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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454292/the-nursification-of-a-bioscience-unit-and-its-impact-on-student-satisfaction-and-learning-in-an-undergraduate-nursing-degree
#1
Sheila Mortimer-Jones, Catherine Fetherston
Undergraduate nursing students traditionally find bioscience difficult, which can be compounded by an inability to relate bioscience theory to nursing practice. Subsequently, many registered nurses feel they lack knowledge in this area. Several studies have identified this problem and focused on the importance of linking bioscience theory in undergraduate nursing curricula to clinical practice. The aim of this study was to assess whether nursification (the active association of a subject with nursing theory and practice) of the bioscience content of a first year, first semester unit impacts on the students' learning experience...
February 8, 2018: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454050/when-travel-is-a-challenge-travel-medicine-and-the-dis-abled-traveller
#2
REVIEW
Irmgard Bauer
Travellers with recognised disabilities or the dis-ability to function as required during a trip have been overlooked in the travel medicine literature. This paper provides a starting point for further discussion and research into this neglected traveller population. In contrast, tourism research has explored travel with a disability for some time in order to understand the travellers' needs and to improve services accordingly. The contemporary bio-psycho-social understanding of disability serves as the framework for exploring motivations to travel as well as barriers, such as inter and intrapersonal, economic, structural and attitudinal obstacles...
February 14, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453594/time-to-first-event-versus-recurrent-event-analysis-points-to-consider-for-selecting-a-meaningful-analysis-strategy-in-clinical-trials-with-composite-endpoints
#3
Geraldine Rauch, Meinhard Kieser, Harald Binder, Antoni Bayes-Genis, Antje Jahn-Eimermacher
BACKGROUND: Composite endpoints combining several event types of clinical interest often define the primary efficacy outcome in cardiologic trials. They are commonly evaluated as time-to-first-event, thereby following the recommendations of regulatory agencies. However, to assess the patient's full disease burden and to identify preventive factors or interventions, subsequent events following the first one should be considered as well. This is especially important in cohort studies and RCTs with a long follow-up leading to a higher number of observed events per patients...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453509/critical-thresholds-for-eventual-extinction-in-randomly-disturbed-population-growth-models
#4
Scott D Peckham, Edward C Waymire, Patrick De Leenheer
This paper considers several single species growth models featuring a carrying capacity, which are subject to random disturbances that lead to instantaneous population reduction at the disturbance times. This is motivated in part by growing concerns about the impacts of climate change. Our main goal is to understand whether or not the species can persist in the long run. We consider the discrete-time stochastic process obtained by sampling the system immediately after the disturbances, and find various thresholds for several modes of convergence of this discrete process, including thresholds for the absence or existence of a positively supported invariant distribution...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453275/structure-based-discovery-of-selective-positive-allosteric-modulators-of-antagonists-for-the-m-2-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptor
#5
Magdalena Korczynska, Mary J Clark, Celine Valant, Jun Xu, Ee Von Moo, Sabine Albold, Dahlia R Weiss, Hayarpi Torosyan, Weijiao Huang, Andrew C Kruse, Brent R Lyda, Lauren T May, Jo-Anne Baltos, Patrick M Sexton, Brian K Kobilka, Arthur Christopoulos, Brian K Shoichet, Roger K Sunahara
Subtype-selective antagonists for muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) have long been elusive, owing to the highly conserved orthosteric binding site. However, allosteric sites of these receptors are less conserved, motivating the search for allosteric ligands that modulate agonists or antagonists to confer subtype selectivity. Accordingly, a 4.6 million-molecule library was docked against the structure of the prototypical M 2 mAChR, seeking molecules that specifically stabilized antagonist binding. This led us to identify a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) that potentiated the antagonist N -methyl scopolamine (NMS)...
February 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453244/white-matter-change-with-apathy-and-impulsivity-in-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-syndromes
#6
Claire J Lansdall, Ian T S Coyle-Gilchrist, P Simon Jones, Patricia Vázquez Rodríguez, Alicia Wilcox, Eileen Wehmann, Katrina M Dick, Trevor W Robbins, James B Rowe
OBJECTIVE: To identify the white matter correlates of apathy and impulsivity in the major syndromes associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration, using diffusion-weighted imaging and data from the PiPPIN (Pick's Disease and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy: Prevalence and Incidence) study. We included behavioral and language variants of frontotemporal dementia, corticobasal syndrome, and progressive supranuclear palsy. METHODS: Seventy patients and 30 controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging at 3-tesla after detailed assessment of apathy and impulsivity...
February 16, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453022/exploring-factors-that-influence-students-attitudes-toward-midwifery-in-jordan-measuring-psychometric-properties-of-a-newly-developed-tool
#7
Lourance A Al Hadid, Omaymah Al-Rajabi, Marwa AlBarmawi, Najah Sayyah Yousef Sayyah, Lwiza Moh'd Toqan
Students' professional choice to proceed in midwifery is influenced by many factors. This study validated an instrument developed to assess students' attitudes toward midwifery in Jordan. It also addressed the motivating and de-motivating factors influencing students' decision concerning joining and continuing in midwifery. A descriptive, cross-section study was conducted on a convenience sample of 374 midwifery students representing private, governmental, and military midwifery colleges. The researchers developed the study questionnaire through conducting a comprehensive literature review, organizing common themes and consulting experts...
February 8, 2018: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452788/understanding-pre-peri-and-post-menopausal-women-s-intentions-to-perform-muscle-strengthening-activities-using-the-theory-of-planned-behaviour
#8
Julie Doherty, Melanie Giles, Alison M Gallagher, Ellen Elizabeth Anne Simpson
Although physical activity guidelines recommend muscle-strengthening activities (MSA), public health initiatives tend to focus on increasing aerobic activity and fail to mention MSA. This study sought to identify the issues influencing pre-, peri- and post-menopausal women's intentions to perform MSA with a view to informing future interventions for these populations. Mixed methods guided by the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) were used to explore factors that influence women's intentions to perform MSA. In stage one, 34 women participated in either a focus group or interview...
March 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452409/recruitment-and-retention-of-trainee-physicians-a-retrospective-analysis-of-the-motivations-and-influences-on-career-choice-of-trainee-physicians
#9
C Ryan, E Ward, M Jones
Background: Across the UK there are vacant physician posts at every level. This increases workload and stress for those who remain, in turn making substantive jobs less attractive. Aim: To understand the influences on career choice and retention in training of current trainee physicians. Methods: An online survey, with a combination of closed and free text questions, was developed to assess factors that affected career choices. This was sent to all core and higher specialty trainees in Scotland and Associate or Collegiate members of the Royal College of Physicians Edinburgh not training in Scotland...
February 14, 2018: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452362/reported-theory-use-in-walking-interventions-a-literature-review-and-research-agenda
#10
Mohammad Abdul Kadir, Sharyn Rundle-Thiele
There is mixed evidence with some suggesting walking can be increased up to the recommended level through interventions based on behaviour change models and others showing partial or no effects [Arbour and Ginis (A randomised controlled trial of the effects of implementation intentions on women's walking behaviour. Psychol Health, 2009;24:49-65); Merom et al. (Can a motivational intervention overcome an unsupportive environment for walking-findings from the Step-by-Step Study. Ann Behav Med 2009;38:137-46); Ornes and Ransdell (A pilot study examining exercise self-efficacy as a mediator for walking behavior in college-age women...
February 14, 2018: Health Promotion International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452179/massively-parallel-c-elegans-tracking-provides-multi-dimensional-fingerprints-for-phenotypic-discovery
#11
Michele Perni, Pavan K Challa, Julius B Kirkegaard, Ryan Limbocker, Mandy Koopman, Maarten C Hardenberg, Pietro Sormanni, Thomas Müller, Kadi L Saar, Lianne W Y Roode, Johnny Habchi, Giulia Vecchi, Nilumi W Fernando, Samuel Casford, Ellen A A Nollen, Michele Vendruscolo, Christopher M Dobson, Tuomas P J Knowles
BACKGROUND: The nematode worm C. elegans is a model organism widely used for studies of genetics and of human disease. The health and fitness of the worms can be quantified in different ways, such as by measuring their bending frequency, speed or lifespan. Manual assays, however, are time consuming and limited in their scope providing a strong motivation for automation. NEW METHOD: We describe the development and application of an advanced machine vision system for characterizing the behaviour of C...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452074/differential-control-of-appetitive-and-consummatory-sexual-behavior-by-neuroestrogens-in-male-quail
#12
REVIEW
Charlotte A Cornil, Gregory F Ball, Jacques Balthazart
Estrogens exert pleiotropic effects on multiple physiological and behavioral traits including sexual behavior. These effects are classically mediated via binding to nuclear receptors and subsequent regulation of target gene transcription. Estrogens also affect neuronal activity and cell-signaling pathways via faster, membrane-initiated events. Although the distinction between appetitive and consummatory aspects of sexual behavior has been criticized, this distinction remains valuable in that it facilitates the causal analysis of certain behavioral systems...
February 13, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452057/use-of-twitter-to-assess-viewer-reactions-to-the-medical-drama-code-black
#13
Beth L Hoffman, Erica L Rosenthal, Jason B Colditz, Ryan Mcgarry, Brian A Primack
Fictional medical television programs are popular with viewers and have been shown to influence health-related outcomes. We sought to systematically analyze real-time viewer discourse on Twitter related to the new medical drama, Code Black. We retrieved all Twitter posts (tweets) and metadata around the time of the airing of Code Black for four consecutive weeks. We developed a codebook using both content assessment of Twitter messages (tweets) and theory-based variables used in entertainment education analyses...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451947/a-wild-bootstrap-approach-for-the-aalen-johansen-estimator
#14
Tobias Bluhmki, Claudia Schmoor, Dennis Dobler, Markus Pauly, Juergen Finke, Martin Schumacher, Jan Beyersmann
We suggest a wild bootstrap resampling technique for nonparametric inference on transition probabilities in a general time-inhomogeneous Markov multistate model. We first approximate the limiting distribution of the Nelson-Aalen estimator by repeatedly generating standard normal wild bootstrap variates, while the data is kept fixed. Next, a transformation using a functional delta method argument is applied. The approach is conceptually easier than direct resampling for the transition probabilities. It is used to investigate a non-standard time-to-event outcome, currently being alive without immunosuppressive treatment, with data from a recent study of prophylactic treatment in allogeneic transplanted leukemia patients...
February 16, 2018: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451917/perceived-behavioral-control-as-a-potential-precursor-of-walking-three-times-a-week-patient-s-perspectives
#15
Peter Busse, J Jaime Miranda
BACKGROUND: Behavior change theories can identify people's main motivations to engage in recommended health practices and thus provide better tools to design interventions, particularly human centered design interventions. OBJECTIVES: This study had two objectives: (a) to identify salient beliefs about walking three times a week for 30 minutes nonstop among patients with hypertension in a low-resource setting and, (b) to measure the relationships among intentions, attitudes, perceived social pressure and perceived behavioral control about this behavior...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451888/ecogeography-of-teosinte
#16
José de Jesús Sánchez González, José Ariel Ruiz Corral, Guillermo Medina García, Gabriela Ramírez Ojeda, Lino De la Cruz Larios, James Brendan Holland, Roberto Miranda Medrano, Giovanni Emmanuel García Romero
Adaptation of crops to climate change has motivated an increasing interest in the potential value of novel traits from wild species; maize wild relatives, the teosintes, harbor traits that may be useful to maize breeding. To study the ecogeographic distribution of teosinte we constructed a robust database of 2363 teosinte occurrences from published sources for the period 1842-2016. A geographical information system integrating 216 environmental variables was created for Mexico and Central America and was used to characterize the environment of each teosinte occurrence site...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451873/in-silico-analysis-of-antibiotic-induced-clostridium-difficile-infection-remediation-techniques-and-biological-adaptations
#17
Eric W Jones, Jean M Carlson
In this paper we study antibiotic-induced C. difficile infection (CDI), caused by the toxin-producing C. difficile (CD), and implement clinically-inspired simulated treatments in a computational framework that synthesizes a generalized Lotka-Volterra (gLV) model with SIR modeling techniques. The gLV model uses parameters derived from an experimental mouse model, in which the mice are administered antibiotics and subsequently dosed with CD. We numerically identify which of the experimentally measured initial conditions are vulnerable to CD colonization, then formalize the notion of CD susceptibility analytically...
February 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451815/gender-differences-in-substance-use-treatment-and-substance-use-among-adults-on-probation
#18
Jennifer M Reingle Gonzalez, Scott T Walters, Jennifer Lerch, Faye S Taxman
BACKGROUND: Although many formal and informal substance use treatment programs were originally designed for men, no studies have investigated how gender affects the use of substance use treatment modalities, and how gender differences in treatment utilization impact substance use in the unique probation context. OBJECTIVE: To describe gender differences in use and effectiveness of substance use treatment modalities (formal and informal) among probationers. METHODS: Longitudinal data were obtained from 335 individuals (93 women) who participated in the Motivational Assessment Program to Initiate Treatment (MAPIT) study...
February 16, 2018: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451717/modeling-of-cytometry-data-in-logarithmic-space-when-is-a-bimodal-distribution-not-bimodal
#19
Amir Erez, Robert Vogel, Andrew Mugler, Andrew Belmonte, Grégoire Altan-Bonnet
Recent efforts in systems immunology lead researchers to build quantitative models of cell activation and differentiation. One goal is to account for the distributions of proteins from single-cell measurements by flow cytometry or mass cytometry as readout of biological regulation. In that context, large cell-to-cell variability is often observed in biological quantities. We show here that these readouts, viewed in logarithmic scale may result in two easily-distinguishable modes, while the underlying distribution (in linear scale) is unimodal...
February 16, 2018: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451642/damage-control-surgery-are-we-losing-control-over-indications
#20
Silvânia Klug Pimentel, Tulio Rucinski, Melina Paula DE Araújo Meskau, Guilherme Pasquini Cavassin, Nathan Harmuch Kohl
OBJECTIVE: to analyze the surgeons' subjective indications for damage control surgery, correlating with objective data about the patients' physiological state at the time the surgery was chosen. METHODS: we carried out a prospective study between January 2016 and February 2017, with 46 trauma victims who were submitted to damage control surgery. After each surgery, we applied a questionnaire to the attending surgeon, addressing the motivations for choosing the procedure...
2018: Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
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