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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220542/the-gut-microbiome-in-human-neurological-disease-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Helen Tremlett, Kylynda C Bauer, Silke Appel-Cresswell, Brett B Finlay, Emmanuelle Waubant
Almost half the cells and 1% of the unique genes found in our bodies are human, the rest are from microbes; predominantly bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses. These microorganisms collectively form the human microbiota, with most colonizing the gut. Recent technological advances, open access data-libraries, and application of high throughput sequencing have allowed these microbes to be identified and their contribution to neurological health examined. Emerging evidence links perturbations in the gut microbiota to neurological disease, including disease risk, activity, and progression...
February 21, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157109/objective-colonic-dysfunction-is-far-more-prevalent-than-subjective-constipation-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-colon-transit-and-volume-study
#2
Karoline Knudsen, Tatyana D Fedorova, Anne C Bekker, Peter Iversen, Karen Østergaard, Klaus Krogh, Per Borghammer
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal function has received increased interest in the context of Parkinson's disease (PD). Constipation is among the most frequent non-motor symptoms, but our understanding of the underlying pathology is limited. Subjective constipation correlates poorly with objective markers. OBJECTIVE: The aims were to evaluate colonic transit time and volume in PD and to correlate these measures with subjective symptoms and gastric emptying. METHODS: Thirty-two PD patients and 26 controls were included...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126589/biochemical-analysis-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-extracted-from-control-and-parkinson-s-disease-colonic-biopsies
#3
Anne-Gaëlle Corbillé, Cécile Preterre, Malvyne Rolli-Derkinderen, Emmanuel Coron, Michel Neunlist, Thibaud Lebouvier, Pascal Derkinderen
Lewy bodies and neurites, the pathological hallmarks found in the brain of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, are primarily composed of aggregated and hyperphosphorylated alpha-synuclein. The observation that alpha-synuclein inclusions are also found in the gut of the vast majority of parkinsonian patients has led to an increasing number of studies aimed at developing diagnostic procedures based on the detection of pathological alpha-synuclein in gastrointestinal biopsies. The previous studies, which have all used immunohistochemistry for the detection of alpha-synuclein, have provided conflicting results...
January 23, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100726/decreased-intestinal-acetylcholinesterase-in-early-parkinson-disease-an-11c-donepezil-pet-study
#4
Tatyana D Fedorova, Louise B Seidelin, Karoline Knudsen, Anna C Schacht, Jacob Geday, Nicola Pavese, David J Brooks, Per Borghammer
OBJECTIVE: To investigate systemic levels of acetylcholinesterase in early Parkinson disease (PD) with (11)C-donepezil PET, a potential marker of parasympathetic innervation. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with 19 patients with early-stage PD (disease duration 1.5 ± 0.6 years) and 16 age-matched controls who had clinical assessments, olfaction tests, and (11)C-donepezil PET to measure acetylcholinesterase density in peripheral organs. RESULTS: The patients with PD showed significantly reduced (11)C-donepezil uptake in the small intestine (-14%, p = 0...
January 18, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090391/neurotoxin-induced-catecholaminergic-loss-in-the-colonic-myenteric-plexus-of-rhesus-monkeys
#5
Jeanette M Shultz, Henry Resnikoff, Viktorya Bondarenko, Valerie Joers, Andres Mejia, Heather Simmons, Marina E Emborg
OBJECTIVE: Constipation is a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although pathology of the enteric nervous system (ENS) has been associated with constipation in PD, the contribution of catecholaminergic neurodegeneration to this symptom is currently debated. The goal of this study was to assess the effects of the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) on the colonic myenteric plexus and shed light on the role of catecholaminergic innervation in gastrointestinal (GI) function...
November 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinsonism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069931/the-search-for-a-peripheral-biopsy-indicator-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-pathology-for-parkinson-disease
#6
REVIEW
John M Lee, Pascal Derkinderen, Jeffrey H Kordower, Roy Freeman, David G Munoz, Thomas Kremer, Wagner Zago, Samantha J Hutten, Charles H Adler, Geidy E Serrano, Thomas G Beach
The neuropathological hallmark of Parkinson disease (PD) is abnormal accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn). Demonstrating pathological α-syn in live patients would be useful for identifying and monitoring PD patients. To date, however, imaging and biofluid approaches have not permitted premortem assessment of pathological α-syn. α-syn pathology in the peripheral nervous system of patients with PD has been demonstrated in studies dating back more than 40 years. More recent work suggests that colon, submandibular gland and skin biopsies could be useful as expedient biomarkers but histological differentiation of pathological and normal peripheral α-syn has been challenging and multiple research groups have reported variable results...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912057/gut-microbiota-regulate-motor-deficits-and-neuroinflammation-in-a-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Timothy R Sampson, Justine W Debelius, Taren Thron, Stefan Janssen, Gauri G Shastri, Zehra Esra Ilhan, Collin Challis, Catherine E Schretter, Sandra Rocha, Viviana Gradinaru, Marie-Francoise Chesselet, Ali Keshavarzian, Kathleen M Shannon, Rosa Krajmalnik-Brown, Pernilla Wittung-Stafshede, Rob Knight, Sarkis K Mazmanian
The intestinal microbiota influence neurodevelopment, modulate behavior, and contribute to neurological disorders. However, a functional link between gut bacteria and neurodegenerative diseases remains unexplored. Synucleinopathies are characterized by aggregation of the protein α-synuclein (αSyn), often resulting in motor dysfunction as exemplified by Parkinson's disease (PD). Using mice that overexpress αSyn, we report herein that gut microbiota are required for motor deficits, microglia activation, and αSyn pathology...
December 1, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891695/downregulation-of-neuronal-vasoactive-intestinal-polypeptide-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-chronic-constipation
#8
F Giancola, F Torresan, R Repossi, F Bianco, R Latorre, A Ioannou, M Guarino, U Volta, P Clavenzani, M Mazzoni, R Chiocchetti, F Bazzoli, R A Travagli, C Sternini, R De Giorgio
BACKGROUND: Chronic constipation (CC) is a common and severe gastrointestinal complaint in Parkinson's disease (PD), but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. This study evaluated functionally distinct submucosal neurons in relation to colonic motility and anorectal function in PD patients with constipation (PD/CC) vs both CC and controls. METHODS: Twenty-nine PD/CC and 10 Rome III-defined CC patients were enrolled. Twenty asymptomatic age-sex matched subjects served as controls...
November 27, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873359/constipation-in-parkinson-s-disease-subjective-symptoms-objective-markers-and-new-perspectives
#9
REVIEW
Karoline Knudsen, Klaus Krogh, Karen Østergaard, Per Borghammer
Constipation is among the first nonmotor symptoms to develop in the prodromal phase of PD. Pathological alpha-synuclein deposition is present throughout the gastrointestinal tract up to 20 years preceding diagnosis. Nevertheless, constipation in the context of PD remains ill defined and poorly understood. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of subjective symptoms and objective measures of constipation in PD. More than 10 different definitions of constipation have been used in the PD literature, making generalizations difficult...
November 22, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843572/utility-of-high-resolution-anorectal-manometry-and-wireless-motility-capsule-in-the-evaluation-of-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-and-chronic-constipation
#10
Andrew Su, Rita Gandhy, Carrolee Barlow, George Triadafilopoulos
BACKGROUND: The aetiology of constipation in Parkinson's disease remains poorly understood. Defaecatory dyssynergia, anal sphincter spasticity and slow transit constipation may, individually or collectively, play a role. AIMS: In this retrospective cohort analysis of patients with Parkinson's disease and chronic constipation, we determined the utility of high-resolution anorectal manometry, balloon expulsion and wireless motility capsule testing in defining the underlying aetiology for constipation...
2016: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803984/%C3%AE-synuclein-in-the-colon-and-premotor-markers-of-parkinson-disease-in-neurologically-normal-subjects
#11
Joong-Seok Kim, In-Seok Park, Hyung-Eun Park, Su-Young Kim, Jung A Yun, Chan Kwon Jung, Hye-Young Sung, Jin-Kwon Lee, Won-Kyung Kang
Extranigral non-motor signs precede the first motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease by many years in some patients. The presence of α-synuclein deposition within colon tissues in patients with Parkinson's disease can aid in identifying early neuropathological changes prior to disease onset. In the present study, we evaluated the roles of non-motor symptoms and signs and imaging biomarkers of nigral neuronal changes and α-synuclein accumulation in the colon. Twelve subjects undergoing colectomy for primary colon cancer were recruited for this study...
January 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701730/stercoral-ulcer-and-colonic-perforation-in-an-individual-with-parkinson-s-disease-with-constipation
#12
Fuyuki Tateno, Ryuji Sakakibara, Yosuke Aiba, Yohei Tsuyusaki, Masahiko Kishi, Hiromi Tateno, Tsuyoshi Ogata
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 4, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27624977/enteric-neurons-from-parkinson-s-disease-patients-display-ex-vivo-aberrations-in-mitochondrial-structure
#13
A S Baumuratov, P M A Antony, M Ostaszewski, F He, L Salamanca, L Antunes, J Weber, L Longhino, P Derkinderen, W J H Koopman, N J Diederich
Based on autopsy material mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed being part of the pathophysiological cascade of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, in living patients, evidence for such dysfunction is scarce. As the disease presumably starts at the enteric level, we studied ganglionic and mitochondrial morphometrics of enteric neurons. We compared 65 ganglia from 11 PD patients without intestinal symptoms and 41 ganglia from 4 age-matched control subjects. We found that colon ganglia from PD patients had smaller volume, contained significantly more mitochondria per ganglion volume, and displayed a higher total mitochondrial mass relative to controls...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27589538/multicenter-assessment-of-immunohistochemical-methods-for-pathological-alpha-synuclein-in-sigmoid-colon-of-autopsied-parkinson-s-disease-and-control-subjects
#14
Thomas G Beach, Anne-Gaëlle Corbillé, Franck Letournel, Jeffrey H Kordower, Thomas Kremer, David G Munoz, Anthony Intorcia, Joseph Hentz, Charles H Adler, Lucia I Sue, Jessica Walker, Geidy Serrano, Pascal Derkinderen
BACKGROUND: Conflicting results from studies of Lewy-type α-synucleinopathy (LTS) in colonic biopsies of subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) prompted a two-part multicenter assessment. The first assessment, now published (Acta Neuropathol Commun 4 : 35, 2016), examined archived colonic biopsies and found that none of the tested methods was adequately sensitive or specific. OBJECTIVE: As the amount of nervous tissue in typical colonic biopsies may be insufficient, and the clinical diagnosis of PD not completely accurate, the objective of the current study was to use instead full-thickness sections of sigmoid colon from autopsy-proven PD and normal subjects...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27444575/constipation-an-emerging-risk-factor-for-parkinson-s-disease
#15
P Stirpe, M Hoffman, D Badiali, C Colosimo
Constipation is the most prominent and disabling manifestation of lower gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD). The prevalence of constipation in PD patients ranges from 24.6% to 63%; this variability is due to the different criteria used to define constipation and to the type of population enrolled in the studies. In addition, constipation may play an active role in the pathophysiological changes that underlie motor fluctuations in advanced PD through its negative effects on absorption of levodopa...
November 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27364746/parkinson-disease-no-diagnostic-value-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-staining-of-the-colon-mucosa-in-idiopathic-parkinson-disease
#16
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27324838/similar-%C3%AE-synuclein-staining-in-the-colon-mucosa-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-and-controls
#17
Laurent Antunes, Sonia Frasquilho, Marek Ostaszewski, Jos Weber, Laura Longhino, Paul Antony, Aidos Baumuratov, Manuel Buttini, Kathleen M Shannon, Rudi Balling, Nico J Diederich
BACKGROUND: The gut is proposed as a starting point of idiopathic IPD, but the presence of α-synuclein in the IPD colon mucosa is debated. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate if α-synuclein in the colon mucosa can serve as a biomarker of IPD. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to locate and quantify in a blinded approach α-synuclein in the mucosa from biopsies of the right and left colon in 19 IPD patients and 8 controls...
June 21, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27324519/lanthanum-carbonate-has-a-radiopaque-appearance-on-the-plain-abdominal-radiography
#18
José Ruiz Pardo, Noelia Ibáñez Cánovas, Jesús Abrisqueta Carrión, Juan Antonio Luján Mompeán, Pascual Parrilla Paricio
An 84-year-old woman presented to her local emergency department for abdominal pain. Her medical history included hemodialysis in the treatment of chronic renal failure, Parkinson's disease, chronic atrial fibrillation, chronic constipation, appendicectomy and cholecystectomy. The patient complained of diffuse abdominal pain for 4 days, associated with nausea and vomiting in the last 24 hours. Physical examination revealed a soft and depressible abdomen, diffusely painful, without signs of peritoneal irritation...
June 2016: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27316915/french-intensive-care-society-international-congress-r%C3%A3-animation-2016
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27295950/alteration-of-colonic-excitatory-tachykininergic-motility-and-enteric-inflammation-following-dopaminergic-nigrostriatal-neurodegeneration
#20
Carolina Pellegrini, Matteo Fornai, Rocchina Colucci, Erika Tirotta, Fabio Blandini, Giovanna Levandis, Silvia Cerri, Cristina Segnani, Chiara Ippolito, Nunzia Bernardini, Karolina Cseri, Corrado Blandizzi, György Haskó, Luca Antonioli
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is frequently associated with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, including constipation and defecatory dysfunctions. The mechanisms underlying such disorders are still largely unknown, although the occurrence of a bowel inflammatory condition has been hypothesized. This study examined the impact of central dopaminergic degeneration, induced by intranigral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), on distal colonic excitatory tachykininergic motility in rats...
2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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