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Stroke, psychiatry

Su Lui, Xiaohong Joe Zhou, John A Sweeney, Qiyong Gong
Unlike neurologic conditions, such as brain tumors, dementia, and stroke, the neural mechanisms for all psychiatric disorders remain unclear. A large body of research obtained with structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography/single photon emission computed tomography, and optical imaging has demonstrated regional and illness-specific brain changes at the onset of psychiatric disorders and in individuals at risk for such disorders. Many studies have shown that psychiatric medications induce specific measurable changes in brain anatomy and function that are related to clinical outcomes...
November 2016: Radiology
Magda Kaczor, Michał Skalski
Insomnia presents an increasing and significant health issue in paediatric population. As the problem had grown over past decade, it became recognised by the specialists dealing with children and adolescents. In a recent study American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry members were asked about their experience with patients complaining about sleep disturbances. Doctors reported that sleep was a problem for 1/3 of their patients out of which 1/4 required pharmacotherapy [1]. Multiple studies concerning adults confirmed significance of healthy sleep in optimal cognitive, emotional, social and biological functioning...
2016: Psychiatria Polska
Akin Ojagbemi, Dominic H Ffytche
OBJECTIVES: The idea that delirium is a risk factor for dementia, broadly defined, is derived from heterogeneous patient samples. We reviewed available evidence as to whether stroke survivors who developed delirium during the acute phase of treatment are at a higher prospective risk of incident post-stroke cognitive impairment or dementia. DESIGN: We searched 8721 records in the Cochrane database for reviews or protocols dealing with the study objective, Medline, EMBASE, PsycInfo and CINAHL for observational studies in the general adult population and PubMed for in-process articles...
July 11, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Sam Chidi Ibeneme, Canice Chukwudi Anyachukwu, Akachukwu Nwosu, Georgian Chiaka Ibeneme, Muideen Bakare, Gerhard Fortwengel
Purpose. To identify stroke survivors with symptoms of poststroke depression and the extent of psychiatry needs and care they have received while on physiotherapy rehabilitation. Participants. Fifty stroke survivors (22 females and 28 males) at the outpatient unit of Physiotherapy Department, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, who gave their informed consent, were randomly selected. Their age range and mean age were 26-66 years and 54.76 ± 8.79 years, respectively. Method. A multiple case study of 50 stroke survivors for symptoms of poststroke depression was done with Beck's Depression Inventory, mini mental status examination tool, and Modified Motor Assessment Scale...
2016: Scientifica
Marc E Wolf, Anastasios Chatzikonstantinou, Joachim Grüttner, Anne D Ebert, Thomas Walter, Michael G Hennerici, Marc Fatar
BACKGROUND: Acute stroke is a medical emergency with various clinical presentations. Since the introduction of systemic thrombolytic treatment, stroke diagnosis has been made quickly and with great caution, and the trend of rapid presentation at hospitals has increased. METHODS: In our multidisciplinary Emergency Department, we prospectively collected and analysed data of consecutive patients presenting with suspected acute stroke (SAS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA)...
2016: European Neurology
F S Schreiber, I Becker, P Deckert, H Elsbernd, C Isensee
OBJECTIVES: There is minimal information on malnutrition in neurologic-psychiatric patients compared to internal and trauma-surgical patients. The aim of the present study was to explore if there is a correlation of these different disease groups with the nutritional assessment and biochemical markers. DESIGN: Cross - sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The study was done in a department of geriatric medicine with subspecialisation in neurologic diseases and stroke unit...
April 2016: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
S P Hagenaars, S E Harris, G Davies, W D Hill, D C M Liewald, S J Ritchie, R E Marioni, C Fawns-Ritchie, B Cullen, R Malik, B B Worrall, C L M Sudlow, J M Wardlaw, J Gallacher, J Pell, A M McIntosh, D J Smith, C R Gale, I J Deary
Causes of the well-documented association between low levels of cognitive functioning and many adverse neuropsychiatric outcomes, poorer physical health and earlier death remain unknown. We used linkage disequilibrium regression and polygenic profile scoring to test for shared genetic aetiology between cognitive functions and neuropsychiatric disorders and physical health. Using information provided by many published genome-wide association study consortia, we created polygenic profile scores for 24 vascular-metabolic, neuropsychiatric, physiological-anthropometric and cognitive traits in the participants of UK Biobank, a very large population-based sample (N=112 151)...
January 26, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
J-A Micoulaud-Franchi, A McGonigal, R Lopez, C Daudet, I Kotwas, F Bartolomei
The technique of electroencephalographic neurofeedback (EEG NF) emerged in the 1970s and is a technique that measures a subject's EEG signal, processes it in real time, extracts a parameter of interest and presents this information in visual or auditory form. The goal is to effectuate a behavioural modification by modulating brain activity. The EEG NF opens new therapeutic possibilities in the fields of psychiatry and neurology. However, the development of EEG NF in clinical practice requires (i) a good level of evidence of therapeutic efficacy of this technique, (ii) a good practice guide for this technique...
December 2015: Neurophysiologie Clinique, Clinical Neurophysiology
Tetsuto Kanzaki, Yoriyasu Uju, Keisuke Sekine, Yukihiro Ishii, Taro Yoshimi, Reiko Yasui, Asuka Yasukawa, Mamoru Sato, Seiko Okamoto, Tetsuya Hisaoka, Masafumi Miura, Shun Kusanishi, Kanako Murakami, Chieko Nakano, Yasuhiko Mizuta, Seisuke Mimori, Shunichi Mishima, Kazuei Igarashi, Tsuyoshi Takizawa, Tatsuro Hayakawa, Kazumi Tsukada
OBJECTIVE: Patients with schizophrenia have increased risk of atherosclerotic diseases. It is already known that lifestyle-related disorders and the use of antipsychotics are closely related with the progression of atherosclerosis in psychiatric patients. Stroke as well as coronary heart disease play an important role in the cause of death in Asia and Japan. Thus, we studied the prevalence of cerebrovascular disease in psychiatric inpatients in Japan using brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
2015: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
Alarcos Cieza, Marta Anczewska, Jose Luis Ayuso-Mateos, Mary Baker, Jerome Bickenbach, Somnath Chatterji, Sally Hartley, Matilde Leonardi, Tuuli Pitkänen
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis of 'horizontal epidemiology', i.e. that psychosocial difficulties (PSDs), such as sleep disturbances, emotional instability and difficulties in personal interactions, and their environmental determinants are experienced in common across neurological and psychiatric disorders, together called brain disorders. STUDY DESIGN: A multi-method study involving systematic literature reviews, content analysis of patient-reported outcomes and outcome instruments, clinical input and a qualitative study was carried out to generate a pool of PSD and environmental determinants relevant for nine different brain disorders, namely epilepsy, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, stroke, dementia, depression, schizophrenia and substance dependency...
2015: PloS One
C A Ibrahim-Verbaas, J Bressler, S Debette, M Schuur, A V Smith, J C Bis, G Davies, S Trompet, J A Smith, C Wolf, L B Chibnik, Y Liu, V Vitart, M Kirin, K Petrovic, O Polasek, L Zgaga, C Fawns-Ritchie, P Hoffmann, J Karjalainen, J Lahti, D J Llewellyn, C O Schmidt, K A Mather, V Chouraki, Q Sun, S M Resnick, L M Rose, C Oldmeadow, M Stewart, B H Smith, V Gudnason, Q Yang, S S Mirza, J W Jukema, P L deJager, T B Harris, D C Liewald, N Amin, L H Coker, O Stegle, O L Lopez, R Schmidt, A Teumer, I Ford, N Karbalai, J T Becker, M K Jonsdottir, R Au, R S N Fehrmann, S Herms, M Nalls, W Zhao, S T Turner, K Yaffe, K Lohman, J C van Swieten, S L R Kardia, D S Knopman, W M Meeks, G Heiss, E G Holliday, P W Schofield, T Tanaka, D J Stott, J Wang, P Ridker, A J Gow, A Pattie, J M Starr, L J Hocking, N J Armstrong, S McLachlan, J M Shulman, L C Pilling, G Eiriksdottir, R J Scott, N A Kochan, A Palotie, Y-C Hsieh, J G Eriksson, A Penman, R F Gottesman, B A Oostra, L Yu, A L DeStefano, A Beiser, M Garcia, J I Rotter, M M Nöthen, A Hofman, P E Slagboom, R G J Westendorp, B M Buckley, P A Wolf, A G Uitterlinden, B M Psaty, H J Grabe, S Bandinelli, D I Chasman, F Grodstein, K Räikkönen, J-C Lambert, D J Porteous, J F Price, P S Sachdev, L Ferrucci, J R Attia, I Rudan, C Hayward, A F Wright, J F Wilson, S Cichon, L Franke, H Schmidt, J Ding, A J M de Craen, M Fornage, D A Bennett, I J Deary, M A Ikram, L J Launer, A L Fitzpatrick, S Seshadri, C M van Duijn, T H Mosley
To identify common variants contributing to normal variation in two specific domains of cognitive functioning, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of executive functioning and information processing speed in non-demented older adults from the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) consortium. Neuropsychological testing was available for 5429-32,070 subjects of European ancestry aged 45 years or older, free of dementia and clinical stroke at the time of cognitive testing from 20 cohorts in the discovery phase...
February 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Tomasz Hawro, Andrzej Bogucki, Maria Krupińska-Kun, Marcus Maurer, Anna Woźniacka
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) is a common and potentially fatal manifestation of SLE. Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) such as lupus anticoagulant (LA), anticardiolipin (aCL) and antibodies to β2glycoprotein I (anti-β2GPI), the most important aPL antigen, are thought to play a role in some forms of NPSLE. As of yet, their specific roles in NPSLE manifestations remain to be elucidated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 57 SLE patients (53 women) were assessed for LA, aCL and anti-β2GPI twice, to determine persistent positivity...
2015: PloS One
Peter Y Cai, Roselle Derequito, Monica Mishra, Spandana Tenkabail, Aakash Bodhit, Saeed Ansari, Sarah Ganji, Pradeepan Saravanapavan, Chandana Chandra Shekhar, Fawzi Abukhalil, Michael F Waters, Thomas M Beaver, Vishnumurthy Shushrutha Hedna
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia associated with substantial increases in death, heart failure, and stroke. It is important for healthcare providers in all fields to also gain an understanding of the novel techniques used in surgical treatment of AF. Clinicians must now decide between many different options. There are modified Maze procedures, catheter-based or minimally invasive surgical approaches to isolate the triggers and foci in the left atrium responsible for AF. A recently proposed radial approach can also be employed in substitution of the traditional geographical maze surgery...
October 14, 2013: Journal of Surgery (Northborough, Mass.)
P Mbelesso, V P Senekian, E Yangatimbi, A Tabo, A J Zaoro-Kponsere, G C Kette, B Oundagnon
Depression is a complication occurring frequently after a stroke. It negatively affects the physical, cognitive and social recovery. Authors report the results of a casecontrol study section was performed in neurology of the friendship hospital and psychiatry of the general hospital in Bangui, from January to August 2012 to ascertain the existence of a link between stroke and depression in hospitalized patients and to identify factors limiting taken into efficient load. On one hundred five subjects included, thirty five were stroke victims matched with seventy witnesses...
December 2014: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
Philip B Adebayo, Rufus O Akinyemi, Folashade Oluwole, Shamsideen A Ogun, Adesola Ogunniyi
PURPOSE: Somatic comorbidities are probably as important as the psychiatry comorbidities in people with epilepsy (PWE) although the former has received little attention especially in low- and middle-income countries where the incidence of epilepsy is high. The main objective of this study was to determine the frequencies of somatic comorbidities in PWE. We also compared quality of life of two groups of PWE: Those with somatic comorbidities and those without. METHODS: In this comparative cross-sectional study, consecutive adult patients with epilepsy above 18 years of age were recruited at the neurology outpatient clinic of Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital from July 2010 through March 2011...
December 2014: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
L Olabarrieta Landa, I Panyavin, D Rivera, H Rogers, P Perrin, J Arango-Lasprilla
OBJECTIVE: To examine the current issues facing the practice of neuropsychological evaluation in Spain. METHOD: 349 self-identified professionals in the field of neuropsychology in Spain completed an online survey from July to December of 2013 (75% completion rate). Respondents had an average age of 35.7 years; 92% had at least a Bachelor'sbachelor's degree; 71% at least a Master's degree; 30% at least a Doctorate, and 7% a Post-Doctorate. RESULTS: 92% respondents had conducted neuropsychological evaluations in the prior year...
September 2014: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Pietro Gareri, Cristina Segura-García, Valeria Graziella Laura Manfredi, Antonella Bruni, Paola Ciambrone, Gregorio Cerminara, Giovambattista De Sarro, Pasquale De Fazio
The use of atypical antipsychotic drugs in the elderly has become wider and wider in recent years; in fact, these agents have novel receptor binding profiles, good efficacy with regard to negative symptoms, and reduced extrapyramidal symptoms. However, in recent years, the use of both conventional and atypical antipsychotics has been widely debated for concerns about their safety in elderly patients affected with dementia and the possible risks for stroke and sudden death. A MEDLINE search was made using the words elderly, atypical antipsychotics, use, schizophrenia, psychosis, mood disorders, dementia, behavioral disorders, and adverse events...
2014: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Edward H Reynolds, James V Kinnier Wilson
We here review Babylonian descriptions of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including epilepsy, stroke, psychoses, obsessive compulsive disorder, phobias, psychopathic behaviour, depression and anxiety. Most of these accounts date from the first Babylonian dynasty of the first half of the second millennium BC, within a millennium and a half of the origin of writing. The Babylonians were remarkably acute and objective observers of medical disorders and human behaviour. Their detailed descriptions are surprisingly similar to modern 19th and 20th century AD textbook accounts, with the exception of subjective thoughts and feelings which are more modern fields of enquiry...
September 2014: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
John T Cacioppo, Stephanie Cacioppo, Stephanie Dulawa, Abraham A Palmer
Most mental disorders involve disruptions of normal social behavior. Social neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field devoted to understanding the biological systems underlying social processes and behavior, and the influence of the social environment on biological processes, health and well-being. Research in this field has grown dramatically in recent years. Active areas of research include brain imaging studies in normal children and adults, animal models of social behavior, studies of stroke patients, imaging studies of psychiatric patients, and research on social determinants of peripheral neural, neuroendocrine and immunological processes...
June 2014: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
G Kronenberg, K Gertz, A Heinz, M Endres
At least one-third of stroke survivors suffer from depression. The development of comorbid depression after stroke is clinically highly significant because post-stroke depression is associated with increased mortality, slows recovery and leads to worse functional outcomes. Here, we review the evidence that post-stroke depression can be effectively modelled in experimental rodents via a variety of approaches. This opens an exciting new window onto the neurobiology of depression and permits probing potential underlying mechanisms such as disturbed cellular plasticity, neuroendocrine dysregulation, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration in a novel context...
October 2014: British Journal of Pharmacology
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