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colon parkinson's disease

F Giancola, F Torresan, R Repossi, F Bianco, R Latorre, A Ioannou, M Guarino, U Volta, P Clavenzani, M Mazzoni, R Chiocchetti, F Bazzoli, R A Travagli, C Sternini, R De Giorgio
BACKGROUND: Chronic constipation (CC) is a common and severe gastrointestinal complaint in Parkinson's disease (PD), but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. This study evaluated functionally distinct submucosal neurons in relation to colonic motility and anorectal function in PD patients with constipation (PD/CC) vs both CC and controls. METHODS: Twenty-nine PD/CC and 10 Rome III-defined CC patients were enrolled. Twenty asymptomatic age-sex matched subjects served as controls...
November 27, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Karoline Knudsen, Klaus Krogh, Karen Østergaard, Per Borghammer
Constipation is among the first nonmotor symptoms to develop in the prodromal phase of PD. Pathological alpha-synuclein deposition is present throughout the gastrointestinal tract up to 20 years preceding diagnosis. Nevertheless, constipation in the context of PD remains ill defined and poorly understood. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of subjective symptoms and objective measures of constipation in PD. More than 10 different definitions of constipation have been used in the PD literature, making generalizations difficult...
November 22, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Andrew Su, Rita Gandhy, Carrolee Barlow, George Triadafilopoulos
BACKGROUND: The aetiology of constipation in Parkinson's disease remains poorly understood. Defaecatory dyssynergia, anal sphincter spasticity and slow transit constipation may, individually or collectively, play a role. AIMS: In this retrospective cohort analysis of patients with Parkinson's disease and chronic constipation, we determined the utility of high-resolution anorectal manometry, balloon expulsion and wireless motility capsule testing in defining the underlying aetiology for constipation...
2016: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
Joong-Seok Kim, In-Seok Park, Hyung-Eun Park, Su-Young Kim, Jung A Yun, Chan Kwon Jung, Hye-Young Sung, Jin-Kwon Lee, Won-Kyung Kang
Extranigral non-motor signs precede the first motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease by many years in some patients. The presence of α-synuclein deposition within colon tissues in patients with Parkinson's disease can aid in identifying early neuropathological changes prior to disease onset. In the present study, we evaluated the roles of non-motor symptoms and signs and imaging biomarkers of nigral neuronal changes and α-synuclein accumulation in the colon. Twelve subjects undergoing colectomy for primary colon cancer were recruited for this study...
November 1, 2016: Neurological Sciences
Fuyuki Tateno, Ryuji Sakakibara, Yosuke Aiba, Yohei Tsuyusaki, Masahiko Kishi, Hiromi Tateno, Tsuyoshi Ogata
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
A S Baumuratov, P M A Antony, M Ostaszewski, F He, L Salamanca, L Antunes, J Weber, L Longhino, P Derkinderen, W J H Koopman, N J Diederich
Based on autopsy material mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed being part of the pathophysiological cascade of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, in living patients, evidence for such dysfunction is scarce. As the disease presumably starts at the enteric level, we studied ganglionic and mitochondrial morphometrics of enteric neurons. We compared 65 ganglia from 11 PD patients without intestinal symptoms and 41 ganglia from 4 age-matched control subjects. We found that colon ganglia from PD patients had smaller volume, contained significantly more mitochondria per ganglion volume, and displayed a higher total mitochondrial mass relative to controls...
2016: Scientific Reports
Thomas G Beach, Anne-Gaëlle Corbillé, Franck Letournel, Jeffrey H Kordower, Thomas Kremer, David G Munoz, Anthony Intorcia, Joseph Hentz, Charles H Adler, Lucia I Sue, Jessica Walker, Geidy Serrano, Pascal Derkinderen
BACKGROUND: Conflicting results from studies of Lewy-type α-synucleinopathy (LTS) in colonic biopsies of subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) prompted a two-part multicenter assessment. The first assessment, now published (Acta Neuropathol Commun 4 : 35, 2016), examined archived colonic biopsies and found that none of the tested methods was adequately sensitive or specific. OBJECTIVE: As the amount of nervous tissue in typical colonic biopsies may be insufficient, and the clinical diagnosis of PD not completely accurate, the objective of the current study was to use instead full-thickness sections of sigmoid colon from autopsy-proven PD and normal subjects...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
P Stirpe, M Hoffman, D Badiali, C Colosimo
Constipation is the most prominent and disabling manifestation of lower gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD). The prevalence of constipation in PD patients ranges from 24.6% to 63%; this variability is due to the different criteria used to define constipation and to the type of population enrolled in the studies. In addition, constipation may play an active role in the pathophysiological changes that underlie motor fluctuations in advanced PD through its negative effects on absorption of levodopa...
November 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
Laurent Antunes, Sonia Frasquilho, Marek Ostaszewski, Jos Weber, Laura Longhino, Paul Antony, Aidos Baumuratov, Manuel Buttini, Kathleen M Shannon, Rudi Balling, Nico J Diederich
BACKGROUND: The gut is proposed as a starting point of idiopathic IPD, but the presence of α-synuclein in the IPD colon mucosa is debated. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate if α-synuclein in the colon mucosa can serve as a biomarker of IPD. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to locate and quantify in a blinded approach α-synuclein in the mucosa from biopsies of the right and left colon in 19 IPD patients and 8 controls...
June 21, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
José Ruiz Pardo, Noelia Ibáñez Cánovas, Jesús Abrisqueta Carrión, Juan Antonio Luján Mompeán, Pascual Parrilla Paricio
An 84-year-old woman presented to her local emergency department for abdominal pain. Her medical history included hemodialysis in the treatment of chronic renal failure, Parkinson's disease, chronic atrial fibrillation, chronic constipation, appendicectomy and cholecystectomy. The patient complained of diffuse abdominal pain for 4 days, associated with nausea and vomiting in the last 24 hours. Physical examination revealed a soft and depressible abdomen, diffusely painful, without signs of peritoneal irritation...
June 2016: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
Carolina Pellegrini, Matteo Fornai, Rocchina Colucci, Erika Tirotta, Fabio Blandini, Giovanna Levandis, Silvia Cerri, Cristina Segnani, Chiara Ippolito, Nunzia Bernardini, Karolina Cseri, Corrado Blandizzi, György Haskó, Luca Antonioli
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is frequently associated with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, including constipation and defecatory dysfunctions. The mechanisms underlying such disorders are still largely unknown, although the occurrence of a bowel inflammatory condition has been hypothesized. This study examined the impact of central dopaminergic degeneration, induced by intranigral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), on distal colonic excitatory tachykininergic motility in rats...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Jarosław Suchański, Maciej Ugorski
Sulfatides (3-O-sulfogalactosylceramides, sulfated galactocerebrosides, SM4) are esters of sulfuric acid with galactosylceramides. These acidic glycosphingolipids, present at the external leaflet of the plasma membrane, are synthesized by a variety of mammalian cells. They are especially abundant in the myelin sheath of oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system. Studies using cerebroside galactosyltransferase-deficient mice revealed that sulfatides are responsible for proper structure and functioning of myelin...
2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Chava Peretz, Ron Gurel, Violet Rozani, Tanya Gurevich, Baruch El-Ad, Judith Tsamir, Nir Giladi
OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidences of any cancer and specific types among patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) in a 10-yrs time window around diagnosis, to that of the general population. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, retrospective large-scale cohort study on 7125 newly diagnosed PD patients who had just initiated anti-parkinsonian medications between 1.1.2000 and 12.31.2012; all members of Maccabi Health Services (MHS), a large Israeli HMO. Cancer incidence during the same period was collected from MHS cancer-registry...
July 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Gunasekaran Suwarnalata, Ai Huey Tan, Hidayah Isa, Ranganath Gudimella, Arif Anwar, Mun Fai Loke, Sanjiv Mahadeva, Shen-Yang Lim, Jamuna Vadivelu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common chronic and progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Its etiology remains elusive and at present only symptomatic treatments exists. Helicobacter pylori chronically colonizes the gastric mucosa of more than half of the global human population. Interestingly, H. pylori positivity has been found to be associated with greater of PD motor severity. In order to investigate the underlying cause of this association, the Sengenics Immunome protein array, which enables simultaneous screening for autoantibodies against 1636 human proteins, was used to screen the serum of 30 H...
2016: PloS One
Anne-Gaëlle Corbillé, Franck Letournel, Jeffrey H Kordower, John Lee, Elisheva Shanes, Michel Neunlist, David G Munoz, Pascal Derkinderen, Thomas G Beach
The observation showing that Lewy type synucleinopathy (LTS), the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD), is found in the gut of almost all PD subjects led to a substantial amount of research to develop a diagnostic procedure in living patients based on endoscopically obtained gastrointestinal biopsies. However, the existing studies have provided conflicting results regarding the sensitivity and specificity of gastrointestinal biopsies for the detection of LTS. We therefore undertook a multi-center staining and blinded judging of a common set of slides from colonic biopsies to determine the optimal protocol for the detection of LTS...
2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Sun Ju Chung, Juyeon Kim, Hyo Jeong Lee, Ho-Sung Ryu, Kiju Kim, Jeong Hoon Lee, Kee Wook Jung, Mi Jung Kim, Mi-Jung Kim, Young Jin Kim, Sung-Cheol Yun, Joo-Yong Lee, Seung-Mo Hong, Seung-Jae Myung
BACKGROUND: Gastric and colonic alpha-synuclein immunoreactivity has been reported in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, enteric alpha-synuclein also has been reported in healthy individuals. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the utility of alpha-synuclein immunoreactivity from gastric and colonic mucosal tissues obtained by routine endoscopy to detect PD, and to correlate the pathological burden of alpha-synuclein with motor and nonmotor features of PD...
February 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Matteo Fornai, Carolina Pellegrini, Luca Antonioli, Cristina Segnani, Chiara Ippolito, Elisabetta Barocelli, Vigilio Ballabeni, Gaia Vegezzi, Zainab Al Harraq, Fabio Blandini, Giovanna Levandis, Silvia Cerri, Corrado Blandizzi, Nunzia Bernardini, Rocchina Colucci
Parkinson's disease is frequently associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, mostly represented by constipation and defecatory dysfunctions. This study examined the impact of central dopaminergic denervation, induced by injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the medial forebrain bundle, on distal colonic excitatory cholinergic neuromotor activity in rats. Animals were euthanized 4 and 8 weeks after 6-OHDA injection. In vivo colonic transit was evaluated by radiologic assay. Electrically induced and carbachol-induced cholinergic contractions were recorded in vitro from longitudinal and circular muscle colonic preparations, whereas acetylcholine levels were assayed in the incubation media...
February 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Michaela E Johnson, Yoon Lim, Manjula Senthilkumaran, Xin-Fu Zhou, Larisa Bobrovskaya
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, the rate limiting-enzyme in catecholamine synthesis) is regulated acutely via phosphorylation of 3 serine residues--Ser19, 31 and 40, and chronically via changes in TH protein levels. In this study, we aimed to investigate how TH is regulated in the brain, gut and adrenal gland as well as changes in mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (mBDNF) and proBDNF levels in a low-dose (2 mg/kg, 5 days/week for 4 weeks) rotenone model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Rearing behaviour decreased by week 3 in the rotenone group (p<0...
December 2015: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
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