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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105988/national-molecular-surveillance-of-recently-acquired-hiv-infections-in-germany-2013-to-2014
#1
Andrea Hauser, Alexandra Hofmann, Kirsten Hanke, Viviane Bremer, Barbara Bartmeyer, Claudia Kuecherer, Norbert Bannert
To enable an up-to-date molecular analysis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genotypes circulating in Germany we have established a surveillance system based on recently acquired HIV infections. New HIV infections are reported to the Robert Koch Institute as a statutory duty for anonymous notification. In 2013 and 2014, a dried serum spot (DSS) sample was received from 6,371 newly diagnosed HIV-cases; their analysis suggested that 1,797 samples originated from a recent infection. Of these, 809 were successfully genotyped in the pol region to identify transmitted drug resistance (TDR) mutations and to determine the HIV-1 subtype...
January 12, 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102112/dutiful-daughters-hiv-aids-moral-pragmatics-female-citizenship-and-structural-violence-among-devadasis-in-northern-karnataka-india
#2
Shamshad Khan, Robert Lorway, Claudyne Chevrier, Sumit Dutta, Satyanarayana Ramanaik, Anu Roy, Parinita Bhattacharjee, Sharmistha Mishra, Stephen Moses, James Blanchard, Marissa Becker
Decades of research have documented how sex workers worldwide, particularly female sex workers (FSWs), shoulder a disproportionate burden of the HIV epidemic. In India, although a substantial progress has been made in controlling the epidemic, its prevalence among FSWs and the Devadasis (also called traditional sex workers) in northern Karnataka is still significantly high. On the other hand, much of the HIV prevention research has focused on their mapping and size estimation, typologies, bio-behavioural surveillance, condom use and other prevention technologies...
January 19, 2017: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100237/surveillance-and-response-for-high-risk-populations-what-can-malaria-elimination-programmes-learn-from-the-experience-of-hiv
#3
REVIEW
Jerry O Jacobson, Carmen Cueto, Jennifer L Smith, Jimee Hwang, Roly Gosling, Adam Bennett
To eliminate malaria, malaria programmes need to develop new strategies for surveillance and response appropriate for the changing epidemiology that accompanies transmission decline, in which transmission is increasingly driven by population subgroups whose behaviours place them at increased exposure. Conventional tools of malaria surveillance and response are likely not sufficient in many elimination settings for accessing high-risk population subgroups, such as mobile and migrant populations (MMPs), given their greater likelihood of asymptomatic infections, illegal risk behaviours, limited access to public health facilities, and high mobility including extended periods travelling away from home...
January 18, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097615/trends-in-injection-risk-behaviors-among-people-who-inject-drugs-and-the-impact-of-harm-reduction-programs-in-ukraine-2007-2013
#4
Iuliia Makarenko, D C Ompad, Y Sazonova, T Saliuk, J DeHovitz, L Gensburg
The study examined trends in injection risk behaviors among people who inject drugs (PWIDs) and assessed the impact of harm reduction programs in Ukraine during 2007-2013. We performed a secondary analysis of the data collected in serial cross-sectional bio-behavioral surveillance surveys administered with PWIDs in Ukraine in 2007, 2008, 2011, and 2013. Using data from 14 Ukrainian cities, we assessed short-term trends in injection risk behaviors with the Cochran-Armitage test for trend and multivariable logistic regression models, adjusted for age, sex, region, marital status, education level, occupation, age at injection drug use initiation, experience of overdose, and self-reported HIV status...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095904/evaluation-of-the-tsima-community-mobilization-intervention-to-improve-engagement-in-hiv-testing-and-care-in-south-africa-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#5
Sheri A Lippman, Audrey Pettifor, Dumisani Rebombo, Aimée Julien, Ryan G Wagner, Mi-Suk Kang Dufour, Chodziwadziwa Whiteson Kabudula, Torsten B Neilands, Rhian Twine, Ann Gottert, F Xavier Gómez-Olivé, Stephen M Tollman, Ian Sanne, Dean Peacock, Kathleen Kahn
BACKGROUND: HIV transmission can be decreased substantially by reducing the burden of undiagnosed HIV infection and expanding early and consistent use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Treatment as prevention (TasP) has been proposed as key to ending the HIV epidemic. To activate TasP in high prevalence countries, like South Africa, communities must be motivated to know their status, engage in care, and remain in care. Community mobilization (CM) has the potential to significantly increase uptake testing, linkage to and retention in care by addressing the primary social barriers to engagement with HIV care-including poor understanding of HIV care; fear and stigma associated with infection, clinic attendance and disclosure; lack of social support; and gender norms that deter men from accessing care...
January 17, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092853/operative-vaginal-delivery-and-invasive-procedures-in-pregnancy-among-women-living-with-hiv
#6
Helen Peters, Kate Francis, Kate Harding, Pat A Tookey, Claire Thorne
OBJECTIVES: To describe the use and outcomes of operative delivery and invasive procedures in pregnancy amongst women living with HIV. STUDY DESIGN: The National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC) is a comprehensive population-based surveillance study in the UK and Ireland. The NSHPC has collected data on operative delivery since 2008, and invasive procedures in pregnancy (amniocentesis, cordocentesis, chorionic villus sampling) from 2012. Descriptive analyses were conducted on 278 pregnancies expected to deliver from 1 January 2008 with outcome reported to the NSHPC by 31 March 2016...
December 24, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091842/squamous-cell-dysplasia-in-the-proximal-rectum-of-three-patients-treated-for-ulcerative-colitis-on-immunomodulators
#7
James G Connolly, Stephen E Goldstone
BACKGROUND: Anal canal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) is the precursor to anal cancer. Immunocompromised patients are at increased risk and disease is usually within 3 cm from the anal verge. High-resolution anoscopy (HRA) with an 8-cm anoscope is used to identify and guide cautery treatment of HSIL. PURPOSE: We report three patients with a long-term history of ulcerative colitis (UC) treated with systemic immunomodulators who developed proximally located rectal HSIL...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090799/national-hiv-care-continua-for-key-populations
#8
Somya Gupta, Reuben Granich
We reviewed published national HIV care continua for men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drugs (PWID), and female sex workers (FSWs) to track progress toward the 90-90-90 target. We searched the Internet, PubMed, surveillance reports, United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS country reports, US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief country/regional operational plans, and conference abstracts for the continua and graded them on quality. We found 12 continua for MSM, 7 for PWID, and 5 for FSW from 12 countries...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086877/treating-the-invisible-gaps-and-opportunities-for-enhanced-tb-control-along-the-thailand-myanmar-border
#9
Naomi Tschirhart, Sein Sein Thi, Lei Lei Swe, Francois Nosten, Angel M Foster
BACKGROUND: In Thailand's northwestern Tak province, contextual conditions along the border with Myanmar pose difficulties for TB control among migrant populations. Incomplete surveillance data, migrant patient mobility, and loss to follow-up make it difficult to estimate the TB burden and implement effective TB control measures. This multi-methods study examined tuberculosis, tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection, and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment accessibility for migrants and refugees in Tak province, health system response, and public health surveillance...
January 13, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079719/feasibility-of-using-hiv-care-continuum-outcomes-to-identify-geographic-areas-for-targeted-hiv-testing
#10
Amanda D Castel, Irene Kuo, Meriam Mikre, Toni Young, Meredith Haddix, Suparna Das, Geoffrey Maugham, Carol Reisen
BACKGROUND: Improved detection and linkage to care of previously undiagnosed HIV infections require innovative approaches to testing. We sought to determine the feasibility of targeted HIV testing in geographic areas, defined by continuum of care parameters, to identify HIV-infected persons needing linkage or engagement in care. METHODS: Using HIV surveillance data from Washington, DC, we identified census tracts that had an HIV prevalence >1% and were either above (higher risk areas-HRAs) or below (lower risk areas-LRAs) the median for 3 indicators: monitored viral load, proportion of persons out of care (OOC), and never in care...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079718/longitudinal-hiv-care-trajectories-in-north-carolina
#11
Kimberly A Powers, Erika Samoff, Mark A Weaver, Lynne A Sampson, William C Miller, Peter A Leone, Heidi Swygard
BACKGROUND: Long-term HIV care and treatment engagement is required for maximal clinical and prevention benefits, but longitudinal care patterns are poorly understood. We used the last 10 years' worth of HIV surveillance data from North Carolina to describe longitudinal HIV care trajectories from diagnosis. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, population-based cohort study of all persons newly diagnosed with HIV in North Carolina between March 31, 2006 and March 31, 2015 (N = 16,207)...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079717/-out-of-care-hiv-case-investigations-a-collaborative-analysis-across-6-states-in-the-northwest-us
#12
Julia C Dombrowski, Joanna Bove, James C Roscoe, Jessica Harvill, Caislin L Firth, Shireen Khormooji, Jason Carr, Peter Choi, Courtney Smith, Sean D Schafer, Matthew R Golden
BACKGROUND: HIV care continuum estimates derived from laboratory surveillance typically assume that persons without recently reported CD4 count or viral load results are out of care. METHODS: We conducted a multistate project (Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming) to ascertain the status of HIV cases that appeared to be out of care during a 12-month period. We used laboratory surveillance to identify cases in all states but Idaho, where viral load reporting is not mandatory, requiring us to rely on clinic records...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079643/validation-of-retention-in-hiv-care-status-using-the-new-york-city-hiv-surveillance-registry-and-clinical-care-data-from-a-large-hiv-care-center
#13
Rituparna Pati, Rebekkah S Robbins, Sarah L Braunstein
CONTEXT: Improving retention in care is a key element of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS). However, definitions for measuring retention in care are not standardized. OBJECTIVE: To compare measures of retention based on both clinic visit data and HIV laboratory surveillance data. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: New York City (NYC), New York. PARTICIPANTS: We matched adult patients with HIV infection seen at the Spencer Cox Center for Health (SCC) in 2010 or 2011 with the NYC HIV Surveillance Registry...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068413/social-and-genetic-networks-of-hiv-1-transmission-in-new-york-city
#14
Joel O Wertheim, Sergei L Kosakovsky Pond, Lisa A Forgione, Sanjay R Mehta, Ben Murrell, Sharmila Shah, Davey M Smith, Konrad Scheffler, Lucia V Torian
BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted infections spread across contact networks. Partner elicitation and notification are commonly used public health tools to identify, notify, and offer testing to persons linked in these contact networks. For HIV-1, a rapidly evolving pathogen with low per-contact transmission rates, viral genetic sequences are an additional source of data that can be used to infer or refine transmission networks. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene interviews individuals newly diagnosed with HIV and elicits names of sexual and injection drug using partners...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066878/safety-and-effectiveness-of-sodium-stibogluconate-and-paromomycin-combination-for-the-treatment-of-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-eastern-africa-results-from-a-pharmacovigilance-programme
#15
Robert Kimutai, Ahmed M Musa, Simon Njoroge, Raymond Omollo, Fabiana Alves, Asrat Hailu, Eltahir A G Khalil, Ermias Diro, Peninah Soipei, Brima Musa, Khalid Salman, Koert Ritmeijer, Francois Chappuis, Juma Rashid, Rezika Mohammed, Asfaw Jameneh, Eyasu Makonnen, Joseph Olobo, Lawrence Okello, Patrick Sagaki, Nathalie Strub, Sally Ellis, Jorge Alvar, Manica Balasegaram, Emilie Alirol, Monique Wasunna
INTRODUCTION: In 2010, WHO recommended a new first-line treatment for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Eastern Africa. The new treatment, a combination of intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) sodium stibogluconate (SSG) and IM paromomycin (PM) was an improvement over SSG monotherapy, the previous first-line VL treatment in the region. To monitor the new treatment's safety and effectiveness in routine clinical practice a pharmacovigilance (PV) programme was developed. METHODS: A prospective PV cohort was developed...
January 9, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059958/future-technologies-for-monitoring-hiv-drug-resistance-and-cure
#16
Urvi M Parikh, Kevin McCormick, Gert van Zyl, John W Mellors
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sensitive, scalable and affordable assays are critically needed for monitoring the success of interventions for preventing, treating and attempting to cure HIV infection. This review evaluates current and emerging technologies that are applicable for both surveillance of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) and characterization of HIV reservoirs that persist despite antiretroviral therapy and are obstacles to curing HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has the potential to be adapted into high-throughput, cost-efficient approaches for HIVDR surveillance and monitoring during continued scale-up of antiretroviral therapy and rollout of preexposure prophylaxis...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057144/-hiv-infection-and-associated-factors-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-also-with-women-in-urumqi-from-2010-to-2014
#17
A J Cai, T Tian, Z Zhang, X L Zhao, Yekejiergeli Ye, Y Y Li, B X Huang, Ainiwaer Abidan, J H Dai
Objective: To understand the demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors and the factors associated with HIV infection in men who have sex with men and also with women (MSMW) in Urumqi. Methods: According to the "National AIDS Sentinel Surveillance Protocol" , the data of MSM's demographic characteristics, sex behavior histories and serological detection results were collected through Urumqi AIDS sentinel surveillance system during 2010-2014. In MSM, those also had heterosexual behaviors were considered as MSMW...
November 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057143/-infection-status-of-hiv-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-nanjing-2011-2015
#18
Y Y Xu, Z P Zhu, S S Wu, Z Q Pu, L Liu, L Guo, M Zhang
Objective: To understand the current status of HIV infection in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Nanjing, explore the associated factors with HIV infection, and provide information for the intervention in MSM. Methods: Data collected in the consecutive sentinel surveillances among MSM during 2011-2015 includes MSM's social-demographic information, sexual behavior histories, access to HIV prevention services and HIV testing in the past year. The infection trend was analyzed with χ(2) test and the factors associated with HIV infection were identified through multivariate logistic regression analysis...
November 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053012/phylogenetic-tools-for-generalized-hiv-1-epidemics-findings-from-the-pangea-hiv-methods-comparison
#19
Oliver Ratmann, Emma B Hodcroft, Michael Pickles, Anne Cori, Matthew Hall, Samantha Lycett, Caroline Colijn, Bethany Dearlove, Xavier Didelot, Simon Frost, A S Md Mukarram Hossain, Jeffrey B Joy, Michelle Kendall, Denise Kühnert, Gabriel E Leventhal, Richard Liang, Giacomo Plazzotta, Art F Y Poon, David A Rasmussen, Tanja Stadler, Erik Volz, Caroline Weis, Andrew J Leigh Brown, Christophe Fraser
Viral phylogenetic methods contribute to understanding how HIV spreads in populations, and thereby help guide the design of prevention interventions. So far, most analyses have been applied to well-sampled concentrated HIV-1 epidemics in wealthy countries. To direct the use of phylogenetic tools to where the impact of HIV-1 is greatest, the Phylogenetics And Networks for Generalized HIV Epidemics in Africa (PANGEA-HIV) consortium generates full-genome viral sequences from across sub-Saharan Africa. Analyzing these data presents new challenges, since epidemics are principally driven by heterosexual transmission and a smaller fraction of cases is sampled...
January 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049451/feasibility-study-of-hiv-sentinel-surveillance-using-pmtct-data-in-cameroon-from-scientific-success-to-programmatic-failure
#20
Serge C Billong, Jacob Dee, Joseph Fokam, Georges Nguefack-Tsague, Gabriel L Ekali, Raoul Fodjo, Edith S Temgoua, Edson-Joan Billong, Samuel M Sosso, Jembia J Mosoko, Francisca Monebenimp, Alexis Ndjolo, Anne-Cecile Z-K Bissek, Omotayo Bolu, Jean-Bosco N Elat
BACKGROUND: In low-income countries (LICs), HIV sentinel surveillance surveys (HIV-SSS) are recommended in between two demographic and health surveys, due to low-cost than the latter. Using the classical unlinked anonymous testing (UAT), HIV-SSS among pregnant women raised certain ethical and financial challenges. We therefore aimed at evaluating how to use prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) routine data as an alternative approach for HIV-SSS in LICs. METHODS: A survey conducted through 2012 among first antenatal-care attendees (ANC1) in the ten regions of Cameroon...
January 3, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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