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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053779/cell-based-therapeutic-strategies-for-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Neil J Scolding, Marcelo Pasquini, Stephen C Reingold, Jeffrey A Cohen
The availability of multiple disease-modifying medications with regulatory approval to treat multiple sclerosis illustrates the substantial progress made in therapy of the disease. However, all are only partially effective in preventing inflammatory tissue damage in the central nervous system and none directly promotes repair. Cell-based therapies, including immunoablation followed by autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, mesenchymal and related stem cell transplantation, pharmacologic manipulation of endogenous stem cells to enhance their reparative capabilities, and transplantation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, have generated substantial interest as novel therapeutic strategies for immune modulation, neuroprotection, or repair of the damaged central nervous system in multiple sclerosis...
July 21, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053679/measuring-the-effect-of-chemicals-on-the-growth-and-reproduction-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#2
So Young Lee, Kyungsu Kang
Toxicological evaluation is crucial for understanding the effects of chemicals on living organisms in basic and applied biological science fields. A non-mammalian soil round worm, Caenorhabditis elegans, is a valuable model organism for toxicology studies due to its convenience and lack of animal ethics issues compared with mammalian animal systems. In this protocol, a detailed procedure of toxicological evaluation of chemicals in C. elegans is described. A clinical anticancer drug, etoposide, which targets human topoisomerase II and inhibits DNA replication of human cancer cells, was selected as a model testing chemical...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052518/voluntary-stopping-of-eating-and-drinking-is-medical-support-ethically-justified
#3
Ralf J Jox, Isra Black, Gian Domenico Borasio, Johanna Anneser
BACKGROUND: Physician-assisted dying has been the subject of extensive discussion and legislative activity both in Europe and North America. In this context, dying by voluntary stopping of eating and drinking (VSED) is often proposed, and practiced, as an alternative method of self-determined dying, with medical support for VSED being regarded as ethically and legally justified. ARGUMENT: In our opinion, this view is flawed. First, we argue that VSED falls within the concept of suicide, albeit with certain unique features (non-invasiveness, initial reversibility, resemblance to the natural dying process)...
October 20, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052225/peripheral-nerve-block-in-ankle-fracture-surgery-a-qualitative-study-of-patients-experiences
#4
M J Henningsen, R Sort, A M Møller, S F Herling
Peripheral nerve blocks are popular as a mode of anaesthesia for limb surgery and their beneficial effects are well documented in elective surgery. However, concerns have been raised about potential rebound pain outweighing the benefits in acute ankle fracture surgery. Furthermore, pain scores and morphine consumption do not provide a full picture, as pain is subjective. To evaluate the clinical usefulness of peripheral nerve blocks, we explored patients' expectations and experiences by means of semi-structured interviews analysed with systematic text condensation...
October 19, 2017: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050703/validity-of-the-edinburgh-claudication-questionnaire-for-diagnosis-of-peripheral-artery-disease-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#5
Salvador Pita-Fernández, María José Modroño-Freire, Sonia Pértega-Díaz, Lizbeth Herrera-Díaz, Teresa Seoane-Pillado, Adriana Paz-Solís, José Luis Varela Modroño
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of peripheral artery disease and the validity of clinical signs for its diagnosis in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Setting: Health center (Mariñamansa,Orense). PERIOD: January 2011-January 2013. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Patients with type 2 diabetes, informed consent. MEASUREMENTS: Age, sex, diabetes duration, body mass index, Charlson index, blood pressure, ankle-brachial index (ABI), cholesterol levels, smoking...
November 2017: Endocrinología, diabetes y nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047394/esprit-ethics-committee-proposals-for-long-term-medical-data-registries-in-rapidly-evolving-research-fields-a-future-proof-best-practice-approach
#6
S Oberbichler, W O Hackl, A Hörbst
BACKGROUND: Long-term data collection is a challenging task in the domain of medical research. Many effects in medicine require long periods of time to become traceable e.g. the development of secondary malignancies based on a given radiotherapeutic treatment of the primary disease. Nevertheless, long-term studies often suffer from an initial lack of available information, thus disallowing a standardized approach for their approval by the ethics committee. This is due to several factors, such as the lack of existing case report forms or an explorative research approach in which data elements may change over time...
October 18, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047049/comparison-of-imaging-modalities-for-detecting-complications-in-bariatric-surgery
#7
Sergio Susmallian, Eduard Folb, Royi Barnea, Asnat Raziel
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the results of routine fluoroscopic swallowing study (FSS) imaging 24 h after surgery and computed tomography (CT) on demand based on clinical data, in diagnosing complications after bariatric surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective study includes 9386 patients that underwent bariatric surgery. A total of 3241 (34.53%) patients underwent FSS imaging following the surgical procedure, and 106 (1.13%) patients underwent CT...
October 18, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046774/role-of-whatsapp-based-discussions-in-improving-residents-knowledge-of-post-operative-pain-management-a-pilot-study
#8
Sumitra G Bakshi, Pranay Bhawalkar
BACKGROUND: To provide a platform for the dissemination of basic knowledge of pain management, a WhatsApp group was created by residents and consultants. Common clinical scenarios, resident queries, and important instructions to be followed by residents with respect to running the Acute Pain Service were discussed in the group. This study evaluates the benefits of this interaction. METHODS: This study was approved by the hospital ethics board and was registered with the Clinical Trial Registry of India...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045971/-technical-improvement-in-retroperitoneal-laparoscopic-living-donor-nephrectomy-report-of-193-cases
#9
L Zhao, L L Ma, H X Zhang, X F Hou, L Liu, Y Fu, Y G Kou, Y M Song
OBJECTIVE: To summarize our experience of retroperitoneal laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy, our continuous technical improvements and refinement of this skill and standardization of each procedure of this operation. METHODS: Having approved by hospital ethical committee and local government administration, a total of 193 living donors underwent retroperitoneal laparoscopic living donor nephrectomy from Dec.2003 to Feb. 2016 in our department. Under general anaesthesia, the operation was performed through 3 lumbar ports...
October 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042376/protocol-for-a-cohort-study-of-adolescent-mental-health-service-users-with-a-nested-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-to-assess-the-clinical-and-cost-effectiveness-of-managed-transition-in-improving-transitions-from-child-to-adult-mental-health-services-the
#10
Swaran P Singh, Helena Tuomainen, Giovanni de Girolamo, Athanasios Maras, Paramala Santosh, Fiona McNicholas, Ulrike Schulze, Diane Purper-Ouakil, Sabine Tremmery, Tomislav Franić, Jason Madan, Moli Paul, Frank C Verhulst, Gwen C Dieleman, Jane Warwick, Dieter Wolke, Cathy Street, Claire Daffern, Priya Tah, James Griffin, Alastair Canaway, Giulia Signorini, Suzanne Gerritsen, Laura Adams, Lesley O'Hara, Sonja Aslan, Frédérick Russet, Nikolina Davidović, Amanda Tuffrey, Anna Wilson, Charlotte Gatherer, Leanne Walker
INTRODUCTION: Disruption of care during transition from child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) to adult mental health services may adversely affect the health and well-being of service users. The MILESTONE (Managing the Link and Strengthening Transition from Child to Adult Mental Healthcare) study evaluates the longitudinal course and outcomes of adolescents approaching the transition boundary (TB) of their CAMHS and determines the effectiveness of the model of managed transition in improving outcomes, compared with usual care...
October 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041781/nursing-students-perceptions-of-soft-skills-training-in-ghana
#11
Luke Laari, Barbara M Dube
BACKGROUND: The quality of nursing care rendered today is markedly reducing and the amount of time spent with patients listening to and explaining issues concerning their conditions is gradually diminishing. The therapeutic touch and the listening ear of the nurse are no longer accessible to the patient. Understanding what non-technical skills are and their relevance for healthcare practitioners has become a new area of consideration. Although recent literature has highlighted the necessity of introducing soft skills training and assessment within medical education, nursing education is yet to fully embrace this skills training...
September 22, 2017: Curationis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039627/beliefs-endorsement-and-application-of-homeopathy-disclosed-a-survey-among-ambulatory-care-physicians
#12
Stefan Markun, Marc Maeder, Thomas Rosemann, Sima Djalali
BACKGROUND: Explanation models for the effectiveness of homeopathy are not supported by natural sciences and the aggregated evidence from clinical trials is unconvincing. From this standpoint, placebo effects seem the most obvious explanation for the therapeutic effects experienced in homeopathy. Still, many physicians continue to prescribe homeopathic treatments. OBJECTIVES: Whether physicians who prescribe homeopathic treatments aim to achieve placebo effects or actually believe in specific effects is poorly understood...
October 17, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039325/comparative-role-of-pregabalin-and-carbamazepine-regarding-efficacy-in-painful-diabetic-neuropathy
#13
Raana Mahmood, Itrat Jawed, M Irfan Khan, Iffat Mahmood, Talat Tariq, Arfa Kamil, Faiza Z Sayeed, Bushra Z Sayeed
Neuropathic pain is the most severe and resistant type of pain which has impact on quality of life and behaviour; it most commonly occurs at night causing disturbed sleep. Diabetes mellitus is a common cause of painful neuropathy. In this study, we are comparing the effectiveness of old treatment Carbamazepine with Pregabalin in painful diabetic neuropathy. The study was an open-label trial conducted in Diabetic Clinic of Medical Unit-III, Jinnah Post-graduate Medical Center, Karachi. The duration of the study was 90 days, from December 2010 to March 2011...
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039321/assessment-of-thyroid-hormone-levels-and-thyroid-disorders-a-case-study-from-gujranwala-pakistan
#14
Narjis Naz, Shakera Khatoon Rizvi, Zubi Sadiq
This case study is conducted to investigate the thyroid hormone levels and relevant disorders including evaluation of dietary conditions in the rural area of Gujranwala and its surrounding districts. Thyroid disorders are clinically prevalent and their manifestation differs considerably with geographical variations. A randomized study of 177 subjects was carried out, with a questionnaire about their dietary habits/life style and acquisition of blood samples for thyroid hormone level assessment using radioimmunoassay technique...
July 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039256/ethical-considerations-in-microbial-therapeutic-clinical-trials
#15
Michael H Woodworth, Kaitlin L Sitchenko, Cynthia Carpentieri, Rachel J Friedman-Moraco, Tiffany Wang, Colleen S Kraft
As understanding of the human microbiome improves, novel therapeutic targets to improve human health with microbial therapeutics will continue to expand. We outline key considerations of balancing risks and benefits, optimising access, returning key results to research participants, and potential conflicts of interest.
October 17, 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039253/stakeholder-driven-quality-improvement-a-compelling-force-for-clinical-practice-guidelines
#16
Richard M Rosenfeld, Peter C Wyer
Clinical practice guideline development should be driven by rigorous methodology, but what is less clear is where quality improvement enters the process: should it be a priority-guiding force, or should it enter only after recommendations are formulated? We argue for a stakeholder-driven approach to guideline development, with an overriding goal of quality improvement based on stakeholder perceptions of needs, uncertainties, and knowledge gaps. In contrast, the widely used topic-driven approach, which often makes recommendations based only on randomized controlled trials, is driven by epidemiologic purity and evidence rigor, with quality improvement a downstream consideration...
October 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038205/the-ethics-of-conducting-clinical-trials-with-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-in-heart-failure-is-placebo-assignment-justified-in-patients-with-comorbid-diabetes-mellitus-and-heart-failure
#17
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038188/probiotics-administered-intravaginally-as-a-complementary-therapy-combined-with-antibiotics-for-the-treatment-of-bacterial-vaginosis-a-systematic-review-protocol
#18
Liyan Ma, Jianrong Su, Yanli Su, Wei Sun, Zhaoying Zeng
INTRODUCTION: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a highly prevalent vaginal polymicrobial disorder commonly encountered in women of childbearing age. Therapy with only recommended antibiotics results in low cure rates and unacceptably high recurrence rates. The use of probiotics as a complementary approach for use with antibiotics for the treatment of BV remains unclear. This review aims to assess the efficacy of lactobacilli administered intravaginally in conjunction with antibiotics for the treatment of BV...
October 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038175/predictability-of-recurrence-using-immunohistochemistry-to-delineate-surgical-margins-in-mucosal-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-prism-hnscc-study-protocol-for-a-prospective-observational-and-bilateral-study-in-australia-and-india
#19
Sheela Joseph, Rajinikanth Janakiraman, Geeta Chacko, Rama Jayaraj, Mahiban Thomas, Meera Thomas, Sramana Mukhopadhyay
OBJECTIVES: Treatment failure and poor 5-year survival in mucosal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has remained unchanged for decades mainly due to advanced stage of presentation and high rates of recurrence. Incomplete surgical removal of the tumour, attributed to lack of reliable methods to delineate the surgical margins, is a major cause of disease recurrence. The predictability of recurrence using immunohistochemistry (IHC) to delineate surgical margins (PRISM) in mucosal HNSCC study aims to redefine margin status by identifying the true extent of the tumour at the molecular level by performing IHC with molecular markers, eukaryotic initiation factor, eIF4Eand tumour suppressor gene, p53, on the surgical margins and test the use of Lugol's iodine and fluorescence visualisation prior to the wide local excision...
October 15, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037472/sample-size-estimation-for-cluster-randomized-controlled-trials
#20
Daniel Cury Ribeiro, Stephan Milosavljevic, J Haxby Abbott
Cluster randomized controlled trials (cRCTs) are commonly used by clinical researchers. The advantages of cRCTs include preventing treatment contamination, enhancing administrative efficiency, convenience, external validity, ethical considerations, and likelihood of increased compliance by participants. However, when designing a cRCT, clinical researchers are faced with challenges, such as cluster units that may not have an equal number of participants within each. In this Technical Note, we discuss approaches for estimating the sample size, while taking into account unequal cluster sizes, and strategies for optimizing the design of cluster trials...
October 12, 2017: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
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