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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684937/the-swedish-school-attack-in-trollh%C3%A3-ttan
#1
Åsa Erlandsson, J Reid Meloy
This is a case report of the offender and offense characteristics of a targeted attack on a Swedish school using a sword, with a particular focus upon the offender's history, the relationship between mental disorder and ideology, and whether or not it was an act of terrorism. Findings indicate that the offender had no drug or psychiatric treatment history, but postoffense analysis suggests autism spectrum disorder, depression, and both suicidal ideation and intent. The offender planned and prepared for his attack, and the triggering event appeared to be the loss of a temporary job...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684811/behavioral-semiochemical-and-androgen-responses-by-male-giant-pandas-to-the-olfactory-sexual-receptivity-cues-of-females
#2
Abbey E Wilson, Darrell L Sparks, Katrina K Knott, Andrew J Kouba, Scott Willard, Ashli Brown
Male giant pandas identify female sexual receptivity through the detection of olfactory cues in estrous urine. However, it is yet unknown which specific days of the female estrous cycle may provoke male sexual-social responses and a physiological readiness to mate. We hypothesized that female urine from specific days of the estrous cycle will be positively associated with specific changes in male behaviors, urinary semiochemical production, and steroidogenic activity. Experimental simultaneous choice trials were conducted in captivity with four male giant pandas during the spring breeding season and during fall...
April 11, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684475/orexin-a-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-enhances-saccharin-induced-conditioned-flavor-preference-the-role-of-d1-receptors-in-central-nucleus-of-amygdala
#3
Severiano Risco, Cristina Mediavilla
In industrialized societies, food intake is largely determined by its hedonic characteristics, which can be modified by our experience via taste learning. In this learning, the hedonic value of a neutral flavor changes after its association with a motivationally significant stimulus. Experiment 1 analyzes the effect of orexin administration (53 and 107 ng) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) on hedonic intake through acquisition of a flavor-taste preference and a flavor-taste aversion. Accordingly, animals underwent four one-bottle acquisition sessions with unilateral application of orexin-A or saline in the VTA at 10 min before a 15-min flavor intake period...
April 20, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684054/-i-was-referred-from-the-other-side-gender-and-hiv-testing-among-older-south-africans-living-with-hiv
#4
Enid Schatz, Lucia Knight
South Africa has a Universal Test and Treat (UTT) policy in place to ensure that everyone tests for HIV and can access treatment if they test positive. The aim of this study is to document the pathways that older South Africans who are living with HIV take to access testing and treatment in this context. Despite the aging of the HIV epidemic in South Africa and clear evidence that testing older persons (over age 50) is necessary, very little is known about the circumstances under which older persons test for HIV or their motivations for doing so...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684024/crystallized-and-fluid-intelligence-of-university-students-with-intellectual-disability-who-are-fully-integrated-versus-those-who-studied-in-adapted-enrichment-courses
#5
Hefziba Lifshitz, Jay Verkuilen, Shlomit Shnitzer-Meirovich, Carmit Altman
BACKGROUND: Inclusion of people with intellectual disability (ID) in higher postsecondary academic education is on the rise. However, there are no scientific criteria for determining the eligibility for full inclusion of students with ID in university courses. This study focuses on two models of academic inclusion for students with ID: (a) separate adapted enrichment model: students with ID study in separate enrichment courses adapted to their level; (b) full inclusion model: students with ID are included in undergraduate courses, receive academic credits and are expected to accumulate the amount of credits for a B...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683989/can-the-farnsworth-d15-color-vision-test-be-defeated-through-practice
#6
Jason S Ng, Sophia C Liem
SIGNIFICANCE: This study suggests that it is possible for some patients with severe red-green color vision deficiency to do perfectly on the Farnsworth D15 test after practicing it. PURPOSE: The Farnsworth D15 is a commonly used test to qualify people for certain occupations. For patients with color vision deficiency, there may be high motivation to try to pass the test through practice to gain entry into a particular occupation. There is no evidence in the literature on whether it is possible for patients to learn to pass the D15 test through practice...
April 20, 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683770/athletes-perceptions-of-coaching-competency-and-team-conflict-in-sport-teams-a-multilevel-analysis
#7
I González-Ponce, F M Leo, R Jiménez, D Sánchez-Oliva, H Sarmento, A Figueiredo, T García-Calvo
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between coaching competency and team conflict, at individual and team levels, over the season. The participants were professional female and male soccer players, who participated in the First and Second Division. A longitudinal study was performed. At Time 1, the sample of participants consisted of 581 soccer players aged between 15 and 39 years. At Time 2, 549 players were recruited from the original sample aged between 15 and 37 years. Finally, at Time 3, the sample comprised 576 players aged between 15 and 37 years...
April 23, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683748/fit-for-purpose-evaluation-of-cpd-courses-for-nurses-in-an-irish-university-teaching-hospital
#8
Mary Ryder, Freda Browne, Cáit Galvin, Orla Leonard, Jody O'Reilly
INTRODUCTION: acute tertiary hospitals require knowledgeable, skilled registered nurses to care for patients in specialist areas. It is also a professional responsibility that nurses maintain skills and competence. This article reports on stage 1 of an action research study to evaluate the delivery of continuing professional development (CPD) courses for registered nurses in an acute hospital in Ireland. METHODS: an audit and qualitative self-reporting questionnaire was used to obtain data...
April 26, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683686/nonsocially-housed-rats-ratus-norvegicus-seek-social-interactions-and-social-novelty-more-than-socially-housed-counterparts
#9
Victoria L Templer, Taylor B Wise, Katrina Isabel T Dayaw, Judith Nicole T Dayaw
Sociability is the act or quality of social interaction and can be quantified by determining the number and duration of interactions with conspecifics. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which sustained social contact, as achieved by constant social living conditions, influenced social behavior. Beginning in juvenility, 19 male Long-Evans rats were housed in enriched environments, with half living socially in a large group and half living individually. After several months in these housing conditions, rats were tested on a sociality test and a social novelty preference test...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683685/future-time-perspective-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
Dorien T A M Kooij, Ruth Kanfer, Matt Betts, Cort W Rudolph
The ability to foresee, anticipate, and plan for future desired outcomes is crucial for well-being, motivation, and behavior. However, theories in organizational psychology do not incorporate time-related constructs such as Future Time Perspective (FTP), and research on FTP remains disjointed and scattered, with different domains focusing on different aspects of the construct, using different measures, and assessing different antecedents and consequences. In this review and meta-analysis, we aim to clarify the FTP construct, advance its theoretical development, and demonstrate its importance by (a) integrating theory and empirical findings across different domains of research to identify major outcomes and antecedents of FTP, and (b) empirically examining whether and how these variables are moderated by FTP measures and dimensions...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683560/hands-on-or-no-hands-on-training-in-ultrasound-imaging-a-randomized-trial-to-evaluate-learning-outcomes-and-speed-of-recall-of-topographic-anatomy
#11
Lars Knudsen, Ralph Nawrotzki, Andreas Schmiedl, Christian Mühlfeld, Carsten Kruschinski, Matthias Ochs
Medical students have difficulties in interpreting two-dimensional (2D) topographic anatomy on sectional images. Hands-on and no hands-on training in ultrasound imaging facilitate learning topographic anatomy. Hands-on training is linked with active search for patterns of anatomical structures and might train pattern recognition for image interpretation better although the added value on learning outcomes is unclear. This study explores first year medical students' knowledge in topographic anatomy of the upper abdomen after attending hands-on or no hands-on training in ultrasound in a randomized trial...
April 23, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683445/assessing-collagen-and-elastin-pressure-dependent-microarchitectures-in-live-human-resistance-arteries-by-label-free-fluorescence-microscopy
#12
Maria Bloksgaard, Bjarne Thorsted, Jonathan R Brewer, Jo G R De Mey
The pathogenic contribution of resistance artery remodeling is documented in essential hypertension, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Investigations and development of microstructurally motivated mathematical models for understanding the mechanical properties of human resistance arteries in health and disease have the potential to aid understanding how disease and medical treatments affect the human microcirculation. To develop these mathematical models, it is essential to decipher the relationship between the mechanical and microarchitectural properties of the microvascular wall...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683040/barriers-and-facilitators-to-treatment-engagement-among-clients-in-inpatient-substance-abuse-treatment
#13
Yang Yang, David R Perkins, A Elizabeth Stearns
There is a call for drawing on client voice to provide a rich, nuanced understanding of factors influencing substance treatment engagement as to maximizing treatment benefits. We interviewed 60 clients in a short-term inpatient substance treatment program and examined facilitators and barriers to treatment engagement. Thematic analysis yielded four themes, including perceived treatment needs, trust and counselor rapport, peer inspiration, and organizational factors. Perceived treatment needs serve as both a facilitator and a barrier wherein the acknowledgment of needs led to greater treatment engagement whereas a lack of perceived needs hindered treatment engagement...
April 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683039/-i-knew-i-could-make-a-difference-motivations-and-barriers-to-engagement-in-fighting-the-west-african-ebola-outbreak-among-u-s-based-health-professionals
#14
Alexandra Greenberg, Georgia J Michlig, Elizabeth Larson, Ilona Varallyay, Karen Chang, Blessing Enobun, Ellen Schenk, Benjamin Whong, Pamela Surkan, Caitlin E Kennedy, Steven A Harvey
The 2014 West African Ebola outbreak was unprecedented in scale and required significant international assistance. Many U.S.-based health professionals traveled to West Africa to participate in the response, whereas others considered participation, but ultimately decided against it. This study explores motivators, facilitators, and barriers to international health care worker mobilization. We conducted 24 semistructured in-depth interviews and one focus group discussion with clinical and nonclinical responders and nonresponders...
April 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682990/examining-relationships-of-intimate-partner-violence-and-food-insecurity-with-hiv-related-risk-factors-among-young-pregnant-liberian-women
#15
Tiara C Willie, Trace S Kershaw, Tamora A Callands
Gender inequities place women at an increased risk for HIV acquisition, and this association may particularly disenfranchize young pregnant women. Intimate partner violence (IPV) and food insecurity may contribute to gender differences in power, thereby influencing HIV disparities between women and men. Factors influencing gender disparities in HIV are unique and country-specific within sub-Saharan Africa, yet these factors are understudied among women in Liberia. This paper sought to examine the unique contributions and intersections of intimate partner violence (IPV) and food insecurity with HIV-related risk factors among young pregnant women in Liberia...
April 22, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682890/work-engagement-and-its-predictors-in-registered-nurses-a-cross-sectional-design
#16
Qiaoqin Wan, Weijiao Zhou, Zhaoyang Li, Shaomei Shang, Fang Yu
Nurses are key staff members of health-care organizations. Nurse engagement directly influences quality of care and organizational performance. The purpose of the present study was to understand the state of work engagement and explore its predictors among registered nurses in China by using a descriptive, cross-sectional survey design (n = 1065). Work engagement was measured with the Chinese version of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. The results showed that the average work engagement of Chinese nurses was 3...
April 23, 2018: Nursing & Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682844/empowering-senior-citizens-for-healthy-nutrition-in-germany-a-pilot-study
#17
Janina Curbach, Berit Warrelmann, Susanne Brandstetter, Verena Lindacher, Jana Rueter, Julika Loss
Main goal of this study was to analyse how empowerment processes and bottom-up activities aimed at healthier food choices and food environment could be initiated among a group of senior citizens (between 60 and 75 years old). The intervention was set up as a pilot study in a rural community (15,000 inhabitants) in the federal state of Bavaria, South Eastern Germany. A process evaluation documented how group formation and empowerment processes developed during the course of the intervention. Extensive field notes were taken in 27 meetings, interviews (n = 13) and focus groups (n = 4) were conducted with participants and key persons at different points of the intervention...
April 22, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682751/social-influences-of-error-monitoring-in-adolescent-girls
#18
Tyson V Barker, Sonya V Troller-Renfree, Lindsay C Bowman, Daniel S Pine, Nathan A Fox
Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by increased social motivation and a heightened concern of peer evaluation. However, little research has examined social influences on neural functioning in adolescence. One psychophysiological measure of motivation, the error-related negativity (ERN), is an ERP following an error. In adults, the ERN is enhanced by contextual factors that influence motivation, such as social observation and evaluation. The current study examined relations among age and neural responses in social contexts in adolescence...
April 22, 2018: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682599/microfluidic-flow-cytometry-the-role-of-microfabrication-methodologies-performance-and-functional-specification
#19
Anil B Shrirao, Zachary Fritz, Eric M Novik, Gabriel M Yarmush, Rene S Schloss, Jeffrey D Zahn, Martin L Yarmush
Flow cytometry is an invaluable tool utilized in modern biomedical research and clinical applications requiring high throughput, high resolution particle analysis for cytometric characterization and/or sorting of cells and particles as well as for analyzing results from immunocytometric assays. In recent years, research has focused on developing microfluidic flow cytometers with the motivation of creating smaller, less expensive, simpler, and more autonomous alternatives to conventional flow cytometers. These devices could ideally be highly portable, easy to operate without extensive user training, and utilized for research purposes and/or point-of-care diagnostics especially in limited resource facilities or locations requiring on-site analyses...
March 2018: Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682597/linkages-between-resources-motivation-and-engagement-in-everyday-activities
#20
Tara L Queen, Thomas M Hess
The goal of this research was to examine the linkage between personal resources, intrinsic motivation, and participation in everyday activities. It was hypothesized the reductions in resources in later life will be associated with reduced motivation to engage in cognitively demanding activities, leading to reduction in participation in such activities in everyday life. To test this, we utilized data from the 2010 and 2012 waves of the Health and Retirement Survey. We used structural equation modeling to construct latent factors associated with health resources, cognitive resources, and intrinsic motivation...
March 2018: Motivation Science
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