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Tamara E Lacourt, Elisabeth G Vichaya, Carmen Escalante, Ellen F Manzullo, Brandon Gunn, Kenneth R Hess, Cobi J Heijnen, Robert Dantzer
While fatigue is the most common and debilitating side effect of cancer and cancer treatment it is still poorly understood, partly because it is usually characterized by patient-reported outcomes. As patient-reports are inherently subjective, behavioral correlates of the symptom of fatigue are needed to increase our understanding of the symptom. We focused on motivational effort expenditure as a crucial behavior in cancer-related fatigue, using a validated computerized task contrasting high effort/high reward and low effort/low reward choices under different probabilities of success...
June 9, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Hiwa O Ahmed, Sarmad H Arif, Sabah Abid Abdulhakim, Aram Kakarash, Mohammad Amin Ali Omer, Aree Majid Nuri, Hallo H Omer, Hardi Kareem Jalal, Shahen H Omer, Nashadin Aziz Muhammad
BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of morbid obesity suggests that the quantity of bariatric surgical procedures will continue to multiply each year, many patients who have experienced massive weight loss are left with the dissatisfying consequences of loose and redundant skin, resulting in contour irregularities, an aesthetic and functional problem, and profound dissatisfaction with appearance, residual body image dissatisfaction, There is a subsequent increase in the number of patients seeking additional corrective procedures including abdominoplasty which considered as one of the most popular body-contouring procedures...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
M Kent, S Scott, S Lambert, E Kirk, B Terhune-Cotter, B Thompson, S Neal, B Dozier, M Bardi, K Lambert
Prior research with a rat model of behavioral therapy [i.e., effort-based reward (EBR) contingency training] suggests that strengthened associations between physical effort and desired outcomes enhance neurobiological indices of resilience. In the current study, male and female Long-Evans rats were exposed to either six weeks of EBR training or noncontingent training prior to 10 days of exposure to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). Subsequently, all animals were exposed to a problem-solving task and then trained in a spatial learning/foraging task, the dry land maze (DLM)...
June 18, 2018: Neuroscience
Anna Wilkins, Christine Stuttle, Shama Hassan, Claire Blanchard, Clare Cruickshank, Clare Griffin, Jake Probert, Catherine M Corbishley, Chris Parker, David Dearnaley, Emma Hall
Background: This article presents the methodology for tissue sample collection in Trans-CHHiP, the main translational study within the CHHiP (Conventional or Hypofractionated High dose intensity modulated radiotherapy in Prostate cancer, ISRCTN 97182923) trial. The CHHiP trial randomised 3216 men with localised prostate cancer to 3 different radiotherapy fractionation schedules. Trans-CHHiP aims to identify biomarkers of fraction sensitivity. Methods: We outline the process of tissue collection, including central review by a study-specific specialist uropathologist and comparison of the centrally-assigned Gleason grade group with that assigned by the recruiting-centre pathologist...
March 2018: Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology
Caitlin Lim, John R Cohn, Joshua A Cohn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Translational Andrology and Urology
Sonia Bansal, Benjamin M Robinson, Joy J Geng, Carly J Leonard, Britta Hahn, Steven J Luck, James M Gold
Traditionally, attention was thought to be directed by either top-down goals or bottom-up salience. Recent studies have shown that the reward history of a stimulus feature also acts as a powerful attentional cue. This is particularly relevant in schizophrenia, which is characterized by motivational and attentional deficits. Here, we examine the impact of reward on selective attention. Forty-eight people with schizophrenia (PSZ) and 34 non-psychiatric control subject (NCS) discriminated the location of a target dot appearing inside a left circle or right circle...
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
Susan M Tyree, Jeremy C Borniger, Luis de Lecea
The lateral hypothalamus is comprised of a heterogeneous mix of neurons that serve to integrate and regulate sleep, feeding, stress, energy balance, reward, and motivated behavior. Within these populations, the hypocretin/orexin neurons are among the most well studied. Here, we provide an overview on how these neurons act as a central hub integrating sensory and physiological information to tune arousal and motivated behavior accordingly. We give special attention to their role in sleep-wake states and conditions of hyper-arousal, as is the case with stress-induced anxiety...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Shashi N Kapadia, Carrie D Johnston, Kristen M Marks, Bruce R Schackman, Erika G Martin
CONTEXT: Curative treatments for hepatitis C virus (HCV) can alter the course of a devastating epidemic, but high drug prices have contributed to restrictions on HCV treatment access. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to learn how state health agencies have responded to the challenges of treatment access for HCV. DESIGN: Qualitative study using semistructured key informant interviews focused on aspects of HCV treatment access between June 2016 and March 2017...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Shayan Abtahi, Erin Howell, Paul J Currie
The present study investigated the relationship between accumbal ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) signaling in alcohol reward in female rats. Animals with guide cannulae targeting the nucleus accumbens core (NAcC) and shell (NAcS) were habituated to alcohol for 12 weeks through a two-bottle intermittent access paradigm. JMV2959, a ghrelin antagonist, and exendin-4 (Ex-4), a GLP-1 agonist, were microinjected at the onset of the nocturnal cycle. Alcohol, food, water, and total fluid intake were measured 2, 6, and 24 h postinjection...
June 20, 2018: Neuroreport
Roland S Moore, David A Gilder, Joel W Grube, Juliet P Lee, Jennifer A Geisler, Bettina Friese, Daniel J Calac, Laura J Finan, Cindy L Ehlers
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate combined individual- and community-level interventions to reduce underage drinking by American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) youths on rural California Indian reservations. METHODS: Individual-level interventions included brief motivational interviewing and psychoeducation for Tribal youths. Community-level interventions included community mobilization and awareness activities, as well as restricting alcohol sales to minors. To test effects, we compared 7 waves of California Healthy Kids Survey data (2002-2015) for 9th- and 11th-grade AI/AN and non-AI/AN students in intervention area schools with California AI/AN students outside the intervention area (n = 617, n = 33 469, and n = 976, respectively)...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
Patricia A Cioe, Rebecca E F Gordon, Kate M Guthrie, Matthew S Freiberg, Christopher W Kahler
Smoking is more prevalent in persons living with HIV than the general population and is linked to increased morbidity and mortality. Some have suggested that based on current knowledge of harms and benefits, it may be feasible to advise smokers who are unable or unwilling to quit to switch to electronic cigarettes (ECs) as a less harmful alternative. We conducted 25 qualitative interviews with HIV-positive current or former smokers to explore perceived barriers to smoking cessation and perceptions of ECs. A high level of nicotine dependence, smoking as a form of stress management, motivational factors (including lack of readiness, low self-efficacy, ambivalence toward quitting), and having a social network of smokers were identified as cessation barriers...
June 21, 2018: AIDS Care
Prosenjit Samanta, Rudra Narayan Saha, Goutam Chowdhury, Arindam Naha, Sounak Sarkar, Shanta Dutta, Ranjan Kumar Nandy, Keinosuke Okamoto, Asish Kumar Mukhopadhyay
PURPOSE: Two natural epidemic biotypes of Vibrio cholerae O1, classical and El Tor, exhibit different patterns of sensitivity against the antimicrobial peptide polymyxin B. This difference in sensitivity has been one of the major markers in biotype classification system for several decades. A recent report regarding the emergence of polymyxin B-sensitive El Tor V. cholerae O1 in Kolkata has motivated us to track the spread of the strains containing this important trait, along with Haitian-like genetic content, in different parts of India...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Pamela M Greenwood, Kevin Schmidt, Ming-Kuan Lin, Robert Lipsky, Raja Parasuraman, Ryan Jankord
OBJECTIVE: The central role of working memory in IQ and the high heritability of working memory performance motivated interest in identifying the specific genes underlying this heritability. The FTCD (formimidoyltransferase cyclodeaminase) gene was identified as a candidate gene for allelic association with working memory in part from genetic mapping studies of mouse Morris water maze performance. METHOD: The present study tested variants of this gene for effects on a delayed match-to-sample task of a large sample of younger and older participants...
June 21, 2018: Neuropsychology
William L Cook, Kahsi A Pedersen, Ann E Maloney
Parent and child physical activity levels are correlated, but are they interdependent? A dyadic version of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) was developed to investigate interdependence in the motivation and intention of parents and their children with overweight to engage in healthy physical coactivity (HPCA). Baseline measures of the TPB constructs (subjective norms, attitude, perceived behavior control, and intention) for both dyad members were used to predict parent-reports of their actual HPCA at 12 weeks using the actor-partner interdependence model...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
Jesus Alfonso D Datu, Mantak Yuen, Gaowei Chen
Previous investigations mostly relied on the two-factor model of grit (with perseverance of effort and consistency of interests as major dimensions) which received a number criticisms in the extant literature. Recent studies have provided promising lines of evidence regarding the triarchic model of grit (TMG) which posits three dimensions of grit in a collectivist setting: perseverance of effort, consistency of interests , and adaptability to situations . However, little is known about how this model of grit may be linked to various indicators of positive educational and psychological functioning...
June 21, 2018: School Psychology Quarterly
Dimitra Anastasiadou, Frans Folkvord, Francisco Lupiañez-Villanueva
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the existing evidence of mobile health (mHealth) tools for the treatment of eating disorders (ED). METHOD: Electronic databases (Pubmed, PsycInfo, and SCOPUS) were searched, and PRISMA guidelines were followed. Selected studies were divided into three categories according to the intended purpose of the mHealth tools used: (a) sole means of support, (b) complementary to standard face-to-face treatment, and (c) for relapse prevention...
June 21, 2018: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
Carlo Ercoli, Jack G Caton
OBJECTIVES: This narrative review summarizes the current evidence about the role that the fabrication and presence of dental prostheses and tooth-related factors have on the initiation and progression of gingivitis and periodontitis. FINDINGS: Placement of restoration margins within the junctional epithelium and supracrestal connective tissue attachment can be associated with gingival inflammation and, potentially, recession. The presence of fixed prostheses finish lines within the gingival sulcus or the wearing of partial, removable dental prostheses does not cause gingivitis if patients are compliant with self-performed plaque control and periodic maintenance...
June 2018: Journal of Periodontology
Carlo Ercoli, Jack G Caton
OBJECTIVES: This narrative review summarizes the current evidence about the role that the fabrication and presence of dental prostheses and tooth-related factors have on the initiation and progression of gingivitis and periodontitis. FINDINGS: Placement of restoration margins within the junctional epithelium and supracrestal connective tissue attachment can be associated with gingival inflammation and, potentially, recession. The presence of fixed prostheses finish lines within the gingival sulcus or the wearing of partial, removable dental prostheses does not cause gingivitis if patients are compliant with self-performed plaque control and periodic maintenance...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
Bin Huang, Jin-Mei Zhang, Xiao-Ling Chen, Xia Xin, Guang-Kun Yin, Juan-Juan He, Xin-Xiong Lu, Yuan-Chang Zhou
Cu/Zn SOD and other genes may be critical indicators of a stress response to reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in 48 h germinated rice embryos subjected to vitrification cryopreservation. In the current study, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation was investigated in 48 h germinated rice embryos during the vitrification-cryopreservation process. We found that vitrification-cryopreservation significantly affected ROS levels, especially superoxide anion levels, in 48 h germinated rice embryos...
June 20, 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Oskar Mittag, Toomas Kotkas, Christina Reese, Hanna Kampling, Henning Groskreutz, Wouter de Boer, Felix Welti
OBJECTIVES: Working age disability is a major challenge for policymakers in European countries. This pertains to both occupational reintegration and social benefits for work incapacity. In many states reforms have been initiated aimed at reducing disability scheme inflow and fostering return to work. Our study was motivated by the question as to which aspects of these reforms seem to have been effective. METHODS: Three different approaches were utilized: case vignettes, interviews and expert workshops in the respective countries (Netherlands and Germany in 2012; Finland in 2015), and a systematic search for relevant studies on occupational reintegration was performed...
June 20, 2018: International Journal of Public Health
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