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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718492/-hiv-and-syphilis-coinfection-in-pregnancy-and-vertical-hiv-transmission-a-study-based-on-epidemiological-surveillance-data
#1
Lisiane M W Acosta, Tonantzin Ribeiro Gonçalves, Nêmora Tregnago Barcellos
Objective: To estimate the rate of HIV and syphilis coinfection among pregnant women living in Porto Alegre, Brazil, as well as the association of coinfection with vertical HIV transmission and socioeconomic variables. Method: This analytical retrospective cross-sectional study employed data from the regular epidemiological surveillance system for the period from 2010 to 2013. Data were obtained regarding pregnant women with HIV and exposed children, syphilis in pregnancy, and congenital syphilis...
December 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718491/-hiv-aids-surveillance-among-pregnant-women-assessing-the-quality-of-the-available-information
#2
Maria Quitéria Batista Meirelles, Ana Karla Bezerra Lopes, Kenio Costa Lima
Objective: To analyze the quality of the information available in the Reportable Disease Information System (SINAN) regarding pregnant women with HIV/AIDS in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, between 2007 and 2014. Method: The quality of information was analyzed based on completeness (percentage of fields containing values that were not null) of fields (sociodemographic information, epidemiologic maternal history, pre-natal care, and delivery) and on the existence of discrepancy between the data sources analyzed (Natal and Mossoró municipal departments of health, state department of health, and Unified Health System information database, DATASUS)...
December 2016: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716042/tuberculosis-and-hiv-are-the-leading-causes-of-adult-death-in-northwest-ethiopia-evidence-from-verbal-autopsy-data-of-dabat-health-and-demographic-surveillance-system-2007-2013
#3
Yigzaw Kebede, Gashaw Andargie, Abebaw Gebeyehu, Tadesse Awoke, Mezgebu Yitayal, Solomon Mekonnen, Mamo Wubshet, Temesgen Azmeraw, Yihunie Lakew, Kassahun Alemu
BACKGROUND: Reliable data on causes of death form the basis for building evidence on health policy, planning, monitoring, and evaluation. In Ethiopia, the majority of deaths occur at home and civil registration systems are not yet functional. The main objective of verbal autopsy (VA) is to describe the causes of death at the community or population level where civil registration and death certification systems are weak and where most people die at home without having had contact with the health system...
July 17, 2017: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701420/comparative-evaluation-of-subtyping-tools-for-the-surveillance-of-newly-emerging-hiv-1-strains
#4
Lavinia Fabeni, Giulia Berno, Joseph Fokam, Ada Bertoli, Claudia Alteri, Caterina Gori, Federica Forbici, Desiré Takou, Alessandra Vergori, Mauro Zaccarelli, Gaetano Maffongelli, Vanni Borghi, Alessandra Latini, Alfredo Pennica, Claudio Maria Mastroianni, Francesco Montella, Cristina Mussini, Massimo Andreoni, Andrea Antinori, Carlo Federico Perno, Maria Mercedes Santoro
HIV-1 non-B subtypes/circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) are increasing worldwide. Since subtype identification can be clinically relevant, we assessed the added value in HIV-1 subtyping using updated molecular phylogeny (Mphy), and the performance of routinely used automated tools. Updated Mphy (2015 updated reference sequences), used as gold standard, was performed to subtyping of 13,116 HIV-1 protease/reverse transcriptase sequences, and then compared with previously Mphy (reference sequences until 2014), and with COMET, REGA, SCUEAL and Stanford subtyping tools...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700407/estimated-hiv-incidence-prevalence-and-undiagnosed-infections-in-us-states-and-washington-dc-2010-2014
#5
Anna Satcher Johnson, Ruiguang Song, H Irene Hall
INTRODUCTION: The burden of HIV infection and health outcomes for people living with HIV varies across the United States. New methods allow for estimating national and state-level HIV incidence, prevalence, and undiagnosed infections using surveillance data and CD4 values. METHODS: HIV surveillance data reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the first CD4 value after diagnosis were used to estimate the distribution of delay from infection to diagnosis based on a well-characterized CD4 depletion model...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694240/feasibility-of-establishing-hiv-case-based-surveillance-to-measure-progress-along-the-health-sector-cascade-situational-assessments-in-tanzania-south-africa-and-kenya
#6
Richelle Harklerode, Sandra Schwarcz, James Hargreaves, Andrew Boulle, Jim Todd, Serge Xueref, Brian Rice
BACKGROUND: To track the HIV epidemic and responses to it, the World Health Organization recommends 10 global indicators to collect information along the HIV care cascade. Patient diagnosis and medical record data, harnessed through case-based surveillance (CBS), can be used to measure 8 of these. While many high burden countries have well-established systems for monitoring patients on HIV treatment, few have formally adopted CBS. OBJECTIVE: In response to the need for improved strategic HIV information and to facilitate the development of CBS in resource-limited countries, we aimed to conduct situational assessments of existing data collection systems in Tanzania, South Africa, and Kenya...
July 10, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693564/surveillance-of-recent-hiv-infections-among-newly-diagnosed-hiv-cases-in-germany-between-2008-and-2014
#7
Alexandra Hofmann, Andrea Hauser, Ruth Zimmermann, Claudia Santos-Hövener, Jörg Bätzing-Feigenbaum, Stephan Wildner, Claudia Kücherer, Norbert Bannert, Osamah Hamouda, Viviane Bremer, Barbara Bartmeyer
BACKGROUND: The HIV surveillance system in Germany is based on mandatory, anonymous notification of newly diagnosed HIV cases by laboratories. Because the time between HIV infection and the diagnosis of HIV varies widely between persons, it is difficult to determine the number of cases of recent HIV infection among newly diagnosed cases of HIV. In Germany, the BED-capture-enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA) has been used to distinguish between recent and long-standing HIV infection. The aim of this analysis is to report the proportion of cases of recent HIV infection among newly diagnosed cases in Germany between 2008 and 2014 and to identify factors associated with recent infections...
July 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693084/-survey-of-hiv-1-drug-resistance-threshold-in-shandong-province-in-2013-2015
#8
X G Sun, H Y Yu, S L Su, B Lin, J H Li, L Lin, X R Tao, Y S Qian, D M Kang, H Xing
Objective: To survey the prevalence of drug resistant HIV-1 in Shandong province in 2013-2015. Methods: WHO truncated sequential sampling technique was adopted by using 77 and 53 samples of newly diagnosed as HIV-1 positive and aged 16-25 years in Shandong province in 2013 and 2015. RNA was prepared and HIV-1 pol region was amplified by RT-PCR and nested PCR. Pol genetic mutation associated with drug resistance was analyzed. Results: The success rates for sequence acquisition of the survey were 100% (77/77) and 94% (50/53) in 2013 and 2015, and the main subtype was CRF01_AE...
July 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692543/impact-and-economic-evaluation-of-a-novel-hiv-service-delivery-model-in-rural-malawi
#9
Ryan K McBain, Elizabeth Petersen, Nora Tophof, Elizabeth Dunbar, Noel Kalanga, Lawrence Nazimera, Andrew Mganga, Luckson Dullie, Joia Mukherjee, Emily B Wroe
OBJECTIVE: We performed an impact and cost-effectiveness analysis of a novel HIV service delivery model in a high prevalence, remote district of Malawi with a population of 143,800 people. DESIGN: A population-based retrospective analysis of one-year survival rates among newly-enrolled HIV+ patients at 682 health facilities throughout Malawi, comparing facilities implementing the service delivery model (n = 13) and those implementing care-as-usual (n = 669)...
July 7, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686692/estimating-influenza-and-respiratory-syncytial-virus-associated-mortality-in-western-kenya-using-health-and-demographic-surveillance-system-data-2007-2013
#10
Gideon O Emukule, Peter Spreeuwenberg, Sandra S Chaves, Joshua A Mott, Stefano Tempia, Godfrey Bigogo, Bryan Nyawanda, Amek Nyaguara, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Koos van der Velden, John W Paget
BACKGROUND: Influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) associated mortality has not been well-established in tropical Africa. METHODS: We used the negative binomial regression method and the rate-difference method (i.e. deaths during low and high influenza/RSV activity months), to estimate excess mortality attributable to influenza and RSV using verbal autopsy data collected through a health and demographic surveillance system in Western Kenya, 2007-2013. Excess mortality rates were calculated for a) all-cause mortality, b) respiratory deaths (including pneumonia), c) HIV-related deaths, and d) pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) related deaths...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685292/role-of-innate-genes-in-hiv-replication
#11
Kerstin Schott, Maximilian Riess, Renate König
Cells use an elaborate innate immune surveillance and defense system against virus infections. Here, we discuss recent studies that reveal how HIV-1 is sensed by the innate immune system. Furthermore, we present mechanisms on the counteraction of HIV-1. We will provide an overview how HIV-1 actively utilizes host cellular factors to avoid sensing. Additionally, we will summarize effectors of the innate response that provide an antiviral cellular state. HIV-1 has evolved passive mechanism to avoid restriction and to regulate the innate response...
July 8, 2017: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681400/epidemiological-trends-of-hiv-1-infection-in-blood-donors-from-catalonia-spain-2005-2014
#12
Marta Bes, Maria Piron, Natàlia Casamitjana, Josep Gregori, Juan Ignacio Esteban, Esteban Ribera, Josep Quer, Lluís Puig, Sílvia Sauleda
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) subtype B is predominant in Spain. However, the recent arrival of immigrant populations has increased the prevalence of non-B subtypes and circulating recombinant forms. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes and transmitted drug-resistance mutations in blood donors from the Catalonian region (northeastern Spain). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: HIV-1-positive blood donors identified in Catalonia from 2005 to 2014 were included...
July 5, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679418/transitioning-from-antenatal-surveillance-surveys-to-routine-hiv-testing-a-turning-point-in-the-mother-to-child-transmission-prevention-programme-for-hiv-surveillance-in-brazil
#13
Gerson Fernando Mendes Pereira, Meritxell Sabidó, Alessandro Caruso, Adele Schwartz Benzaken
BACKGROUND: In Brazil, due to the rapid increase in programmes for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), routine programme data are widely available. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of programmatic data to replace HIV surveillance based on the antenatal care (ANC) surveillance survey (SS). METHODS: We analysed ANC SS data from 219 maternity service clinics. PMTCT variables were extracted from the ANC SS data collection form, which allowed us to capture and compare the ANC SS data and PMTCT HIV test results for each pregnant woman who completed the ANC SS...
July 5, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677511/-mapping-hiv-prevalence-in-the-netherlands-with-geographic-information-systems
#14
E L M Op de Coul, I K Joore, A van Sighem, B C J Bom, M Hillebregt, J M Prins, S E Geerlings, J E A M van Bergen
OBJECTIVE: To map regions of the Netherlands with high HIV prevalence for surveillance and prevention purposes. METHOD: Information on numbers of HIV patients receiving clinical care on 31 December 2014 per postcode region was requested from the HIV monitoring foundation (SHM). These details were related to data from Statistics Netherlands on the number of residents per municipal area or district with the aid of a geographic information system (GIS). RESULTS: Distribution mapping showed that ten municipal areas in the Netherlands have an HIV prevalence of 2 or more per 1000 residents aged 15-60 years...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676408/respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-adults-with-severe-acute-respiratory-illness-in-a-high-hiv-prevalence-setting
#15
Jocelyn Moyes, Sibongile Walaza, Marthi Pretorius, Michelle Groome, Anne von Gottberg, Nicole Wolter, Sumayya Haffejee, Ebrahim Variava, Adam L Cohen, Stefano Tempia, Kathleen Kahn, Halima Dawood, Marietjie Venter, Cheryl Cohen, Shabir A Madhi
BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) illness in HIV-infected adults or the elderly in Africa. We studied the epidemiology of RSV-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) hospitalizations in adults in South Africa from 2009 through 2013. METHODS: Individuals admitted to sentinel surveillance hospitals were investigated by respiratory tract swabs for RSV, using a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673329/experience-and-lessons-from-health-impact-assessment-guiding-prevention-and-control-of-hiv-aids-in-a-copper-mine-project-northwestern-zambia
#16
Astrid M Knoblauch, Mark J Divall, Milka Owuor, Kennedy Nduna, Harrison Ng'uni, Gertrude Musunka, Anna Pascall, Jürg Utzinger, Mirko S Winkler
BACKGROUND: To avoid or mitigate potential project-related adverse health effects, the Trident copper project in Kalumbila, northwestern Zambia, commissioned a health impact assessment. HIV was identified a priority health issue based on the local vulnerability to HIV transmission and experience from other mining projects in Africa. Hence, an HIV/AIDS management plan was developed, including community and workplace interventions, with HIV testing and counselling (HTC) being one of the key components...
July 4, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671978/estimated-severe-pneumococcal-disease-cases-and-deaths-before-and-after-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-introduction-in-children-younger-than-5-years-of-age-in-south-africa
#17
Claire von Mollendorf, Stefano Tempia, Anne von Gottberg, Susan Meiring, Vanessa Quan, Charles Feldman, Jeane Cloete, Shabir A Madhi, Katherine L O'Brien, Keith P Klugman, Cynthia G Whitney, Cheryl Cohen
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of severe bacterial infections globally. A full understanding of the impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) on pneumococcal disease burden, following its introduction in 2009 in South Africa, can support national policy on PCV use and assist with policy decisions elsewhere. METHODS: We developed a model to estimate the national burden of severe pneumococcal disease, i.e. disease requiring hospitalisation, pre- (2005-2008) and post-PCV introduction (2012-2013) in children aged 0-59 months in South Africa...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667468/surveillance-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-the-united-states-a-comparison-of-web-based-and-venue-based-samples
#18
Yen-Tyng Chen, Kristina Bowles, Qian An, Elizabeth DiNenno, Teresa Finlayson, Brooke Hoots, Gabriela Paz-Bailey, Cyprian Wejnert
Although men who have sex with men (MSM) recruited through web-based and venue-based sampling methods have been compared, no large web-based and venue-based samples using similar survey instruments have been examined in the U.S. This study describes the differences in sociodemographic characteristics and risk behaviors between the 2012 Web-based HIV Behavioral Survey (n = 3221) and 2011 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (n = 9256). Compared with participants in the venue-based sample, participants in the web-based sample were older, less likely to be black or Hispanic, more likely to have higher socioeconomic status, and more likely to have anal sex without a condom with their last male sex partner...
July 4, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662716/awareness-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-among-women-who-inject-drugs-in-nyc-the-importance-of-networks-and-syringe-exchange-programs-for-hiv-prevention
#19
Suzan M Walters, Kathleen H Reilly, Alan Neaigus, Sarah Braunstein
BACKGROUND: Women who inject drugs (WWID) are at heightened risk for HIV due to biological, behavioral, and structural factors. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could aid in HIV prevention for WWID. However, little is known about WWID awareness of PrEP, which is a necessary step that must occur before PrEP uptake. We report factors associated with greater awareness among WWID to identify efficient means of awareness dissemination. METHODS: Data from the 2015 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) system cycle on injection drug use collected in New York City (NYC) were used...
June 29, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653969/changes-in-fertility-at-the-population-level-in-the-era-of-art-in-rural-malawi
#20
Estelle McLean, Alison Price, Menard Chihana, Ndoliwe Kayuni, Milly Marston, Olivier Koole, Basia Zaba, Amelia Crampin
INTRODUCTION: HIV reduces fertility through biological and social pathways, and antiretroviral treatment (ART) can ameliorate these effects. In northern Malawi, ART has been available since 2007 and lifelong ART is offered to all pregnant or breastfeeding HIV-positive women. METHODS: Using data from the Karonga Health and Demographic Surveillance Site in Malawi from 2005 to 2014, we used total and age-specific fertility rates and Cox regression to assess associations between HIV and ART use and fertility...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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