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Viral load monitoring

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645888/hiv-strategic-information-in-non-european-union-countries-in-the-world-health-organization-european-region-capacity-development-needs
#1
Ivana Bozicevic, Senad Handanagic, Jurja Ivana Cakalo, Annemarie Rinder Stengaard, George Rutherford
BACKGROUND: Capacity building of the national HIV strategic information system is a core component of the response to the HIV epidemic as it enables understanding of the evolving nature of the epidemic, which is critical for program planning and identification of the gaps and deficiencies in HIV programs. OBJECTIVE: The study aims to describe the results of the assessment of the needs for further development of capacities in HIV strategic information systems in the non-European Union (EU) countries in the World Health Organization European Region (EUR)...
June 23, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628529/appraising-viral-load-thresholds-and-adherence-support-recommendations-in-the-world-health-organization-guidelines-for-detection-and-management-of-virologic-failure
#2
Suzanne M McCluskey, Yap Boum, Nicholas Musinguzi, Jessica E Haberer, Jeffrey N Martin, Peter W Hunt, Vincent C Marconi, David R Bangsberg, Mark J Siedner
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization defines HIV virologic failure as two consecutive viral loads >1,000 copies/mL, measured 3-6 months apart with interval adherence support. We sought to empirically evaluate these guidelines using data from an observational cohort. SETTING: The Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes study observed adults with HIV in southwestern Uganda from the time of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, and monitored adherence with electronic pill bottles...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601835/cohort-profile-the-right-to-care-clinical-hiv-cohort-south-africa
#3
Matthew P Fox, Mhairi Maskew, Alana T Brennan, Denise Evans, Dorina Onoya, Given Malete, Patrick MacPhail, Jean Bassett, Osman Ebrahim, Dikeledi Mabotja, Sello Mashamaite, Lawrence Long, Ian Sanne, Mhairi Maskew
PURPOSE: The research objectives of the Right to Care Clinical HIV Cohort analyses are to: (1) monitor treatment outcomes (including death, loss to follow-up, viral suppression and CD4 count gain among others) for patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART); (2) evaluate the impact of changes in the national treatment guidelines around when to initiate ART on HIV treatment outcomes; (3) evaluate the impact of changes in the national treatment guidelines around what ART regimens to initiate on drug switches; (4) evaluate the cost and cost-effectiveness of HIV treatment delivery models; (5) evaluate the need for and outcomes on second-line and third-line ART; (6) evaluate the impact of comorbidity with non-communicable diseases on HIV treatment outcomes and (7) evaluate the impact of the switch to initiating all patients onto ART regardless of CD4 count...
June 10, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601216/usefulness-of-ct-value-in-acute-respiratory-infections-caused-by-respiratory-syncytial-virus-a-and-b-and-influenza-virus-a-h1n1-pdm09-a-h3n2-and-b
#4
Jordi Reina, Carmen Morales, María Busquets, Cristina Norte
INTRODUCTION: Acute respiratory infections of viral cause are very frequent entities. The difficulty in evaluating the detection of a virus in these entities could be solved by determining the viral load. METHODS: A prospective study on the mean Ct value (cycle threshold value) detected against RSV-A, RSV-B and influenza A (H1N1)pdm09, A (H3N2) and B viruses in patients of different origin and age was performed. Detection was performed using a commercial molecular amplification (RT-PCR) technique...
June 7, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599228/a-european-multicientre-study-on-the-comparison-of-hiv-1-viral-loads-between-veris-hiv-1-assay-and-roche-cobas%C3%A2-taqman%C3%A2-hiv-1-test-abbott-realtime-hiv-1-assay-and-siemens-versant-hiv-1-assay
#5
Patrick Braun, Rafael Delgado, Monica Drago, Diana Fanti, Hervé Fleury, Jörg Hofmann, Jacques Izopet, Sebastian Kühn, Alessandra Lombardi, Alessandro Mancon, Mª Angeles Marcos, Davide Mileto, Karine Sauné, Siobhan O'Shea, Alfredo Pérez-Rivilla, John Ramble, Pascale Trimoulet, Jordi Vila, Duncan Whittaker, Alain Artus, Daniel Rhodes
BACKGROUND: Viral load monitoring is essential for patients under treatment for HIV. Beckman Coulter has developed the VERIS HIV-1 Assay for use on the novel, automated DxN VERIS Molecular Diagnostics System.(¥) OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the clinical performance of the new quantitative VERIS HIV-1 Assay at multiple EU laboratories. STUDY DESIGN: Method comparison with the VERIS HIV-1 Assay was performed with 415 specimens at 5 sites tested with COBAS(®) AmpliPrep/COBAS(®) TaqMan(®) HIV-1 Test, v2...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594295/long-term-outcomes-of-second-line-antiretroviral-treatment-in-an-adult-and-adolescent-cohort-in-myanmar
#6
Nang Thu Thu Kyaw, Ajay M V Kumar, Myo Minn Oo, Htun Nyunt Oo, Khine Wut Yee Kyaw, Soe Thiha, Thet Ko Aung, Than Win, Yin Yin Mon, Anthony D Harries
BACKGROUND: Myanmar has a high burden of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and second-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) has been available since 2008 in the public health sector. However, there have been no published data about the outcomes of such patients until now. OBJECTIVE: To assess the treatment and programmatic outcomes and factors associated with unfavorable outcomes (treatment failure, death and loss to follow-up from care) among people living with HIV (aged ≥ 10 years) receiving protease inhibitor-based second-line ART under the Integrated HIV Care Program in Myanmar between October 2008 and June 2015...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592547/performance-of-the-abbott-realtime-mtb-and-mtb-rif-inh-assays-in-a-high-tb-and-hiv-coinfection-setting-in-south-africa
#7
Lesley Scott, Anura David, Lara Noble, Matilda Nduna, Pedro Da Silva, Andrew Black, Francois Venter, Wendy Stevens
Background: South Africa is a country with a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB), complicated by coinfection with HIV. The Xpert MTB/RIF (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is used in South Africa as the test for initial diagnosis of TB, and other molecular platforms such as the m2000 (Abbott Molecular, Des Plaines, IL, USA) are widely used for molecular monitoring of HIV viral load. This latter platform is now also equipped with the RealTime MTB and RealTime MTB RIF/INH assays for TB and first line drug resistance screening, but has not been evaluated in settings of HIV and TB coinfection...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590068/comparison-of-hiv-1-drug-resistance-genotyping-by-ultra-deep-sequencing-and-sanger-sequencing-using-clinical-samples
#8
Mary-Anne Trabaud, Vinca Icard, Christophe Ramière, Jean-Claude Tardy, Caroline Scholtes, Patrice André
Sanger population sequencing (SPS) is the reference technique to monitor HIV-1-infected patients' therapy. Ultra-deep sequencing (UDS), which allows quantitative detection of drug resistance mutations, may be an alternative method. The study aimed to compare reproducibility and predictions of UDS versus SPS in a routine setting. A control containing low-abundance variants was repeatedly tested and clinical plasma samples from 100 patients were prospectively assayed by SPS and UDS using the Roche 454 system...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584853/the-presence-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-is-associated-with-a-lower-adherence-to-combined-antiretroviral-treatment
#9
Susan Kamal, Isabella Locatelli, Gilles Wandeler, Asemaneh Sehhat, Olivier Bugnon, Melanie Metral, Renaud Du Pasquier, Klemens Gutbrod, Matthias Cavassini, Marie P Schneider
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are defined according to their diagnostic degrees as follows: asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment, mild neurocognitive disorder, and HIV-associated dementia. Because high adherence to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) is required to maintain viral suppression among HIV-infected patients, it is important to investigate the impact of HAND on medication adherence. Our study hypothesis was that patients with HAND had a lower medication adherence than patients who did not have HAND...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582463/drug-resistance-testing-through-remote-genotyping-and-predicted-treatment-options-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-infected-tanzanian-subjects-failing-first-or-second-line-antiretroviral-therapy
#10
Jenny Svärd, Sabina Mugusi, Doreen Mloka, Ujjwal Neogi, Genny Meini, Ferdinand Mugusi, Francesca Incardona, Maurizio Zazzi, Anders Sönnerborg
INTRODUCTION: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been successfully introduced in low-middle income countries. However an increasing rate of ART failure with resistant virus is reported. We therefore described the pattern of drug resistance mutations at antiretroviral treatment (ART) failure in a real-life Tanzanian setting using the remote genotyping procedure and thereafter predicted future treatment options using rule-based algorithm and the EuResist bioinformatics predictive engine. According to national guidelines, the default first-line regimen is tenofovir + lamivudine + efavirenz, but variations including nevirapine, stavudine or emtricitabine can be considered...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577527/misdiagnosis-of-hiv-treatment-failure-based-on-clinical-and-immunological-criteria-in-eastern-and-central-kenya
#11
Sunguti Luke Joram, Gathii Paul, Kitheka Moses, Bii Stanley, Malonza Isaac, Gohole Allan, Marwa Tom, Karimi Lilian, Mudany Mildred
BACKGROUND: Routine laboratory monitoring is part of the basic care package offered to people living with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (PLHIV). This paper aims to identify the proportion of PLHIVs with clinical and immunological failure who are virologically suppressed and risk being misclassified as treatment failures. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patient viral load data collected between January 2013 and June 2014 was conducted. Of the patients classified as experiencing either clinical or immunological failure, we evaluated the proportion of true (virological) failure, and estimated the sensitivity and specificity of the immunological and clinical criteria in diagnosing true treatment failure...
June 2, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576449/evaluation-of-the-cobas-%C3%A2-ampliprep-cobas-%C3%A2-taqman-%C3%A2-hcv-test-v2-0-for-hcv-viral-load-monitoring-using-dried-blood-spot-specimens
#12
Ed G Marins, Keerthi Bodinaidu, Matthew Lin, Alison Deforest
This study evaluated the use of dried blood spot (DBS) for HCV viral load quantification using the COBAS(®) AmpliPrep/COBAS(®) Taqman(®) HCV Quantitative Test v2.0 (CAP/CTM HCV v2), and compared two different procedures for preparation of DBS samples with a Specimen Pre-Extraction (SPEX) reagent (either heated [SPEX with SH] for 10min at 56°C on a thermomixer, or incubated for 1h at room temperature [SPEX at RT]) against the standard plasma input. Whole blood specimens from 48 patients with chronic HCV infection and Whatman(®) 903 Protein Saver Cards were used to prepare 35μL DBS...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576126/effective-treatment-of-sivcpz-induced-immunodeficiency-in-a-captive-western-chimpanzee
#13
Hannah J Barbian, Raven Jackson-Jewett, Corrine S Brown, Frederic Bibollet-Ruche, Gerald H Learn, Timothy Decker, Edward F Kreider, Yingying Li, Thomas N Denny, Paul M Sharp, George M Shaw, Jeffrey Lifson, Edward P Acosta, Michael S Saag, Katharine J Bar, Beatrice H Hahn
BACKGROUND: Simian immunodeficiency virus of chimpanzees (SIVcpz), the progenitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), is associated with increased mortality and AIDS-like immunopathology in wild-living chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Surprisingly, however, similar findings have not been reported for chimpanzees experimentally infected with SIVcpz in captivity, raising questions about the intrinsic pathogenicity of this lentivirus. FINDINGS: Here, we report progressive immunodeficiency and clinical disease in a captive western chimpanzee (P...
June 2, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574482/immunologic-and-virologic-mechanisms-for-partial-protection-from-intravenous-challenge-by-an-integration-defective-siv-vaccine
#14
Chu Wang, Chunlai Jiang, Nan Gao, Kaikai Zhang, Donglai Liu, Wei Wang, Zhe Cong, Chuan Qin, Vitaly V Ganusov, Guido Ferrari, Celia LaBranche, David C Montefiori, Wei Kong, Xianghui Yu, Feng Gao
The suppression of viral loads and identification of selection signatures in non-human primates after challenge are indicators for effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) vaccines. To mimic the protective immunity elicited by attenuated SIV vaccines, we developed an integration-defective SIV (idSIV) vaccine by inactivating integrase, mutating sequence motifs critical for integration, and inserting the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter for more efficient expression in the SIVmac239 genome...
June 2, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574002/management-of-a-rare-presentation-of-vogt-koyanagi-harada-disease-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-acquired-immunodeficiency-disease-syndrome-patient
#15
D Priya, S Sudharshan, Jyotirmay Biswas
Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH), a multisystem autoimmune bilateral panuveitis with systemic manifestations, is uncommon in immunocompromised patients such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome (AIDS). We report a rare presentation of VKH in a 45-year-old HIV-positive female on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) who presented with a history of recurrent panuveitis. A diagnosis of probable VKH was made based on ocular and systemic signs and symptoms. She was treated with topical and systemic steroids with close monitoring of CD4 counts and viral loads...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572840/low-levels-of-viral-suppression-among-refugees-and-host-nationals-accessing-antiretroviral-therapy-in-a-kenyan-refugee-camp
#16
Joshua B Mendelsohn, Paul Spiegel, Alison Grant, Sathyanarayanan Doraiswamy, Marian Schilperoord, Natasha Larke, John Wagacha Burton, Jully A Okonji, Clement Zeh, Bosco Muhindo, Ibrahim M Mohammed, Irene N Mukui, Njogu Patterson, Egbert Sondorp, David A Ross
BACKGROUND: Refugees and host nationals who accessed antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a remote refugee camp in Kakuma, Kenya (2011-2013) were compared on outcome measures that included viral suppression and adherence to ART. METHODS: This study used a repeated cross-sectional design (Round One and Round Two). All adults (≥18 years) receiving care from the refugee camp clinic and taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) for ≥30 days were invited to participate. Adherence was measured by self-report and monthly pharmacy refills...
2017: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570424/adherence-to-hepatitis-b-antiviral-therapy-a-qualitative-study
#17
Suzanne Polis, Iryna Zablotska-Manos, Amany Zekry, Lisa Maher
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) antiviral therapies potentially suppress HBV viral load to an undetectable level reducing the risk of progressive liver disease and the development of HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma. Adherence to antiviral therapies is imperative to achieve and maintain viral suppression. To date, there has been limited research on adherence to HBV therapies. Our study aimed to explore factors influencing adherence to antiviral therapy. A total of 29 participants consented to in-depth qualitative interviews at three outpatient clinics in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia...
May 2017: Gastroenterology Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Gastroenterology Nurses and Associates
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567687/integrated-method-for-purification-and-single-particle-characterization-of-lentiviral-vector-systems-by-size-exclusion-chromatography-and-tunable-resistive-pulse-sensing
#18
Susanne Heider, Julien Muzard, Marianne Zaruba, Christoph Metzner
Elements derived from lentiviral particles such as viral vectors or virus-like particles are commonly used for biotechnological and biomedical applications, for example in mammalian protein expression, gene delivery or therapy, and vaccine development. Preparations of high purity are necessary in most cases, especially for clinical applications. For purification, a wide range of methods are available, from density gradient centrifugation to affinity chromatography. In this study we have employed size exclusion columns specifically designed for the easy purification of extracellular vesicles including exosomes...
May 31, 2017: Molecular Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566227/boosted-protease-inhibitor-monotherapy-versus-boosted-protease-inhibitor-plus-lamivudine-dual-therapy-as-second-line-maintenance-treatment-for-hiv-1-infected-patients-in-sub-saharan-africa-anrs12-286-mobidip-a-multicentre-randomised-parallel-open-label-superiority
#19
Laura Ciaffi, Sinata Koulla-Shiro, Adrien Bruno Sawadogo, Cheik Tidiane Ndour, Sabrina Eymard-Duvernay, Pretty Rosereine Mbouyap, Liliane Ayangma, Jacques Zoungrana, Ndeye Fatou Ngom Gueye, Mohamadou Diallo, Suzanne Izard, Guillaume Bado, Coumba Toure Kane, Avelin Fobang Aghokeng, Martine Peeters, Pierre Marie Girard, Vincent Le Moing, Jacques Reynes, Eric Delaporte
BACKGROUND: Despite satisfactory efficacy of WHO-recommended second-line antiretroviral treatment for patients with HIV in low-income countries, the need for simplified, low-cost, and less-toxic maintenance strategies remains high. We compared boosted protease inhibitor monotherapy with dual therapy with boosted protease inhibitor plus lamivudine in patients on second-line antiretrovial therapy (ART). METHODS: We did a multicentre, randomised, parallel, open-label, superiority, trial in the HIV services of five hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa (Yaoundé, Cameroon; Dakar, Senegal; and Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso)...
May 26, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28564629/comparison-between-roche-and-xpert-in-hiv-1-rna-quantitation-a-high-concordance-between-the-two-techniques-except-for-a-crf02_ag-subtype-variant-with-high-viral-load-titters-detected-by-roche-but-undetected-by-xpert
#20
Boaz Avidor, Natalia Matus, Shirley Girshengorn, Svetlana Achsanov, Simona Gielman, Irene Zeldis, Inbal Schweitzer, Amos Adler, Dan Turner
BACKGROUND: HIV-1 viral load (VL) testing is important to predict viral progression and to monitor the response to antiretroviral therapy. New HIV-1 VL tests are continuously introduced to the market. Their performance is usually compared to Abbott and/or Roche HIV-1 VL assays, as reference. The Xpert HIV-1 VL test was recently introduced, but its performance compared to Roche has not been sufficiently studied. OBJECTIVES: To compare the Xpert assay with Roche and to assess its use in the HIV clinical laboratory...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
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