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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733294/determining-the-worldwide-epidemiology-of-surgical-site-infections-after-gastrointestinal-resection-surgery-protocol-for-a-multicentre-international-prospective-cohort-study-globalsurg-2
#1
GlobalSurg Collaborative
INTRODUCTION: Surgical site infection (SSI) is the most common complication following major gastrointestinal surgery, affecting between 25% and 40% of patients. The rate of SSI doubles from low-income to high-income settings, persisting after risk adjustment. The relative impact of antibiotic-resistant organisms and the effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis globally are unknown. This study aims to determine SSI rates following gastrointestinal surgery across worldwide hospital settings...
July 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731005/preparing-medical-students-with-congenital-colour-vision-deficiency-for-safe-practice
#2
Rajat Dhingra, Jolly Rohatgi, Upreet Dhaliwal
BACKGROUND: Colour vision of candidates is tested in many medical colleges in India at the time of admission to undergraduate courses; however, there are no guidelines, and therefore no counselling, on how students with congenital colour vision deficiency (CCVD) should negotiate the medical course, and how best they can practise safely after graduation. Problems in interpreting coloured signs may lead to misdiagnosis. This study aimed to explore difficulties during clinical work that requires colour discrimination, and to offer suggestions on safe practice based on the findings and a review of the literature...
January 2017: National Medical Journal of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729317/the-effects-of-physical-activity-interventions-on-glycated-haemoglobin-a1c-in-non-diabetic-populations-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
I Cavero-Redondo, B Peleteiro, C Álvarez-Bueno, M Garrido-Miguel, E G Artero, V Martinez-Vizcaino
INTRODUCTION: Epidemiological evidence suggests that physical activity has a positive effect on reducing glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels not only in diabetics, but also in healthy subjects. Moreover, a positive association of HbA1c levels with cardiovascular disease and mortality in non-diabetic populations has recently been reported. This is a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis aiming to estimate the effects of physical activity on glycaemic control measured by HbA1c levels in non-diabetic populations; and to determine which type of physical activity has a greater influence on glycaemic control...
July 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729311/a-review-of-rate-control-in-atrial-fibrillation-and-the-rationale-and-protocol-for-the-rate-af-trial
#4
Dipak Kotecha, Melanie Calvert, Jonathan J Deeks, Michael Griffith, Paulus Kirchhof, Gregory Yh Lip, Samir Mehta, Gemma Slinn, Mary Stanbury, Richard P Steeds, Jonathan N Townend
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common and causes impaired quality of life, an increased risk of stroke and death as well as frequent hospital admissions. The majority of patients with AF require control of heart rate. In this article , we summarise the limited evidence from clinical trials that guides prescription, and present the rationale and protocol for a new randomised trial. As rate control has not yet been shown to reduce mortality, there is a clear need to compare the impact of therapy on quality of life, cardiac function and exercise capacity...
July 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729187/poor-employment-conditions-adversely-affect-mental-health-outcomes-among-surgical-trainees
#5
Jasmina Kevric, Nathan Papa, Marlon Perera, Prem Rashid, Sumeet Toshniwal
BACKGROUND: Poor mental health in junior clinicians is prevalent and may lead to poor productivity and significant medical errors. We aimed to provide contemporary data on the mental health of surgical trainees and identify risk factors relating to poorer mental health outcomes. METHODS: A detailed questionnaire was developed comprising questions based on the 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36) and Physical Activity Questionnaire. Each of the questionnaires has proven validity and reliability in the clinical context...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727818/prep-in-italy-the-time-may-be-ripe-but-who-s-paying-the-bill-a-nationwide-survey-on-physicians-attitudes-towards-using-antiretrovirals-to-prevent-hiv-infection
#6
Antonio Di Biagio, Niccolò Riccardi, Alessio Signori, Renato Maserati, Silvia Nozza, Andrea Gori, Stefano Bonora, Marco Borderi, Diego Ripamonti, Maria Cristina Rossi, Giancarlo Orofino, Tiziana Quirino, Giuseppe Nunnari, Benedetto Maurizio Celesia, Salvatore Martini, Caterina Sagnelli, Giovanni Mazzola, Pietro Colletti, Dario Bartolozzi, Teresa Bini, Nicoletta Ladisa, Filippo Castelnuovo, Annalisa Saracino, Sergio Lo Caputo
Several studies have demonstrated the efficacy of the oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir (with or without emtricitabine) on preventing HIV-negative partners of HIV infected patients to become infected through sexual contacts. PrEP is already available in the United States and now is approved by European Medicine Agency. In this setting we would like to gauge physicians' knowledge, acquaintance with and attitude to include PrEP in their clinical practice. A cross sectional survey was conducted among Italian physicians expert on antiretroviral therapy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727521/ethical-guidance-for-disaster-response-specifically-around-crisis-standards-of-care-a-systematic-review
#7
Jonathon P Leider, Debra DeBruin, Nicole Reynolds, Angelica Koch, Judy Seaberg
BACKGROUND: Terrorism, disease outbreaks, and other natural disasters and mass casualty events have pushed health care and public health systems to identify and refine emergency preparedness protocols for disaster response. Ethical guidance, alongside legal and medical frameworks, are increasingly common components of disaster response plans. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the prevalence and content of ethical guidance offered for disaster response, specifically around crisis standards of care (CSCs)...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726059/professional-ethics-for-digital-age-psychiatry-boundaries-privacy-and-communication
#8
REVIEW
James E Sabin, Jonathan Clark Harland
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Internet and social media use continue to expand rapidly. Many patients and psychiatrists are bringing digital technologies into the treatment process, but relatively little attention has been paid to the ethical challenges in doing this. This review presents ethical guidelines for psychiatry in the digital age. RECENT FINDINGS: Surveys demonstrate that patients are eager to make digital technologies part of their treatment. Substantial numbers search for professional and personal information about their therapists...
September 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724033/ethical-issues-on-the-synthetic-phosphoethanolamine-clinical-trial
#9
Francisco José Roma Paumgartten
Notwithstanding its approval by the National Committee for Ethics in Research (Conep) on April 19, 2016, a trial of the so-called "synthetic" phosphoethanolamine (syn-phospho) pill in cancer patients raises ethical concerns. An analysis by a laboratory contracted by the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI) revealed that syn-phospho contained a great amount of impurities and did not meet standards of pharmaceutical quality required for an investigational drug. Cytotoxicity against human tumor cell lines and in vivo rodent xenograft tumor assays consistently failed to demonstrate a potential anticancer activity of syn-phospho...
May 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724031/methodological-challenges-in-the-use-of-focus-groups-with-people-with-severe-mental-illness
#10
Rosana Teresa Onocko-Campos, Alberto Rodolfo Giovanello Díaz, Catarina Magalhães Dahl, Erotildes Maria Leal, Octavio Domont de Serpa
This study addresses the practical, methodological and ethical challenges that were found in three studies that used focus groups with people with severe mental illness, in the context of community mental health services in Brazil. Focus groups are a powerful tool in health research that need to be better discussed in research with people with severe mental illness, in the context of community mental health facilities. This study is based on the authors' experience of conducting and analyzing focus groups in three different cities - Campinas, Rio de Janeiro and Salvador - between 2006-2010...
July 13, 2017: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722146/implementing-clinical-prediction-models-pushing-the-needle-towards-precision-pharmacotherapy
#11
S R Dorajoo, A Chan
Clinical prediction models promise a future of precision drug therapy. However, very few models are used in practice. Although models can eliminate unwanted clinical guesswork, several barriers hinder model implementation in practice. Here we discuss the less well-recognized barriers hindering model implementation for precision prescribing, highlighting areas that warrant attention, primarily relating to ethical and regulatory considerations that are requisite in paving the way towards a future of precision pharmacotherapy...
July 19, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720617/protocol-for-an-online-randomised-controlled-trial-to-evaluate-the-clinical-and-cost-effectiveness-of-a-peer-supported-self-management-intervention-for-relatives-of-people-with-psychosis-or-bipolar-disorder-relatives-education-and-coping-toolkit-react
#12
Fiona Lobban, Heather Robinson, Duncan Appelbe, Johanna Barraclough, Emma Bedson, Lizzie Collinge, Susanna Dodd, Sue Flowers, Mahsa Honary, Sonia Johnson, Ceu Mateus, Barbara Mezes, Valerie Minns, Elizabeth Murray, Andrew Walker, Paula Williamson, Catherine Wintermeyer, Steven Jones
INTRODUCTION: Despite clinical guidelines recommendations, many relatives of people with psychosis or bipolar disorder do not currently receive the support they need. Online information and support may offer a solution. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This single-blind, parallel, online randomised controlled trial will determine clinical and cost-effectiveness of the Relatives Education And Coping Toolkit (REACT) (including an online resource directory (RD)), compared with RD only, for relatives of people with psychosis or bipolar disorder...
July 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720615/assessment-of-the-effectiveness-and-safety-of-ethosuximide-in-the-treatment-of-abdominal-pain-related-to-irritable-bowel-syndrome-ibset-protocol-of-a-randomised-parallel-controlled-double-blind-and-multicentre-trial
#13
Nicolas Kerckhove, Julien Scanzi, Bruno Pereira, Denis Ardid, Michel Dapoigny
INTRODUCTION: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterised by the association of abdominal chronic pain with bowel habit disorders in the absence of identifiable organic disease. This is the first reason for consultation in gastroenterology, with an estimated prevalence of 10%-15% in industrialised countries. Although this is a benign gastrointestinal disease, its chronicity profoundly impacts the patient's quality of life and causes considerable health spending. Actual medical treatments are poorly efficient on IBS-related abdominal pain, making it a major public health concern...
July 18, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720322/rodent-large-animal-and-non-human-primate-models-of-spinal-cord-injury
#14
REVIEW
Raffaele Nardone, Cristina Florea, Yvonne Höller, Francesco Brigo, Viviana Versace, Piergiorgio Lochner, Stefan Golaszewski, Eugen Trinka
In this narrative review we aimed to assess the usefulness of the different animal models in identifying injury mechanisms and developing therapies for humans suffering from spinal cord injury (SCI). Results obtained from rodent studies are useful but, due to the anatomical, molecular and functional differences, confirmation of these findings in large animals or non-human primates may lead to basic discoveries that cannot be made in rodent models and that are more useful for developing treatment strategies in humans...
June 21, 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720235/self-efficacy-and-self-care-behaviours-among-adults-with-type-2-diabetes
#15
Melba Sheila D'Souza, Subrahmanya Nairy Karkada, Kader Parahoo, Ramesh Venkatesaperumal, Susan Achora, Arcalyd Rose R Cayaban
BACKGROUND: Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) has an impact on an individuals' health and is influenced by glycemic control. AIM: To examine the relationship between glycemic control, demographic and clinical factors on self-efficacy and self-care behaviours among adults with T2DM. DESIGN: A correlational, descriptive study was used. One hundred and forty Omani adults with T2DM were recruited from a public hospital. METHODS: Data on self-efficacy, self-care behaviours and glycemic control were collected between April and July 2016...
August 2017: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720039/the-revamp-trial-to-evaluate-hiv-resistance-testing-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-case-study-in-clinical-trial-design-in-resource-limited-settings-to-optimize-effectiveness-and-cost-effectiveness-estimates
#16
Mark J Siedner, Mwebesa B Bwana, Mahomed-Yunus S Moosa, Michelle Paul, Selvan Pillay, Suzanne McCluskey, Isaac Aturinda, Kevin Ard, Winnie Muyindike, Pravikrishnen Moodley, Jaysingh Brijkumar, Tamlyn Rautenberg, Gavin George, Brent Johnson, Rajesh T Gandhi, Henry Sunpath, Vincent C Marconi
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, rates of sustained HIV virologic suppression remain below international goals. HIV resistance testing, while common in resource-rich settings, has not gained traction due to concerns about cost and sustainability. OBJECTIVE: We designed a randomized clinical trial to determine the feasibility, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of routine HIV resistance testing in sub-Saharan Africa. APPROACH: We describe challenges common to intervention studies in resource-limited settings, and strategies used to address them, including: (1) optimizing generalizability and cost-effectiveness estimates to promote transition from study results to policy; (2) minimizing bias due to patient attrition; and (3) addressing ethical issues related to enrollment of pregnant women...
July 18, 2017: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719527/pupillometry-guided-intraoperative-remifentanil-administration-versus-standard-practice-influences-opioid-use-a-randomized-study
#17
Nada Sabourdin, Jérôme Barrois, Nicolas Louvet, Agnès Rigouzzo, Marie-Laurence Guye, Christophe Dadure, Isabelle Constant
BACKGROUND: Pupillometry has shown promising results for assessing nociception in anesthetized patients. However, its benefits in clinical practice are not demonstrated. The aim of this prospective randomized study was to evaluate the impact of intraoperative pupillometry monitoring on perioperative opioid consumption in major gynecologic surgery. METHODS: After receiving ethics committee approval and written consent of patients, American Society of Anesthesiologists status I to II women undergoing gynecologic surgery were included in this single-blinded, prospective, parallel-arm randomized study...
August 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719391/pediatric-and-congenital-hand-transplantation
#18
Sandra Amaral, L Scott Levin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the approach and challenges associated with pediatric hand transplantation, including new knowledge gleaned from our recent case of bilateral hand-forearm transplantation in an 8-year old child. RECENT FINDINGS: Bilateral heterologous hand-forearm transplantation was performed in a child with a prior kidney transplant in July 2015. The initial surgery necessitated a large team of experts in microvascular surgery, transplant surgery, orthopedics and plastic surgery as well as pediatric anesthesia...
July 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717927/erratum-to-ethical-aspects-of-clinical-trials-in-rare-diseases
#19
Joerg Hasford, Armin Koch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717658/targeting-breast-cancer-outcomes-what-about-the-primary-relatives
#20
Alison Johnston, Michael Sugrue
BACKGROUND: Up to 65% of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients had not been screened correctly before diagnosis resulting in increased stage of cancer at presentation. This study assessed whether their primary relatives are, in turn, assessed appropriately. METHODS: An ethically approved prospective study involving 274 primary relatives of women diagnosed with breast cancer, between 2009-2012, at a symptomatic breast unit in Ireland. Telephone interview established: demographics, menstrual history, family history verification, breast screening history...
July 2017: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
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