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Hiv surveillance

C A Basham, B Elias, A Fanning, C Cook, P Orr
BACKGROUND: Performance measurement assists tuberculosis (TB) programmes in understanding areas of strength and weakness, and planning for improvements. Canada currently does not have a national comprehensive system for the measurement and analysis of TB programme performance. OBJECTIVE: To analyse the performance of a Canadian provincial TB programme using measures and targets based on those published by the US Centers for Disease Prevention and Control for 2015...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Marina Macedo-Viñas, David W Denning
We aimed to estimate for the first time the burden of fungal infections in Uruguay. Data on population characteristics and underlying conditions were extracted from the National Statistics Institute, the World Bank, national registries, and published articles. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies extrapolating from the literature. Population structure (inhabitants): total 3,444,006; 73% adults; 35% women younger than 50 years. Size of populations at risk (total cases per year): HIV infected 12,000; acute myeloid leukemia 126; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation 30; solid organ transplants 134; COPD 272,006; asthma in adults 223,431; cystic fibrosis in adults 48; tuberculosis 613; lung cancer 1400...
March 18, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Shaimaa Elkholy, Sherif Mogawer, Ali Farag
Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH) is a rare benign condition that is characterized by diffuse hyperplasia of the lymphoid follicles of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). During endoscopy, NLH appears as multiple or occasionally innumerable nodules measuring a few millimeters in diameter. NLH occurs mainly in the small intestine, less commonly in the large intestine and rarely involves the stomach. There are multiple associated diseases such as immunoglobulin deficiency syndromes, giardiasis, Helicobacter pylori (H...
July 2017: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Mostafa Shanbehzadeh, Maryam Ahmadi
Background: The main focus of the surveillance system of AIDS in Iran is on direct clinical care for HIV, and other supportive facilities and secondary programmes have been somewhat neglected. Creating templates for reporting AIDS in Iran that can fulfil the needs of all information stakeholders, is a necessity for the Public Health Information Exchange (PHIE) system. Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a comprehensive reporting template of the PHIE system for HIV/AIDS in Iran...
December 2017: Electronic Physician
Benson R Kidenya, Stephen E Mshana, Daniel W Fitzgerald, Oksana Ocheretina
BACKGROUND: Drug resistant Tuberculosis (TB) is considered a global public health threat. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) is a new technology for tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics and is capable of providing rapid drug resistance profiles and genotypes for epidemiologic surveillance. Therefore, we used WGS to determine genotypic drug resistance profiles and genetic diversity of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Mwanza, North-western Tanzania. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Bugando Medical Center (BMC) from September 2014 to June 2015...
March 2018: Tuberculosis
Mariana V Meireles, Ana Roberta P Pascom, Elisabeth C Duarte
OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical, sociodemographic and treatment-related factors associated with early virological response in HIV-infected adults starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Brazil in 2014-2015. METHODS: Data from four information systems from the Brazilian AIDS Program were combined to create a historical cohort. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess the likelihood of not achieving virological suppression (VLS), defined as having either a viral load count (VL) >200 copies/mL or an aids-related death recorded within 180±90 days after treatment initiation...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Sonia Singh, Ruiguang Song, Anna Satcher Johnson, Eugene McCray, H Irene Hall
Background: HIV infection is a persistent health concern in the United States, and men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to be the most affected population. Objective: To estimate HIV incidence and prevalence and the percentage of undiagnosed HIV infections overall and among MSM. Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Setting: National HIV Surveillance System. Participants: Persons aged 13 years and older with diagnosed HIV infection...
March 20, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Xavier Contreras, Kader Salifou, Gabriel Sanchez, Marion Helsmoortel, Emmanuelle Beyne, Lisa Bluy, Stéphane Pelletier, Emilie Rousset, Sylvie Rouquier, Rosemary Kiernan
Expression from the HIV-1 LTR can be repressed in a small population of cells, which contributes to the latent reservoir. The factors mediating this repression have not been clearly elucidated. We have identified a network of nuclear RNA surveillance factors that act as effectors of HIV-1 silencing. RRP6, MTR4, ZCCHC8 and ZFC3H1 physically associate with the HIV-1 TAR region and repress transcriptional output and recruitment of RNAPII to the LTR. Knock-down of these factors in J-Lat cells increased the number of GFP-positive cells, with a concomitant increase in histone marks associated with transcriptional activation...
March 19, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Amanda D Castel, Arpi Terzian, Jenevieve Opoku, Lindsey Powers Happ, Naji Younes, Michael Kharfen, Alan Greenberg
BACKGROUND: Triangulation of data from multiple sources such as clinical cohort and surveillance data can help improve our ability to describe care patterns, service utilization, comorbidities, and ultimately measure and monitor clinical outcomes among persons living with HIV infection. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine whether linkage of clinical cohort data and routinely collected HIV surveillance data would enhance the completeness and accuracy of each database and improve the understanding of care patterns and clinical outcomes...
March 16, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Hao-Hsin Wu, Yi-Ting Shen, Chien-Shun Chiou, Chi-Tai Fang, Yi-Chun Lo
OBJECTIVES: Outbreaks of shigellosis among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been reported since the late 1990s. HIV infection is an important risk factor. Since 2014, the global shigellosis epidemic has intensified. Whether chemsex (the use of crystal methamphetamine, γ-hydroxybutyrate or mephedrone to enhance sex) is a new risk factor has not been previously examined. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, case-control study in Taiwan. Acute shigellosis cases diagnosed during the 2015 outbreak among MSM living with HIV were compared with those without shigellosis...
March 13, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Susan G Sherman, Marisa Hast, Ju Nyeong Park, Michele R Decker, Colin Flynn, Danielle German
Sex exchange is associated with HIV and other morbidities yet has received little research, surveillance, and programmatic attention in the U.S. This study identified correlates of exchange sex and among low-income women in Baltimore, Maryland. Participants were recruited into the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) system in 2013 using respondent driven sampling (RDS) and completed a survey and HIV testing. The analytic sample (n = 253) consisted of women aged ≥18 years who had recent (past year) heterosexual sex...
March 8, 2018: AIDS Care
Elizabeth A Ashley, Judith Recht, Arlene Chua, David Dance, Mehul Dhorda, Nigel V Thomas, Nisha Ranganathan, Paul Turner, Philippe J Guerin, Nicholas J White, Nicholas P Day
Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) shoulder the bulk of the global burden of infectious diseases and drug resistance. We searched for supranational networks performing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance in LMICs and assessed their organization, methodology, impacts and challenges. Since 2000, 72 supranational networks for AMR surveillance in bacteria, fungi, HIV, TB and malaria have been created that have involved LMICs, of which 34 are ongoing. The median (range) duration of the networks was 6 years (1-70) and the number of LMICs included was 8 (1-67)...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
S Elkholy, S Mogawer, A Farag
Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH) is a rare benign condition that is characterized by diffuse hyperplasia of the lymphoid follicles of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). During endoscopy, NLH appears as multiple or occasionally innumerable nodules measuring a few millimeters in diameter. NLH occurs mainly in the small intestine, less commonly in the large intestine and rarely involves the stomach. There are multiple associated diseases such as immunoglobulin deficiency syndromes, giardiasis, Helicobacter pylori (H...
July 2017: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Monica B Arruda, Lídia T Boullosa, Cynthia C Cardoso, Carolina M da Costa, Carlos Rb Alves, Shirlene Ts de Lima, Helena T Kaminski, Agdemir W Aleixo, Ana Op Esposito, Ana Ms Cavalcanti, Maristela Riedel, José C Couto-Fernandez, Selma B Ferreira, Ivi Cm de Oliveira, Loreci E Portal, Hilda Hc Wolf, Sandra B Fernandes, Maria I de M C Pardini, Manoel Vc Feiteiro, Fernanda M Tolentino, Ricardo S Diaz, Giselle Isl Lopes, Roberta Bl Francisco, Nazle Mc Véras, Ana F Pires, Miriam Franchini, Fábio Mesquita, Amilcar Tanuri
INTRODUCTION: In Brazil, more than 487,450 individuals are currently undergoing antiretroviral treatment. In order to monitor the transmission of drug-resistant strains and HIV subtype distribution in the country, this work aimed to estimate its prevalence and to characterize the nationwide pretreatment drug resistance in individuals recently diagnosed with HIV between 2013 and 2015. METHODS: The HIV threshold survey methodology (HIV-THS, WHO) targeting antiretroviral-naive individuals with recent HIV diagnosis was utilized, and subjects were selected from 51 highly populated cities in all five Brazilian macroregions...
March 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Peter Sifuna, Lucas Otieno, Sheila Ogwang, Bernhards Ogutu, Ben Andagalu, John Owuoth, Valentine Singoei, Jessica Cowden, Walter Otieno
BACKGROUND: The vast majority of deaths in the health and Kombewa demographic surveillance system (HDSS) study area are not registered and reported through official systems of vital registration. As a result, few data are available regarding causes of death in this population. OBJECTIVES: To describe causes of death among residents of all ages in the Kombewa HDSS, located in rural Western Kenya. METHODS: Verbal autopsy (VA) interviews at the site were conducted using the modified 2007 and later 2012 standardized WHO questionnaires...
2018: Global Health Action
Jessica Mao, Weiming Tang, Chuncheng Liu, Ngai Sze Wong, Songyuan Tang, Chongyi Wei, Joseph D Tucker
BACKGROUND: Sex tourism among men who have sex with men (MSM) may exacerbate transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Sex tourism is defined as purchasing sex with gifts or money outside of one's hometown. Our objective was to characterize the frequency, socio-demographic characteristics, and sexual risk behaviors among Chinese MSM sex tourists. METHODS: An online, cross-sectional survey for high-risk MSM throughout China was conducted in November 2015 covering sociodemographic characteristics, sexual risk behaviors, and sex tourism...
March 2, 2018: BMC Public Health
Suhua Zhang, Chunnong Jike, Shujuan Yang, Qiang Liao, Gang Yu, Ke Wang, Ju Wang, Lin Xiao, Qixing Wang, Yuhan Gong, Jianxin Zhang, Shichao Bian, Qian Liu
We evaluated HIV prevalence among unmarried youth in rural areas of Liangshan Prefecture in southwest China over the period of 2011-2015, and the interactions between behaviors associated with HIV risk. We used HIV sentinel surveillance (HSS) data for our analysis. We used questionnaires to investigate information among unmarried youth aged 15 to 25 years and performed HIV testing. Multivariate logistic regression and path analysis were applied to explore associations between behavioral factors related with HIV infection...
March 2, 2018: AIDS Care
Patricia Escandón, Jairo Lizarazo, Clara Inés Agudelo, Elizabeth Castañeda
The passive and voluntary surveillance of cryptococcosis in Colombia since 1997 has seen an increasing participating rate, revealing its importance to both in immunosuppressed and immunocompetent people. The present work details the national data gathered in 1997-2016, through a retrospective analysis of the information collected in the survey. From a total of 1974 cases reported, an overall incidence of 0.23 cases per 100,000 people was found. This incidence rose to 1.1 cases per 1000 people in the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) population...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Juliana Maria Reyes-Urueña, Colin N J Campbell, Núria Vives, Anna Esteve, Juan Ambrosioni, Cristina Tural, Elena Ferrer, Gemma Navarro, Lluis Force, Isabel García, Àngels Masabeu, Josep M Vilaró, Patricia García de Olalla, Joan Artur Caylà, Josep M Miró, Jordi Casabona
OBJECTIVE: Undiagnosed HIV continues to be a hindrance to efforts aimed at reducing incidence of HIV. The objective of this study was to provide an estimate of the HIV undiagnosed population in Catalonia and compare the HIV care cascade with this step included between high-risk populations. METHODS: To estimate HIV incidence, time between infection and diagnosis and the undiagnosed population stratified by CD4 count, we used the ECDC HIV Modelling Tool V.1.2.2. This model uses data on new HIV and AIDS diagnoses from the Catalan HIV/AIDS surveillance system from 2001 to 2013...
February 28, 2018: BMJ Open
Oliver Laeyendecker, Jacob Konikoff, Douglas E Morrison, Ronald Brookmeyer, Jing Wang, Connie Celum, Charles S Morrison, Quarraisha Abdool Karim, Audrey E Pettifor, Susan H Eshleman
INTRODUCTION: Cross-sectional methods can be used to estimate HIV incidence for surveillance and prevention studies. We evaluated assays and multi-assay algorithms (MAAs) for incidence estimation in subtype C settings. METHODS: We analysed samples from individuals with subtype C infection with known duration of infection (2442 samples from 278 adults; 0.1 to 9.9 years after seroconversion). MAAs included 1-4 of the following assays: Limiting Antigen Avidity assay (LAg-Avidity), BioRad-Avidity assay, CD4 cell count and viral load (VL)...
February 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
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