
#11
Karoline Knudsen, Anne-Mette Haase, Tatyana D Fedorova, Anne Charlotte Bekker, Karen Østergaard, Klaus Krogh, Per Borghammer
BACKGROUND: Symptoms from the gastrointestinal tract are highly prevalent in Parkinson's disease (PD), but knowledge of the underlying pathology is incomplete and valid objective markers on regional gastrointestinal function are limited. OBJECTIVE: The aims were to evaluate gastrointestinal transit time and motility in PD patients and controls. METHODS: Twenty-two PD patients and 15 controls were included. Gastric-, small intestinal-, and caecum-ascending colonic transit times as well as colonic motility, defined as mass- and fast movements, were performed using the ambulatory 3D-Transit system...
2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752333/significance-of-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-human-health
#12
REVIEW
Rafael Zárate, Nabil El Jaber-Vazdekis, Noemi Tejera, José A Pérez, Covadonga Rodríguez
In the last decades, the development of new technologies applied to lipidomics has revitalized the analysis of lipid profile alterations and the understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of lipid metabolism, together with their involvement in the occurrence of human disease. Of particular interest is the study of omega-3 and omega-6 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), notably EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5n-3), DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6n-3), and ARA (arachidonic acid, 20:4n-6), and their transformation into bioactive lipid mediators...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691670/non-occlusive-mesenteric-ischemia-nomi-in-parkinson-s-disease-case-report
#13
G Salamone, C Raspanti, L Licari, N Falco, G Rotolo, G Augello, G Melfa, G Gulotta
Non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI) is a severe pathological condition characterized by signs and symptoms of bowel obstruction, intestinal necrosis resulting from acute and/or chronic inadequate blood perfusion, in the absence of an organic vascular obstruction detectable by imaging techniques. A 64 years old man case with a history of Parkinson's disease in high-functioning levodopa treatment is presented. Clinical and radiological signs of intestinal obstruction were observed. He underwent surgical operation with total colectomy and terminal ileostomy for generalized secondary peritonitis due to perforation of sigmoid colon...
March 2017: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661099/self-administration-of-methamphetamine-alters-gut-biomarkers-of-toxicity
#14
Amanda Flack, Amanda L Persons, Sharanya M Kousik, T Celeste Napier, Anna Moszczynska
Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly abused psychostimulant that is associated with an increased risk for developing Parkinson's disease (PD). This enhanced vulnerability likely relates to the toxic effects of METH that overlap with PD pathology, for example, aberrant functioning of α-synuclein and parkin. In PD, peripheral factors are thought to contribute to central nervous system (CNS) degeneration. For example, α-synuclein levels in the enteric nervous system (ENS) are elevated, and this precedes the onset of motor symptoms...
August 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660090/colonic-oxidative-and-mitochondrial-function-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-idiopathic-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#15
C Morén, Í González-Casacuberta, J Navarro-Otano, D Juárez-Flores, D Vilas, G Garrabou, J C Milisenda, C Pont-Sunyer, M Catalán-García, M Guitart-Mampel, E Tobías, F Cardellach, F Valldeoriola, A Iranzo, E Tolosa
OBJECTIVE: To determine potential mitochondrial and oxidative alterations in colon biopsies from idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) subjects. METHODS: Colonic biopsies from 7 iRBD subjects, 9 subjects with clinically diagnosed PD, and 9 healthy controls were homogenized in 5% w/v mannitol. Citrate synthase (CS) and complex I (CI) were analyzed spectrophotometrically. Oxidative damage was assessed either by lipid peroxidation, through malondialdehyde and hydroxyalkenal content by spectrophotometry, or through antioxidant enzyme levels of superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2), glutathione peroxidase-1 (Gpx1), and catalase (CAT) by western blot...
2017: Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651752/colonic-diverticular-disease-a-new-risk-factor-for-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Antonella Macerollo, Ming-Kuei Lu, Hui-Chun Huang, Hsuan-Ju Chen, Che-Chen Lin, Chia-Hung Kao, Chon-Haw Tsai, Jui-Cheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Colonic diverticular disease is a chronic gastrointestinal disorder. Previous studies have suggested that chronic gastrointestinal tract is involved in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. OBJECT: This study investigated the potential link between colonic diverticular disease and risk of Parkinson's disease. METHODS: Data in this nationwide population-based cohort study were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database...
September 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649615/imaging-parkinson-s-disease-below-the-neck
#17
Per Borghammer, Karoline Knudsen, Tatyana D Fedorova, David J Brooks
Parkinson's disease is a systemic disorder with widespread and early α-synuclein pathology in the autonomic and enteric nervous systems, which is present throughout the gastrointestinal canal prior to diagnosis. Gastrointestinal and genitourinary autonomic symptoms often predate clinical diagnosis by several years. It has been hypothesized that progressive α-synuclein aggregation is initiated in hyperbranched, non-myelinated neuron terminals, and may subsequently spread via retrograde axonal transport. This would explain why autonomic nerves are so prone to formation of α-synuclein pathology...
2017: NPJ Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615430/characterization-of-patients-with-longstanding-idiopathic-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#18
Alex Iranzo, Ambra Stefani, Monica Serradell, Maria Jose Martí, Francisco Lomeña, Philipp Mahlknecht, Heike Stockner, Carles Gaig, Ana Fernández-Arcos, Werner Poewe, Eduard Tolosa, Birgit Högl, Joan Santamaria
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of prodromal markers of Parkinson disease (PD) in patients with longstanding idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (IRBD), a small subgroup of individuals with IRBD with long-term follow-up thought not to be at risk of developing PD. METHODS: Demographic, clinical, and neuroimaging markers of PD were evaluated in 20 patients with polysomnographic-confirmed longstanding IRBD and in 32 matched controls. RESULTS: Patients were 16 men and 4 women with mean age of 72...
July 18, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579759/a-randomized-trial-of-individual-versus-group-format-exercise-and-self-management-in-individuals-with-parkinson-s-disease-and-comorbid-depression
#19
Martha Sajatovic, Angela L Ridgel, Ellen M Walter, Curtis M Tatsuoka, Kari Colón-Zimmermann, Riane K Ramsey, Elisabeth Welter, Steven A Gunzler, Christina M Whitney, Benjamin L Walter
BACKGROUND: Depression is common in people with Parkinson's disease (PD), and exercise is known to improve depression and PD. However, lack of motivation and low self-efficacy can make exercise difficult for people with PD and comorbid depression (PD-Dep). A combined group exercise and chronic disease self-management (CDSM) program may improve the likeli-hood that individuals will engage in exercise and will show a reduction in depression symptoms. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in depression in PD-Dep between individual versus group exercise plus CDSM and to examine participant adherence and perception of the interventions...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577926/macf1-versatility-in-tissue-specific-function-and-in-human-disease
#20
REVIEW
Lifang Hu, Yunyun Xiao, Zhipeng Xiong, Fan Zhao, Chong Yin, Yan Zhang, Peihong Su, Dijie Li, Zhihao Chen, Xiaoli Ma, Ge Zhang, Airong Qian
Spectraplakins are a family of evolutionarily conserved gigantic proteins and play critical roles in many cytoskeleton-related processes. Microtubule actin crosslinking factor 1 (MACF1) is one of the most versatile spectraplakin with multiple isoforms. As a broadly expressed mammalian spectraplakin, MACF1 is important in maintaining normal functions of many tissues. The loss-of-function studies using knockout mouse models reveal the pivotal roles of MACF1 in embryo development, skin integrity maintenance, neural development, bone formation, and colonic paracellular permeability...
May 31, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
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