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Hiv surveillance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339500/detecting-congenital-malformations-lessons-learned-from-the-mpepu-study-botswana
#1
Gbolahan Ajibola, Rebecca Zash, Roger L Shapiro, Oganne Batlang, Kerapetse Botebele, Kara Bennett, Florence Chilisa, Erik von Widenfelt, Joseph Makhema, Shahin Lockman, Lewis B Holmes, Kathleen M Powis
INTRODUCTION: A large and increasing number of HIV-infected women are conceiving on antiretroviral treatment (ART). While most antiretrovirals are considered safe in pregnancy, monitoring for rare pregnancy and infant adverse outcomes is warranted. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective secondary analysis nested within a clinical trial of infant cotrimoxazole vs. placebo prophylaxis in Botswana (the Mpepu Study). Infants were examined at birth, and at least every 3 months through 18 months of age...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338951/measuring-transitions-in-sexual-risk-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-the-novel-use-of-latent-class-and-latent-transition-analysis-in-hiv-sentinel-surveillance
#2
Anna L Wilkinson, Carol El-Hayek, Christopher K Fairley, Norm Roth, B K Tee, Emma McBryde, Margaret Hellard, Mark Stoové
New combination human acquired deficiency (HIV) prevention strategies that include biomedical and primary prevention approaches add complexity to the task of measuring sexual risk. Latent transition models are beneficial for understanding complex phenomena; therefore, we trialed the application of latent class and latent transition models to HIV surveillance data. Our aims were to identify sexual risk states and model individuals' transitions between states. A total of 4,685 HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) completed behavioral questionnaires alongside tests for HIV and sexually transmissible infections at one of 2 Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, general practices (2007-2013)...
March 10, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338707/sustained-10-year-gain-in-adult-life-expectancy-following-antiretroviral-therapy-roll-out-in-rural-malawi-july-2005-to-june-2014
#3
Alison J Price, Judith Glynn, Menard Chihana, Ndoliwe Kayuni, Sian Floyd, Emma Slaymaker, Georges Reniers, Basia Zaba, Estelle McLean, Fredrick Kalobekamo, Olivier Koole, Moffat Nyirenda, Amelia C Crampin
Background: Improved life expectancy in high HIV prevalence populations has been observed since antiretroviral therapy (ART) scale-up. However, it is unclear if the benefits are sustained, and the mortality among HIV-positive individuals not (yet) on ART is not well described. We assessed temporal change in mortality over 9 years in rural Malawi. Methods: Within a demographic surveillance site in northern rural Malawi, we combined demographic, HIV and ART uptake data...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336355/estimated-hiv-inter-test-interval-among-people-at-high-risk-for-hiv-infection-in-the-u-s
#4
Qian An, Ruiguang Song, Teresa J Finlayson, Cyprian Wejnert, Gabriela Paz-Bailey
INTRODUCTION: Knowing the HIV testing frequency and its temporal changes are central to evaluate public adherence to HIV testing recommendations and performance of HIV prevention programs. This study intended to estimate the mean HIV inter-test interval (ITI) and monitor its trends among men who have sex with men (MSM); people who inject drugs (PWID); and high-risk heterosexuals (HRH). METHODS: Using National HIV Behavioral Surveillance data collected during 2008-2015, this analysis estimated the mean HIV ITI for each year by race/ethnicity and age among MSM, PWID, and HRH who reported the most recent HIV test date...
March 20, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335488/italian-registry-of-congenital-bleeding-disorders
#5
Adele Giampaolo, Francesca Abbonizio, Romano Arcieri, Hamisa Jane Hassan
In Italy, the surveillance of people with bleeding disorders is based on the National Registry of Congenital Coagulopathies (NRCC) managed by the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità). The NRCC collects epidemiological and therapeutic data from the 54 Hemophilia Treatment Centers, members of the Italian Association of Hemophilia Centres (AICE). The number of people identified with bleeding disorders has increased over the years, with the number rising from approx. 7000 in 2000 to over 11,000 in 2015...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333913/tuberculosis-among-foreign-born-persons-diagnosed-%C3%A2-10-years-after-arrival-in-the-united-states-2010-2015
#6
Clarisse A Tsang, Adam J Langer, Thomas R Navin, Lori R Armstrong
The majority of tuberculosis (TB) cases in the United States are attributable to reactivation of latent TB infection (LTBI) (1). LTBI refers to the condition when a person is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis without signs and symptoms, or radiographic or bacteriologic evidence of TB disease. CDC and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommend screening populations at increased risk for LTBI, including persons who have lived in congregate settings at high risk and persons who were born in, or are former residents of countries with TB incidence ≥20 cases per 100,000 population (2-4)...
March 24, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333295/drug-resistance-in-antiretroviral-naive-children-newly-diagnosed-with-hiv-1-in-manaus-amazonas
#7
Solange Dourado de Andrade, Meritxell Sabidó, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro, Adele Schwartz Benzaken, Amilcar Tanuri
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of drug resistance mutations (DRM), the prevalence of drug susceptibility [transmitted drug resistance (TDR)] and the prevalence of HIV-1 variants among treatment-naive HIV-infected children in Manaus, Amazonas state, Brazil. Methods: Children born to HIV-infected mothers and diagnosed with HIV in an HIV reference service centre and with available pol sequence between 2010 and 2015 prior to antiretroviral initiation were included...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333232/prevalence-of-hiv-1-drug-resistance-in-treated-patients-with-viral-load-50%C3%A2-copies-ml-a-2014-french-nationwide-study
#8
L Assoumou, C Charpentier, P Recordon-Pinson, M Grudé, C Pallier, L Morand-Joubert, S Fafi-Kremer, A Krivine, B Montes, V Ferré, M Bouvier-Alias, J-C Plantier, J Izopet, M-A Trabaud, S Yerly, J Dufayard, C Alloui, L Courdavault, H Le Guillou-Guillemette, A Maillard, C Amiel, A Vabret, C Roussel, S Vallet, J Guinard, A Mirand, A Beby-Defaux, F Barin, A Allardet-Servent, R Ait-Namane, M Wirden, C Delaugerre, V Calvez, M-L Chaix, D Descamps, S Reigadas
Background: Surveillance of HIV-1 resistance in treated patients with a detectable viral load (VL) is important to monitor, in order to assess the risk of spread of resistant viruses and to determine the proportion of patients who need new antiretroviral drugs with minimal cross-resistance. Methods: The HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase (RT) and integrase genes were sequenced in plasma samples from 782 consecutive patients on failing antiretroviral regimens, seen in 37 specialized centres in 2014...
February 25, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330486/relationships-between-structure-process-and-outcome-to-assess-quality-of-integrated-chronic-disease-management-in-a-rural-south-african-setting-applying-a-structural-equation-model
#9
Soter Ameh, Francesc Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Kathleen Kahn, Stephen M Tollman, Kerstin Klipstein-Grobusch
BACKGROUND: South Africa faces a complex dual burden of chronic communicable and non-communicable diseases (NCDs). In response, the Integrated Chronic Disease Management (ICDM) model was initiated in primary health care (PHC) facilities in 2011 to leverage the HIV/ART programme to scale-up services for NCDs, achieve optimal patient health outcomes and improve the quality of medical care. However, little is known about the quality of care in the ICDM model. The objectives of this study were to: i) assess patients' and operational managers' satisfaction with the dimensions of ICDM services; and ii) evaluate the quality of care in the ICDM model using Avedis Donabedian's theory of relationships between structure (resources), process (clinical activities) and outcome (desired result of healthcare) constructs as a measure of quality of care...
March 23, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329390/high-rates-of-transmission-of-drug-resistant-hiv-in-aruba-resulting-in-reduced-susceptibility-to-the-who-recommended-first-line-regimen-in-nearly-half-of-newly-diagnosed-hiv-infected-patients
#10
L Marije Hofstra, Elena Sánchez Rivas, Monique Nijhuis, Leonie E A Bank, Eduan Wilkinson, Karina Kelly, Tania Mudrikova, Rob Schuurman, Tulio de Oliveira, Jaclyn de Kort, Annemarie M J Wensing
Background.: In Western countries emergence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance has tremendously decreased, and transmission of drug resistance has merely stabilized in recent years. However, in many endemic settings with limited resources rates of emerging and transmitted drug resistance are not regularly assessed. Methods.: We performed a survey including all HIV-infected individuals who received resistance testing in 2010-2015 in Aruba, a highly endemic HIV area in the Caribbean...
March 9, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329184/the-causal-effect-of-tracing-by-peer-health-workers-on-return-to-clinic-among-patients-who-were-lost-to-follow-up-from-antiretroviral-therapy-in-eastern-africa-a-randomized-natural-experiment-arising-from-surveillance-of-lost-patients
#11
Anna Bershetyn, Thomas A Odeny, Rita Lyamuya, Alice Nakiwogga-Muwanga, Lameck Diero, Mwebesa Bwana, Paula Braitstein, Geoffrey Somi, Andrew Kambugu, Elizabeth Bukusi, Wendy Hartogensis, David V Glidden, Kara Wools-Kaloustian, Constantin Yiannoutsos, Jeffrey Martin, Elvin H Geng
Background: The effect of tracing HIV patients who are lost to follow-up (LTFU) on re-engagement has not been rigorously assessed. We carried out an ex-post analysis of a surveillance study in which LTFU patients were randomly selected for tracing to identify the effect of tracing on re-engagement. Methods: We evaluated HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy who were LTFU (> 90 days late for last visit) at 14 clinics in Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania. A random sample of LTFU patients was selected for tracing by peer health workers...
March 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325538/lifetime-risk-of-a-diagnosis-of-hiv-infection-in-the-united-states
#12
Kristen L Hess, Xiaohong Hu, Amy Lansky, Jonathan Mermin, Hildegard Irene Hall
PURPOSE: To estimate lifetime risk of receiving an HIV diagnosis in the United States if existing infection rates continue. METHODS: We used mortality, census, and HIV surveillance data for 2010 to 2014 to calculate age-specific probabilities of an HIV diagnosis. The probabilities were applied to a hypothetical cohort of 10 million live births to estimate lifetime risk. RESULTS: Lifetime risk was 1 in 68 for males and 1 in 253 for females...
February 21, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323507/heroin-and-methamphetamine-injection-an-emerging-drug-use-pattern
#13
Alia Al-Tayyib, Stephen Koester, Sig Langegger, Lisa Raville
OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe an emerging drug use pattern characterized by injection of both methamphetamine and heroin. We examined differences in drug injection patterns by demographics, injection behaviors, HIV and HCV status, and overdose. METHODS: Persons who inject drugs (PWID) were recruited as part of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) system in Denver, Colorado. We used chi-square statistics to assess differences between those who reported only heroin injection, only methamphetamine injection, and combined heroin and methamphetamine injection...
March 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323474/jail-booking-as-an-occasion-for-hiv-care-reengagement-a-surveillance-based-study
#14
McKenna C Eastment, Katelynne Gardner Toren, Lara Strick, Susan E Buskin, Matthew R Golden, Julia C Dombrowski
OBJECTIVES: To examine population and HIV care outcomes of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) at their first incarceration of 2014 in 2 county jails in King County, Washington. METHODS: Using HIV surveillance data linked with jail booking data, we examined demographic information, viral loads, CD4 counts, and incarceration details for the period prior to jail booking, during incarceration, and year following jail release. RESULTS: In 2014, 202 PLWHA were incarcerated, 51% of whom were virally nonsuppressed at booking...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322573/blood-lead-levels-and-neurodevelopmental-function-in-perinatally-hiv-exposed-uninfected-children-in-a-us-based-longitudinal-cohort-study
#15
Katherine Tassiopoulos, Yanling Huo, Joseph Braun, Paige L Williams, Renee Smith, Ann Aschengrau, Sharon Nichols, Rohan Hazra, William A Meyer, Katherine Knapp, Nagamah S Deygoo, George R Seage Iii
BACKGROUND: While children's exposure to environmental lead in the U.S. has decreased, areas of elevated levels remain. Because lead exposure is a risk factor for developmental delays, it should be considered when studying neurodevelopmental effects of in-utero antiretroviral medication (ARV) exposure in the growing population of perinatally HIV-exposed, uninfected children (PHEU). We compared blood lead levels (BPb) in PHEU children enrolled in the Surveillance Monitoring of ART Toxicities (SMARTT) Study to U...
March 21, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321466/the-risk-and-clinical-outcome-of-candidemia-depending-on-underlying-malignancy
#16
Olivier Lortholary, Charlotte Renaudat, Karine Sitbon, Marie Desnos-Ollivier, Stéphane Bretagne, Françoise Dromer
PURPOSE: To assess the risk factors and outcomes associated with fungemia caused by the six most commonly occurring Candida species in patients with and without malignancies. METHODS: Analysis of the episodes of fungemia due to common Candida species in adults, based on an active hospital-based surveillance program (Paris area, France, 2002 to 2014). RESULTS: Of the 3417 patients (3666 isolates), 1164 (34.1%) had a solid tumor (45.7% digestive tract) and 586 (17...
March 20, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319246/estimated-perinatal-hiv-infection-among-infants-born-in-the-united-states-2002-2013
#17
Allan W Taylor, Steven R Nesheim, Xinjian Zhang, Ruiguang Song, Lauren F FitzHarris, Margaret A Lampe, Paul J Weidle, Patricia Sweeney
Importance: Perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can be reduced through services including antiretroviral treatment and prophylaxis. Data on the national incidence of perinatal HIV transmission and missed prevention opportunities are needed to monitor progress toward elimination of mother-to-child HIV transmission. Objective: To estimate the number of perinatal HIV cases among infants born in the United States. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data were obtained from the National HIV Surveillance System on infants with HIV born in the United States (including the District of Columbia) and their mothers between 2002 and 2013 (reported through December 31, 2015)...
March 20, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319197/the-hiv-care-cascade-japanese-perspectives
#18
Aikichi Iwamoto, Rikizo Taira, Yoshiyuki Yokomaku, Tomohiko Koibuchi, Mahbubur Rahman, Yoko Izumi, Kenji Tadokoro
Japan has been known as a low HIV-prevalence country with a concentrated epidemic among high-risk groups. However, it has not been determined whether Japan meets the 90-90-90 goals set by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS)/World Health Organization (WHO). Moreover, to date, the HIV care cascade has not been examined. We estimated the total number of diagnosed people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) (n = 22,840) based on legal reports to the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare by subtracting the number of foreigners who left Japan (n = 2,273) and deaths (n = 2,321) from the cumulative diagnosis report (n = 27,434)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318764/increasing-hiv-1-subtype-diversity-in-seven-states-united-states-2006-2013
#19
Alexandra M Oster, William M Switzer, Angela L Hernandez, Neeraja Saduvala, Joel O Wertheim, Ndidi Nwangwu-Ike, M Cheryl Ocfemia, Ellsworth Campbell, H Irene Hall
PURPOSE: The aim of the analysis was to explore HIV-1 subtype diversity in the United States and understand differences in prevalence of non-B subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) between demographic/risk groups and over time. METHODS: We included HIV-1 polymerase sequences reported to the National HIV Surveillance System for HIV infections diagnosed during 2006-2013 in seven states. We assigned subtype or CRF using the automated subtyping tool COMET, assessed subtype/CRF prevalence by demographic characteristics and country of birth, and determined changes in subtype/CRF by HIV diagnosis year...
February 22, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317139/mortality-after-inpatient-treatment-for-severe-pneumonia-in-children-a-cohort-study
#20
Moses M Ngari, Greg Fegan, Martha K Mwangome, Mwanajuma J Ngama, Neema Mturi, John Anthony Gerard Scott, Evasius Bauni, David James Nokes, James A Berkley
BACKGROUND: Although pneumonia is a leading cause of inpatient mortality, deaths may also occur after discharge from hospital. However, prior studies have been small, in selected groups or did not fully evaluate risk factors, particularly malnutrition and HIV. We determined 1-year post-discharge mortality and risk factors among children diagnosed with severe pneumonia. METHODS: A cohort study of children aged 1-59 months admitted to Kilifi County Hospital with severe pneumonia (2007-12)...
March 20, 2017: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
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