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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812848/the-elephants-in-the-room-sex-hiv-and-lgbt-populations-in-mena-intersectionality-in-lebanon-comment-on-improving-the-quality-and-quantity-of-hiv-data-in-the-middle-east-and-north-africa-key-challenges-and-ways-forward
#1
Rachel L Kaplan, Cynthia El Khoury
In response to this insightful editorial, we wish to provide commentary that seeks to highlight recent successes and illuminate the often unspoken hurdles at the intersections of culture, politics, and taboo. We focus on sexual transmission and draw examples from Lebanon, where the pursuit of data in quality and quantity is teaching us lessons about the way forward and where we are experiencing many of the challenges referenced in the editorial such as discrepancies between national statistics and rates derived via research as well as the impact of protracted political conflict and displacement...
December 4, 2016: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807190/socioeconomic-differences-in-mortality-in-the-antiretroviral-therapy-era-in-agincourt-rural-south-africa-2001-13-a-population-surveillance-analysis
#2
Chodziwadziwa W Kabudula, Brian Houle, Mark A Collinson, Kathleen Kahn, Francesc Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Stephen Tollman, Samuel J Clark
BACKGROUND: Understanding the effects of socioeconomic disparities in health outcomes is important to implement specific preventive actions. We assessed socioeconomic disparities in mortality indicators in a rural South African population over the period 2001-13. METHODS: We used data from 21 villages of the Agincourt Health and socio-Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). We calculated the probabilities of death from birth to age 5 years and from age 15 to 60 years, life expectancy at birth, and cause-specific and age-specific mortality by sex (not in children <5 years), time period, and socioeconomic status (household wealth) quintile for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis, other communicable diseases (excluding HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis) and maternal, perinatal, and nutritional causes, non-communicable diseases, and injury...
September 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806197/frailty-is-strongly-associated-with-increased-risk-of-recurrent-falls-among-older-hiv-infected-adults-a-prospective-cohort-study
#3
Katherine Tassiopoulos, Mona Abdo, Kunling Wu, Susan L Koletar, Frank J Palella, Robert Kalayjian, Babafemi Taiwo, Kristine M Erlandson
OBJECTIVE: Both frailty and falls occur at earlier than expected ages among HIV-infected individuals, but the contribution of frailty to fall risk in this population is not well understood. We examined this association among participants enrolled in AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) A5322. DESIGN: A prospective, multi-center cohort study of HIV-infected men and women ≥40 years. METHODS: Frailty assessment included a 4-meter walk, grip strength, and self-reported weight loss, exhaustion, and low physical activity...
August 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800284/survival-after-hiv-infection-stage-3-aids-diagnosis-by-population-density-areas-united-states-2005-2010
#4
Karin A Bosh, Jing Shi, Mi Chen
OBJECTIVES: We examined the survival rates after diagnosis of HIV infection stage 3 (AIDS) in the United States by population density area of residence at diagnosis. METHODS: We used data from the National HIV Surveillance System to calculate survival rates among people aged ≥13 with HIV infection stage 3 (AIDS) diagnosed from 2005 through 2010. We determined survival rates for more than 12, 24, and 36 months after diagnosis; overall and by demographic characteristics; and across 3 population density area categories (large metropolitan statistical areas [MSAs, ≥500 000 people], small-to-medium MSAs [50 000 to 499 999 people], and nonmetropolitan areas [<50 000 people])...
January 1, 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799462/a-typology-of-female-sex-work-in-the-metropolitan-region-of-santiago-chile
#5
Julieta Belmar, Valeria Stuardo, Cinta Folch, Bielka Carvajal, Maria José Clunes, Alexandra Montoliu, Jordi Casabona
In Chile, sex work takes place covertly in a variety of venues and locations. Formative research using time-location sampling methods is important in order to understand the nature of this diversity. This study used qualitative methods to develop a typology of female sex work in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile, using semi-structured interviews, focus groups and ethnographic fieldwork during visits to sex work venues. The study identified seven types of venue, which reflect the context and regulatory framework of the country and the structural vulnerabilities that affect female sex workers in Chile...
August 11, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799325/comparison-between-next-generation-and-sanger-based-sequencing-for-the-detection-of-transmitted-drug-resistance-mutations-among-recently-infected-hiv-1-patients-in-israel-2000-2014
#6
Roy Moscona, Daniela Ram, Marina Wax, Efrat Bucris, Itzchak Levy, Ella Mendelson, Orna Mor
INTRODUCTION: Transmitted drug-resistance mutations (TDRM) may hamper successful anti-HIV-1 therapy and impact future control of the HIV-1 epidemic. Recently infected, therapy-naïve individuals are best suited for surveillance of such TDRM. In this study, TDRM, detected by next-generation sequencing (NGS) were compared to those identified by Sanger-based population sequencing (SBS) in recently infected HIV-1 patients. METHODS: Historical samples from 80 recently infected HIV-1 patients, diagnosed between 2000 and 2014, were analysed by MiSeq (NGS) and ABI (SBS)...
August 11, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799163/cost-analysis-and-performance-assessment-of-partner-services-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-and-sexually-transmitted-diseases-new-york-state-2014
#7
Britney L Johnson, James Tesoriero, Wenhui Feng, Feng Qian, Erika G Martin
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the programmatic costs of partner services for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydial infection. STUDY SETTING: New York State and local health departments conducting partner services activities in 2014. STUDY DESIGN: A cost analysis estimated, from the state perspective, total program costs and cost per case assignment, patient interview, partner notification, and disease-specific key performance indicator. DATA COLLECTION: Data came from contracts, a time study of staff effort, and statewide surveillance systems...
August 11, 2017: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798367/epidemiology-of-tuberculosis-in-chongqing-china-a-secular-trend-from-1992-to-2015
#8
Bo Wu, Ya Yu, Weijia Xie, Ying Liu, Yao Zhang, Daiyu Hu, Yafei Li
Chongqing is a southwest city of China with high tuberculosis (TB) burden. An observational retrospective study has been performed based on routine TB surveillance data in Chongqing from 1992 to 2015. The TB notification rate has declined to 70.8 cases per 100,000 population from the peak of 106 cases per 100,000 in 2005. The TB notification rate in population over-65 years has become the highest among all-ages population since 2010. The average proportion of farmers in all notified cases from 2008 to 2015 was 62...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797278/hiv-prevalence-and-high-risk-behaviour-of-young-brothel-and-non-brothel-based-female-sex-workers-in-nigeria
#9
Uchenna Onyekachi Okafor, Rik Crutzen, Okekearu Ifeanyi, Sylvia Adebajo, Hubertus Van den Borne
BACKGROUND: Female sex workers (FSWs) have been identified as a core group in the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Young FSWs are particularly more vulnerable to HIV due to the combination of vulnerabilities associated with their youth and the sex work they engage in. This study aims to give more insight into HIV prevalence and sexual risk behaviour of young FSWs in Nigeria, by focusing on the differences between BB and NBB young FSWs. METHODS: Data was obtained from the Nigeria Integrated Biological and Behavioural Surveillance Survey (IBBSS) for high-risk groups conducted in 2010...
August 10, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796847/population-size-estimation-of-female-sex-workers-in-iran-synthesis-of-methods-and-results
#10
Hamid Sharifi, Mohammad Karamouzian, Mohammad Reza Baneshi, Mostafa Shokoohi, AliAkbar Haghdoost, Willi McFarland, Ali Mirzazadeh
INTRODUCTION: Estimating the number of key populations at risk of HIV is essential for planning, monitoring, and evaluating prevention, care, and treatment programmes. We conducted this study to estimate the number of female sex workers (FSW) in major cities of Iran. METHODS: We used three population size estimation methods (i.e., wisdom of the crowds, multiplier method, and network scale-up) to calculate the number of FSW in 13 cities in Iran. The wisdom of the crowds and multiplier methods were integrated into a nationwide bio-behavioural surveillance survey in 2015, and the network scale-up method was included in a national survey of the general population in 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796591/utilization-of-buprenorphine-and-methadone-among-opioid-users-who-inject-drugs
#11
Judith I Tsui, Richard Burt, Hanne Thiede, Sara N Glick
BACKGROUND: There has been a rise in opioid abuse and related injection drug use in the United States and treatment for opioid use disorders may be underutilized. The study aim was to describe utilization of opioid agonist therapy (OAT), and assess factors associated with utilization of OAT, among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in the Seattle metropolitan area. METHODS: We used data from the 2015 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) system among PWID in the Seattle area...
August 10, 2017: Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791877/implementing-data-to-care-initiatives-for-hiv-in-new%C3%A2-york-state-assessing-the-value-of-community-health-centers-identifying-persons-out-of-care-for-health-department-follow-up
#12
Rachel Hart-Malloy, Shakara Brown, Kathleen Bogucki, James Tesoriero
To end the HIV/AIDS epidemic, innovative strategies are needed to improve outcomes along the HIV care continuum. Data-to-Care is a public health strategy whereby HIV surveillance data are used to identify people living with HIV/AIDS for linkage to, or re-engagement in HIV medical care. Three main approaches to Data-to-Care are defined by where persons out of care are identified and where outreach activities are initiated: the Health Department level, the Healthcare Provider level, or a combination of the two (Combination Model)...
August 9, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783807/comparative-safety-of-antiretroviral-treatment-regimens-in-pregnancy
#13
Rebecca Zash, Denise L Jacobson, Modiegi Diseko, Gloria Mayondi, Mompati Mmalane, Max Essex, Chipo Petlo, Shahin Lockman, Joseph Makhema, Roger L Shapiro
Importance: Maternal antiretroviral treatment (ART) started before conception may increase the risk for adverse birth outcomes among women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, but whether the risk differs by ART regimen is unknown. Objective: To compare the risk for selected birth outcomes by maternal ART regimen. Design, Setting, and Participants: This observational birth outcomes surveillance study compared all live births and stillbirths with a gestational age of at least 24 weeks in 8 geographically dispersed government hospitals throughout Botswana (approximately 45% of births nationwide)...
August 7, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782605/drug-adherence-and-efficacy-of-smear-microscopy-in-the-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-after-2-months-of-medication-in-north-western-tanzania
#14
Benson R Kidenya, Stephen E Mshana, Lisa Gerwing-Adima, Jeremiah Kidola, Christa Kasang
OBJECTIVES: The study aimed at assessing the Tuberculosis (TB) medication adherence level and the efficacy of smear microscopy in the diagnosing pulmonary TB at month 2. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted at the four sites located in the Northern-western Tanzania. New smear positive, pulmonary TB patients were followed up and their adherence to TB medication assessed after 2 months of the treatment. In addition, the acid fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy was performed after 2 and 5 months of the treatment...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779855/progress-of-unaids-90-90-90-targets-in-a-district-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa-with-high-hiv-burden-in-the-hipss-study-a-household-based-complex-multilevel-community-survey
#15
Anneke Grobler, Cherie Cawood, David Khanyile, Adrian Puren, Ayesha B M Kharsany
BACKGROUND: With the goal of eliminating new HIV infections, UNAIDS set the ambitious 90-90-90 targets to be achieved by 2020. We assessed whether these targets are being met among participants of the HIV Incidence Provincial Surveillance System (HIPSS) in a high-burden district of South Africa. METHODS: We used data from a HIPSS household-based, cross-sectional survey of HIV prevalence and incidence done in the uMgungundlovu district, KwaZulu-Natal, in 2014 and 2015...
August 2, 2017: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776249/trends-in-hiv-aids-morbidity-and-mortality-in-eastern-mediterranean-countries-1990-2015-findings-from-the-global-burden-of-disease-2015-study
#16
Ali H Mokdad
OBJECTIVES: We used the results of the Global Burden of Disease 2015 study to estimate trends of HIV/AIDS burden in Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) countries between 1990 and 2015. METHODS: Tailored estimation methods were used to produce final estimates of mortality. Years of life lost (YLLs) were calculated by multiplying the mortality rate by population by age-specific life expectancy. Years lived with disability (YLDs) were computed as the prevalence of a sequela multiplied by its disability weight...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774694/improvement-of-fungal-disease-identification-and-management-combined-health-systems-and-public-health-approaches
#17
REVIEW
Donald C Cole, Nelesh P Govender, Arunaloke Chakrabarti, Jahit Sacarlal, David W Denning
More than 1·6 million people are estimated to die of fungal diseases each year, and about a billion people have cutaneous fungal infections. Fungal disease diagnosis requires a high level of clinical suspicion and specialised laboratory testing, in addition to culture, histopathology, and imaging expertise. Physicians with varied specialist training might see patients with fungal disease, yet it might remain unrecognised. Antifungal treatment is more complex than treatment for bacterial or most viral infections, and drug interactions are particularly problematic...
July 31, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774280/public-health-implications-of-changing-patterns-of-recruitment-into-the-south-african-mining-industry-1973-2012-a-database-analysis
#18
Rodney Ehrlich, Alex Montgomery, Paula Akugizibwe, Gregg Gonsalves
BACKGROUND: The triple epidemic of silicosis, tuberculosis and HIV infection among migrant miners from South Africa and neighbouring countries who have worked in the South African mining industry is currently the target of regional and international control efforts. These initiatives are hampered by a lack of information on this population. METHODS: This study analysed the major South African mining recruitment database for the period 1973 to 2012 by calendar intervals and demographic and occupational characteristics...
August 3, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767714/hiv-associated-mortality-in-the-era-of-antiretroviral-therapy-scale-up-nairobi-kenya-2015
#19
Peter W Young, Andrea A Kim, Joyce Wamicwe, Lilly Nyagah, Catherine Kiama, John Stover, Johansen Oduor, Emily A Rogena, Edwin Walong, Emily Zielinski-Gutierrez, Andrew Imbwaga, Martin Sirengo, Timothy A Kellogg, Kevin M De Cock
BACKGROUND: Declines in HIV prevalence and increases in antiretroviral treatment coverage have been documented in Kenya, but population-level mortality associated with HIV has not been directly measured. In urban areas where a majority of deaths pass through mortuaries, mortuary-based studies have the potential to contribute to our understanding of excess mortality among HIV-infected persons. We used results from a cross-sectional mortuary-based HIV surveillance study to estimate the association between HIV and mortality for Nairobi, the capital city of Kenya...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763430/the-usefulness-of-individual-level-hiv-surveillance-data-to-initiate-statewide-hiv-partner-services-experiences-from-hawaii-and-new-mexico
#20
John Beltrami, Andrew Gans, Michelle Wozniak, John Murphy, Benjamin Puesta, Daphne Kennebrew, Mary Angie Allen, Kevin OʼConnor
CONTEXT: Partner services are a broad array of services that should be offered to persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and that are based on a process through which HIV-infected persons are interviewed to elicit information about their sex and needle-sharing partners. Human immunodeficiency virus testing of partners can result in a high yield of newly diagnosed HIV positivity, but despite this yield and the benefits of partners knowing their exposures and HIV status, partner services are often not conducted...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
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