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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718452/accuracy-of-activity-trackers-in-parkinson-disease-should-we-prescribe-them
#1
Nicholas Wendel, Chelsea E Macpherson, Karoline Webber, Kathryn Hendron, DeAngelis Tamara, Colon-Semenza Cristina, Terry Ellis
Background: Wearable, consumer-grade activity trackers have become widely available as a means of monitoring physical activity in the form of step counts. However, step counts may not be accurate in persons with Parkinson disease (PD) due to atypical gait characteristics. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the accuracy of 4 consumer-grade activity trackers in individuals with PD while ambulating during continuous and discontinuous walking tasks. Design: This study used a cross-sectional design...
April 30, 2018: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681846/high-dietary-iron-supplement-induces-the-nigrostriatal-dopaminergic-neurons-lesion-in-transgenic-mice-expressing-mutant-a53t-human-alpha-synuclein
#2
Fengju Jia, Ning Song, Weiwei Wang, Xixun Du, Yajing Chi, Hong Jiang
Both alpha-synuclein aggregation and iron deposits are neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD). We are particularly interested in whether iron could synergize with alpha-synuclein pathology in vivo , especially in the nigrostriatal system. In the present study, we reported transgenic mice with overexpressing human A53T alpha-synuclein, as well as WT mice with high dietary iron displayed hyperactive motor coordination and impaired colonic motility, compared with those with basal dietary iron...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543651/early-signs-of-colonic-inflammation-intestinal-dysfunction-and-olfactory-impairments-in-the-rotenone-induced-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#3
Lívia H Morais, Daniela B Hara, Maíra A Bicca, Anicleto Poli, Reinaldo N Takahashi
The factors that trigger the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) are unknown. However, it is suggested that environmental factors, such as exposure to pesticides, play an important role, in addition to genetic predisposition and aging. Early signs of PD can appear in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and in the olfactory system, preceding the onset of motor impairments by many years. The present study assessed the effects of oral rotenone administration (30 mg/kg) in inducing GI and olfactory dysfunctions associated with PD in mice...
April 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503124/the-immunological-functions-of-the-appendix-an-example-of-redundancy
#4
REVIEW
Mathilde J H Girard-Madoux, Mercedes Gomez de Agüero, Stephanie C Ganal-Vonarburg, Catherine Mooser, Gabrielle T Belz, Andrew J Macpherson, Eric Vivier
Biological redundancy ensures robustness in living organisms at several levels, from genes to organs. In this review, we explore the concept of redundancy and robustness through an analysis of the caecal appendix, an organ that is often considered to be a redundant remnant of evolution. However, phylogenic data show that the Appendix was selected during evolution and is unlikely to disappear once it appeared. In humans, it is highly conserved and malformations are extremely rare, suggesting a role for that structure...
April 2018: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471018/rotenone-induces-gastrointestinal-pathology-and-microbiota-alterations-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#5
Michaela E Johnson, Andrea Stringer, Larisa Bobrovskaya
While people are often aware of the motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), few know of the many non-motor symptoms, which patients report have a greater impact on their quality of life. Gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is one of the most common non-motor symptoms, which can occur at any stage of PD, even years prior to diagnosis, and can affect all sections along the GI tract causing a range of symptoms including drooling, gastroparesis and constipation. We have investigated whether a neurotoxin model of PD induced by rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, is capable of reproducing the GI dysfunction seen clinically...
March 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449201/peer-coaching-through-mhealth-targeting-physical-activity-in-people-with-parkinson-disease-feasibility-study
#6
Cristina Colón-Semenza, Nancy K Latham, Lisa M Quintiliani, Terry D Ellis
BACKGROUND: Long-term engagement in exercise and physical activity mitigates the progression of disability and increases quality of life in people with Parkinson disease (PD). Despite this, the vast majority of individuals with PD are sedentary. There is a critical need for a feasible, safe, acceptable, and effective method to assist those with PD to engage in active lifestyles. Peer coaching through mobile health (mHealth) may be a viable approach. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to develop a PD-specific peer coach training program and a remote peer-mentored walking program using mHealth technology with the goal of increasing physical activity in persons with PD...
February 15, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404956/bidirectional-neural-interaction-between-central-dopaminergic-and-gut-lesions-in-parkinson-s-disease-models
#7
Pablo Garrido-Gil, Ana I Rodriguez-Perez, Antonio Dominguez-Meijide, Maria J Guerra, Jose L Labandeira-Garcia
The exact mechanism of gut dysfunction in Parkinson's disease and, conversely, the role of gut pathology in brain dopaminergic degeneration are controversial. We investigated the effects of nigral lesions on the colonic neurotransmission, the effect of gut inflammation on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic function, and the possible involvement of the vagus nerve and the local renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Nigrostriatal dopamine depletion was performed by bilateral injection 6-hydroxydopamine, and gut inflammation was induced by dextran sulfate sodium salt treatment in rats and mice, respectively, with or without vagal disruption...
February 5, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385710/a-review-of-the-catalytic-mechanism-of-human-manganese-superoxide-dismutase
#8
REVIEW
Jahaun Azadmanesh, Gloria E O Borgstahl
Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are necessary antioxidant enzymes that protect cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Decreased levels of SODs or mutations that affect their catalytic activity have serious phenotypic consequences. SODs perform their bio-protective role by converting superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide by cyclic oxidation and reduction reactions with the active site metal. Mutations of SODs can cause cancer of the lung, colon, and lymphatic system, as well as neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis...
January 30, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355568/genomic-dna-levels-of-mutant-alpha-synuclein-correlate-with-non-motor-symptoms-in-an-a53t-parkinson-s-disease-mouse-model
#9
Weiwei Wang, Ning Song, Fengjv Jia, Tingting Tang, Weiqi Bao, Chuantao Zuo, Junxia Xie, Hong Jiang
Alpha-synuclein plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). A robust transgenic mouse model has been generated that overexpresses the mutant human A53T alpha-synuclein under the mouse prion protein gene promoter; these mice develop age-dependent motor deficits. Recently, compared to wild-type (WT) littermates, A53T alpha-synuclein mice were reported to display non-motor symptom deficits, e.g., anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors, odor discrimination and detection impairments, and gastrointestinal dysfunction, at 6 months of age or older...
March 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352191/oral-administration-of-proteus-mirabilis-damages-dopaminergic-neurons-and-motor-functions-in-mice
#10
Jin Gyu Choi, Namkwon Kim, In Gyoung Ju, Hyeyoon Eo, Su-Min Lim, Se-Eun Jang, Dong-Hyun Kim, Myung Sook Oh
Recently, studies on the relationship between gut dysbiosis and Parkinson's disease (PD) have increased, but whether a specific gut bacterium may cause PD remains unexplored. Here, we report, for the first time, that a specific gut bacterium directly induces PD symptoms and dopaminergic neuronal damage in the mouse brain. We found that the number of Enterobacteriaceae, particularly Proteus mirabilis, markedly and commonly increased in PD mouse models. Administration of P. mirabilis isolated from PD mice significantly induced motor deficits, selectively caused dopaminergic neuronal damage and inflammation in substantia nigra and striatum, and stimulated α-synuclein aggregation in the brain as well as in the colon...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350301/constipation-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-nuisance-or-nuanced-answer-to-the-pathophysiological-puzzle
#11
REVIEW
Amol Sharma, Julie Kurek, John C Morgan, Chandramohan Wakade, Satish S C Rao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic constipation is a common, nonmotor, and prodromal symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD). Its underlying neuropathology may provide pathophysiological insight into PD. Here, we critically review what is currently known about the neuroanatomical and brain-gut interactions, and the origin and progression of Lewy pathology (LP) at three levels-brain/brainstem, spinal cord, and enteric nervous system. RECENT FINDINGS: Many recent studies have illustrated the challenges of examining LP in tissues obtained from colon biopsies of PD patients...
January 19, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341898/induction-of-alpha-synuclein-pathology-in-the-enteric-nervous-system-of-the-rat-and-non-human-primate-results-in-gastrointestinal-dysmotility-and-transient-cns-pathology
#12
Fredric P Manfredsson, Kelvin C Luk, Matthew J Benskey, Aysegul Guezer, Joanna Garcia, Nathan C Kuhn, Ivette M Sandoval, Joseph R Patterson, Alana O'Mara, Reid Yonkers, Jeffrey H Kordower
Alpha-Synuclein (α-syn) is by far the most highly vetted pathogenic and therapeutic target in Parkinson's disease. Aggregated α-syn is present in sporadic Parkinson's disease, both in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). The enteric division of the PNS is of particular interest because 1) gastric dysfunction is a key clinical manifestation of Parkinson's disease, and 2) Lewy pathology in myenteric and submucosal neurons of the enteric nervous system (ENS) has been referred to as stage zero in the Braak pathological staging of Parkinson's disease...
January 13, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189256/enteric-pathologic-manifestations-of-alpha-synucleinopathies
#13
Michael Punsoni, Joseph H Friedman, Murray Resnick, John E Donahue, Dong Fang Yang, Edward G Stopa
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms are common in Parkinson disease (PD), often preceding neurological manifestations; however, early diagnostic utility of GI biopsies remains controversial. Studies suggest aberrant deposition of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) follows step-wise progression in central nervous system though histologic interpretation of normal and aberrant staining patterns have shown variable results. This study examines whether GI α-syn mRNA expression combined with standard α-syn immunohistochemical staining enhance the role of GI biopsy in PD...
November 20, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147138/an-update-on-prucalopride-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-constipation
#14
REVIEW
Anam Omer, Eamonn M M Quigley
Chronic constipation (CC) is a highly prevalent and often under-appreciated gastrointestinal disorder associated with significant impairment in quality of life. Symptoms of constipation are typically present for a number of years prior to a patient seeking help. Lifestyle modifications followed by, or coupled with, over-the-counter laxatives represent the initial treatment option; however, relief for many is limited and dissatisfaction rates for these approaches remain high. Over recent years, therefore, considerable effort has been exerted on the development of novel pharmacological approaches...
November 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107086/age-dependent-elevations-of-oligomeric-and-phosphorylated-alpha-synuclein-synchronously-occurs-in-the-brain-and-gastrointestinal-tract-of-cynomolgus-monkeys
#15
Xin Li, Weiwei Yang, Xuran Li, Min Chen, Chengwei Liu, Shun Yu
Fibrillary α-synuclein (α-syn), which constitutes the major component of Lewy pathology characterized for Parkinson's disease (PD), is found also in the aged enteric nervous system (ENS) and central nervous system (CNS). However, what happens to oligomeric α-syn (o-α-syn) in the aged ENS and CNS remains poorly understood. Here, by using ELISA methods specific for o-α-syn and phosphorylated α-syn (p-α-syn), we measured the levels of o-α-syn and p-α-syn in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and brain of aging cynomolgus monkeys...
October 26, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055387/the-colon-revisited-or-the-key-to-wellness-health-and-disease
#16
C A Gonzalez-Correa, E Mulett-Vásquez, D A Miranda, C H Gonzalez-Correa, P A Gómez-Buitrago
The hypothesis being advanced in this paper is that there is a new medical paradigm emerging from the biomedical research carried out in this century, mainly due to the explosion of the so called "omics" and associated techniques. The main idea is that there is a common pathway from wellbeing and health to chronic disease ("chronopathy") and even to death, which comprises following steps: 1) unhealthy diet, sedentary life style and permanent exposition to xenobiotics and all kinds of noxious stimuli;→2) intestinal dysbiosis;→3) alteration of the intestinal mucus layer (especially that of the colon);→4) disruption of the endothelial tight junctions;→5) metabolic endotoxemia+bacterial translocation;→6) inflammation;→7) exacerbation of the enteric nervous system (ENS) and consequent maladaptation and malfunctioning of the colon;→8) epigenetic manifestations;→9) "chronopathy" and premature death...
October 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991675/sodium-butyrate-exerts-protective-effect-against-parkinson-s-disease-in-mice-via-stimulation-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1
#17
Jiaming Liu, Fangyan Wang, Suzhi Liu, Jimei Du, Xuezhen Hu, Jiaojiao Xiong, Renchi Fang, Wenqian Chen, Jing Sun
Sodium butyrate (NaB) has exhibited protective activity in neurological disorders. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect and potential mechanisms of NaB in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). A mouse was intraperitoneally treated with MPTP (30mg/kg) for 7 consecutive days to induce PD model and NaB (200mg/kg) was intragastrically treated for 3weeks. The behavioral tests were then conducted. Dopaminergic degeneration was evaluated by western blot and immunohistochemistry of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the SN...
October 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923294/fundamental-limit-of-alpha-synuclein-pathology-in-gastrointestinal-biopsy-as-a-pathologic-biomarker-of-parkinson-s-disease-comparison-with-surgical-specimens
#18
Chaewon Shin, Sung-Hye Park, Ji Young Yun, Jung Hwan Shin, Han-Kwang Yang, Hyuk-Joon Lee, Seong-Ho Kong, Yun-Suhk Suh, Guangxun Shen, Yoon Kim, Han-Joon Kim, Beomseok Jeon
OBJECTIVE: Alpha-synuclein (AS) accumulation identified by immunohistochemistry (IHC) of gastrointestinal (GI) tract biopsies is considered as a potential pathologic biomarker for Parkinson's disease (PD). We compared AS IHC findings in biopsy specimens and surgically resected full-depth specimens to examine the reliability of GI tract biopsies. METHODS: We included patients with PD who had undergone operation of the GI tract for treatment of tumors. Controls were matched with age at operation, gender, and surgical resection site...
November 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891262/more-than-constipation-bowel-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-their-connection-to-gut-microbiota
#19
T H Mertsalmi, V T E Aho, P A B Pereira, L Paulin, E Pekkonen, P Auvinen, F Scheperjans
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The majority of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients suffer from gastrointestinal symptoms of which constipation is considered the most prominent. Recently, in addition to constipation, a diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) was also found to be associated with increased PD risk. Gut microbiota alterations have been reported in IBS and recently also in PD. IBS-like bowel symptoms in PD and their possible connection to other non-motor symptoms and faecal microbiota were assessed...
November 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887374/rem-sleep-behavior-disorder-is-related-to-enteric-neuropathology-in-parkinson-disease
#20
Laurène Leclair-Visonneau, Thomas Clairembault, Emmanuel Coron, Séverine Le Dily, Fabienne Vavasseur, Marie Dalichampt, Yann Péréon, Michel Neunlist, Pascal Derkinderen
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in Parkinson disease (PD) is associated with lesions and dysfunctions of the autonomic nervous system by evaluating enteric phosphorylated α-synuclein histopathology (PASH) and permeability. METHODS: A total of 45 patients with PD were included in this cross-sectional study. RBD was diagnosed on the basis of a standardized clinical interview and confirmed by polysomnography. For each patient, 5 biopsies were taken at the junction between the sigmoid and descending colon during the course of a rectosigmoidoscopy...
October 10, 2017: Neurology
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