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Sarah M Churchill, Grant Trewartha, Aki I T Salo
Athletes in inner lanes may be disadvantaged during athletic sprint races containing a bend portion because of the tightness of the bend. We empirically investigated the veracity of modelled estimates of this disadvantage and the effect of running lane on selected kinematic variables. Three-dimensional video analysis was conducted on nine male athletes in lanes 8, 5 and 2 of the bend of an outdoor track (radii: 45.10, 41.41 and 37.72 m, respectively). There was over 2% (p < 0.05) reduction in mean race velocity from lane 8 (left step 9...
March 21, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Karuna D Sagili, Srinath Satyanarayana, Sarabjit S Chadha, Nevin C Wilson, Ajay M V Kumar, Patrick K Moonan, John E Oeltmann, Vineet K Chadha, Sharath Burugina Nagaraja, Smita Ghosh, Terrence Q Lo, Tyson Volkmann, Matthew Willis, Kalpita Shringarpure, Ravichandra Chinnappa Reddy, Prahlad Kumar, Sreenivas A Nair, Raghuram Rao, Mohammed Yassin, Perry Mwangala, Rony Zachariah, Jamhoih Tonsing, Anthony D Harries, Sunil Khaparde
BACKGROUND: The Global Fund encourages operational research (OR) in all its grants; however very few reports describe this aspect. In India, Project Axshya was supported by a Global Fund grant to improve the reach and visibility of the government Tuberculosis (TB) services among marginalised and vulnerable communities. OR was incorporated to build research capacity of professionals working with the national TB programme and to generate evidence to inform policies and practices. OBJECTIVES: To describe how Project Axshya facilitated building OR capacity within the country, helped in addressing several TB control priority research questions, documented project activities and their outcomes, and influenced policy and practice...
2018: Global Health Action
Deborah A Hall, Alberto R Ramos, Jeffrey Marc Gelfand, Aleksander Videnovic, Michael Benatar, Carolyn Cahill, Benzi M Kluger, Myla Goldman
OBJECTIVE: To study and provide an update on the state of clinical research in neurology in the United States. METHODS: US American Academy of Neurology members and chairs of departments of neurology were surveyed regarding clinical research in 2016. NIH data on the neuroscience pipeline and extramural grant funding were also collected. RESULTS: The response rate was 32% (n = 254) for nonchair researchers and 58% (n = 67) for department chairs...
March 16, 2018: Neurology
Sharon Reif, Rachel Sayko Adams, Grant A Ritter, Thomas V Williams, Mary Jo Larson
Introduction: Soldiers are at risk for acute and chronic pain due to the mental and physical challenges of military duties and ongoing training for force readiness. With the burden of pain on any individual attributable across pain sources, a broad perspective that goes beyond prior characterizations of pain is important. We aim to further the understanding of pain's effects among non-deployed active duty soldiers and the Military Health System (MHS), by describing prevalence of 10 painful conditions, reported pain levels, duration of pain and impact of pain on military duty limitations...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Christine A DeForest, Virginia Blackman, John E Alex, Lauren Reeves, Alejandra Mora, Crystal Perez, Joseph Maddry, Domenique Selby, Benjamin Walrath
Introduction: Military prehospital and en route care (ERC) directly impacts patient morbidity and mortality. Provider knowledge and skills are critical variables in the effectiveness of ERC. No Navy doctrine defines provider choice for patient transport or requires standardized provider training. Frequently, Search and Rescue Medical Technicians (SMTs) and Navy Nurses (ERC RNs) are tasked with this mission though physicians have also been used. Navy ERC provider training varies greatly by professional role...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
(no author information available yet)
Heinert, S., Del Rios, M., Arya, A., Amirsoltani, R., Quasim, N., Gehm, L., . . . Vanden Hoek, T. (2018). The CHAMPIONS NETWork: Training Chicago high school students as health advocates to improve health equity. Health Promotion Practice. Advance online publication. (Original DOI:10.1177/1524839918757755) In the OnlineFirst version of this article, the funding acknowledgment was omitted. The work described above was supported by the University of Illinois Hospital and Health Sciences System, the Pritzker Traubert Family Foundation, and the Baxter International Foundation (grant number 19176)...
March 1, 2018: Health Promotion Practice
G H Renier Botha, Grant Theron, Rob Warren, Marisa Klopper, Kheertan Dheda, Paul van Helden, Thomas R Niesler
Globally, tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most deadly diseases. Although several effective diagnosis methods exist, in lower income countries clinics may not be in a position to afford expensive equipment and employ the trained experts needed to interpret results. In these situations, symptoms including cough are commonly used to identify patients for testing. However, self-reported cough has suboptimal sensitivity and specificity, which may be improved by digital detection. This study investigates a simple and easily applied method for TB screening based on the automatic analysis of coughing sounds...
March 15, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Joseph E Kerschner, Jerris R Hedges, Karen Antman, Edward Abraham, Edgar Colón Negrón, J Larry Jameson
Academic medical center (AMC) faculty, administrators, and leaders have the critical tasks of teaching and training the next generation of health care providers and biomedical researchers, as well as generating new knowledge that improves the health of all. In the United States, medical schools and their affiliated hospitals train remarkably high-quality physicians and scientists, and the research conducted at these institutions results in advances in health. To that end, AMCs have become essential engines for driving better health in the United States and the rest of the world; they also have become essential engines driving the economies of their respective communities and regions...
March 13, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Michael A Skinnider, David D W Twa, Jordan W Squair, Norman D Rosenblum, Christine D Lukac
CONTEXT: MD/PhD programmes provide structured paths for physician-scientist training. However, considerable proportions of graduates of these programmes do not pursue careers in research consistent with their training. OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify factors associated with sustained involvement in research after completion of all postgraduate training. METHODS: Anonymised data from a national survey of Canadian MD/PhD programme graduates who had completed all physician-scientist training (n = 70) were analysed...
March 13, 2018: Medical Education
Niels Martin, Jose L Pascual, Dennis Crowe, Christine Toevs, Maurizio F Cereda, Mark Mikkelsen, Lewis J Kaplan
The US has witnessed a vast increase in animals in therapeutic roles. These roles include Service as defined by the American Disabilities Act (ADA) as well as other animal types that are not covered under the ADA provisions. Such animal roles are designated as Therapy animals and Emotional Support animals (ESA). Understanding the legal and regulatory requirements that govern how each animal type accesses healthcare facilities is essential in planning for their presence. Since only Service animals are required to be given access to facilities, individual institutions must plan for how to accommodate their presence throughout different phases of care...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Akash A Chandawarkar, Daniel J Gould, W Grant Stevens
Background: Recent studies demonstrate that board-certified plastic surgeons are underrepresented amongst individuals posting public-directed marketing plastic surgery-related content on Instagram. However, peer-to-peer and education-based social media influence has not been studied. Twitter is a social media platform has been suggested to be useful for educating the masses and connecting with colleagues. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to identify the top influencers in plastic surgery on Twitter, characterize who they are, and relate their social media influence to academic influence...
March 6, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Marcie Fisher-Borne, Alexander J Preiss, Molly Black, Kate Roberts, Debbie Saslow
OBJECTIVE: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage in the United States remains low compared with other adolescent vaccines. As the largest primary care network in the United States, safety net clinics such as federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) serve patients at a disproportionate risk of HPV-related cancers. In this pilot project, the American Cancer Society (ACS) leveraged its primary care workforce to implement quality improvement interventions in the unique context of 30 FQHC systems across the country, including 130 clinic sites reaching >20,000 adolescents in a variety of geographic settings...
March 2018: Academic Pediatrics
Sara Faccidomo, Katarina S Swaim, Briana L Saunders, Taruni S Santanam, Seth M Taylor, Michelle Kim, Grant T Reid, Vallari R Eastman, Clyde W Hodge
RATIONALE: There is a clear need for discovery of effective medications to treat behavioral pathologies associated with alcohol addiction, such as chronic drinking. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this preclinical study was to assess effects of chronic alcohol drinking on the nucleus accumbens (NAcb) proteome to identify and validate novel targets for medications development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) was used to assess effects of chronic voluntary home-cage (24-h access) alcohol drinking on the NAcb proteome of C57BL/6J mice...
March 3, 2018: Psychopharmacology
H Schneider, J-U Stolzenburg
Since the introduction of the German Act to Combat Corruption in the Healthcare Sector concerns of fear and uncertainty are present. An elementary protection against criminal investigations can be achieved by complying with the physician professional law. Service contracts with the industry can be concluded if the interest in the service is reasonable and the payment is appropriate. There is a restrictive scale for clinical trials with already authorized products regarding any compensation granted which should correspond to the amount determined by the applicable elements of the German scale of medical fees (GOÄ)...
March 2, 2018: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
Steve Harris, Sinan Shi, David Brealey, Niall S MacCallum, Spiros Denaxas, David Perez-Suarez, Ari Ercole, Peter Watkinson, Andrew Jones, Simon Ashworth, Richard Beale, Duncan Young, Stephen Brett, Mervyn Singer
OBJECTIVE: To build and curate a linkable multi-centre database of high resolution longitudinal electronic health records (EHR) from adult Intensive Care Units (ICU). To develop a set of open-source tools to make these data 'research ready' while protecting patient's privacy with a particular focus on anonymisation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We developed a scalable EHR processing pipeline for extracting, linking, normalising and curating and anonymising EHR data. Patient and public involvement was sought from the outset, and approval to hold these data was granted by the NHS Health Research Authority's Confidentiality Advisory Group (CAG)...
April 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
David E Nelson, Jessica M Faupel-Badger, Grant Izmirlian
This study was conducted in 2016-2017 to better understand formal and informal leadership roles and activities of alumni from postdoctoral research training programs in cancer prevention. Data were obtained from surveys of 254 employed scientists who completed cancer prevention postdoctoral training within the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program, or at US research institutions through NCI-sponsored National Research Service Award (NRSA) individual postdoctoral fellowship (F32) grants, from 1987 to 2011...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Caroline Honsek, Stefan Kabisch, Margrit Kemper, Christiana Gerbracht, Ayman M Arafat, Andreas L Birkenfeld, Ulrike Dambeck, Martin A Osterhoff, Martin O Weickert, Andreas F H Pfeiffer
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Insoluble cereal fibres have been shown in large prospective cohort studies to be highly effective in preventing type 2 diabetes, but there is a lack of interventional data. Our 2 year randomised double-blind prospective intervention study compared the effect of an insoluble oat fibre extract with that of placebo on glucose metabolism and incidence of diabetes. METHODS: A total of 180 participants with impaired glucose tolerance underwent a modified version of the 1 year lifestyle training programme PREvention of DIAbetes Self-management (PREDIAS) and were randomised to receive a fibre supplement (n = 89; 7...
February 28, 2018: Diabetologia
Marcos Antonio Ferreira do Nascimento, Anna Paula Uziel, Jimena de Garay Hernández
This article presents results for young men's health based on an intervention-study on gender, sexuality, and health of adolescents and young men in conflict with the law, deprived of their freedom, and subject to socio-educational confinement in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The themes addressed included questions on overall health, mental health, and sexual and reproductive health, analyzed from a relational gender perspective and social construction of masculinities. The majority of these young men are black, from low-income communities, with low schooling levels, and ranging in age from 14 to 21 years of age; some of them are fathers...
February 19, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
L Mark Hall, Dennis W Hill, Kelly Bugden, Shannon Marie Cawley, Lowell Hall, Ming-Hui Chen, David F Grant
The MolFind application has been developed as a non-targeted metabolomics chemometric tool to facilitate structure identification when HPLC biofluids analysis reveals a feature of interest. Here synthetic compounds are selected and measured to form the basis of a new, more accurate, HPLC retention index model for use with MolFind. We show that relatively inexpensive synthetic screening compounds with simple structures can be used to develop an artificial neural network model that is successful in making quality predictions for human metabolites...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Shahnaz Mojarrab, Ali Rafei, Shahin Akhondzadeh, Alireza Jeddian, Maryam Jafarpour, Kazem Zendehdel
Registration systems for diseases and other health outcomes provide important resource for biomedical research, as well as tools for public health surveillance and improvement of quality of care. The Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME) of Iran launched a national program to establish registration systems for different diseases and health outcomes. Based on the national program, we organized several workshops and training programs and disseminated the concepts and knowledge of the registration systems...
November 1, 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
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