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Viral load monitoring

Niccoló Vendramin, Anna Luiza Farias Alencar, Tine Moesgaard Iburg, Maria Krudtaa Dahle, Øystein Wessel, Anne Berit Olsen, Espen Rimstad, Niels Jørgen Olesen
Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is endemic in farmed rainbow trout in continental Europe and in various salmonid fish species at the Pacific coast of North America. IHN has never occurred in European Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farms, but is considered as a major threat for the European salmon industry. Another virus, Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV), is widespread in the sea phase of Atlantic salmon, and is identified as the causative agent of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between a primary PRV infection and a secondary IHNV infection under experimental conditions...
March 13, 2018: Veterinary Research
Derek J Chan, Virginia Furner, Don E Smith, Mithilesh Dronavalli, Rohan I Bopage, Jeffrey J Post, Anjali K Bhardwaj
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of non-AIDS co-morbidities (NACs) and predictors of adverse health outcomes amongst people living with HIV in order to identify health needs and potential gaps in patient management. DESIGN: Retrospective, non-consecutive medical record audit of patients attending a publicly funded HIV clinic in metropolitan Sydney analysed for predictors of adverse health outcomes. We developed a scoring system based on the validated Charlson score method for NACs, mental health and social issues and confounders were selected using directed acyclic graph theory under the principles of causal inference...
March 8, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
L Li, Y Wang, C H Yan, X J Huang
Objective: To investigate the threshold of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNAemia for preemptive antiviral therapy in patients with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Methods: Viral load between 1×10(3) copies/ml and 5×10(3) copies/ml was defined as low viral load by real time Q-PCR. Clinical data and outcome were collected. Results: A total of 95 allo-HSCT recipients with low viral load from September 2014 to February 2015 were recruited in this study. The control group included 37 patients who received preemptive initial antiviral therapy...
March 1, 2018: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
Tafireyi Marukutira, Mark Stoové, Shahin Lockman, Lisa A Mills, Tendani Gaolathe, Refeletswe Lebelonyane, Joseph N Jarvis, Sherrie L Kelly, David P Wilson, Stanley Luchters, Suzanne M Crowe, Margaret Hellard
UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets and Fast-Track commitments are presented as precursors to ending the AIDS epidemic by 2030, through effecting a 90% reduction in new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths from 2010 levels (HIV epidemic control). Botswana, a low to middle-income country with the third-highest HIV prevalence, and Australia, a low-prevalence high-income country with an epidemic concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM), have made significant strides towards achieving the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets...
March 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Narendran Gopalan, Ramesh Kumar Santhanakrishnan, Alangudi Natarajan Palaniappan, Pradeep Aravindan Menon, Sekar Lakshman, Padmapriyadarsini Chandrasekaran, Gomathi Narayan Sivaramakrishnan, Devarajulu Reddy, Bhavani Perumal Kannabiran, Hemanth Kumar Kupparam Agiboth, Vijay Krishnamoorthy, Sridhar Rathinam, Chandrasekar Chockalingam, Tamizhselvan Manoharan, MahilMaran Ayyamperumal, Nalini Jayanthi, Kumar Satagopan, Ravichandran Narayanan, Raja Krishnaraja, Sekar Sathiyavelu, Bhanu Kesavamurthy, Chandra Suresh, Murugesan Selvachitiram, Gunasundari Arasan, Stella Susaimuthu, Prabhakaran Rathinam, Prabhakar Angamuthu, Lavanya Jayabal, Lakshmi Murali, Ranjani Ramachandran, Srikanth Prasad Tripathy, Soumya Swaminathan
Importance: The benefit of daily over thrice-weekly antituberculosis therapy among HIV-positive patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) who are receiving antiretroviral therapy remains unproven. Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of daily, part-daily, and intermittent antituberculosis therapy regimens in the treatment of HIV-associated pulmonary TB. Design, Setting, and Participants: This open-label, randomized clinical trial was conducted by the National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis, south India...
March 5, 2018: JAMA Internal Medicine
Randy G Mungwira, Titus H Divala, Osward M Nyirenda, Maxwell Kanjala, Francis Muwalo, Felix A Mkandawire, Augustine Choko, Terrie E Taylor, Jane Mallewa, Joep J van Oosterhout, Miriam K Laufer, Matthew B Laurens
OBJECTIVES: WHO recommends HIV viral-load (VL) testing six months after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and every 12 months thereafter, but cost prohibits routine, universal VL testing in many developing countries. We sought to devise a targeted approach to routine VL monitoring that could reduce cost and identify those at low risk for virologic failure (VF). METHODS: We analyzed screening data from a clinical trial enrolling adults on ART in Malawi. We identified risk factors associated with VF, and employed the Knill-Jones method to assign summary score identifying persons at lower risk for VF...
March 5, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Zibusiso Ndlovu, Emmanuel Fajardo, Elton Mbofana, Tatenda Maparo, Daniela Garone, Carol Metcalf, Helen Bygrave, Kekeletso Kao, Sekesai Zinyowera
BACKGROUND: HIV Viral Load and Early Infant Diagnosis technologies in many high burden settings are restricted to centralized laboratory testing, leading to long result turnaround times and patient attrition. GeneXpert (Cepheid, CA, USA) is a polyvalent near point-of-care platform and is widely implemented for Xpert MTB/RIF diagnosis. This study sought to evaluate the operational feasibility of integrated HIV VL, EID and MTB/RIF testing in new GeneXpert platforms. METHODS: Whole blood samples were collected from consenting patients due for routine HIV VL testing and DBS samples from infants due for EID testing, at three rural health facilities in Zimbabwe...
2018: PloS One
Anthea C Peters, Michael S Akinwumi, Carlos Cervera, Curtis Mabilangan, Sunita Ghosh, Raymond Lai, Marco Iafollo, Karen Doucette, Jutta K Preiksaitis
BACKGROUND: Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are a complication of solid organ transplantation (SOT) associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). METHODS: We analyzed the incidence of and risk factors for PTLD among adult SOT recipients at our center over 30 years (1984-2013). We also compared PTLD incidence before and after a prevention strategy of EBV viral load monitoring in EBV serology mismatched patients was adopted in 2001 (ie transplant era 1 (1983-2001) vs era 2 (2002-13))...
February 26, 2018: Transplantation
Hassan Noorbazargan, Seyed Alireza Nadji, Siamak Mirab Samiee, Mahdi Paryan, Samira Mohammadi-Yeganeh
Background Viral load measurement is commonly applicable to monitor HIV infection in patients to determine the number of HIV-RNA in serum samples of individuals. The aim of the present study was to set up a highly specific, sensitive, and reproducible home-brewed Real-time PCR assay based on TaqMan chemistry to quantify HIV-1 RNA genome. Methods In this study, three sets of primer pairs and a TaqMan probe were designed for HIV subtypes conserved sequences. An internal control was included in this assay to evaluate the presence of inhibition...
February 23, 2018: HIV Clinical Trials
Raj K Singh, Kuldeep Dhama, Rekha Khandia, Ashok Munjal, Kumaragurubaran Karthik, Ruchi Tiwari, Sandip Chakraborty, Yashpal S Malik, Rubén Bueno-Marí
Zika virus (ZIKV) is the most recent intruder that acquired the status of global threat creating panic and frightening situation to public owing to its rapid spread, attaining higher virulence and causing complex clinical manifestations including microcephaly in newborns and Guillain Barré Syndrome. Alike other flaviviruses, the principal mode of ZIKV transmission is by mosquitoes. Advances in research have provided reliable diagnostics for detecting ZIKV infection, while several drug/therapeutic targets and vaccine candidates have been identified recently...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sébastien Landry, Chi-Nan Chen, Nimish Patel, Alice Tseng, Richard G Lalonde, Denis Thibeault, Steven Sanche, Nancy L Sheehan
Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) constitutes a compelling approach for the optimization of antiretroviral therapy in treatment-experienced HIV-1 patients. While various inhibitory indices have been proposed to predict virologic outcome, there is a lack of consensus on the clinical value of TDM. Here, we report the comparative results of TDM in 14 HIV-1-infected patients who had previously received at least two different PI-based regimens and who initiated darunavir (DRV)-based salvage therapy. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) parameters were calculated for each subject...
February 16, 2018: Antiviral Research
Alain Amstutz, Bienvenu Lengo Nsakala, Fiona Vanobberghen, Josephine Muhairwe, Tracy Renée Glass, Beatrice Achieng, Mamorena Sepeka, Katleho Tlali, Lebohang Sao, Kyaw Thin, Thomas Klimkait, Manuel Battegay, Niklaus Daniel Labhardt
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends viral load (VL) measurement as the preferred monitoring strategy for HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings. The new WHO guidelines 2016 continue to define virologic failure as two consecutive VL ≥1000 copies/mL (at least 3 months apart) despite good adherence, triggering switch to second-line therapy. However, the threshold of 1000 copies/mL for defining virologic failure is based on low-quality evidence...
February 12, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Brian T Montague, Betsey John, Cara Sammartino, Michael Costa, Dawn Fukuda, Liza Solomon, Josiah D Rich
Incarcerated people remain a priority group in efforts to control and reverse the HIV epidemic. Following release, social instability and reengagement in key transmission risk behaviors increase the risk of secondary transmission of HIV. Targeted programs have been developed to facilitate reengagement in care on reentry. Evaluation of the impact of these initiatives requires a systematic, confidential, framework for assessment of linkage to care for persons released from corrections. By linking HIV viral load surveillance data to corrections release data, the time to the first laboratory monitoring service in the community as well as the virologic status can be assessed...
2018: PloS One
Amy L Slogrove, Annette H Sohn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to summarize recent evidence on the global epidemiology of adolescents (age 10-19 years) living with HIV (ALHIV), the burden of HIV on the health of adolescents and HIV-associated mortality. RECENT FINDINGS: In 2016, there were an estimated 2.1 million (uncertainty bound 1.4-2.7 million) ALHIV; 770 000 younger (age 10-14 years) and 1.03 million older (age 15-19 years) ALHIV, 84% living in sub-Saharan Africa. The population of ALHIV is increasing, as more peri/postnatally infected ALHIV survive into older ages; an estimated 35% of older female ALHIV were peri/postnatally infected, compared with 57% of older male ALHIV...
February 9, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
A Laurent, A Klich, P Roy, B Lina, B Kassai, J Bacchetta, P Cochat
Pediatric R-Tx patients are at high risk of developing EBV primary infection. Although high DNA replication is a risk factor for PTLD, some patients develop PTLD with low viral load. In this retrospective single-center study including all pediatric patients having received R-Tx (2003-2012 period), we aimed to identify risk factors for uncontrolled reactions to EBV (defined as the presence of a viral load >10 000 copies/mL or PTLD). A Cox proportional hazard model was performed. A total of 117 patients underwent R-Tx at a mean age of 9...
February 11, 2018: Pediatric Transplantation
Fabien Taieb, Tram Tran Hong, Hien Thi Ho, Binh Nguyen Thanh, Tram Pham Phuong, Dung Viet Ta, Nhung Le Thi Hong, Hien Ba Pham, Lan Thi Huong Nguyen, Huong Thi Nguyen, Thu Trang Nguyen, Edouard Tuaillon, Eric Delaporte, Huong Le Thi, Hau Tran Thi Bich, Tuan Anh Nguyen, Yoann Madec
BACKGROUND: Viral load (VL) monitoring of HIV-infected patients in decentralized areas is limited due to logistic constraints. Dried Blood Spots (DBS) offer the opportunity to collect samples in remote area which can be easily transferred and tested at a central laboratory. The MOVIDA (Monitoring Of Viral load In Decentralized Area) project evaluated the performance of VL measurements on DBS using the new CE marked optimized Abbott protocol. METHODS: HIV-1 infected adults from three outpatient clinics in Hanoi (Vietnam) were enrolled into the study between 1 March and 13 April 2017...
2018: PloS One
Mary C Kennedy, Thomas H Kerr, Evan Wood, Jeannie A Shoveller, Julio S G Montaner, M-J Milloy
OBJECTIVES: Although previous cross-sectional studies have identified correlates of detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) among HIV-positive people who use drugs (PWUD), longitudinal factors associated with heightened HIV transmission potential have not been well described. Therefore, we longitudinally examined factors associated with amount of person-time spent above log10(1500) copies/ml plasma among HIV-positive PWUD in Vancouver, Canada. DESIGN: Data were derived from a long-running prospective cohort of HIV-positive PWUD linked to comprehensive clinical records including systematic VL monitoring...
February 8, 2018: AIDS
E Grego, R Reina, S Lanfredini, M Tursi, A Favole, M Profiti, M M Lungu, G Perona, L Gay, M C Stella, D DeMeneghi
Small Ruminant Lentivirus (SRLV) subtype E1, also known as Roccaverano strain, is considered a low pathogenic virus on the basis of natural genetic deletions, in vitro properties and on-farm observations. In order to gain more knowledge on this atypical lentivirus we investigated the in vivo tropism of Roccaverano strain in both, experimentally and naturally infected goats. Antibody responses were monitored as well as tissue distribution and viral load, evaluated by real time PCR on single spliced (gag/env) and multiple spliced (rev) RNA targets respectively, that were compared to histopathological lesions...
January 31, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Seth C Kalichman, Chauncey Cherry, Moira O Kalichman, Lisa A Eaton, James Kohler, Catherine Montero, Raymond F Schinazi
OBJECTIVES: We conducted a randomized clinical trial to test a mobile health (mHealth) behavioral intervention designed to enhance HIV treatment as prevention (B-TasP) by simultaneously increasing combination antiretroviral therapies (cART) adherence and improving the sexual health of people living with HIV. METHODS: A cohort of sexually active men (n = 383) and women (n = 117) living with HIV were enrolled. Participants were baseline assessed and randomized to either: (a) B-TasP adherence and sexual health intervention or (b) general health control intervention...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Anita Kothapalli, Muhammad A Khattak
Anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibodies have shown durable long-term survival benefit in patients with metastatic melanoma. Limited evidence exists on the safety and efficacy of PD-1 inhibitors in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections as these patients have traditionally been excluded from clinical trials because of a theoretical risk of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. We aim to determine the safety and efficacy of treatment with PD-1 inhibitors in seven patients with HBV/HCV infection and concurrent metastatic melanoma or non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC)...
February 5, 2018: Melanoma Research
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