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Incidence assay

Qian Sun, Qianlei Yang, Hui Xu, Junchao Xue, Chao Chen, Xingfen Yang, Xiaohua Gao, Qizhan Liu
Chronic exposure to arsenic, a potent environmental oxidative stressor, is associated with the incidence of diabetes. However, the mechanisms for arsenite-induced reduction of insulin remain largely unclear. After CD1 mice were treated with 20 or 40 ppm arsenite in the drinking water for 12 months, the mice showed reduced fasting insulin levels, a depression in glucose clearance, and lower insulin content in the pancreas. The levels of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic β-cells isolated from arsenite-exposed mice were low compared to those for control mice...
June 14, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Jeffrey S Kroin, Jinyuan Li, Sasha Shafikhani, Kajal H Gupta, Mario Moric, Asokumar Buvanendran
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Infected implantable devices represent a clinical challenge, because the customary option is to surgically remove the device, and that is associated with substantial cost and morbidity to the patient, along with patient dissatisfaction with the physician. Although prophylactic systemic antibiotics and sterile technique are the mainstay of prevention of surgical site infection (SSI) after implant, the incidence of SSI remains relatively high. Although some surgeons add local antibiotic at implant site during surgery, there is no scientific research to demonstrate if there is a benefit...
June 13, 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Yonghong Wang, Baofang Wen, Hongli Yu, Dejun Ding, JingJing Zhang, Yunxiang Zhang, Limin Zhao, Weifen Zhang
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common epithelial malignancy that occurs in the nasopharynx and it is one of the high incidences of malignant tumors in China. As previous reports, berberine hydrochloride (BH) possesses a repressive effect on the proliferation of various cancer types. But the application of BH was hampered for a long time due to its hydrophobic properties, along with poor stability and bioavailability. In this study, folate acid modified chitosan nanoparticles loaded berberine hydrochloride (BH/FA-CTS NPs) were prepared by the ionic cross-linking technique, the physicochemical properties and the influence of BH/FA-CTS NPs on proliferation, migration and apoptosis in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-1 cells were studied in vitro and in vivo...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
Carlos Solano, Estela Giménez, Eliseo Albert, Eva María Mateo, Montserrat Gómez, Rosa Goterris, Ariadna Pérez, Paula Amat, Juan Carlos Hernández-Boluda, Marc Poch, José Luis Piñana, David Navarro
To gauge the risk of delaying initiation of prophylaxis with letermovir from the time of donor infusion to prevent CMV infection in allo-HSCT recipients we investigated the clinical outcomes of CMV DNAemia episodes occurring before engraftment, and compared to that of episodes developing after engraftment (up to day +365). A total of 197 consecutive adult patients were included. Plasma CMV DNA load was monitored by real-time PCR assays [limit of detection: 31 IU/ml]. A total of 150 out of 197 patients had CMV DNAemia (cumulative incidence of 77%; 95% CI, 73-81%), and 38 out of the 197 patients developed it before engraftment (cumulative incidence, 19%; 95% CI, 10-30...
June 13, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
Run-Ze Li, Xing-Xing Fan, Fu-Gang Duan, Ze-Bo Jiang, Hu-Dan Pan, Lian-Xiang Luo, Yan-Ling Zhou, Ying Li, Ying-Jia Yao, Xiao-Jun Yao, Elaine Lai-Han Leung, Liang Liu
Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the predominant histological type of lung cancer and is characterized by the highest mortality and incidence rates among these types of malignancies. Cardiac glycosides, a class of natural products, have been identified as a potential type of chemotherapeutic agent. This study aims to investigate the anti-cancer effects and the mechanisms of action of Proscillaridin A (P.A) in NSCLC cells. In vitro sodium-potassium pump (Na+ /K+ ATPase) enzyme assays indicated that P.A is a direct Na+ /K+ ATPase inhibitor...
June 13, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Jingjing Zhang, Jun Xu, Yonghong Dong, Bo Huang
Background In view of the high incidence of gastric cancer and the functions of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), our study aimed to investigate the functionality of HIF-1α in gastric cancer, and to explore the diagnostic and prognosic values of HIF-1α for this disease. Methods Expression of HIF-1α in tumor tissues and adjacent healthy tissues as well as serum collected from both gastric cancer patients and normal healthy controls was detected by qRT-PCR. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier method...
June 13, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Adriana R Marques
Lyme disease is a tickborne illness caused by Borreliella (Borrelia) burgdorferi and it is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States, with an estimated incidence of 300,000 cases per year. The currently recommended approach for laboratory support of the diagnosis of Lyme disease is the standard 2-tiered algorithm (STT), comprised of an enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA) or immunofluorescence assay (IFA), followed by a Western blot (WB). The STT algorithm has low sensitivity in early infection, and there are drawbacks associated with the WB use in practice...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Saranya Sridhar, Alexander Luedtke, Edith Langevin, Ming Zhu, Matthew Bonaparte, Tifany Machabert, Stephen Savarino, Betzana Zambrano, Annick Moureau, Alena Khromava, Zoe Moodie, Ted Westling, Cesar Mascareñas, Carina Frago, Margarita Cortés, Danaya Chansinghakul, Fernando Noriega, Alain Bouckenooghe, Josh Chen, Su-Peing Ng, Peter B Gilbert, Sanjay Gurunathan, Carlos A DiazGranados
Background In efficacy trials of a tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV), excess hospitalizations for dengue were observed among vaccine recipients 2 to 5 years of age. Precise risk estimates according to observed dengue serostatus could not be ascertained because of the limited numbers of samples collected at baseline. We developed a dengue anti-nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and used samples from month 13 to infer serostatus for a post hoc analysis of safety and efficacy...
June 13, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Xiaoyu Liu, Changyu Li, Junhao Li, Tianzhu Yu, Guofeng Zhou, Jiemin Cheng, Guoping Li, Yang Zhou, Wenhui Lou, Xiaolin Wang, Gaoquan Gong, Lingxiao Liu, Yi Chen
Pancreatic cancer is amongst the most lethal malignancies with increasing incidence and mortality worldwide. Distant metastases, especially intrahepatic metastases, is the leading cause of death for pancreatic cancer. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are neoplastic cells released from the primary tumor into circulation, and play critical roles in metastases of various types of cancers. Though clinical studies showed that detection of CTCs in peripheral circulation was associated with worse prognosis in patients with breast cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma, detection CTCs in peripheral blood of pancreatic cancer was still challenging due to hepatic filtration and technical limitations...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Y Qin, P Liao
Hepatitis B (HB) is a worldwide public health problem, closely related with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The implementation of universal hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination programs has led to significant reduction in incidence of acute and chronic HB, liver cirrhosis and HCC. However, this success is now being threatened by the discovery of HBV vaccine breakthrough infection caused by the S gene mutants of HBV, high maternal viral load and virus-induced immunosuppression. An alteration in the antigenicity and immunogenicity of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) due to S gene mutations may compromise detection of HBsAg (diagnosis-escape mutants), treatment with hepatitis B-specific immunoglobulin (HBIG), and even cause infections in individuals who are antihepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) antibody-positive after immunization (vaccine-escape mutants)...
2018: Acta Virologica
Erica L L Warkus, Yusuke Marikawa
Fluoxetine is one of the most commonly prescribed antidepressants in the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. Epidemiologic studies have suggested a link between maternal fluoxetine use during pregnancy and an increased incidence of birth defects. However, the mechanisms by which fluoxetine adversely impacts embryonic development are unknown. Here, we used the mouse P19C5 embryoid body (EB) as a 3-dimensional morphogenesis model to investigate the developmental toxicity of fluoxetine. Morphological and molecular changes in P19C5 EBs replicate the processes of axial elongation and patterning seen in early embryos, and these changes are specifically and sensitively altered by exposure to developmental toxicants...
June 8, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Noriyuki Ojima, Yusuke Hara, Hiroki Ito, Daisuke Yamamoto
By genetic manipulations, we study the roles played by insulin-producing cells (IPCs) in the brain and their target, the corpora allata (CA), for reproductive dormancy in female Drosophila melanogaster, which is induced by exposing them to a combination of low temperature (11°C), short-day photoperiod (10L:14D) and starvation (water only) for 7 days immediately after eclosion (dormancy-inducing conditions). Artificial inactivation of IPCs promotes, whereas artificial activation impedes, the induction of reproductive dormancy...
June 2018: PLoS Genetics
C Shen, Q Z Wang, Z Y Shen, H Y Yuan, W J Yu, X D Chen, H Xu
BACKGROUND: Acne vulgaris is a common chronic skin disease. Inflammation is an important pathogenetic mechanism of acne, and NLRP3 polymorphisms have been reported to be involved in the mediation and occurrence of the inflammation. However, only a few studies on NLRP3 and acne have been reported, and the mechanism remains unclear. AIM: To investigate two SNPs in the NLRP3 gene in patients with acne vulgaris (AV) and healthy controls (HCs) in a Chinese population...
June 11, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
G Vinayarani, H S Prakash
Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and endophytic bacteria were isolated from different varieties of turmeric ( Curcuma longa L.) from South India. Totally 50 strains representing, 30 PGPR and 20 endophytic bacteria were identified based on biochemical assays and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The isolates were screened for antagonistic activity against Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp., and Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn., causing rhizome rot and leaf blight diseases in turmeric, by dual culture and liquid culture assays...
June 2018: Plant Pathology Journal
J A Barea-Mendoza, L J Terceros-Almanza, C García-Fuentes, S Bermejo-Aznárez, I J Prieto Del Portillo, C Mudarra-Reche, M Valiente-Fernández, A Rodríguez-Biendicho, J C Montejo González, M Chico-Fernández
BACKGROUND: Hypoperfusion plays a central role in shock states, and has been proposed as a coagulopathy trigger. The study of the rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) profile during cardiac arrest could offer new insights to the role of hypoperfusion in coagulation during shock states. OUTCOME: To describe the ROTEM profile in a cohort of asystole donors and elucidate the incidence of hyperfibrinolysis. DESIGN: A prospective observational study was carried out in 18 patients consecutively admitted to the ICU after out-of-hospital non-recovered cardiac arrest (CA)...
June 7, 2018: Medicina Intensiva
Carmen Oeo-Santos, Salvador Mas, Sara Benedé, María López-Lucendo, Joaquín Quiralte, Miguel Blanca, Cristobalina Mayorga, Mayte Villalba, Rodrigo Barderas
The allergenic non-specific lipid transfer protein Ole e 7 from olive pollen is a major allergen associated with severe symptoms in areas with high olive pollen levels. Despite its clinical importance, its cloning and recombinant production has been unable by classical approaches. This study aimed at determining by mass-spectrometry based proteomics its complete amino acid sequence for its subsequent expression and characterization. To this end, the natural protein was in-2D-gel tryptic digested, and CID and HCD fragmentation spectra obtained by nLC-MS/MS analyzed using PEAKS software...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Vadim G Krivoshapkin, Sergei I Semenov, Svetlana S Maximova, Nadegda N Tihonova, Anna I Sivtseva, Snegana S Sleptsova
OBJECTIVE: Inrtroduction: The epidemiological situation for hepatitis D has changed significantly. Reduced population authors infection due to a sharp decline in hospitalizations from Central Asia regions, the Caucasus and Moldova, which are known to be endemic for hepatitis D. Currently, the incidence of chronic hepatitis D (HGD) in Russia is 1%, while in the countries of Central Asia, and in particular in Turkmenistan, the share of HGD among chronic viral hepatitis is 8%. The aim of research was to establish the clinical features, depending on the activity of the replication of hepatitis viruses B and D...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
David M Lehmann
Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) continues to be an occupational and environmental health issue. Consequently, there is a need to employ predictive tests to reduce the incidence of skin sensitization leading to clinical manifestations of ACD. For more than a decade, the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) has been the method of choice for the identification of skin sensitizers. While the original LLNA protocol has been extensively evaluated and subjected to exhaustive validation, the use of radioisotope (i...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Stacey E Anderson, Hillary L Shane
Immunotoxicology is the study of immune system dysfunction that can result from occupational, inadvertent, or therapeutic exposure to a variety of chemical or biologic agents that alter the immune system and affect human health. Immunotoxicology can manifest in a variety of ways, with one of the most prominent effects being immunosuppression. Immunosuppression can be defined as a reduced ability of the immune system to respond to a challenge from a level considered normal, regardless of whether clinical disease results...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Seok-Ho Shin, Min-Ho Park, Jin-Ju Byeon, Byeong Ill Lee, Yuri Park, Ah-Ra Ko, Mi-Ran Seong, Soyeon Lee, Mi Ra Kim, Jinwook Seo, Myung Eun Jung, Dong-Kyu Jin, Young G Shin
Fabry disease is a rare lysosomal storage disorder resulting from the lack of α-Gal A gene activity. Globotriaosylceramide (GB3, ceramide trihexoside) is a novel endogenous biomarker which predicts the incidence of Fabry disease. At the early stage efficacy/biomarker study, a rapid method to determine this biomarker in plasma and in all relevant tissues related to this disease simultaneously is required. However, the limited sample volume, as well as the various levels of GB3 in different matrices makes the GB3 quantitation very challenging...
June 7, 2018: Pharmaceutics
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