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Radiology, CT, MRI

P Mörsdorf, A Lauer, T Histing, T Pohlemann, M Burkhardt
Traumatic hip dislocations in children are not frequent but constitute true emergencies. They require urgent reduction because of the risk of consecutive avascular necrosis of the femoral head. We report a 6-year-old boy with traumatic posterior hip dislocation on a vacation abroad. After closed reduction the day of the accident, a hip spica cast was applied and the patient was transferred home. Once home, X‑ray and CT diagnostics were completed by MRI. In future, long-term clinical and radiological investigations for avascular necrosis and growth disorders, as well as thoroughly informing the parents, should be mandatory...
October 21, 2016: Der Unfallchirurg
Kensuke Fujiwara, Ayako Yagahara, Takumi Tanikawa, Yuji Tani, Hisateru Ohba, Katsuhiko Ogasawara
The aim of this study is to analyze the maldistribution and the trends in the geographic distribution of radiological resources in secondary medical areas of Hokkaido. The distribution was measured by combining the Gini coefficient (GC), which is an indicator of inequality of distribution, and the Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI), which is mainly used to assess market concentration. Data concerning the distribution of radiological resources, such as CT, MRI, radiotherapy facilities (RTF), radiological technologists (RT), and medical doctors were obtained from official publications...
2016: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
Simona Gaudino, Matia Martucci, Rosellina Russo, Emiliano Visconti, Emma Gangemi, Francesco D'Argento, Tommaso Verdolotti, Libero Lauriola, Cesare Colosimo
BACKGROUND: Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common pediatric brain glioma and is considered the prototype of benign circumscribed astrocytoma. Despite its low malignancy, the CT and MRI features of brain PA may resemble those of much more aggressive brain tumors. Misdiagnosis of PA is particularly easy when it demonstrates MR morphological and non-morphological findings that are inconsistent with its non-aggressive nature and that overlap with the features of more aggressive brain tumors...
October 18, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
S A Taylor, F Avni, C G Cronin, C Hoeffel, S H Kim, A Laghi, M Napolitano, P Petit, J Rimola, D J Tolan, M R Torkzad, M Zappa, G Bhatnagar, C A J Puylaert, J Stoker
OBJECTIVES: To develop guidelines describing a standardised approach to patient preparation and acquisition protocols for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) of the small bowel and colon, with an emphasis on imaging inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: An expert consensus committee of 13 members from the European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR) and European Society of Paediatric Radiology (ESPR) undertook a six-stage modified Delphi process, including a detailed literature review, to create a series of consensus statements concerning patient preparation, imaging hardware and image acquisition protocols...
October 18, 2016: European Radiology
Amir A Borhani, Kenneth E Fasanella, Negaur Iranpour, Amer H Zureikat, Aatur D Singhi, Alessandro Furlan, Anil K Dasyam
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to investigate imaging features as well as pathologic and clinical findings of lymphoepithelial cyst (LEC) of pancreas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients with surgically resected and pathologically proven LEC, found in a single institution database between 2000 and 2015, were evaluated in a retrospective fashion. Patients' demographics, clinical presentation, co-morbidities, imaging features, cytology and histopathology results, and serum/aspirate biomarkers levels were recorded...
October 13, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
Andrew Scarsbrook, Sriram Vaidyanathan, Fahmid Chowdhury, Sarah Swift, Rachel Cooper, Chirag Patel
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the utility of a standardized qualitative scoring system for treatment response assessment at 18F-FDG PET-CT in patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced cervical carcinoma and correlate this with subsequent patient outcome. METHODS: Ninety-six consecutive patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma treated with radical chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in a single centre between 2011 and 2014 underwent 18F-FDG PET-CT approximately 3 months post-treatment...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Musaed Alzahrani, Rami Alhazmi, Manon Bélair, Issam Saliba
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of preoperative mastoid high resolution Computerized tomography (CT Scan) fusion with the postoperative diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (Non-EPI DWI) to accurately localize the residual cholesteatoma thus sparing an unnecessary postoperative CT scan radiation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: this is a prospective study performed in our tertiary care center. We followed up prospectively a consecutive group of patients presenting with middle ear cholesteatoma using preoperative mastoid CT scans, postoperative mastoid CT scan and mastoid diffusion weighted MRI (DWI) between 2012 and 2013...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Jae Heon Kim, Hwa Yeon Sun, Jiyoung Hwang, Seong Sook Hong, Yong Jin Cho, Seung Whan Doo, Won Jae Yang, Yun Seob Song
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of small renal masses in real practice. METHODS: Contrast-enhanced CT and MRI were performed between February 2008 and February 2013 on 68 patients who had suspected small (≤4 cm) renal cell carcinoma (RCC) based on ultrasonographic measurements. CT and MRI radiographs were reviewed, and the findings of small renal masses were re-categorized into five dichotomized scales by the same two radiologists who had interpreted the original images...
October 12, 2016: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Pooja Mehta, Mahesh Prakash, Niranjan Khandelwal
Hydatid disease (HD) is endemic in many parts of the world. HD can affect virtually any organ system in body and should be kept as differential diagnosis of cystic lesion. HD is mostly asymptomatic; however, it demonstrates a variety of characteristic imaging findings depending on the site of involvement, stage of growth, mass effect, complications, or hematogenous spread, which helps in diagnosis. Radiography, ultrasonography (USG), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are commonly used imaging modalities...
July 2016: Tropical Parasitology
Leman Birdane, Armağan İncesulu, Erkan Özüdoğru, Cemal Cingi, Hamdi Caklı, Melek Kezban Gürbüz, Baki Adapınar
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the vestibular system of children with unilateral sensorineural hearing loss (USNHL), investigate the etiological factors of USNHL and analyze whether a genetic predisposition exists. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-three children aged less than 18 years with USNHL, who visited the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) department between January 2004 and December 2012, were included in this study. Cases with conductive hearing loss were excluded from the study...
August 2016: Journal of International Advanced Otology
A McBrearty, K McCallion, R J Moorehead, I McAllister, K Mulholland, R Gilliland, W J Campbell
BACKGROUND: In patients with locally advanced or low rectal cancers, long-course chemoradiotherapy (LCCRT) is recommended prior to surgical management.(1) The need for restaging afterwards has been questioned as it may be difficult to interpret imaging due to local tissue effects of chemoradiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to determine if restaging affected the management of patients receiving long-course chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients with rectal cancer discussed at the South Eastern Health and Social Care Trust Lower Gastrointestinal Multi-Disciplinary Team Meeting (LGIMDT) in 2013 who had received long-course chemoradiotherapy was performed...
September 2016: Ulster Medical Journal
Weishu Hou, Liyan Xu, Heqin Zhan, Haibao Wang, Man Xu, Yongqiang Yu
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to analyze the radiological features of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (pPNET). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The radiological and clinical findings for 16 patients with pPNETs were retrospectively reviewed. The 16 tumors were classified into 4 groups (meninges group, n = 4; spine group, n = 3; bone group, n = 5; soft-tissue group, n = 4), and clinical data, size, and common and unique CT/MRI characteristics were assessed...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Weibo Pan, Bin Feng, Zhan Wang, Nong Lin, Zhaoming Ye
PURPOSE: Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors are extremely rare in the general population and display a predilection for metastasis to the lungs. Here, we present a rare case of a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor located in the paraspinal region and highlight the importance of preoperative biopsy in diagnosis of spinal epidural peripheral nerve sheath tumors. METHODS: We describe the clinical course of the patient as well as the radiological and pathological findings of the tumor...
September 27, 2016: European Spine Journal
Elena Laakmann, Isabell Witzel, Verena Scriba, Ulrich Grzyska, Christine Zu Eulenburg, Nicole Burchardi, Tobias Hesse, Florian Würschmidt, Tanja Fehm, Volker Möbus, Gunter von Minckwitz, Sibylle Loibl, Tjoung-Won Park-Simon, Volkmar Mueller
Evidence about distribution patterns of brain metastases with regard to breast cancer subtypes and its influence on the prognosis of patients is insufficient. Clinical data, cranial computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 300 breast cancer patients with brain metastases (BMs) were collected retrospectively in four centers participating in the Brain Metastases in Breast Cancer Registry (BMBC) in Germany. Patients with positive estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) statuses, had a significantly lower number of BMs at diagnosis...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Josef N Tofte, Tyler L CarlLee, Andrew J Holte, Sean E Sitton, Stuart L Weinstein
STUDY DESIGN: Systematic Review. OBJECTIVE: To provide an evidence-based recommendation for when and how to employ imaging studies when diagnosing back pain thought to be caused by spondylolysis in pediatric patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Spondylolysis is a common structural cause of back pain in pediatric patients. The radiologic methods and algorithms used to diagnose spondylolysis are inconsistent among practitioners. METHODS: A literature review was performed in PubMed and Cochrane databases using the search terms "spondylolysis" "pediatric" "adolescent" "juvenile" "young" "lumbar" "MRI" "bone scan" "CT" and "SPECT"...
September 23, 2016: Spine
Karthikeyan Maharajan, James Thomas Patrick Decourcy Hallinan, Prakash Sitoula, Yin Huei Pang, Aye Sandar Zaw, Naresh Kumar
BACKGROUND: Osteoblastoma is rare and accounts for 3% of all benign tumors and 1% of all bone tumors. The spine is the most common site of occurrence, constituting 32% to 45% of all osteoblastomas. It has a strong predilection for the posterior elements, most often occurring in the lumbar spine. METHOD: In this case report, we describe an unusual presentation of spinal osteoblastoma presenting as thoracic T9 vertebra plana in a 20-year-old female. She presented with discomfort over the midback with unsteadiness of gait...
September 21, 2016: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Evan Deschuyteneer, R Rongé, A Riffi, K De Pierre, F Vandenbroucke, C Boulet, A Goossens, W Vincken
We here report a patient with histologically proven sarcoidosis of the knee, a rare localization of sarcoidosis, which usually presents itself as a pulmonary disease. Case reports of radiological images that suggest osseous sarcoidosis of the appendicular skeleton are not so rare, however few are histologically proven. Since in our patient MRI could not distinguish between sarcoidosis and another (possibly malignant) disease, histological proof was obtained through a CT-guided biopsy. Imaging and treatment guidelines for extrapulmonary sarcoidosis are inexistent, due to lack of randomized trials...
September 23, 2016: Acta Clinica Belgica
Nam Lee, Do Heum Yoon, Keung Nyun Kim, Hyun Chul Shin, Dong Ah Shin, Yoon Ha
OBJECTIVES: The correction of clinical and radiologic abnormalities in patients with symptomatic ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is the current mainstay of treatment. This study aimed to identify radiographic predictors of severity of myelopathy in patients with symptomatic OPLL. METHODS: Fifty patients with symptomatic cervical OPLL were enrolled. Based on Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores, patients were divided into either the mild myelopathy (n=31) or severe myelopathy (n=19) group...
September 2016: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
In Ho Lee, Elcin Zan, W Robert Bell, Peter C Burger, Heejong Sung, David M Yousem
OBJECTIVE: To determine imaging features that may separate adamantinomatous and papillary variants of craniopharyngiomas given that tumors with adamantinomatous signature features are associated with higher recurrence rates, morbidity, and mortality. We specifically reviewed calcification on CT, T1 bright signal intensity, and cystic change on T2 weighted images for differentiating these two types. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the MRI and CT studies in 38 consecutive patients with pathologically proven craniopharyngiomas between January 2004 and February 2014 for the presence of calcification on CT scans, bright signal intensity on T1 weighted images, and cystic change on T2 weighted images...
September 2016: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
Yuan-Hao Lee, Clayton Chi-Chang Chen, San-Kan Lee, Cheng-Yu Chen, Yung-Liang Wan, Wan-Yuo Guo, Amy Cheng, Wing P Chan
OBJECTIVES: Variations in radiological examination procedures and patient load lead to variations in standards of care related to patient safety and healthcare quality. To understand the status of safety measures to protect patients undergoing radiological examinations at residency training hospitals in Taiwan, a follow-up survey evaluating the full spectrum of diagnostic radiology procedures was conducted. DESIGN: Questionnaires covering 12 patient safety-related themes throughout the examination procedures were mailed to the departments of diagnostic radiology with residency training programmes in 19 medical centres (with >500 beds) and 17 smaller local institutions in Taiwan...
2016: BMJ Open
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