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Viral load monitoring

Tamar Tak, Tomasz P Rygiel, Guruswamy Karnam, Okan W Bastian, Louis Boon, Marco Viveen, Frank E Coenjaerts, Linde Meyaard, Leo Koenderman, Janesh Pillay
Severe influenza virus infection can lead to life-threatening pathology through immune-mediated tissue damage. In various experimental models, this damage is dependent on T-cells. There is conflicting evidence regarding the role of neutrophils in influenza-mediated pathology. Neutrophils are often regarded as cells causing tissue damage, but in recent years it has become clear that a subset of human neutrophils is capable of suppressing T-cells, which is dependent on Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18). Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that immune suppression by neutrophils can reduce T-cell mediate pathology after influenza infection...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Alexander J Szubert, Andrew J Prendergast, Moira J Spyer, Victor Musiime, Philippa Musoke, Mutsa Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Patricia Nahirya-Ntege, Margaret J Thomason, Emmanuel Ndashimye, Immaculate Nkanya, Oscar Senfuma, Boniface Mudenge, Nigel Klein, Diana M Gibb, A Sarah Walker
BACKGROUND: Although WHO recommends viral load (VL) monitoring for those on antiretroviral therapy (ART), availability in low-income countries remains limited. We investigated long-term VL and resistance in HIV-infected children managed without real-time VL monitoring. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In the ARROW factorial trial, 1,206 children initiating ART in Uganda and Zimbabwe between 15 March 2007 and 18 November 2008, aged a median 6 years old, with median CD4% of 12%, were randomised to monitoring with or without 12-weekly CD4 counts and to receive 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (2NRTI, mainly abacavir+lamivudine) with a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) or 3 NRTIs as long-term ART...
November 2017: PLoS Medicine
María Fernanda Álvarez Barreneche, Carlos Andrés Restrepo Castro, Alicia Hidrón Botero, Juan Pablo Villa Franco, Ivan Mauricio Trompa Romero, Laura Restrepo Carvajal, Alejandro Eusse García, Adriana Ocampo Mesa, Lina María Echeverri Toro, Glenys Patricia Porras Fernández de Castro, Jaime Mauricio Ramírez Rivera, Carlos Andrés Agudelo Restrepo
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has modified the natural history of HIV-infection: the incidence of opportunistic infections (OIs) has decreased and mortality associated to HIV has improved dramatically. The reasons for hospitalization have changed; OIs are no longer the most common reason for admission. This study describes the patient population, admission diagnosis and hospital course of HIV patients in Colombia in the ART era. METHODS: Patients admitted with HIV/AIDS at six hospitals in Medellin, Colombia between August 1, 2014 and July 31, 2015 were included...
November 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
Santosh Karade, Devidas N Chaturbhuj, Sourav Sen, Rajneesh K Joshi, Smita S Kulkarni, Subramanian Shankar, Raman R Gangakhedkar
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to assess the burden of HIV drug resistance mutations (DRM) in Indian adults exposed to first-line ART as per national guidelines. METHODS: We performed advanced search for the published literature on HIV drug resistance in India in PubMed and Scopus. From each publication data pertaining to age, sex, CD4 count and viral load, prevalence of NRTI/NNRTI drug resistance mutations (DRM) was extracted. Year-wise Indian HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences were retrieved from Los Alamos HIV database and mutation analyses were performed...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Wayne Dimech, Liza M Cabuang, Hans-Peter Grunert, Vanessa Lindig, Vivienne James, Brigitte Senechal, Giuseppe A Vincini, Heinz Zeichhardt
Quantification of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA is required for the initiation and monitoring of anti-viral treatment and the detection of viral resistance. However, due to the lack of standardisation of CMV DNA nucleic acid tests, it is difficult to set universal thresholds. In 2010, the 1st WHO International Standard for Human Cytomegalovirus for Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques was released. Since then CMV DNA viral load assays have been calibrated using this standard. Three external quality assessment (EQA) providers sent the same five samples to their participants and analysed the results to determine the equivalence of reporting CMV DNA results in international units per millilitre (IU/mL), and compared the difference in results reported in IU/mL with those reported in copies per millilitre (c/mL), and to determine the rate of adoption of IU/mL...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
Chatté Adawaye, Joseph Fokam, Erick Kamangu, Hamit Mahamat Alio, Aoudalkarim Moussa Chahad, Fabrice Susin, Ali Mahamat Moussa, Tchombou Hig-Zounet Bertin, Abdelsalam Tidjani, Dolores Vaira, Michel Moutschen
BACKGROUND: The national antiretroviral therapy in the Republic of Chad provides free of charge antiretroviral regimens and therapeutic monitoring for patients receiving antiretroviral therapy nationwide. For a successful programmatic uptake, these efforts merit to be supported by thorough assessments of antiretroviral therapy response and HIV-1 drug resistance surveillance, especially with risks of cross-resistance due to the gradual stavudine phasing out in such national settings. We therefore evaluated the virological response to antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1 drug resistance emergence and circulating HIV-1 clades in a Chad context...
November 10, 2017: BMC Research Notes
Sabrina K Been, Elif Yildiz, Pythia T Nieuwkerk, Katalin Pogány, David A M C van de Vijver, Annelies Verbon
HIV-infected migrants were shown to have poorer treatment outcomes than Dutch HIV-infected patients, often due to worse treatment adherence. Self-reported adherence would be an easy way to monitor adherence, but its validity relative to pharmacy refill adherence has not been extensively evaluated in migrants. All HIV-infected migrants older than 18 years and in care at the two Rotterdam HIV-treatment centers were eligible. Refill data with leftover medication (PRL) (residual pill count) were obtained from their pharmacies up to 15 months prior to inclusion...
2017: PloS One
Joseph Fokam, Serge Clotaire Billong, Franck Jogue, Suzie Moyo Tetang Ndiang, Annie Carole Nga Motaze, Koki Ndombo Paul, Anne Esther Njom Nlend
INTRODUCTION: Limited studies have reported the outcomes of lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) amongst adolescents living with HIV (ALWHIV) in resource-limited settings (RLS), thus classifying this population as underserved. We therefore aimed to ascertain the immunological and virological responses, and associated factors amongst Cameroonian ALWHIV. METHOD: A cross-sectional and observational study was conducted from January through May 2016 at the National Social Insurance Fund Health Centre in Yaoundé-Cameroon...
2017: PloS One
E Beam, J J Germer, B Lahr, J D Yao, A H Limper, M J Binnicker, R R Razonable
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia causes major morbidity and mortality. Its diagnosis requires demonstration of viral cytopathic changes in tissue, entailing risks of lung biopsy. This study aimed to determine CMV viral load (VL) thresholds in brochoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) for diagnosis of CMV pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. CMV VL in BALF was studied in 17 patients (83% transplant recipients) and 21 control subjects with and without CMV pneumonia, respectively, using an FDA-approved PCR assay (Cobas(®) AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan(®) CMV Test, Roche Molecular Systems, Inc...
November 7, 2017: Clinical Transplantation
Daniela Fenoglio, Chiara Dentone, Alessio Signori, Antonio Di Biagio, Alessia Parodi, Francesca Kalli, Giorgia Nasi, Monica Curto, Giovanni Cenderello, Pasqualina De Leo, Valentina Bartolacci, Giancarlo Orofino, Laura Ambra Nicolini, Lucia Taramasso, Edoardo Fiorillo, Valeria Orrù, Paolo Traverso, Bianca Bruzzone, Federico Ivaldi, Eugenio Mantia, Michele Guerra, Simone Negrini, Mauro Giacomini, Sanjay Bhagani, Gilberto Filaci
BACKGROUND: HIV-associated immunodeficiency is related to loss of CD4(+) T cells. This mechanism does not explain certain manifestations of HIV disease, such as immunodeficiency events in patients with greater than 500 CD4(+) T cells/μL. CD8(+)CD28(-)CD127(lo)CD39(+) T cells are regulatory T (Treg) lymphocytes that are highly concentrated within the tumor microenvironment and never analyzed in the circulation of HIV-infected patients. OBJECTIVES: We sought to analyze the frequency of CD8(+)CD28(-)CD127(lo)CD39(+) Treg cells in the circulation of HIV-infected patients...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Yohannes Demissie Babo, Getahun Asres Alemie, Fasil Walelign Fentaye
BACKGROUND: Due to the limited availability of viral load testing for treatment outcome monitoring in resource limited settings, identifying predictive factors of antiretroviral treatment failure will help in selecting clients who will benefit most from the targeted use of viral load monitoring. Little is known about the predictors of treatment failure in the study area. This study was conducted to determine factors that predict first-line antiretroviral therapy failure among HIV-infected adult clients at Woldia Hospital, Northeast Ethiopia...
2017: PloS One
Walid Azab, Armando Mario Damiani, Andreas Ochs, Nikolaus Osterrieder
Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) are a continuous threat for young Asian elephants. We report a laboratory-confirmed infection of a 5-year-old female Asian elephant (AZ_2016) in the Berlin Zoologischer Garten. Initially, high EEHV-1 loads were detected in trunk swabs obtained from the young elephant during routine screening. The animal showed no clinical signs except for slight irritability. EEHV-1 was continuously shed for almost one year, with fluctuations in viral load from time to time. Our investigations highlight the continuous threat of EEHV-1 to young captive Asian elephants and stress the importance of routine monitoring of captive elephants to allow early detection of infection...
November 1, 2017: Archives of Virology
D Huang, B Sansas, J H Jiang, Q M Gong, G D Jin, V Calais, D M Yu, M Y Zhu, D Wei, D H Zhang, G Inchauspé, X X Zhang, R Zhu
Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is one of the major public health challenges in the world. Due to a strong interplay between specific T-cell immunity and elimination of hepatitis B virus (HBV), efforts to develop novel immunotherapeutics are gaining attention. TG1050, a novel immunotherapy, has shown efficacy in an animal study. To support the clinical development of TG1050 in China, specific immunity to the fusion antigens of TG1050 was assessed in Chinese patients. One hundred and thirty subjects were divided into three groups as CHB patients, HBV spontaneous resolvers, and CHB patients with HBsAg loss after antiviral treatment...
November 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Hung-Chin Tsai, I-Tzu Chen, Kuan-Sheng Wu, Yu-Ting Tseng, Cheng-Len Sy, Jui-Kuang Chen, Susan Shin-Jung Lee, Yao-Shen Chen
BACKGROUND: Drug resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and protease inhibitors (PIs) has been associated with loss of viral suppression measured by a rise in HIV-1 RNA levels, a decline in CD4 cell counts, persistence on a failing treatment regimen, and lack of adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to monitor the prevalence and risk factors associated with drug resistance in Taiwan after failure of first-line therapy...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
Antonella Castagna, Micol Ferrara, Laura Galli, Laura Comi, Gaetana Sterrantino, Giovanni Cenderello, Mauro Zaccarelli, Emanuele Focà, Andrea Roncadori, Adriano Lazzarin
Objectives: This study evaluated the virological efficacy of dolutegravir 50 mg twice daily in 190 HIV-1 failing antiretroviral-experienced patients with previous exposure to first-generation integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) over a 5 year follow-up using data from clinical practice. Patients and methods: This analysis included HIV-1-infected patients who were ≥18 years of age, treatment experienced, had HIV-1 RNA >50 copies/mL, with INSTI-resistant virus, who started dolutegravir 50 mg twice daily plus optimized background therapy (OBT), recorded in the national prospective database PRESTIGIO (www...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
S De Wit, M Battegay, A D'Arminio Monforte, J D Lundgren, C Oprea, A Antinori, S Bhagani, G Fätkenheuer, N Friis-Moller, H Furrer, C Mussini
The European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS) organized a second meeting on Standard of Care in Europe on November 16-17 th, 2016. The aims of the meeting were to discuss and propose actions on three topics, namely: Adherence to guidelines for treatment initiation, treatment monitoring and outcomes, Retention in care and HIV and tuberculosis co-infection. Several actions need to be implemented in order to further improve quality of care and treatment of HIV in Europe. A common ground for standard of care, based on the EACS Guidelines should be established throughout Europe...
October 27, 2017: HIV Medicine
Renata Wieczorek-Godlewska, Rafał Płoski, Agnieszka Perkowska-Ptasińska, Olga Tronina, Anna Sadowska, Marek Pacholczyk, Wojciech Lisik, Magdalena Durlik
AIM OF THE STUDY: Aim of the study was to assess the impact of the recipient and donor interferon lambda-3 (IFNL3) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs12979860 and rs8099917 on the course of hepatitis C virus (HCV) reinfection following liver transplantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 141 subjects after liver transplantation for HCV-induced cirrhosis, performed between 2000 and 2015. It assessed the impact of both SNPs on the outcomes of interferon/ribavirin (IFN/RBV) treatment following transplantation, HCV viral load, laboratory test results, histological lesions in the liver graft, the risk of acute rejection, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patient's own liver...
September 2017: Clin Exp Hepatol
A M W Efsen, A Schultze, R F Miller, A Panteleev, A Skrahin, D N Podlekareva, J M Miro, E Girardi, H Furrer, M H Losso, J Toibaro, J A Caylà, A Mocroft, J D Lundgren, F A Post, O Kirk
OBJECTIVES: Mortality among HIV patients with tuberculosis (TB) remains high in Eastern Europe (EE), but details of TB and HIV management remain scarce. METHODS: In this prospective study, we describe the TB treatment regimens of patients with multi-drug resistant (MDR) TB and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). RESULTS: A total of 105 HIV-positive patients had MDR-TB (including 33 with extensive drug resistance) and 130 pan-susceptible TB...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Infection
Sarah Fidler, Heather Lewis, Jodi Meyerowitz, Kristin Kuldanek, John Thornhill, David Muir, Alice Bonnissent, Georgina Timson, John Frater
There is a global need for HIV viral load point-of-care (PoC) assays to monitor patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. UNICORN was the first study of an off-label protocol using whole blood finger-prick samples tested with and without a simple three minute spin using a clinic-room microcentrifuge. Two PoC assays were evaluated in 40 HIV-positive participants, 20 with detectable and 20 with undetectable plasma viral load (pVL) (<20 copies/ml). Using 100 µl finger-prick blood samples, the Cepheid Xpert HIV-1 Viral Load and HIV-1 Qual cartridges were compared with laboratory pVL assessment (TaqMan, Roche)...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Andargachew Mulu, Melanie Maier, Uwe Gerd Liebert
BACKGROUND: The emergence, accumulation and spread of HIV-1 drug resistance strains in Africa could compromise the effectiveness of HIV treatment programs. This study was aimed at determining the incidence of virological failure and acquired drug resistance mutations overtime and identifying the most common mutational pathways of resistance in a well characterized HIV-1C infected Ethiopian cohort. METHODS: A total of 320 patients (220 ART naïve and 100 on first lines ART) were included and followed...
2017: PloS One
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