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Viral load monitoring

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346431/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-two-dried-blood-spot-methods-for-hiv-1-viral-load-monitoring-among-patients-in-hanoi-vietnam
#1
Todd M Pollack, Hao T Duong, Phuong T Truong, Thuy T Pham, Cuong D Do, Donn Colby
The use of dried blood spot (DBS) specimens for HIV viral load (VL) monitoring is recommended to support the roll-out of routine VL monitoring in low and middle income countries (LMICs). To better understand the use of DBS for VL monitoring, we evaluated two DBS testing methods, Roche TaqMan® Free Virus Evolution protocol (DBS-FVE) and Roche TaqMan® SPEX protocol (DBS-SPEX)) in patients receiving ART at an HIV clinic in Hanoi, Vietnam. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for each DBS testing method at the thresholds of 1000 and 5000 copies/ml compared to plasma VL...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345515/safety-of-biologic-agents-for-psoriasis-in-patients-with-viral-hepatitis
#2
Nawaf AlMutairi, Hesham Alaadin Abouzaid
INTRODUCTION: Biologics are highly effective, important treatment options for moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Biologics are well tolerated and have few side effects. However, the use of biologics in patients with concomitant chronic viral hepatitis is debatable. Recent reports have suggested a very low associated risk of reactivation of chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCB). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of biologics for moderate to severe psoriasis patients with concomitant chronic viral hepatitis...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334553/post-treatment-controllers-after-treatment-interruption-in-chronically-hiv-infected-patients
#3
Franco Maggiolo, Elisa Di Filippo, Laura Comi, Annapaola Callegaro
OBJECTIVE: Control HIV replication requires continuous combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) as discontinuation of cART results in a rapid viral rebound. However, a few individuals exist who took cART for several years and did not show the expected viral rebound after treatment cessation. Most post-treatment controllers (PTCs) are early treated individuals. We report three cases who started cART during chronic infection. DESIGN: Patients were treated and monitored according to Italian guidelines...
January 13, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331844/assessing-the-risk-of-cmv-reactivation-and-reconstitution-of-antiviral-immune-response-post-bone-marrow-transplantation-by-the-quantiferon-cmv-assay-and-real-time-pcr
#4
Adalbert Krawczyk, Jessica Ackermann, Birgit Goitowski, Rudolf Trenschel, Markus Ditschkowski, Jörg Timm, Hellmut Ottinger, Dietrich W Beelen, Nico Grüner, Melanie Fiedler
BACKGROUND: CMV reactivation is a major cause of severe complications in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. The risk of CMV reactivation depends on the serostatus (+/-) of the donor (D) and recipient (R). The reconstitution of CMV-specific T-cell responses after transplantation is crucial for the control of CMV reactivation. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to determine the cellular immune status correlating with protection from high-level CMV viremia (>5000 copies/ml) and disease...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328964/a-european-multicenter-study-on-the-analytical-performance-of-the-veris-hbv-assay
#5
Patrick Braun, Rafael Delgado, Monica Drago, Diana Fanti, Hervé Fleury, Jacques Izopet, Alessandra Lombardi, Alessandro Mancon, Maria Angeles Marcos, Karine Sauné, Siobhan O Shea, Alfredo Pérez-Rivilla, John Ramble, Pascale Trimoulet, Jordi Vila, Duncan Whittaker, Alain Artus, Daniel Rhodes
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B viral load monitoring is an essential part of managing patients with chronic Hepatits B infection. Beckman Coulter has developed the VERIS HBV Assay for use on the fully automated Beckman Coulter DxN VERIS Molecular Diagnostics System.1 OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the analytical performance of the VERIS HBV Assay at multiple European virology laboratories. STUDY DESIGN: Precision, analytical sensitivity, negative sample performance, linearity and performance with major HBV genotypes/subtypes for the VERIS HBV Assay was evaluated...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324811/scale-up-of-kenya-s-national-hiv-viral-load-program-findings-and-lessons-learned
#6
Matilu Mwau, Catherine Akinyi Syeunda, Maureen Adhiambo, Priska Bwana, Lucy Kithinji, Joy Mwende, Laura Oyiengo, Martin Sirengo, Caroline E Boeke
OBJECTIVES: Kenya is one of the first African countries to scale up a national HIV viral load monitoring program. We sought to assess program scale up using the national database and identify areas for systems strengthening. METHODS: Data from January 2012 to March 2016 were extracted from Kenya's national viral load database. Characteristics of 1,108,356 tests were assessed over time, including reason for testing, turnaround times, test results, treatment regimens, and socio-demographic information...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315160/preventive-effects-of-vitamin-d-on-seasonal-influenza-a-in-infants-a-multicenter-randomized-open-controlled-clinical-trial
#7
Jian Zhou, Juan Du, Leting Huang, Youcheng Wang, Yimei Shi, Hailong Lin
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of vitamin D for preventing influenza A in 400 infants in a multicenter, randomized, open, controlled clinical trial. METHODS: The infants were randomized into low-dose and high-dose vitamin D groups, and serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were detected thrice in 4 months. Infants infected with influenza A were monitored for symptoms including fever, cough, and wheezing...
January 8, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310899/efficacy-safety-and-tolerability-of-dolutegravir-rilpivirine-for-the-maintenance-of-virological-suppression-in-adults-with-hiv-1-phase-3-randomised-non-inferiority-sword-1-and-sword-2-studies
#8
Josep M Llibre, Chien-Ching Hung, Cynthia Brinson, Francesco Castelli, Pierre-Marie Girard, Lesley P Kahl, Elizabeth A Blair, Kostas Angelis, Brian Wynne, Kati Vandermeulen, Mark Underwood, Kim Smith, Martin Gartland, Michael Aboud
BACKGROUND: Lifelong HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) has prompted an interest in two-drug regimens to minimise cumulative drug exposure and toxicities. The safety, tolerability, and efficacy of dolutegravir and rilpivirine suggest potential compatibility and effectiveness as a two-drug regimen. We aimed to investigate this two-drug regimen in a phase 3 study. METHODS: We identically designed SWORD-1 and SWORD-2, which were open-label, parallel-group, multicentre, phase 3, randomised, non-inferiority studies in 12 countries evaluating efficacy and safety of once-daily dolutegravir 50 mg plus rilpivirine 25 mg versus current ART regimen (CAR)...
January 5, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305542/monitoring-of-cmv-specific-cell-mediated-immunity-in-heart-transplant-recipients-clinical-utility-of-the-quantiferon%C3%A2-cmv-assay-for-the-management-of-post-transplant-cmv-infection
#9
Angela Chiereghin, Luciano Potena, Laura Borgese, Dino Gibertoni, Diego Squarzoni, Gabriele Turello, Evangelia Petrisli, Giulia Piccirilli, Liliana Gabrielli, Francesco Grigioni, Tiziana Lazzarotto
Background: The clinical utility of QuantiFERON®-CMV (QFN®-CMV) assay in heart transplant recipients was assessed.Methods: Forty-four CMV-seropositive patients were enrolled: 17 received antiviral prophylaxis and 27 were managed pre-emptively. CMV-DNAemia monitoring was performed by a quantitative real-time PCR assay. QFN®-CMV assay was retrospectively performed on blood samples collected at five post-transplant time-points.Results: A higher proportion of patients with indeterminate QFN®-CMV result after the suspension of prophylaxis developed CMV infection compared to patients who showed a global T-cell responsiveness (P=0...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298369/measuring-adherence-to-hepatitis-c-direct-acting-antiviral-medications-using-the-vas-in-an-hcv-treatment-clinic
#10
Mary Jane Burton, Andrew C Voluse, Amee B Patel, Deborah Konkle-Parker
OBJECTIVES: To implement the widespread treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV), validated self-report measures to assess medication adherence are needed for monitoring patients who are prescribed HCV direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) is an efficient and well-validated tool for measuring adherence to antiretrovirals in human immunodeficiency virus populations. This study compared VAS scores with pill counts and serum levels of HCV RNA in a sample of HCV-infected veterans prescribed DAAs...
January 2018: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296098/the-right-combination-treatment-outcomes-among-hiv-positive-patients-initiating-first-line-fixed-dose-antiretroviral-therapy-in-a-public-sector-hiv-clinic-in-johannesburg-south-africa
#11
Kamban Hirasen, Denise Evans, Mhairi Maskew, Ian M Sanne, Kate Shearer, Caroline Govathson, Given Malete, Sheryl A Kluberg, Matthew P Fox
Background: Long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence is critical for achieving optimal HIV treatment outcomes. Fixed-dose combination (FDC) single-pill regimens, introduced in South Africa in April 2013, has simplified pill taking. We evaluated treatment outcomes among patients initiated on a FDC compared to a similar multi-pill ART regimen in Johannesburg, South Africa. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of ART-naïve HIV-positive non-pregnant adult (≥18 years) patients without tuberculosis who initiated first-line ART on tenofovir and emtricitabine or lamivudine with efavirenz at Themba Lethu Clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291221/evaluating-the-efficacy-of-lasota-vaccination-induced-protection-in-chickens-upon-challenge-with-a-genotype-iv-strain-of-newcastle-disease-virus
#12
S Bhuvaneswari, K G Tirumurugaan, P Venkatesan, P Manesh Kumar, K Kumanan
Newcastle disease (ND) is a major risk to the poultry industry which results in severe economic loss throughout the world even with vaccination. The vaccine viruses that are used in many countries include the LaSota and other live viruses that were isolated in the early and late 1950s. Reports from several laboratories including ours indicate a greater variance of the circulating strains and recent classification indicates the existence of XVIII different genotypes of NDV strains. The efficiency of the LaSota vaccination in inducing protective immunity to different heterologous strains has been a question and its efficacy upon exposure to a virulent genotype IV strain has not been reported after 1989 world-wide except for India...
September 2017: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284181/clinical-validation-of-a-novel-elispot-based-in-vitro-diagnostic-assay-to-monitor-cmv-specific-cell-mediated-immunity-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-a-multicenter-longitudinal-prospective-observational-study
#13
Bernhard Banas, Dominik Steubl, Lutz Renders, Dominik Chittka, Miriam C Banas, Thomas Wekerle, Martina Koch, Oliver Witzke, Anja Mühlfeld, Claudia Sommerer, Antje Habicht, Christian Hugo, Thomas Hünig, Monika Lindemann, Traudel Schmidt, Anne Rascle, Sascha Barabas, Ludwig Deml, Ralf Wagner, Bernhard K Krämer, Bernd Krüger
Impaired cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMV-CMI) is a major cause of CMV reactivation and associated complications in solid-organ transplantation. Reliably assessing CMV-CMI is desirable to individually adjust antiviral and immunosuppressive therapy. This study aimed to evaluate the suitability of T-Track® CMV, a novel IFN-γ ELISpot assay based on the stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with pp65 and IE-I CMV proteins, to monitor CMV-CMI following kidney transplantation...
December 28, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250687/lymphoproliferative-disorder-in-a-twin-female-teenager-post-kidney-transplantation
#14
Raluca Isac, Rodica Costa, Dorela CodruŢa Lăzureanu, Cristina Ioana Olariu, Adriana Milena Muntean, Cornel Olimpiu Aldea, Gabriela Simona Doroş, Mihai Gafencu
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is defined as a heterogeneous group of lymphoid and plasmocytic proliferations with variable malignant potential. They often arise in immunocompromised post solid organ transplant (SOT) patients linked with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Clinical manifestations include fever, lymphadenopathy and organ involvement. Diagnosis of PTLD requires morphopathological tissue examination. Treatment of EBV-related PTLD in SOT patients includes immunosuppressive (IS) agents' reduction, use of antiviral medication, anti-B-lymphocyte antibodies and chemotherapy for high-risk patients...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244809/hiv-1-viraemia-and-drug-resistance-amongst-female-sex-workers-in-soweto-south-africa-a-cross-sectional-study
#15
Jenny Coetzee, Gillian Hunt, Maya Jaffer, Kennedy Otwombe, Lesley Scott, Asiashu Bongwe, Johanna Ledwaba, Sephonono Molema, Rachel Jewkes, Glenda E Gray
BACKGROUND: HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) poses a threat to future antiretroviral therapy success. Monitoring HIVDR patterns is of particular importance in populations such as sex workers (SWs), where documented HIV prevalence is between 34-89%, and in countries with limited therapeutic options. Currently in South Africa, there is a dearth in evidence and no ongoing surveillance of HIVDR amongst sex work populations. This study aims to describe the prevalence of HIVDR amongst a sample of female sex workers (FSWs) from Soweto, South Africa...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243388/the-treatment-outcomes-of-antiretroviral-substitutions-in-routine-clinical-settings-in-asia-data-from-the-treat-asia-hiv-observational-database-tahod
#16
In Young Jung, David Boettiger, Wing Wai Wong, Man Po Lee, Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul, Romanee Chaiwarith, Anchalee Avihingsanon, Junko Tanuma, Nagalingeswaran Kumarasamy, Adeeba Kamarulzaman, Fujie Zhang, Pacharee Kantipong, Oon Tek Ng, Benedict Lim Heng Sim, Matthew Law, Jeremy Ross, Jun Yong Choi
INTRODUCTION: Although substitutions of antiretroviral regimen are generally safe, most data on substitutions are based on results from clinical trials. The objective of this study was to evaluate the treatment outcomes of substituting antiretroviral regimen in virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients in non-clinical trial settings in Asian countries. METHODS: The study population consisted of HIV-infected patients enrolled in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD)...
December 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240633/sexually-transmitted-infection-testing-of-hiv-positive-medicare-and-medicaid-enrollees-falls-short-of-guidelines
#17
Raphael J Landovitz, Jennifer L Gildner, Arleen A Leibowitz
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men with HIV have high sexually transmitted infection (STI) incidence. Thus, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends at least yearly STI screening of HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: We calculated testing rates for syphilis, chlamydia, and gonorrhea among HIV-positive Californians with Medicare or Medicaid insurance in 2010. Logistic regressions estimated how testing for each bacterial STI relates to demographic and provider factors...
January 2018: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239822/the-effect-of-antiretroviral-stock-outs-on-medication-adherence-among-patients-living-with-hiv-in-ghana-a-qualitative-study
#18
Kathleen Moriarty, Becky Genberg, Betty Norman, Rebecca Reece
Stock-outs of medications for antiretroviral therapy have been reported as a significant barrier to HIV care in sub-Saharan Africa, but patient responses to these shortages have not been fully described. The aim of our study was to employ qualitative methods to examine the role of medication stock-outs in contributing to treatment interruption among a sample of patients already engaged in care for HIV at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana. We found that medication stock-outs presented a number of challenges to adherence for patients undergoing HIV treatment...
October 9, 2017: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237762/effect-of-population-viral-load-on-prospective-hiv-incidence-in-a-hyperendemic-rural-african-community
#19
Frank Tanser, Alain Vandormael, Diego Cuadros, Andrew N Phillips, Tulio de Oliveira, Andrew Tomita, Till Bärnighausen, Deenan Pillay
Monitoring HIV population viral load (PVL) has been advocated as an important means of inferring HIV transmission potential and predicting the future rate of new HIV infections (HIV incidence) in a particular community. However, the relationship between PVL measures and directly measured HIV incidence has not been quantified in any setting and, most importantly, in a hyperendemic sub-Saharan African setting. We assessed this relationship using one of Africa's largest population-based prospective population cohorts in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in which we followed 8732 HIV-uninfected participants between 2011 and 2015...
December 13, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229589/the-effect-of-group-support-psychotherapy-delivered-by-trained-lay-health-workers-for-depression-treatment-among-people-with-hiv-in-uganda-protocol-of-a-pragmatic-cluster-randomized-trial
#20
Etheldreda Nakimuli-Mpungu, Seggane Musisi, Kizito Wamala, James Okello, Sheila Ndyanabangi, Ramin Mojtabai, Jean Nachega, Ofir Harari, Edward Mills
BACKGROUND: There is limited information on the effectiveness of task shifting of mental health services in populations with HIV. OBJECTIVE: This trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness of group support psychotherapy delivered by trained lay health workers to persons living with HIV (PLWH) with depression in primary care. METHODS: Thirty eligible primary care health centers across three districts were randomly allocated to have their lay health workers trained to deliver group support psychotherapy (intervention arm) or group HIV education and treatment as usual (control arm) to PLWH with depression...
December 11, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
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