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Heart, lung, endocrine

Raul S Gonzalez, Nicole D Riddle
Certain tumors suggest the possibility of a patient harboring a genetic syndrome, particularly in children. Syndrome-associated tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract, gynecologic tract, heart, lungs, brain, eye, endocrine organs, and hematopoietic system will be briefly discussed.
June 2016: Journal of Pediatric Genetics
Maureen Rischmueller, Joanna Tieu, Susan Lester
Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a relatively common autoimmune systemic rheumatic disease. In addition to sicca syndrome and swollen salivary glands, systemic features manifest in the majority of patients, and are severe in 15%, particularly affecting the joints, skin, lungs, and peripheral nervous system. A recent meta-analysis estimated a pooled relative risk of 13.76 for the development of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, particularly in pSS patients who have parotid enlargement, vasculitis, cryoglobulinemia, and antibodies to Ro and La...
February 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
Masaru Katoh
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)2, FGF4, FGF7 and FGF20 are representative paracrine FGFs binding to heparan-sulfate proteoglycan and fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs), whereas FGF19, FGF21 and FGF23 are endocrine FGFs binding to Klotho and FGFRs. FGFR1 is relatively frequently amplified and overexpressed in breast and lung cancer, and FGFR2 in gastric cancer. BCR-FGFR1, CNTRL-FGFR1, CUX1-FGFR1, FGFR1OP-FGFR1, MYO18A-FGFR1 and ZMYM2-FGFR1 fusions in myeloproliferative neoplasms are non-receptor-type FGFR kinases, whereas FGFR1-TACC1, FGFR2-AFF3, FGFR2-BICC1, FGFR2-PPHLN1, FGFR3-BAIAP2L1 and FGFR3-TACC3 fusions in solid tumors are transmembrane-type FGFRs with C-terminal alterations...
July 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Beatrice Nojilana, Debbie Bradshaw, Victoria Pillay-van Wyk, William Msemburi, Ria Laubscher, Nontuthuzelo I M Somdyala, Jane D Joubert, Pamela Groenewald, Rob E Dorrington
OBJECTIVES: National trends in age-standardised death rates (ASDRs) for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in South Africa (SA) were identified between 1997 and 2010. METHODS: As part of the second National Burden of Disease Study, vital registration data were used after validity checks, proportional redistribution of missing age, sex and population group, demographic adjustments for registration incompleteness, and identification of misclassified AIDS deaths. Garbage codes were redistributed proportionally to specified codes by age, sex and population group...
May 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Cécile Philippe, Daniela Haeusler, Thomas Scherer, Clemens Fürnsinn, Markus Zeilinger, Wolfgang Wadsak, Karem Shanab, Helmut Spreitzer, Marcus Hacker, Markus Mitterhauser
BACKGROUND: The melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 (MCHR1), which is highly expressed in the lateral hypothalamus, plays a key role in energy homeostasis, obesity and other endocrine diseases. Hence, there is a major interest in in vivo imaging of this receptor. A PET tracer would allow non-invasive in vivo visualization and quantification of the MCHR1. The aim of the study was the ex vivo evaluation of the MCHR1 ligand [(18)F]FE@SNAP as a potential PET tracer for the MCHR1. METHODS: [(18)F]FE@SNAP was injected directly into the jugular vein of awake naïve rats for ex vivo brain autoradiography, biodistribution and additional blood metabolite analysis...
December 2016: EJNMMI Research
Julie Lutz, Kimberly Morton, Nicholas A Turiano, Amy Fiske
OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations between health conditions and passive suicidal ideation in middle-aged and older adults. METHOD: Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted on data from 35,664 middle-aged and older adults from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe. Mediation analyses were also conducted to test the roles of disability and depression in risk of ideation. RESULTS: After including demographic variables, disability, depression, and other health conditions as covariates, heart attack, diabetes/high blood sugar, chronic lung disease, arthritis, ulcer, and hip/femoral fractures were associated with increased odds of passive suicidal ideation...
September 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Piotr Błasiak, Paweł Kwinecki, Grzegorz Kacprzak, Konrad Pawełczyk, Marek Marciniak, Małgorzata Winter, Adam Rzechonek
Computed tomography is performed in every patient before lung tumour resection. The presented case realises how important it is to perform this study with contrast. In a 75-year-old male we detected a tumour ingrowing from the right lung through the right lower pulmonary vein into the left atrium of the heart. The patient was qualified for primary sternotomy with extracorporeal circulation and resection of the intracardiac part of the tumour. In the second stage, right-sided thoracotomy was performed, and right lower lung lobectomy was done...
December 2015: Kardiochirurgia i Torakochirurgia Polska, Polish Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
Philip Prinz, Miriam Goebel-Stengel, Pauline Teuffel, Matthias Rose, Burghard F Klapp, Andreas Stengel
Nesfatin-1 was recently identified and introduced as food intake-regulatory hormone. Soon thereafter, mounting evidence indicated a much broader role for nesfatin-1 with an involvement in the regulation of food intake, gastrointestinal motility, glucose homeostasis, blood pressure and stress. Despite the growing knowledge on the physiological regulation and functions of nesfatin-1, the receptor mediating these effects remains to be characterized. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the peripheral and central localization of the nesfatin-1 receptor by autoradiography...
February 12, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Arnon Blum
EPCs constitute an essential cornerstone in the building and maintenance of the endothelial blood vessels, as well as the functioning of most of the systems of our body, including the endocrine, neurological, hematological, immune and inflammatory systems as well as organs such as kidney, heart, lungs and brain. Moreover, they serve as gatekeepers, preventing degenerative processes that affect every organ and tissue. It is important to know and understand that medications and hormones have an effect on these cells...
September 2015: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Djordje S Popovic, Edita Stokic, Stevan L Popovic
Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is a disease characterized by autoimmune mediated destruction of the insulin producing beta cells of endocrine pancreas. Beside insulin deficiency, T1DM is also characterized by abnormal suppression of glucagon secretion in response to hyperglycemia. All these abnormalities are likely to leave patients dependent upon exogenous insulin administration for survival. GLP-1 is a hormone secreted by L-cells of distal small intestine and colon. GLP-1 exerts its effects through the interaction with GLP-1 receptor expressed in the pancreatic islets, lung, hypothalamus, stomach, heart and kidney...
2015: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Elizabeth A Newby, Dean A Myers, Charles A Ducsay
In utero, hypoxia is a significant yet common stress that perturbs homeostasis and can occur due to preeclampsia, preterm labor, maternal smoking, heart or lung disease, obesity, and high altitude. The fetus has the extraordinary capacity to respond to stress during development. This is mediated in part by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and more recently explored changes in perirenal adipose tissue (PAT) in response to hypoxia. Obvious ethical considerations limit studies of the human fetus, and fetal studies in the rodent model are limited due to size considerations and major differences in developmental landmarks...
September 1, 2015: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Octavio Gamaliel Aztatzi-Aguilar, Marisela Uribe-Ramírez, José Antonio Arias-Montaño, Olivier Barbier, Andrea De Vizcaya-Ruiz
BACKGROUND: Particulate matter (PM) adverse effects on health include lung and heart damage. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) and kallikrein-kinin (KKS) endocrine systems are involved in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases and have been found to impact lung diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether PM exposure regulates elements of RAAS and KKS. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were acutely (3 days) and subchronically (8 weeks) exposed to coarse (CP), fine (FP) or ultrafine (UFP) particulates using a particulate concentrator, and a control group exposed to filtered air (FA)...
2015: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
Rafael González-Alvarez, María de Lourdes Garza-Rodríguez, Iván Delgado-Enciso, Víctor Manuel Treviño-Alvarado, Ricardo Canales-Del-Castillo, Laura Elia Martínez-De-Villarreal, Ángel Lugo-Trampe, María Elizabeth Tejero, Natalia E Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, María Del Refugio Rocha-Pizaña, Shelley A Cole, Diana Reséndez-Pérez, Mario Moises-Alvarez, Anthony G Comuzzie, Hugo Alberto Barrera-Saldaña, Raquel Garza-Guajardo, Oralia Barboza-Quintana, Irám Pablo Rodríguez-Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Chemerin, encoded by the retinoic acid receptor responder 2 (RARRES2) gene is an adipocytesecreted protein with autocrine/paracrine functions in adipose tissue, metabolism and inflammation with a recently described function in vascular tone regulation, liver, steatosis, etc. This molecule is believed to represent a critical endocrine signal linking obesity to diabetes. There are no data available regarding evolution of RARRES2 in non-human primates and great apes. Expression profile and orthology in RARRES2 genes are unknown aspects in the biology of this multigene family in primates...
2015: Biological Research
Alison J Forhead, Juanita K Jellyman, Miles J De Blasio, Emma Johnson, Dino A Giussani, Fiona Broughton Pipkin, Abigail L Fowden
Antenatal synthetic glucocorticoids promote fetal maturation in pregnant women at risk of preterm delivery and their mechanism of action may involve other endocrine systems. This study investigated the effect of maternal dexamethasone treatment, at clinically relevant doses, on components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the pregnant ewe and fetus. From 125 days of gestation (term, 145 ± 2 d), 10 ewes carrying single fetuses of mixed sex (3 female, 7 male) were injected twice im, at 10-11 pm, with dexamethasone (2 × 12 mg, n = 5) or saline (n = 5) at 24-hour intervals...
August 2015: Endocrinology
Sultan Ayoub Meo, Asim Hassan
Fasting during Ramadan is one of the five fundamental pillars of Islam and mandatory for all healthy adult Muslims to fast from sunrise to sunset for a period of a month. During fasting, Muslims are required to refrain from all intakes of food, water, beverages, smoking and from sexual intercourse. Ramadan fasting causes many physiological, biochemical, metabolic and spiritual changes in the body. Ramadan Fasting increases the Red Blood Cells (RBCs), White Blood Cells (WBCs), platelet (PLT) count, High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-c), and decreases the blood cholesterol, triglycerides, Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-c) and Very Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (VLDL-c)...
May 2015: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Richard Gordan, Judith K Gwathmey, Lai-Hua Xie
The function of the heart is to contract and pump oxygenated blood to the body and deoxygenated blood to the lungs. To achieve this goal, a normal human heart must beat regularly and continuously for one's entire life. Heartbeats originate from the rhythmic pacing discharge from the sinoatrial (SA) node within the heart itself. In the absence of extrinsic neural or hormonal influences, the SA node pacing rate would be about 100 beats per minute. Heart rate and cardiac output, however, must vary in response to the needs of the body's cells for oxygen and nutrients under varying conditions...
April 26, 2015: World Journal of Cardiology
Rui B Chang, David E Strochlic, Erika K Williams, Benjamin D Umans, Stephen D Liberles
Breathing is essential for survival and under precise neural control. The vagus nerve is a major conduit between lung and brain required for normal respiration. Here, we identify two populations of mouse vagus nerve afferents (P2ry1, Npy2r), each a few hundred neurons, that exert powerful and opposing effects on breathing. Genetically guided anatomical mapping revealed that these neurons densely innervate the lung and send long-range projections to different brainstem targets. Npy2r neurons are largely slow-conducting C fibers, while P2ry1 neurons are largely fast-conducting A fibers that contact pulmonary endocrine cells (neuroepithelial bodies)...
April 23, 2015: Cell
Wann Jia Loh, Kesavan Sittampalam, Suan Cheng Tan, Manju Chandran
UNLABELLED: Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a potentially fatal condition characterized by infiltration of multiple organs by non-Langerhans histiocytes. Although endocrine dysfunction has been reported in association with ECD, to date, there have been no previous reports of empty sella syndrome (ESS) associated with it. We report the case of a patient with ECD who had symptomatic ESS. A 55-year-old man of Chinese ethnicity initially presented with symptoms of heart failure, fatigue and knee joint pain...
2015: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Anat Biegon, David L Alexoff, Sung Won Kim, Jean Logan, Deborah Pareto, David Schlyer, Gene-Jack Wang, Joanna S Fowler
UNLABELLED: Aromatase, the last and obligatory enzyme catalyzing estrogen biosynthesis from androgenic precursors, can be labeled in vivo with (11)C-vorozole. Aromatase inhibitors are widely used in breast cancer and other endocrine conditions. The present study aimed to provide baseline information defining aromatase distribution in healthy men and women, against which its perturbation in pathologic situations can be studied. METHODS: (11)C-vorozole (111-296 MBq/subject) was injected intravenously in 13 men and 20 women (age range, 23-67 y)...
April 2015: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Kambez H Benam, Stephanie Dauth, Bryan Hassell, Anna Herland, Abhishek Jain, Kyung-Jin Jang, Katia Karalis, Hyun Jung Kim, Luke MacQueen, Roza Mahmoodian, Samira Musah, Yu-suke Torisawa, Andries D van der Meer, Remi Villenave, Moran Yadid, Kevin K Parker, Donald E Ingber
The ultimate goal of most biomedical research is to gain greater insight into mechanisms of human disease or to develop new and improved therapies or diagnostics. Although great advances have been made in terms of developing disease models in animals, such as transgenic mice, many of these models fail to faithfully recapitulate the human condition. In addition, it is difficult to identify critical cellular and molecular contributors to disease or to vary them independently in whole-animal models. This challenge has attracted the interest of engineers, who have begun to collaborate with biologists to leverage recent advances in tissue engineering and microfabrication to develop novel in vitro models of disease...
2015: Annual Review of Pathology
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