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Viral load monitoring

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907076/clinical-determinants-of-hiv-1b-between-host-evolution-and-their-association-with-drug-resistance-in-pediatric-patients
#1
Israel Pagán, Patricia Rojas, José Tomás Ramos, África Holguín
Understanding the factors that modulate the evolution of virus populations is essential to design efficient control strategies. Mathematical models predict that factors affecting viral within-host evolution may also determine that at the between-host level. Although HIV-1 within-host evolution has been associated with clinical factors used to monitor AIDS progression, such as patient age, CD4 cells count, viral load, and antiretroviral experience, little is known about the role of these clinical factors in determining between-host HIV-1 evolution...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906995/assessment-of-the-world-health-organization-s-hiv-drug-resistance-early-warning-indicators-in-main-and-decentralized-outreach-antiretroviral-therapy-sites-in-namibia
#2
Nicholus Mutenda, Alexandra Bukowski, Anne-Marie Nitschke, Tuli Nakanyala, Ndapewa Hamunime, Tadesse Mekonen, Francina Tjituka, Greatjoy Mazibuko, Samson Mwinga, David Mabirizi, Evans Sagwa, Rosalia Indongo, Natalie Dean, Michael R Jordan, Steven Y Hong
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) early warning indicators (EWIs) of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) assess factors at individual ART sites that are known to create situations favourable to the emergence of HIVDR. METHODS: In 2014, the Namibia HIV care and treatment program abstracted the following adult and pediatric EWIs from all public ART sites (50 main sites and 143 outreach sites): On-time pill pick-up, Retention in care, Pharmacy stock-outs, Dispensing practices, and Viral load suppression...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906910/progress-with-scale-up-of-hiv-viral-load-monitoring-seven-sub-saharan-african-countries-january-2015-june-2016
#3
Shirley Lecher, Jason Williams, Peter N Fonjungo, Andrea A Kim, Dennis Ellenberger, Guoqing Zhang, Christiane Adje Toure, Simon Agolory, Georgette Appiah-Pippim, Suzanne Beard, Marie Yolande Borget, Sergio Carmona, Geoffrey Chipungu, Karidia Diallo, Marie Downer, Dianna Edgil, Holly Haberman, Mackenzie Hurlston, Steven Jadzak, Charles Kiyaga, William MacLeod, Boniface Makumb, Hellen Muttai, Christina Mwangi, Jane W Mwangi, Michael Mwasekaga, Mary Naluguza, Lucy W Ng'Ang'A, Shon Nguyen, Souleymane Sawadogo, Katrina Sleeman, Wendy Stevens, Joel Kuritsky, Shannon Hader, John Nkengasong
The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends viral load testing as the preferred method for monitoring the clinical response of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to antiretroviral therapy (ART) (1). Viral load monitoring of patients on ART helps ensure early diagnosis and confirmation of ART failure and enables clinicians to take an appropriate course of action for patient management. When viral suppression is achieved and maintained, HIV transmission is substantially decreased, as is HIV-associated morbidity and mortality (2)...
December 2, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902602/sensitivity-and-specificity-of-dried-blood-spots-for-hiv-1-viral-load-quantification-a-laboratory-assessment-of-3-commercial-assays
#4
Pieter Pannus, Maarten Claus, Maria Mercedes Perez Gonzalez, Nathan Ford, Katrien Fransen
The use of dried blood spots (DBS) instead of plasma as a specimen type for HIV-1 viral load (VL) testing facilitates the decentralization of specimen collection and can increase access to VL testing in resource-limited settings. The performance of DBS for VL testing is lower, however, when compared to the gold standard sample type plasma. In this diagnostic accuracy study, we evaluated 3 VL assays with DBS.Participants were recruited between August 2012 and April 2015. Both plasma and DBS specimens were prepared and tested for HIV-1 VL with the Roche CAP/CTM HIV-1 test v2...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902357/pathogenesis-of-senecavirus-a-infection-in-finishing-pigs
#5
Lok R Joshi, Maureen H V Fernandes, Travis Clement, Steven Lawson, Angela Pillatzki, Talita P Resende, Fabio Vanucci, Gerald F Kutish, Eric Nelson, Diego G Diel
Senecavirus A (SVA) is an emerging picornavirus that has been recently associated with vesicular disease and neonatal mortality in swine. Many aspects of SVA infection biology and pathogenesis, however, remain unknown. Here the pathogenesis of SVA was investigated in finishing pigs. Animals were inoculated via the oronasal route with a contemporary SVA strain SD15-26 and monitored for clinical signs and lesions associated with SVA infection. Viremia was assessed in serum and virus shedding monitored in oral and nasal secretions and feces by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) and/or virus isolation...
October 14, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899121/meta-analysis-of-the-clinical-and-laboratory-parameters-of-sfts-patients-in-china
#6
Miao-Miao Liu, Xiao-Ying Lei, Xue-Jie Yu
BACKGROUND: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging hemorrhagic fever in East Asia, which is caused by a novel bunyavirus-SFTSV. Many studies have reported the clinical characters of SFTS patients, but the reports were not consistent and a systematic summary of clinical manifestations and laboratory parameters are not available. METHOD: A comprehensive literature research of Web of Science, PubMed, Wan Fang Data, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases was conducted on articles which have described the clinical characters of SFTS patients...
November 29, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881614/performance-characteristics-of-a-new-consensus-commercial-kit-for-hepatitis-d-virus-rna-viral-load-quantification
#7
Frédéric Le Gal, Samira Dziri, Athenaïs Gerber, Chakib Alloui, Zahia Ben Abdesselam, Dominique Roulot, Ségolène Brichler, Emmanuel Gordien
Hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) is responsible for fulminant hepatitis and liver failure, and accelerates evolution towards cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis B virus-infected patients. To date treatment relies upon long-term administration of pegylated alpha-interferon with sustained virological response in 30% of the patients. Very recently, new promising anti HDV therapies have been developed and are already used in clinical trials. HDV-RNA viral load (HDVL) monitoring must be an integral part of the management of the infected-patients...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880820/from-lab-to-lake-evaluation-of-current-molecular-methods-for-the-detection-of-infectious-enteric-viruses-in-complex-water-matrices-in-an-urban-area
#8
Mats Leifels, Ibrahim Ahmed Hamza, Marion Krieger, Michael Wilhelm, Martin Mackowiak, Lars Jurzik
Quantitative PCR methods are commonly used to monitor enteric viruses in the aquatic environment because of their high sensitivity, short reaction times and relatively low operational cost. However, conclusions for public health drawn from results of such molecular techniques are limited due to their inability to determine viral infectivity. Ethidium monoazide (EMA) and propidium monoazide (PMA) are capable to penetrate the damaged or compromised capsid of the inactivated viruses and bind to the viral nucleic acids...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873265/epstein-barr-virus-clinical-diagnostics
#9
Hans-Helmut Niller, Georg Bauer
The vast majority of the human adult population is infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and the majority of the EBV-infected individuals tolerates the infection well, without any further symptoms after primary infection. In cases of individuals which undergo primary infection in the form of an infectious mononucleosis, or which have undergone primary infection in their past, it is sometimes important to appraise symptomatic disease or differentiate infectious mononucleosis from other conditions. In these cases, serological methods, i...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862762/tenofovir-stock-shortages-have-limited-impact-on-clinic-and-patient-level-hiv-treatment-outcomes-in-public-sector-clinics-in-south-africa
#10
Alana T Brennan, Jacob Bor, Mary-Ann Davies, Francesca Conradie, Mhairi Maskew, Lawrence Long, Ian Sanne, Matthew P Fox
OBJECTIVE: Using data from four public-sector clinics in South Africa we sought to investigate provider and patient level outcomes, to understand how the 2012 tenofovir stock shortage affected the HIV care and monitoring of ART patients. METHODS: Prospective cohort analysis of ART-naïve, non-pregnant, HIV-infected patients >18 years initiating first-line ART between July 1, 2011-March 31, 2013. Linear regression was used for all outcomes (number of ART initiates, days between pharmacy visits, transfers, single drug substitutions, treatment interruptions, missed pharmacy visits, loss to follow-up and elevated viral load)...
November 11, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845796/paper-microchip-with-a-graphene-modified-silver-nano-composite-electrode-for-electrical-sensing-of-microbial-pathogens
#11
Mohammadali Safavieh, Vivasvat Kaul, Sultan Khetani, Anupriya Singh, Karan Dhingra, Manoj Kumar Kanakasabapathy, Mohamed Shehata Draz, Adnan Memic, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Hadi Shafiee
Rapid and sensitive point-of-care diagnostics are of paramount importance for early detection of infectious diseases and timely initiation of treatment. Here, we present cellulose paper and flexible plastic chips with printed graphene-modified silver electrodes as universal point-of-care diagnostic tools for the rapid and sensitive detection of microbial pathogens or nucleic acids through utilizing electrical sensing modality and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). We evaluated the ability of the developed paper-based assay to detect (i) viruses on cellulose-based paper microchips without implementing amplification in samples with viral loads between 10(6) and 10(8) copies per ml, and (ii) amplified HIV-1 nucleic acids in samples with viral loads between 10 fg μl(-1) and 10(8) fg μl(-1)...
November 15, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836020/high-levels-of-pre-treatment-hiv-drug-resistance-and-treatment-failure-in-nigerian-children
#12
Ragna S Boerma, T Sonia Boender, Kim C E Sigaloff, Tobias F Rinke de Wit, Michael Boele van Hensbroek, Nicaise Ndembi, Titilope Adeyemo, Edamisan O Temiye, Akin Osibogun, Pascale Ondoa, Job C Calis, Alani Sulaimon Akanmu
INTRODUCTION: Pre-treatment HIV drug resistance (PDR) is an increasing problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Children are an especially vulnerable population to develop PDR given that paediatric second-line treatment options are limited. Although monitoring of PDR is important, data on the paediatric prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa and its consequences for treatment outcomes are scarce. We designed a prospective paediatric cohort study to document the prevalence of PDR and its effect on subsequent treatment failure in Nigeria, the country with the second highest number of HIV-infected children in the world...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829667/novel-ph-sensing-semiconductor-for-point-of-care-detection-of-hiv-1-viremia
#13
R Gurrala, Z Lang, L Shepherd, D Davidson, E Harrison, M McClure, S Kaye, C Toumazou, G S Cooke
The timely detection of viremia in HIV-infected patients receiving antiviral treatment is key to ensuring effective therapy and preventing the emergence of drug resistance. In high HIV burden settings, the cost and complexity of diagnostics limit their availability. We have developed a novel complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) chip based, pH-mediated, point-of-care HIV-1 viral load monitoring assay that simultaneously amplifies and detects HIV-1 RNA. A novel low-buffer HIV-1 pH-LAMP (loop-mediated isothermal amplification) assay was optimised and incorporated into a pH sensitive CMOS chip...
November 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822124/changes-in-coronary-heart-disease-risk-profiles-of-hiv-patients-in-zimbabwe-over-9-months-a-follow-up-study
#14
Danai Tavonga Zhou, Olav Oektedalen, Sandra Shawarira-Bote, Babill Stray-Pedersen
Dyslipidemia, hypertension, inflammation, and coronary heart disease (CHD) are adverse events in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients even if they are receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). Yet, data on CHD risk induced by HIV or ART in sub-Saharan Africa are limited. The aim of this longitudinal study was to describe changes in CHD risk profiles measured by lipids, inflammatory markers, and Framingham scores among HIV-positive patients previously reported from Harare, Zimbabwe. Patients were grouped into ART-experienced patients (n=147) and ART-naïve patients (n=23) and followed up for 9 months...
2016: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821277/comparison-of-different-approaches-to-quantitative-adenovirus-detection-in-stool-specimens-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#15
K Kosulin, S Dworzak, A Lawitschka, S Matthes-Leodolter, T Lion
BACKGROUND: Adenoviruses almost invariably proliferate in the gastrointestinal tract prior to dissemination, and critical threshold concentrations in stool correlate with the risk of viremia. Monitoring of adenovirus loads in stool may therefore be important for timely initiation of treatment in order to prevent invasive infection. OBJECTIVES: Comparison of a manual DNA extraction kit in combination with a validated in-house PCR assay with automated extraction on the NucliSENS-EasyMAG device coupled with the Adenovirus R-gene kit (bioMérieux) for quantitative adenovirus analysis in stool samples...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820845/dry-blood-spots-a-reliable-method-for-measurement-of-hepatitis-b-viral-load-in-resource-limited-settings
#16
Kathrine Stene-Johansen, Nadeem Yaqoob, Joakim Overbo, Hanna Aberra, Hailemichael Desalegn, Nega Berhe, Asgeir Johannessen
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) quantification is essential in the management of chronic hepatitis B, both to determine treatment eligibility and in the monitoring of treatment effect. This test, however, is rarely available in resource-limited settings due to high costs and stringent requirements for shipment and storage of plasma. Dried Blood Spots (DBS) can be a convenient alternative to plasma, but its use for HBV monitoring has not been investigated under real-life conditions in Africa...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811627/provider-patient-and-practice-factors-shape-hepatitis-b-prevention-and-management-by-primary-care-providers
#17
Nizar A Mukhtar, Priya Kathpalia, Joan F Hilton, Gene Lau, Albert Yu, Kevin Grumbach, Tung T Nguyen, Daniel Chan, Mandana Khalili
GOALS: To evaluate provider knowledge, attitudes and barriers to hepatitis B virus (HBV) care and management practices across diverse primary care settings. BACKGROUND: Factors influencing adherence to recommended HBV screening and management guidelines are poorly defined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Providers across various health care settings in San Francisco were surveyed. Multivariate analyses were used to identify factors associated with recommended HBV screening, vaccination, and disease monitoring...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807537/prevalence-of-hiv-antiretroviral-drug-resistance-and-its-impacts-on-hiv-1-virological-failures-in-jiangsu-china-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Ying Zhou, Jing Lu, Jinge Wang, Hongjing Yan, Jianjun Li, Xiaoqin Xu, Zhi Zhang, Tao Qiu, Ping Ding, Gengfeng Fu, Xiping Huan, Haiyang Hu
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been shown to improve survival of patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and to reduce HIV-1 transmission. Therefore, the Chinese central government initiated a national program to provide ART free of charge to HIV-1 patients. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in Jiangsu province to determine the level of drug resistance (DR) in HIV-1 infected patients and the correlates of DR in virological failures in 2012. Approximately 10.4% of the HIV-1 patients in the study experienced virological failure after one year of ART and were divided into drug sensitive and drug resistant groups based on genotype determination...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798004/cohort-profile-the-hlabisa-pregnancy-cohort-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#19
Terusha Chetty, Claire Thorne, Frank Tanser, Till Bärnighausen, Anna Coutsoudis
PURPOSE: The Hlabisa pregnancy cohort was established to evaluate the effectiveness of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) guideline revisions. The objectives of the Hlabisa pregnancy cohort are to: (1) provide cohort-level information on maternal health up to 6 weeks postpartum in a high HIV prevalence setting; and to (2) evaluate aspects of PMTCT care that have policy relevance. PARTICIPANTS: The pregnancy cohort is located in primary health clinics in the Hlabisa subdistrict of rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa...
October 17, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795784/-seroprevalence-of-hbsag-in-pregnant-women-in-central-morocco
#20
Mohammed Sbiti, Hanane Khalki, Imane Benbella, Lhoussaine Louzi
Maternal-fetal transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a global public health problem leading to the implementation of strengthened prevention measures. Viral replication in HIV-positive mother, assessed based on HBeAg positivity and the rate of viral load, determines the contamination risk which is very important during perinatal period. Mothers with chronic HBV are a real reservoir of vertical transmission of this infection. This is a prospective investigation of 1120 pregnant Moroccan women aiming to study the seroprevalence of HBsAg which was 2...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
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