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Clinical ethics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527254/-cross-cultural-adaptation-of-the-community-acquired-pneumonia-score-questionnaire-in-patients-with-mild-to-moderate-pneumonia-in-colombia
#1
Mónica Alejandra Bernal-Vargas, Jorge Alberto Cortés, Ricardo Sánchez
INTRODUCTION: One of the strategies for the rational use of antibiotics is the use of the score for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP Score). This instrument clinically evaluates patients with community-acquired pneumonia, thereby facilitating decision making regarding the early and safe withdrawal of antibiotics. OBJECTIVE: To generate a translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) Score questionnaire in Spanish. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Authorization for cross-cultural adaptation of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) Score questionnaire was obtained; the recommendations of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) were carried out through the following stages: forward translation, reconciliation, backward translation, harmonization, obtaining a provisional questionnaire, and applying the questionnaire in a pilot test...
January 24, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526695/-thinking-ethics-a-novel-pilot-proof-of-concept-program-of-integrating-ethics-into-the-physiology-curriculum-in-south-india
#2
Savitha D, Manjulika Vaz, Mario Vaz
Integrating medical ethics into the physiology teaching-learning program has been largely unexplored in India. The objective of this exercise was to introduce an interactive and integrated ethics program into the Physiology course of first-year medical students and to evaluate their perceptions. Sixty medical students (30 men, 30 women) underwent 11 sessions over a 7-mo period. Two of the Physiology faculty conducted these sessions (20-30 min each) during the routine physiology (theory/practicals) classes that were of shorter duration and could, therefore, accommodate the discussion of related ethical issues...
June 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524616/how-to-implement-live-video-recording-in-the-clinical-environment-a-practical-guide-for-clinical-services
#3
Adam Lloyd, Alistair Dewar, Simon Edgar, Dave Caesar, Paul Gowens, Gareth Clegg
BACKGROUND: The use of video in healthcare is becoming more common, particularly in simulation and educational settings. However, video recording live episodes of clinical care is far less routine. AIM: To provide a practical guide for clinical services to embed live video recording. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using Kotter's 8-step process for leading change, we provide a 'how to' guide to navigate the challenges required to implement a continuous video-audit system based on our experience of video recording in our emergency department resuscitation rooms...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523138/tips-and-tricks-of-the-propensity-score-methods-in-the-thoracic-surgery-research
#4
EDITORIAL
Luca Bertolaccini, Alessandro Pardolesi, Piergiorgio Solli
Without randomization, the differences in the distribution of baseline covariates can confound the evaluation of outcomes between the groups. To estimate the causal effects of treatment on the results randomized clinical trials (RCT) are routinely used. When RCT are not feasible for cost, time, and ethical issues, the effect of treatment on an inevitable outcome could be investigated by using a non-experimental study design. The propensity score (PS) refers to the individual probability, for a subject involved in a study, of receiving a new treatment rather than the control treatment...
April 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523117/evaluation-of-pediatric-residents-attitudes-toward-ethical-conflict-a-cross-sectional-study-in-tehran-iran
#5
Maliheh Kadivar, Marjan Mardani-Hamooleh, Shiva Shayestefar
Ethical conflicts are recognized as critical aspects in assessing competence in clinical communication. Moreover, pediatrics residents may face more problems, compared to other disciplines; due to the specific characteristics of the age group receiving services as well as the presence of their families. This study has been conducted with the aim of determining the attitude and perspective of pediatric residents toward ethical conflicts in the field of pediatrics. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was carried out on all residents of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (90 residents), selected through census method, in 2014...
2017: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523116/obstacles-and-problems-of-ethical-leadership-from-the-perspective-of-nursing-leaders-a-qualitative-content-analysis
#6
Maasoumeh Barkhordari-Sharifabad, Tahereh Ashktorab, Foroozan Atashzadeh-Shoorideh
In the nursing profession, leadership plays a significant role in creating motivation and thus enabling nurses to provide high quality care. Ethics is an essential component of leadership qualifications and the ethical leader can help create an ethical atmosphere, offer ethical guidance, and ensure the occupational satisfaction of personnel through prioritizing moralities. However, some issues prevent the implementation of this type of leadership by nursing leaders. The aim of this study was to identify and describe some problems and obstacles in ethical leadership faced by nursing leaders, and to help them achieve more accurate information and broader perspective in this field...
2017: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522743/forward-to-the-past-the-case-for-quantitative-pet-imaging
#7
Adriaan A Lammertsma
Positron emission tomography (PET) was developed in the 1970's as an in vivo method to measure regional pathophysiological processes. In the 1990's the focus moved to the detection of local increases in uptake, first in the brain (activation studies) and later in oncology (finding metastases), where (18)F-FDG emerged as a highly sensitive staging technique. This focus on sensitivity has overshadowed the other main characteristic of PET, its quantitative nature. In recent years there has been a new shift. PET is now seen as a promising tool for drug development and precision medicine, i...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521781/telling-our-stories-heroin-assisted-treatment-and-snap-activism-in-the-downtown-eastside-of-vancouver
#8
Susan Boyd, Dave Murray, Donald MacPherson
BACKGROUND: This article highlights the experiences of a peer-run group, SALOME/NAOMI Association of Patients (SNAP), that meets weekly in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. SNAP is a unique independent peer- run drug user group that formed in 2011 following Canada's first heroin-assisted treatment trial (HAT), North America Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI). SNAP's members are now made up of former research participants who participated in two heroin-assisted trials in Vancouver...
May 18, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520967/in-vivo-models-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-persistence-and-cure-strategies
#9
Christopher C Nixon, Maud Mavigner, Guido Silvestri, J Victor Garcia
Current HIV therapy is not curative regardless of how soon after infection it is initiated or how long it is administered, and therapy interruption almost invariably results in robust viral rebound. Human immunodeficiency virus persistence is therefore the major obstacle to a cure for AIDS. The testing and implementation of novel yet unproven approaches to HIV eradication that could compromise the health status of HIV-infected individuals might not be ethically warranted. Therefore, adequate in vitro and in vivo evidence of efficacy is needed to facilitate the clinical implementation of promising strategies for an HIV cure...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517986/from-rosalind-franklin-to-barack-obama-data-sharing-challenges-and-solutions-in-genomics-and-personalised-medicine
#10
Mark Lawler, Tim Maughan
The collection, storage and use of genomic and clinical data from patients and healthy individuals is a key component of personalised medicine enterprises such as the Precision Medicine Initiative, the Cancer Moonshot and the 100,000 Genomes Project. In order to maximise the value of this data, it is important to embed a culture within the scientific, medical and patient communities that supports the appropriate sharing of genomic and clinical information. However, this aspiration raises a number of ethical, legal and regulatory challenges that need to be addressed...
April 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516833/animal-models-of-ebolavirus-infection
#11
Marisa C St Claire, Dan R Ragland, Laura Bollinger, Peter B Jahrling
Ebola virus is a highly pathogenic member of the family Filoviridae that causes a severe hemorrhagic disease in humansand NHP. The 2013-2016 West African outbreak has increased interest in the development and refinement of animal models of Ebola virus disease. These models are used to test countermeasures and vaccines, gain scientific insights into the mechanisms of disease progression and transmission, and study key correlates of immunology. Ebola virus is classified as a BSL4 pathogen and Category A agent, for which the United States government requires preparedness in case of bioterrorism...
May 17, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516404/screening-for-diabetic-eye-disease-among-samoan-adults-a-pilot-study
#12
V Swetha E Jeganathan, Tim Langford, Lucilla Ah-Ching Sefo, Alex W Hewitt, Nitin Verma
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in Samoa by piloting a retinal photography screening programme. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of patients with diabetes who presented to the Tupua Tamasese Meaole eye clinic in Apia, Samoa, between May 2011 and September 2011. Study approval was granted by the National Health Service Board of Samoa, the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee, and the study adhered to the Tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki...
May 17, 2017: Ophthalmology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515847/pacemaker-recycling-a-notion-whose-time-has-come
#13
REVIEW
Mason W Runge, Timir S Baman, Sheldon Davis, Kevin Weatherwax, Ed Goldman, Kim A Eagle, Thomas C Crawford
The purpose of this paper is to summarize the need, feasibility, safety, legality, and ethical perspectives of pacemaker reutilization in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It will also describe, in-depth, Project My Heart Your Heart (PMHYH) as a model for pacemaker reuse in LMICs. The primary source of the discussion points in this paper is a collection of 14 publications produced by the research team at the University of Michigan and its collaborative partners. The need for pacemaker reutilization in LMICs is evident...
April 26, 2017: World Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515192/study-protocol-for-a-transversal-study-to-develop-a-screening-model-for-excessive-gambling-behaviours-on-a-representative-sample-of-users-of-french-authorised-gambling-websites
#14
Bastien Perrot, Jean-Benoit Hardouin, Jean-Michel Costes, Julie Caillon, Marie Grall-Bronnec, Gaëlle Challet-Bouju
INTRODUCTION: Since the legalisation of online gambling in France in 2010, gambling operators must implement responsible gambling measures to prevent excessive gambling practices. However, actually there is no screening procedure for identifying problematic gamblers. Although several studies have already been performed using several data sets from online gambling operators, the authors deplored several methodological and clinical limits that prevent scientifically validating the existence of problematic gambling behaviour...
May 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514964/help-problems-in-executing-a-pragmatic-randomized-stepped-wedge-trial-on-the-hospital-elder-life-program-to-prevent-delirium-in-older-patients
#15
Noor Heim, Henk F van Stel, Roelof G Ettema, Roos C van der Mast, Sharon K Inouye, Marieke J Schuurmans
BACKGROUND: A pragmatic, stepped wedge trial design can be an appealing design to evaluate complex interventions in real-life settings. However, there are certain pitfalls that need to be considered. This paper reports on the experiences and lessons learned from the conduct of a cluster randomized, stepped wedge trial evaluating the effect of the Hospital Elder Life Program (HELP) in a Dutch hospital setting to prevent older patients from developing delirium. METHODS: We evaluated our trial which was conducted in eight departments in two hospitals in hospitalized patients aged 70 years or older who were at risk for delirium by reflecting on the assumptions that we had and on what we intended to accomplish when we started, as compared to what we actually realized in the different phases of our study...
May 17, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514320/preoperative-warming-versus-no-preoperative-warming-for-maintenance-of-normothermia-in-women-receiving-intrathecal-morphine-for-cesarean-delivery-a-single-blinded-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Judy Munday, Sonya Osborne, Patsy Yates, David Sturgess, Lee Jones, Edward Gosden
BACKGROUND: Rates of hypothermia for women undergoing spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery are high and prevention is desirable. This trial compared the effectiveness of preoperative warming versus usual care among women receiving intrathecal morphine, which is thought to exacerbate perioperative heat loss. METHODS: A prospective, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial compared 20 minutes of forced air warming (plus intravenous fluid warming) versus no active preoperative warming (plus intravenous fluid warming) in 50 healthy American Society of Anesthesiologists graded II women receiving intrathecal morphine as part of spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery...
May 12, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513968/the-views-of-ethics-committee-members-and-medical-researchers-on-the-return-of-individual-research-results-and-incidental-findings-ownership-issues-and-benefit-sharing-in-biobanking-research-in-a-south-indian-city
#17
Manjulika Vaz, Mario Vaz, Srinivasan K
The return of individual research results and incidental findings from biobanking research is a much debated ethical issue globally but has extensive relevance in India where the burden of out of pocket health care expenses is high for the majority. The views of 21 ethics committee (EC) members and 22 researchers from Bengaluru, India, concerning the ethics of biobanking research were sought through in-depth interviews using an unfolding case vignette with probes. A shared view among most was that individual research results which are 'actionable' or have 'clinical significance' should be returned to the sample contributors through their treating physicians...
May 17, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513861/regulatory-and-ethical-issues-in-pediatric-clinical-research-recommendations-from-a-panel-discussion
#18
Nilima Kshirsagar, Soumya Swaminathan, Pramod Jog, Samir Dalwai, Roli Mathur, Chandra Shekhar, Bernd Meibohm, Y K Gupta, Nusrat Shafiq, Gangadhar Sunkara, V G Somani, Prasad Kulkarni, Brian Tseng, Dhvani Mehta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511969/the-current-role-of-decompressive-craniectomy-for-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
REVIEW
S Honeybul, K M Ho, C R P Lind, G R Gillett
There is little doubt that decompressive craniectomy can reduce mortality however, the results of a recent study has provided more evidence to inform the debate regarding clinical and ethical concerns that it merely converts death into survival with severe disability or in a vegetative state. The recently published RESCUEicp trial compared last-tier secondary decompressive craniectomy with continued medical management for refractory intracranial hypertension after severe traumatic brain injury. Patients were randomly assigned to decompressive craniectomy with medical therapy or to receive continued medical therapy with the option of adding barbiturates...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511085/development-implementation-and-effects-of-an-integrated-web-based-teaching-model-in-a-nursing-ethics-course
#20
S-Y Chao, Y-C Chang, S C Yang, M J Clark
BACKGROUND: Ethical competence, which is reflected in the ability to detect ethical challenges in clinical situations and engage in deliberate thinking on ethical actions, is one of the core competencies of nursing practice. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to develop and implement an interactive situational e-learning system, integrating nursing ethical decisions into a nursing ethics course, and to evaluate the effects of this course on student nurses' ethical decision-making competence...
April 19, 2017: Nurse Education Today
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