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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209395/highlights-from-the-2016-hiv-diagnostics-conference-the-new-landscape-of-hiv-testing-in-laboratories-public-health-programs-and-clinical-practice
#1
Laura G Wesolowski, Monica M Parker, Kevin P Delaney, S Michele Owen
The 2016 HIV Diagnostics Conference, held in Atlanta, Georgia, was attended by public health officials, laboratorians, HIV testing program managers, surveillance coordinators and industry representatives. The conference addressed test performance data, the implementation of new testing algorithms, quality assurance, and the application of new tests in a variety of settings. With regard to the recommended Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Association of Public Health Laboratories HIV laboratory testing algorithm, the conference featured performance data, implementation challenges such as a lack of test options for the second and third steps, as well as data needs for new tests that may be used as part of the algorithm...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207429/hiv-prevalence-and-the-prevalence-of-unsuppressed-hiv-in-new-york-city-2010-2014
#2
Qiang Xia, Xuming Sun, Ellen W Wiewel, Lucia V Torian
BACKGROUND: The widespread use of antiretroviral treatment made HIV prevalence no longer a good measure of population-level transmission risk. The objective of this analysis was to use the prevalence of unsuppressed HIV to describe population-level HIV transmission risk. METHODS: Using New York City (NYC) HIV surveillance data, we reported HIV prevalence and the prevalence of unsuppressed HIV, defined as the number of persons living with HIV with an unsuppressed viral load divided by population size...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198210/a-minority-of-patients-newly-diagnosed-with-aids-are-started-on-antiretroviral-therapy-at-the-time-of-diagnosis-in-a-large-public-hospital-in-the-southeastern-united-states
#3
Neela D Goswami, Jonathan Colasanti, Jonathan J Khoubian, Yijian Huang, Wendy S Armstrong, Carlos Del Rio
Prompt antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation after AIDS diagnosis, in the absence of certain opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis and cryptococcal meningitis, delays disease progression and death, but system barriers to inpatient ART initiation at large hospitals in the era of modern ART have been less studied. We reviewed hospitalizations for persons newly diagnosed with AIDS at Grady Memorial Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia in 2011 and 2012. Individual- and system-level variables were collected. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for ART initiation prior to discharge...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193549/identification-of-rare-hiv-1-group-n-hbv-ae-and-htlv-3-strains-in-rural-south-cameroon
#4
M A Rodgers, A S Vallari, B Harris, J Yamaguchi, V Holzmayer, K Forberg, M G Berg, J Kenmenge, C Ngansop, B Awazi, D Mbanya, L Kaptue, C Brennan, G Cloherty, N Ndembi
Surveillance of emerging viral variants is critical to ensuring that blood screening and diagnostic tests detect all infections regardless of strain or geographic location. In this study, we conducted serological and molecular surveillance to monitor the prevalence and diversity of HIV, HBV, and HTLV in South Cameroon. The prevalence of HIV was 8.53%, HBV was 10.45%, and HTLV was 1.04% amongst study participants. Molecular characterization of 555 HIV-1 specimens identified incredible diversity, including 7 subtypes, 12 CRFs, 6 unclassified, 24 Group O and 2 Group N infections...
February 10, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188491/serious-fungal-infections-in-peru
#5
B Bustamante, D W Denning, P E Campos
Epidemiological data about mycotic diseases are limited in Peru and estimation of the fungal burden has not been previously attempted. Data were obtained from the Peruvian National Institute of Statistics and Informatics, UNAIDS and from the Ministry of Health's publications. We also searched the bibliography for Peruvian data on mycotic diseases, asthma, COPD, cancer and transplants. Incidence or prevalence for each fungal disease were estimated in specific populations at risk. The Peruvian population for 2015 was 31,151,543...
February 10, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184170/sexual-risk-behaviors-hiv-and-syphilis-among-female-sex-workers-in-nepal
#6
Sampurna Kakchapati, Dipendra Raman Singh, Bir Bahadhur Rawal, Apiradee Lim
PURPOSE: Female sex workers (FSWs) are a key-affected population susceptible to acquiring HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), as well as transmitting the virus to others. The aim of the study was to assess HIV and syphilis prevalence among FSWs in Nepal and to examine factors associated with it. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was based on Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance (IBBS) surveys among FSWs in Nepal from 2004 to 2015. Statistical analysis used chi-squared test to assess statistically significant risk factors for HIV and syphilis...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183221/sofosbuvir-in-the-treatment-of-early-hcv-infection-in-hiv-infected-men
#7
Ahmed El Sayed, Zachary R Barbati, Samuel S Turner, Andrew L Foster, Tristan Morey, Douglas T Dieterich, Daniel S Fierer
BACKGROUND: There is an international epidemic of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among HIV-infected men who have sex with men. We previously showed that adding telaprevir to pegylated interferon (IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) both shortened treatment and increased the cure rate of early HCV in these men. Whether shortening treatment of early HCV using IFN-free regimens would be similarly successful has not yet been demonstrated. METHODS: We performed a pilot study of treatment with sofosbuvir (SOF) + RBV for 12 weeks in early genotype 1 HCV infection in HIV-infected men...
February 10, 2017: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182618/the-evolving-landscape-of-hiv-drug-resistance-diagnostics-for-expanding-testing-in-resource-limited-settings
#8
Seth C Inzaule, Raph L Hamers, Roger Paredes, Chunfu Yang, Rob Schuurman, Tobias F Rinke de Wit
Global scale-up of antiretroviral treatment (ART) has dramatically changed the prospects of HIV/AIDS disease rendering life-long chronic care and treatment a reality for millions of HIV-infected patients. Affordable technologies to monitor ART are needed to ensure long-term durability of limited available drug regimens. HIV drug resistance tests can complement existing strategies in optimizing clinical decision-making for patients with treatment failure, in addition to facilitating population-based surveillance of HIV drug resistance...
February 9, 2017: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181034/hiv-1-genetic-diversity-and-transmitted-drug-resistance-frequency-among-iranian-treatment-naive-sexually-infected-individuals
#9
Rouhollah Vahabpour, Farah Bokharaei-Salim, Saeed Kalantari, Saba Garshasbi, Seyed Hamidreza Monavari, Maryam Esghaei, Arash Memarnejadian, Atousa Fakhim, Hossein Keyvani
In recent years, the patterns of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) transmission in Iran have been changing gradually from drug injection to unprotected sexual contact. This study sought to investigate the phylogenetic trends and characteristics of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) mutations of HIV-1 in a population that is mainly infected through homo/heterosexual contacts. Sixty newly diagnosed antiretroviral-naive individuals with HIV infection living in Tehran were recruited to this survey, and among them, 42 subjects were established to be infected through sexual intercourse...
February 8, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178281/surveillance-of-hiv-1-pol-transmitted-drug-resistance-in-acutely-and-recently-infected-antiretroviral-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-persons-in-rural-western-kenya
#10
Harris Onywera, David Maman, Seth Inzaule, Erick Auma, Kennedy Were, Harrison Fredrick, Prestone Owiti, Valarie Opollo, Jean-François Etard, Irene Mukui, Andrea A Kim, Clement Zeh
HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is of increasing public health concern in sub-Saharan Africa with the rollout of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy. Such data are, however, limited in Kenya, where HIV-1 drug resistance testing is not routinely performed. From a population-based household survey conducted between September and November 2012 in rural western Kenya, we retrospectively assessed HIV-1 TDR baseline rates, its determinants, and genetic diversity among drug-naïve persons aged 15-59 years with acute HIV-1 infections (AHI) and recent HIV-1 infections (RHI) as determined by nucleic acid amplification test and both Limiting Antigen and BioRad avidity immunoassays, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176167/assessing-the-impact-of-perinatal-hiv-case-management-on-outcomes-along-the-hiv-care-continuum-for-pregnant-and-postpartum-women-living-with-hiv-philadelphia-2005-2013
#11
Emily A Anderson, Florence M Momplaisir, Catherine Corson, Kathleen A Brady
To evaluate the impact of a Perinatal Medical Case Management (PCM) Program for women living with HIV (WLWH). Characteristics of pregnant and postpartum WLWH were compared between those who engaged in PCM and those who did not. Using secondary data collected from routine HIV surveillance, multivariable regression models were used to evaluate the association between PCM and four outcomes adapted from the HIV care continuum. In multivariable models, compared to WLWH not in PCM, participants (n = 448, 52.8%) were almost twice as likely to achieve HIV suppression before delivery (aOR 1...
February 7, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168543/diminishing-perceived-threat-of-aids-and-increasing-sexual-risks-of-hiv-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-1997-2015
#12
Seth C Kalichman, Devon Price, Lisa A Eaton, Kaylee Burnham, Matthew Sullivan, Stephanie Finneran, Talea Cornelius, Aerielle Allen
Community-wide awareness that antiretroviral therapies (ART) provides protection against HIV has the potential to increase perceived safety and thereby increase condomless anal sex among men who have sex with men (MSM). Furthermore, reductions in condom use can increase exposure to sexually transmitted infections, which in turn can reduce the protective effects of ART on HIV transmission. The current study extends previous community-based behavioral surveillance research on beliefs regarding use of ART for HIV prevention and sexual practices among MSM...
February 6, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167814/prevalence-of-transmitted-drug-resistance-mutations-and-polymorphisms-in-hiv-1-reverse-transcriptase-protease-and-gp41-sequences-among-recent-seroconverters-in-southern-poland
#13
Joanna Smoleń-Dzirba, Magdalena Rosińska, Piotr Kruszyński, Jolanta Bratosiewicz-Wąsik, Robert Wojtyczka, Janusz Janiec, Bartosz Szetela, Marek Beniowski, Monika Bociąga-Jasik, Elżbieta Jabłonowska, Tomasz J Wąsik, And The Cascade Collaboration In EuroCoord
BACKGROUND Monitoring of drug resistance-related mutations among patients with recent HIV-1 infection offers an opportunity to describe current patterns of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) mutations. MATERIAL AND METHODS Of 298 individuals newly diagnosed from March 2008 to February 2014 in southern Poland, 47 were deemed to have recent HIV-1 infection by the limiting antigen avidity immunoassay. Proviral DNA was amplified and sequenced in the reverse transcriptase, protease, and gp41 coding regions. Mutations were interpreted according to the Stanford Database algorithm and/or the International Antiviral Society USA guidelines...
February 7, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166697/risk-factors-for-readmission-to-hospital-in-patients-with-tuberculosis-in-tehran-iran-three-year-surveillance
#14
Masoud Shamaei, Mozhgan Samiei-Nejad, Masoumeh Nadernejad, Parvaneh Baghaei
Tuberculosis (TB) is still a major health problem and TB hospital readmission could increase health system costs. In a retrospective study in a tertiary referral hospital for TB in Tehran, Iran, TB patients with readmission were evaluated. These TB patients in the index year who were then readmitted were compared with TB patients in the same year who were not readmitted during the follow-up period. One hundred and forty-six patients had hospital readmission within three-year follow-up with mean age of 51.6 years old of whom 78 patients (53...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160785/undiagnosed-hepatitis-b-and-c-infection-is-rare-in-sydney-gay-and-bisexual-men-attending-a-community-hiv-testing-site
#15
John Lockwood, James Gray, Christine Selvey
This letter reports on an enhanced surveillance snapshot of hepatitis B and C at a men who have sex with men community testing site in inner Sydney. The finding show undiagnosed hepatitis B and C infection is rare in this population of gay and bisexual men. Evidence of immunity to hepatitis B through vaccination is high, however client knowledge of vaccination status is poor. Current targeted hepatitis screening practices were sufficient to detect all undiagnosed cases of hepatitis B and C in this population...
February 6, 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160107/neighborhood-characteristics-associated-with-achievement-and-maintenance-of-hiv-viral-suppression-among-persons-newly-diagnosed-with-hiv-in-new-york-city
#16
Ellen W Wiewel, Luisa N Borrell, Heidi E Jones, Andrew R Maroko, Lucia V Torian
We investigated the effect of neighborhood characteristics on achievement and maintenance of HIV viral suppression among New York City (NYC) residents aged 13 years and older diagnosed between 2006 and 2012. Individual records from the NYC HIV surveillance registry (n = 12,547) were linked to U.S. Census and American Community Survey data by census tract of residence. Multivariable proportional hazards regression models indicated the likelihood of achievement and maintenance of suppression by neighborhood characteristics including poverty, accounting for neighborhood clustering and for individual characteristics...
February 3, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159917/frequency-and-determinants-of-consistent-sti-hiv-testing-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-testing-at-sti-outpatient-clinics-in-the-netherlands-a-longitudinal-study
#17
Maartje Visser, Janneke C M Heijne, Arjan A Hogewoning, Fleur van Aar
OBJECTIVES: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at highest risk for STIs and HIV infections in the Netherlands. However, official guidelines on STI testing among MSM are lacking. They are advised to test for STIs at least every six months, but their testing behaviour is not well known. This study aimed to get insight into the proportion and determinants of consistent 6-monthly STI testing among MSM testing at STI outpatient clinics in the Netherlands. METHODS: This study included longitudinal surveillance data of STI consultations among MSM from all 26 STI outpatient clinics in the Netherlands between 1 June 2014 and 31 December 2015...
February 3, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159730/hiv-trends-in-the-united-states-diagnoses-and-estimated-incidence
#18
H Irene Hall, Ruiguang Song, Tian Tang, Qian An, Joseph Prejean, Patricia Dietz, Angela L Hernandez, Timothy Green, Norma Harris, Eugene McCray, Jonathan Mermin
BACKGROUND: The best indicator of the impact of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention programs is the incidence of infection; however, HIV is a chronic infection and HIV diagnoses may include infections that occurred years before diagnosis. Alternative methods to estimate incidence use diagnoses, stage of disease, and laboratory assays of infection recency. Using a consistent, accurate method would allow for timely interpretation of HIV trends. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to assess the recent progress toward reducing HIV infections in the United States overall and among selected population segments with available incidence estimation methods...
February 3, 2017: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159548/prevalence-and-burden-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-in-hiv-infected-people-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Ze-Dong Wang, Shu-Chao Wang, Huan-Huan Liu, Hong-Yu Ma, Zhong-Yu Li, Feng Wei, Xing-Quan Zhu, Quan Liu
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, 30% of the world's population have antibodies to the intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii and about 36·7 million people are infected with HIV, but little is known about the prevalence of co-infection with T gondii and HIV. We aimed to characterise the epidemiology and burden of T gondii co-infection in people with HIV infection. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wanfang, and Chongqing VIP databases for studies reporting T gondii infection in HIV-infected people from inception to Feb 29, 2016...
January 31, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155318/weight-status-and-associated-factors-among-hiv-infected-people-on-antiretroviral-therapy-in-rural-dikgale-limpopo-south-africa
#20
Felistas Mashinya, Marianne Alberts, Robert Colebunders, Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden
BACKGROUND: Underweight in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected people on antiretroviral therapy (ART) complicates the management of HIV infection and contributes to mortality, whereas overweight increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). AIM: The study determined weight status and associated factors in people with HIV infection receiving ART. SETTING: Rural primary health care clinics in Dikgale, Limpopo province, South Africa...
November 29, 2016: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
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