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Adaptive sports

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518085/analysis-of-chromosome-segregation-histone-acetylation-and-spindle-morphology-in-horse-oocytes
#1
Federica Franciosi, Irene Tessaro, Rozenn Dalbies-Tran, Cecile Douet, Fabrice Reigner, Stefan Deleuze, Pascal Papillier, Ileana Miclea, Valentina Lodde, Alberto M Luciano, Ghylene Goudet
The field of assisted reproduction has been developed to treat infertility in women, companion animals, and endangered species. In the horse, assisted reproduction also allows for the production of embryos from high performers without interrupting their sports career and contributes to an increase in the number of foals from mares of high genetic value. The present manuscript describes the procedures used for collecting immature and mature oocytes from horse ovaries using ovum pick-up (OPU). These oocytes were then used to investigate the incidence of aneuploidy by adapting a protocol previously developed in mice...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516252/chronic-eccentric-arm-cycling-improves-maximum-upper-body-strength-and-power
#2
Steven J Elmer, Dakota J Anderson, Travis R Wakeham, Matthew A Kilgas, John J Durocher, Stan L Lindstedt, Paul C LaStayo
INTRODUCTION: Eccentric leg cycling (cycle ergometry adapted to impose muscle lengthening contractions) offers an effective exercise for restoring lower-body muscular function, maintaining health, and improving performance in clinical and athletic populations. PURPOSE: We extended this model to the upper body and evaluated the effectiveness of a 7-week eccentric arm cycling (ECCarm) intervention to improve upper-body muscular function. We also explored whether ECCarm would alter arterial function...
May 17, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508888/association-among-practice-frequency-on-depression-and-stress-among-competitive-us-male-wheelchair-rugby-athletes-with-tetraplegia
#3
S L Silveira, T Ledoux, M Cottingham, D C Hernandez
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether frequency of training is related to self-reported lower psychological distress, defined as depressive symptomology and perceived stress, among the US male wheelchair rugby athletes with tetraplegia. SETTING: United States. METHODS: Survey data were collected on a convenience sample at wheelchair rugby tournaments from January-April 2016. Participants self-reported depressive symptomology (CES-D-10), perceived stress scale (PSS), and frequency of rugby practice...
May 16, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501806/exercise-in-type-2-diabetes-genetic-metabolic-and-neuromuscular-adaptations-a-review-of-the-evidence
#4
REVIEW
Silvano Zanuso, Massimo Sacchetti, Carl Johan Sundberg, Giorgio Orlando, Paolo Benvenuti, Stefano Balducci
The biological responses to exercise training are complex, as almost all organs and systems are involved in interactions that result in a plethora of adaptations at the genetic, metabolic and neuromuscular levels.To provide the general practitioner and the sports medicine professionals with a basic understanding of the genetic, metabolic and neuromuscular adaptations at a cellular level that occur with aerobic and resistance exercise in subjects with type 2 diabetes.For each of the three domains (genetic, metabolic and neuromuscular), the results of the major systematic reviews and original research published in relevant journals, indexed in PubMed, were selected...
May 13, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499742/understanding-constraints-on-sport-performance-from-the-complexity-sciences-paradigm-an-ecological-dynamics-framework
#5
Ludovic Seifert, Duarte Araújo, John Komar, Keith Davids
Glazier's suggestion for the constraints-led approach as a GUT for sport performance is a worthy proposal. What is missing from these preliminary insights is a principled basis, in the form of pillars, for understanding the cornerstones of the sports medicine profession, and this lack of an overarching theoretical framework is also somewhat of a limitation in Glazier's initial ideas, as we argue later. Here we suggest that his preliminary proposal would benefit from considering a more comprehensive ontological positioning within the complexity sciences paradigm to benefit from conceptualising athletes and sports teams as complex adaptive systems...
May 9, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497943/the-effects-of-over-the-counter-jaw-repositioning-mouthguards-on-aerobic-performance
#6
Devon L Golem, Patrick M Davitt, Shawn M Arent
BACKGROUND: Though jaw-repositioning devices have been found to increase size of upper respiratory airways in individuals, the effects of jaw-repositioning mouthguards on respiratory function during exercise have not been fully explored. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of over-the-counter (OTC) jaw-repositioning mouthguards on respiratory function and aerobic performance in male athletes. METHODS: College-aged, male athletes (N.=20) participated in this randomized, crossover, controlled study...
June 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490537/adaptations-to-endurance-and-strength-training
#7
David C Hughes, Stian Ellefsen, Keith Baar
The capacity for human exercise performance can be enhanced with prolonged exercise training, whether it is endurance- or strength-based. The ability to adapt through exercise training allows individuals to perform at the height of their sporting event and/or maintain peak physical condition throughout the life span. Our continued drive to understand how to prescribe exercise to maximize health and/or performance outcomes means that our knowledge of the adaptations that occur as a result of exercise continues to evolve...
May 10, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480694/long-term-high-intensity-sport-practice-modulates-adaptative-changes-in-athletes-heart-and-in-the-autonomic-nervous-system-profile
#8
Witold Slomko, Joanna Slomko, Tomasz Kowalik, Jacek J Klawe, Malgorzata Tafil-Klawe, Agnieszka Cudnoch-Jedrzejewska, Julia L Newton, Pawel Zalewski
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare cardiovascular and autonomic adaptation changes in athletes exposed to high intensity and uninterrupted training for extended periods of time. METHODS: We assessed hemodynamic profile and cardiac function in 22 international master-level athletes, free of cardiovascular disease who experienced particularly intensive and uninterrupted training over a 8- to 21-year-period. RESULTS: One-way ANOVA revealed that in athletes, extreme and uninterrupted strength and endurance training over long periods of time (up to 21 years) causes an increase in resting heart rate (50...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475643/a-combination-of-routine-blood-analytes-predicts-fitness-decrement-in-elderly-endurance-athletes
#9
Helmuth Haslacher, Franz Ratzinger, Thomas Perkmann, Delgerdalai Batmyagmar, Sonja Nistler, Thomas M Scherzer, Elisabeth Ponocny-Seliger, Alexander Pilger, Marlene Gerner, Vanessa Scheichenberger, Michael Kundi, Georg Endler, Oswald F Wagner, Robert Winker
Endurance sports are enjoying greater popularity, particularly among new target groups such as the elderly. Predictors of future physical capacities providing a basis for training adaptations are in high demand. We therefore aimed to estimate the future physical performance of elderly marathoners (runners/bicyclists) using a set of easily accessible standard laboratory parameters. To this end, 47 elderly marathon athletes underwent physical examinations including bicycle ergometry and a blood draw at baseline and after a three-year follow-up period...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469746/low-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet-can-it-help-exercise-performance
#10
Chen-Kang Chang, Katarina Borer, Po-Ju Lin
Low-carbohydrate-high-fat (LCHF) diets have been used as a means of weight loss and control of symptoms in several clinical conditions. There is emerging evidence that the metabolic changes induced by LCHF diets enhance endurance performance. The aims of this review are to examine the evidence of LCHF diets in improving various aspects of athletic performance. Long-term LCHF dietary intake may help control body weight and fat mass while maintaining lean body mass in athletes in weight-sensitive sports. LCHF-adapted endurance athletes can reach the maximal fat oxidation rate of approximately 1...
February 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459192/rehabilitation-2030-a-call-to-action-relevant-to-improving-musculoskeletal-health-care-globally
#11
Andrew M Briggs, Karsten E Dreinhöfer
The profile of human health is changing across the globe such that the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), particularly musculoskeletal conditions, is becoming more profound. Such change demands that health systems adapt to better support people in maintaining a functional health state and quality of life, as life expectancy continues to increase. In parallel to the rising burden of NCDs, in particular a disability burden, the need for rehabilitation services is increasing. The World Health Organization (WHO) responded recently with "Rehabilitation 2030: A Call for Action" (February 6-7, 2017, Geneva, Switzerland) and the publication of key recommendations for action...
May 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457670/implications-of-altered-autonomic-control-on-sports-performance-in-athletes-with-spinal-cord-injury
#12
REVIEW
Sebastian Cruz, Cheri A Blauwet
It is well known that athletes with spinal cord injury (SCI) may experience altered autonomic physiology that impacts their exercise capacity and sports performance. This is particularly relevant given the ever-increasing number of individuals with SCI who are actively engaged in sports at all levels, from community-based adaptive sports to elite Paralympic competitions. As such, the purpose of this article is to review the present literature regarding the implications of altered autonomic control on the safety and performance of athletes with SCI...
April 4, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451905/effects-of-altitude-hypoxia-on-single-and-multiple-sprint-performance-a-comprehensive-review
#13
REVIEW
Olivier Girard, Franck Brocherie, Grégoire P Millet
Many sport competitions, typically involving the completion of single- (e.g. track-and-field or track cycling events) and multiple-sprint exercises (e.g. team and racquet sports, cycling races), are staged at terrestrial altitudes ranging from 1000 to 2500 m. Our aim was to comprehensively review the current knowledge on the responses to either acute or chronic altitude exposure relevant to single and multiple sprints. Performance of a single sprint is generally not negatively affected by acute exposure to simulated altitude (i...
April 27, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434627/-sports-in-children-with-congenital-heart-diseases
#14
Gilles Bosser, Anne Moulin-Zinsch, Reem Fischer-Atalla
The practice of physical activity is one of the essential elements for health in general but also for the well-being and the quality of life. It is highly desirable to encourage physical activities in children with congenital heart diseases, taking into account all the benefits associated with this practice (quality of life, life expectancy) and this especially since these children often have limited capacity (due to their heart disease but also often by relative deconditioning). While there is a transient increase in risk of cardiac complications during intense activity, it would nevertheless be inappropriate to contra-indicate physical activities considering the well-known benefits in the medium and long term...
April 21, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426377/development-of-the-sports-organization-concussion-risk-assessment-tool-socrat
#15
A Yeung, V Munjal, N Virji-Babul
OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we describe the development of a novel tool-the Sports Organization Concussion Risk Assessment Tool (SOCRAT)-to assist sport organizations in assessing the overall risk of concussion at a team level by identifying key risk factors. METHODS: We first conducted a literature review to identify risk factors of concussion using ice hockey as a model. We then developed an algorithm by combining the severity and the probability of occurrence of concussions of the identified risk factors by adapting a risk assessment tool commonly used in engineering applications...
2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422636/impact-of-pans-and-pandas-exacerbations-on-occupational-performance-a-mixed-methods-study
#16
Janice Trigilio Tona, Sutanuka Bhattacharjya, Denise Calaprice
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) includes pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections and involves sudden-onset neuropsychiatric symptoms, including obsessions, compulsions, sensory difficulties, and dysgraphia after infection or other triggers. Our objective was to identify problems with areas of occupation, body functions, and performance skills during exacerbations. METHOD: In this online retrospective study, based on the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework: Domain and Process (2nd ed...
May 2017: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415084/p260right-cardiac-chambers-remodeling-in-marathon-and-ultra-trail-athletes-detected-by-speckle-tracking-echocardiography
#17
K Ujka, R M Bruno, B Catuzzo, L Bastiani, A Tonacci, G D'angelo, S Mrakic-Sposta, A Vezzoli, G Giardini, L Pratali
Background: Strenuous and chronic exercise training can have detrimental effects on cardiac morphology and function. Our aim was to evaluate the cardiac adaptation between 2 different specialties' endurance athletes: marathon runners (M) and ultra-trailers (UT). Methods: 47 M (age 45±7, men 32; training: 18 (9-53) years*days/week), 41 UT (age 42±9, men 38, training: 30 (15-66) years*days/week) were submitted in rest condition to conventional 2D echocardiography and Speckle-Tracking echo (STE) (Beyond Diogenes 2...
December 1, 2016: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393012/the-effect-of-repetitive-subconcussive-collisions-on-brain-integrity-in-collegiate-football-players-over-a-single-football-season-a-multi-modal-neuroimaging-study
#18
Semyon M Slobounov, Alexa Walter, Hans C Breiter, David C Zhu, Xiaoxiao Bai, Tim Bream, Peter Seidenberg, Xianglun Mao, Brian Johnson, Thomas M Talavage
The cumulative effect of repetitive subconcussive collisions on the structural and functional integrity of the brain remains largely unknown. Athletes in collision sports, like football, experience a large number of impacts across a single season of play. The majority of these impacts, however, are generally overlooked, and their long-term consequences remain poorly understood. This study sought to examine the effects of repetitive collisions across a single competitive season in NCAA Football Bowl Subdivision athletes using advanced neuroimaging approaches...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379908/effects-of-long-term-high-load-exercise-on-the-anatomy-of-the-hip-joints-a-preliminary-report
#19
Yawei Song, Xiyuan Zhang, Ke Rong
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of different sports on hip joint anatomic parameters in athletes. This was a cross-sectional study of eight male trampolinists, eight male weightlifters, and eight male volunteers enrolled in July 2014. Hip joint anatomic parameters were measured from plain radiographs taken at the level of the lesser trochanter center. Data were compared between groups using the χ-test or one-way analysis of variance with the Bonferroni post-hoc test. There were no significant differences among groups in age, height, or weight...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics. Part B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376678/whole-body-precooling-attenuates-the-extracellular-hsp72-il-6-and-il-10-responses-after-an-acute-bout-of-running-in-the-heat
#20
Ben J Lee, Neil D Clarke, Joanne Hankey, Charles D Thake
The impact of whole-body precooling on the extracellular heat shock protein 72 (eHSP72) and cytokine responses to running in the heat is undefined. The aim of this study was to determine whether precooling would attenuate post-exercise eHSP72 and cytokine responses. Eight male recreational runners completed two 90-minute bouts of running at 65% [Formula: see text]O2max in 32 ± 0.9°C and 47 ± 6 % relative humidity (RH) preceded by either 60-minutes of precooling in 20.3 ± 0.3°C water (COOL) or 60 min rest in an air-conditioned laboratory (20...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
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