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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223041/understanding-motivations-for-dietary-supplementation-during-pregnancy-a-focus-group-study
#1
Lenka Malek PhD, Wendy J Umberger PhD, Maria Makrides PhD, Carmel T Collins PhD, Shao Jia Zhou PhD
OBJECTIVE: to increase understanding of psychosocial factors (behavioural, normative and control beliefs) motivating vitamin and mineral supplement use during pregnancy. DESIGN: ten focus group discussions and two in-depth interviews were conducted using a script comprising questions based on study objectives. All discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a framework approach. SETTING: South Australia, Australia. SUBJECTS: 40 women aged 21-45 years who were either pregnant or<12 months postpartum...
November 26, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222936/role-of-central-oxytocin-and-dopamine-systems-in-nociception-and-their-possible-interactions-suggested-hypotheses
#2
Mohammed Gamal-Eltrabily, Alfredo Manzano-García
Central oxytocin and dopamine have an important role in the process of nociception at the spinal level as well as supraspinal structures, e.g. anterior cingulate cortex, insular cortex, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and hypothalamus. Many studies have pointed out the importance of both systems in the pain descending modulatory system and in pain-related symptoms in some chronic disorders, e.g. Parkinson disease and fibromyalgia. The interaction between oxytocin and dopamine systems has been addressed in some motivational behaviors, e...
December 9, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222678/dose-responses-for-mortality-from-cerebrovascular-and-heart-diseases-in-atomic-bomb-survivors-1950-2003
#3
Helmut Schöllnberger, Markus Eidemüller, Harry M Cullings, Cristoforo Simonetto, Frauke Neff, Jan Christian Kaiser
The scientific community faces important discussions on the validity of the linear no-threshold (LNT) model for radiation-associated cardiovascular diseases at low and moderate doses. In the present study, mortalities from cerebrovascular diseases (CeVD) and heart diseases from the latest data on atomic bomb survivors were analyzed. The analysis was performed with several radio-biologically motivated linear and nonlinear dose-response models. For each detrimental health outcome one set of models was identified that all fitted the data about equally well...
December 8, 2017: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222566/motivation-to-address-self-reported-hearing-problems-in-adults-with-normal-hearing-thresholds
#4
Carly C M Alicea, Karen A Doherty
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the motivation to change in relation to hearing problems in adults with normal hearing thresholds but who report hearing problems and that of adults with a mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Factors related to their motivation were also assessed. Method: The motivation to change in relation to self-reported hearing problems was measured using the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (McConnaughy, Prochaska, & Velicer, 1983)...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222533/elastic-fibers-and-large-artery-mechanics
#5
M G Espinosa, Marius C Staiculescu, Jungsil Kim, Eric Marin, Jessica E Wagenseil
Development of a closed circulatory system requires that large arteries adapt to the mechanical demands of high, pulsatile pressure. Elastin and collagen uniquely address these design criteria in the low and high stress regimes, resulting in a nonlinear mechanical response. Elastin is the core component of elastic fibers, which provide the artery wall with energy storage and recoil. The integrity of the elastic fiber network is affected by component insufficiency or disorganization, leading to an array of vascular pathologies and compromised mechanical behavior...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222250/iron-deficiency-in-gynecology-and-obstetrics-clinical-implications-and-management
#6
REVIEW
Christian Breymann, Michael Auerbach
Iron deficiency is the commonest cause of anemia during pregnancy; however, its prevalence is highly determined by nutritional and socioeconomic status. Oral iron is the frontline therapy, but is often poorly tolerated. Awareness of the available intravenous formulations is essential for management. Before delivery, risk factors such as multiparity and heavy uterine bleeding increase the prevalence of iron deficiency and should be motivation for early diagnosis and treatment. Neonates born with iron deficiency have a statistically significant increment in both cognitive and behavioral abnormalities that persist after repletion, highlighting the need for heightened awareness of the diagnosis...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221619/economic-susceptibility-of-fire-prone-landscapes-in-natural-protected-areas-of-the-southern-andean-range
#7
Juan Ramón Molina, Roberto Moreno, Miguel Castillo, Francisco Rodríguez Y Silva
Large fires are the most important disturbances at landscape-level due to their ecological and socioeconomic impacts. This study aimed to develop an approach for the assessment of the socio-economic landscape susceptibility to fire. Our methodology focuses on the integration of economic components of landscape management based on contingent valuation method (CVM) and net-value change (NVC). This former component has been estimated using depreciation rates or changes on the number of arrivals to different natural protected areas after a large fire occurrence...
December 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221561/-humanitarian-nurse-the-strength-of-commitment
#8
Agnès Gillibert
Every year, hundreds of volunteers leave their home, for few weeks or months, to provide humanitarian aid across the world. Joining a humanitarian mission, far from being a simple exotic adventure, requires, specially, a strong professional skills and personal abilities, maturely and thoughtful motivations. The work of humanitarian nurse is first and foremost a full-blown profession.
December 2017: Soins; la Revue de Référence Infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221559/-choosing-to-become-a-nurse-a-commitment
#9
Julie Trolliet
It appears that, to survive, all people need a commitment, whatever their motivations, their degree of involvement and the time they can dedicate to it. What does "commitment" really mean to nursing students?
December 2017: Soins; la Revue de Référence Infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221554/-psychological-commitment-adaptive-functions-paradoxes-modalities-and-components
#10
Anne Brault-Labbé
The process of psychological commitment, its adaptive functions and some of the difficulties that go along with it are specific. A description of the multimodal model of commitment provides an illustration of how motivational, affective, cognitive and behavioural mechanisms can be combined. These lead to different ways of entering into the commitment, with differing consequences on how the individual functions.
December 2017: Soins; la Revue de Référence Infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221535/outcomes-of-global-public-health-training-program-for-us-minority-students-a-case-report
#11
Noa Krawczyk, Luz Claudio
The numbers and success of minority students in science and the health fields remain relatively low. This study presents the outcomes of a research training program as an illustrative case study. The Short-Term Training Program for Minority Students (STPMS) recruits underrepresented minority undergraduate and graduate students for immersion in research training. A total of 69 students participated in the STPMS between 1995 and 2012, and 59 of these completed our survey to determine the perceived impact of the program on the students' motivations and professional development...
May 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221512/social-class-and-prosocial-behavior-current-evidence-caveats-and-questions
#12
REVIEW
Paul K Piff, Angela R Robinson
This review synthesizes research on social class and prosocial behavior. Individuals of lower social class display increased attention to others and greater sensitivity to others' welfare compared to individuals of higher social class, who exhibit more self-oriented patterns of social cognition. As a result, lower-class individuals are more likely to engage in other-beneficial prosocial behavior, whereas higher-class individuals are more prone to engage in self-beneficial behavior. Although the extant evidence indicates that higher social class standing may tend to undermine prosocial impulses, we propose that the effects of social class on prosocial behavior may also depend on three crucial factors: motivation, identity, and inequality...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221509/the-consequences-of-economic-threat-for-motivated-social-cognition-and-action
#13
REVIEW
Immo Fritsche, Philipp Jugert
Economic threat (e.g., low or precarious socio-economic status) motivates social psychological responses to restore or maintain a sense of control and self-esteem, thwarted under conditions of personal or collective economic crisis. We review recent research showing that these processes elicit personal or collective attitudes and action tendencies that may either contribute to alleviate the source of the threat (e.g., collective action toward equality) or to be merely palliative (e.g., displaced intergroup conflict, ethnic prejudice)...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221498/influence-of-community-based-education-on-undergraduate-health-professions-students-decision-to-work-in-underserved-areas-in-uganda
#14
Samuel Kizito, Rhona Baingana, Kintu Mugagga, Peter Akera, Nelson K Sewankambo
BACKGROUND: Uganda is beset by a shortage of health workers and the few available are mal-distributed. Providing rural exposure through community-based education could positively influence students' perspectives towards work in rural areas. We aimed to assess the impact of Community-Based Education and Research (COBERS) on health professions students' attitudes towards working in rural areas. This was a before-and-after study among 525 students of 4 medical universities in Uganda. Data was collected using self-administered paper-based questionnaires...
December 8, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221496/does-intensive-management-improve-remission-rates-in-patients-with-intermediate-rheumatoid-arthritis-the-titrate-trial-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Naomi H Martin, Fowzia Ibrahim, Brian Tom, James Galloway, Allan Wailoo, Jonathan Tosh, Heidi Lempp, Louise Prothero, Sofia Georgopoulou, Jackie Sturt, David L Scott
BACKGROUND: Uncontrolled active rheumatoid arthritis can lead to increasing disability and reduced quality of life over time. 'Treating to target' has been shown to be effective in active established disease and also in early disease. However, there is a lack of nationally agreed treatment protocols for patients with established rheumatoid arthritis who have intermediate disease activity. This trial is designed to investigate whether intensive management of disease leads to a greater number of remissions at 12 months...
December 8, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221431/the-role-of-primary-care-providers-in-encouraging-older-patients-to-change-their-lifestyle-behaviors
#16
Shoshana H Bardach, Nancy E Schoenberg
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to identify older patients' perceptions of primary care providers' influence on their likelihood of improving diet and physical activity. METHODS: 104 adults ages 65 and older were interviewed immediately following a routine primary care visit about their plans and motivations for behavior change and how their clinic visit would influence their likelihood of making lifestyle changes. All interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using a constant comparison approach...
September 8, 2017: Clinical Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221402/transition-path-time-distributions
#17
M Laleman, E Carlon, H Orland
Biomolecular folding, at least in simple systems, can be described as a two state transition in a free energy landscape with two deep wells separated by a high barrier. Transition paths are the short part of the trajectories that cross the barrier. Average transition path times and, recently, their full probability distribution have been measured for several biomolecular systems, e.g., in the folding of nucleic acids or proteins. Motivated by these experiments, we have calculated the full transition path time distribution for a single stochastic particle crossing a parabolic barrier, including inertial terms which were neglected in previous studies...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221057/statistical-model-for-speckle-pattern-optimization
#18
Yong Su, Qingchuan Zhang, Zeren Gao
Image registration is the key technique of optical metrologies such as digital image correlation (DIC), particle image velocimetry (PIV), and speckle metrology. Its performance depends critically on the quality of image pattern, and thus pattern optimization attracts extensive attention. In this article, a statistical model is built to optimize speckle patterns that are composed of randomly positioned speckles. It is found that the process of speckle pattern generation is essentially a filtered Poisson process...
November 27, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220743/the-cigarette-dependence-scale-and-heaviness-of-smoking-index-as-predictors-of-smoking-cessation-after-10weeks-of-nicotine-replacement-therapy-and-at-6-month-follow-up
#19
Laurie Zawertailo, Sabrina Voci, Peter Selby
INTRODUCTION: The reliability and validity of the Cigarette Dependence Scale (CDS) has been tested in online studies and compared with other tobacco dependence measures. Findings regarding its ability to predict smoking cessation have been mixed. We examined whether the CDS predicted cessation among a sample that received nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) at a community workshop and assessed the incremental predictive validity of the CDS-5 and CDS-12 over the 2-item Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI)...
November 27, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220524/brain-responses-to-cigarette-related-and-emotional-images-in-smokers-during-smoking-cessation-no-effect-of-varenicline-or-bupropion-on-the-late-positive-potential
#20
Francesco Versace, Elise M Stevens, Jason D Robinson, Yong Cui, Menton M Deweese, Jeffrey M Engelmann, Charles E Green, Maher Karam-Hage, Cho Y Lam, Jennifer A Minnix, David W Wetter, Paul M Cinciripini
Introduction: Varenicline and bupropion are two effective smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. Researchers have hypothesized that they might be effective, in part, because they reduce cue reactivity and cue-induced cravings. Here, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to directly measure brain responses to cigarette-related and other motivationally relevant images during a pharmacologically aided quit attempt. Methods: Smokers involved in a 12-week placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial of smoking cessation medications (varenicline, bupropion, placebo) took part in the study...
December 6, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
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