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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538663/the-cytokine-flt3-ligand-in-normal-and-malignant-hematopoiesis
#1
REVIEW
Panagiotis Tsapogas, Ciaran James Mooney, Geoffrey Brown, Antonius Rolink
The cytokine Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FL) is an important regulator of hematopoiesis. Its receptor, Flt3, is expressed on myeloid, lymphoid and dendritic cell progenitors and is considered an important growth and differentiation factor for several hematopoietic lineages. Activating mutations of Flt3 are frequently found in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients and associated with a poor clinical prognosis. In the present review we provide an overview of our current knowledge on the role of FL in the generation of blood cell lineages...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538546/fat-grafting-after-invasive-breast-cancer-a-matched-case-control-study
#2
Jean Yves Petit, Patrick Maisonneuve, Nicole Rotmensz, Francesco Bertolini, Mario Rietjens
BACKGROUND: Fat grafting has been widely indicated for postmastectomy and postlumpectomy breast reconstruction. The literature emphasizes the clinical efficacy of fat grafting, but experimental studies raise important questions about the recurrence risk because of the stimulation of remaining cancer cells by progenitor or adult adipocytes. Because breast conservative treatment provides a higher risk of residual cancer cells in the breast tissue compared with mastectomy, the authors set up a matched case-control study of fat grafting versus no fat grafting after breast conservative treatment...
June 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538234/overview-of-lung-development-in-the-newborn-human
#3
David Warburton
In human neonates rapid adaptation from an aqueous intrauterine environment to permanent air breathing is the rate-limiting step for extrauterine life, failure of which justifies the existence of neonatal intensive care units. The lung develops at about 4-6 weeks' gestation in humans as a ventral outpouching of the primitive foregut into the surrounding ventral mesenchyme, termed the laryngotracheal groove. At its posterior end lie progenitor cells that form a pair of bronchial tubes, from which arise all the distal epithelial structures of the lung...
2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535533/malat1-modulates-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-through-downregulation-of-mir-145
#4
Yin Xiang, Yachen Zhang, Yong Tang, Qianhui Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) plays significant roles under various pathological conditions including cardiovascular diseases, fibrosis, and cancer. EndMT of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contributes to neointimal hyperplasia following cell therapy Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) that promotes metastasis and cancer. MicroRNA-145 (miR-145) is a tumor suppressor that has been reported to inhibit SMAD3-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells...
May 25, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535392/nervous-system-development-temporal-patterning-of-large-neural-lineages
#5
Stefan Thor
Neural progenitor cells in most, if not all, systems generate different cell types according to a fixed birth-order. Studies in the Drosophila central nervous system now identify an expanding regulatory network underlying temporal diversification of very large neural lineages.
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535373/a-molecular-switch-regulating-cell-fate-choice-between-muscle-progenitor-cells-and-brown-adipocytes
#6
Yitai An, Gang Wang, Yarui Diao, Yanyang Long, Xinrong Fu, Mingxi Weng, Liang Zhou, Kun Sun, Tom H Cheung, Nancy Y Ip, Hao Sun, Huating Wang, Zhenguo Wu
During mouse embryo development, both muscle progenitor cells (MPCs) and brown adipocytes (BAs) are known to derive from the same Pax7(+)/Myf5(+) progenitor cells. However, the underlying mechanisms for the cell fate control remain unclear. In Pax7-null MPCs from young mice, several BA-specific genes, including Prdm16 and Ucp1 and many other adipocyte-related genes, were upregulated with a concomitant reduction of Myod and Myf5, two muscle lineage-determining genes. This suggests a cell fate switch from MPC to BA...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535372/a-brain-region-specific-neural-pathway-regulating-germinal-matrix-angiogenesis
#7
Shang Ma, Devi Santhosh, Peeyush Kumar T, Zhen Huang
Intimate communication between neural and vascular cells is critical for normal brain development and function. Germinal matrix (GM), a key primordium for the brain reward circuitry, is unique among brain regions for its distinct pace of angiogenesis and selective vulnerability to hemorrhage during development. A major neonatal condition, GM hemorrhage can lead to cerebral palsy, hydrocephalus, and mental retardation. Here we identify a brain-region-specific neural progenitor-based signaling pathway dedicated to regulating GM vessel development...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535371/repression-of-interstitial-identity-in-nephron-progenitor-cells-by-pax2-establishes-the-nephron-interstitium-boundary-during-kidney-development
#8
Natalie Naiman, Kaoru Fujioka, Mari Fujino, M Todd Valerius, S Steven Potter, Andrew P McMahon, Akio Kobayashi
The kidney contains the functional units, the nephrons, surrounded by the renal interstitium. Previously we discovered that, once Six2-expressing nephron progenitor cells and Foxd1-expressing renal interstitial progenitor cells form at the onset of kidney development, descendant cells from these populations contribute exclusively to the main body of nephrons and renal interstitial tissues, respectively, indicating a lineage boundary between the nephron and renal interstitial compartments. Currently it is unclear how lineages are regulated during kidney organogenesis...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534535/the-potential-of-organoids-in-urological-cancer-research
#9
REVIEW
Shangqian Wang, Dong Gao, Yu Chen
Technical advances in the development of organoid systems enable cell lines, primary adult cells, or stem or progenitor cells to develop into diverse, multicellular entities, which can self-renew, self-organize, and differentiate. These 3D organoid cultures have proven to be of value in increasing our understanding of the biology of disease and offer the potential of regenerative and genetic therapies. The successful application of 3D organoids derived from adult tissue into urological cancer research can further our understanding of these diseases and could also provide preclinical cancer models to realize the precision medicine paradigm by therapeutic screening of individual patient samples ex vivo...
May 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534195/identification-of-a-small-molecule-that-facilitates-the-differentiation-of-human-ipscs-escs-and-mouse-embryonic-pancreatic-explants-into-pancreatic-endocrine-cells
#10
Yasushi Kondo, Taro Toyoda, Ryo Ito, Michinori Funato, Yoshiya Hosokawa, Satoshi Matsui, Tomomi Sudo, Masahiro Nakamura, Chihiro Okada, Xiaotong Zhuang, Akira Watanabe, Akira Ohta, Nobuya Inagaki, Kenji Osafune
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Pancreatic beta-like cells generated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) or human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) offer an appealing donor tissue source. However, differentiation protocols that mainly use growth factors are costly. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to establish efficient differentiation protocols to change hiPSCs/hESCs to insulin (INS)(+) cells using novel small-molecule inducers. METHODS: We screened small molecules that increased the induction rate of INS(+) cells from hESC-derived pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1)(+) pancreatic progenitor cells...
May 22, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533935/a-review-of-the-emerging-potential-therapy-for-neurological-disorders-human-embryonic-stem-cell-therapy
#11
REVIEW
Geeta Shroff, Jyoti Dhanda Titus, Rhea Shroff
The first human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line was developed in the late nineties. hESCs are capable of proliferating indefinitely and differentiate into all the three embryonic germ layers. Further, the differentiation of hESC lines into neural precursor cells and neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes showed their potential in treating several incurable neurological disorders such as spinal cord injury (SCI), cerebral palsy (CP), Parkinson's disease (PD). In this review, we will discuss the global scenario of research and therapeutic use of hESCs in the treatment of neurological disorders...
2017: American Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533480/deregulated-expression-of-mir-29a-3p-mir-494-3p-and-mir-660-5p-affects-sensitivity-to-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-in-cml-leukemic-stem-cells
#12
Simona Salati, Valentina Salvestrini, Chiara Carretta, Elena Genovese, Sebastiano Rontauroli, Roberta Zini, Chiara Rossi, Samantha Ruberti, Elisa Bianchi, Greta Barbieri, Antonio Curti, Fausto Castagnetti, Gabriele Gugliotta, Gianantonio Rosti, Micaela Bergamaschi, Agostino Tafuri, Enrico Tagliafico, Roberto Lemoli, Rossella Manfredini
The development of Imatinib mesylate (IM), which targets the oncogenic BCR-ABL fusion protein, has greatly improved the outcome of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) patients. However, BCR-ABL-positive progenitors can be detected in CML patients in complete cytogenetic response. Several evidence suggests that CML stem cells are intrinsically resistant to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKI), and therefore they represent the most likely candidate responsible for disease relapse.In this work, we investigated the microRNA (miRNA) expression profile of different subpopulations of CML Leukemic Stem Cells (LSCs): Lin-CD34+CD38- and Lin-CD34-CD38- cells...
May 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533407/histone-binding-of-dpf2-mediates-its-repressive-role-in-myeloid-differentiation
#13
Ferdinand M Huber, Sarah M Greenblatt, Andrew M Davenport, Concepcion Martinez, Ye Xu, Ly P Vu, Stephen D Nimer, André Hoelz
Double plant homeodomain finger 2 (DPF2) is a highly evolutionarily conserved member of the d4 protein family that is ubiquitously expressed in human tissues and was recently shown to inhibit the myeloid differentiation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor and acute myelogenous leukemia cells. Here, we present the crystal structure of the tandem plant homeodomain finger domain of human DPF2 at 1.6-Å resolution. We show that DPF2 interacts with the acetylated tails of both histones 3 and 4 via bipartite binding pockets on the DPF2 surface...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533328/tendon-stem-progenitor-cells-regulate-inflammation-in-tendon-healing-via-jnk-and-stat3-signaling
#14
Solaiman Tarafder, Esther Chen, Yena Jun, Kristy Kao, Kun Hee Sim, Jungho Back, Francis Y Lee, Chang H Lee
Tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSCs) have been found in different anatomic locations and showed a promising regenerative potential. We identified a role of TSCs in the regulation of inflammation during healing of acute tendon injuries. Delivery of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) into full-transected rat patellar tendons significantly increased the number of CD146(+) TSCs, leading to enhanced healing. In parallel, CTGF delivery significantly reduced the number of iNOS(+) M1 Mϕs and increased the expression of anti-inflammatory IL-10 at 2 d after surgery, with over 85% CD146(+) TSCs expressing IL-10...
May 22, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533309/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-inhibition-promotes-hemato-lymphoid-development-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#15
Mathew G Angelos, Paige N Ruh, Beau R Webber, Robert H Blum, Caitlin D Ryan, Laura Bendzick, Seonhui Shim, Ashley M Yingst, Dejene M Tufa, Michael R Verneris, Dan S Kaufman
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) plays an important physiological role in hematopoiesis. AHR is highly expressed in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) and inhibition of AHR results in a marked expansion of human umbilical cord blood-derived HSPCs following cytokine stimulation. It is unknown whether AHR also contributes earlier in human hematopoietic development. To model hematopoiesis, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) were allowed to differentiate in defined conditions in the presence of the AHR antagonist StemReginin-1 (SR-1) or AHR agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)...
May 22, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533086/spatio-temporal-pattern-of-neuronal-differentiation-in-the-drosophila-visual-system-a-user-s-guide-to-the-dynamic-morphology-of-the-developing-optic-lobe
#16
Kathy T Ngo, Ingrid Andrade, Volker Hartenstein
Visual information processing in animals with large image forming eyes is carried out in highly structured retinotopically ordered neuropils. Visual neuropils in Drosophila form the optic lobe, which consists of four serially arranged major subdivisions; the lamina, medulla, lobula and lobula plate; the latter three of these are further subdivided into multiple layers. The visual neuropils are formed by more than 100 different cell types, distributed and interconnected in an invariant highly regular pattern...
May 19, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532995/histological-subtypes-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-are-related-to-gene-mutations-and-molecular-tumour-classification
#17
Julien Calderaro, Gabrielle Couchy, Sandrine Imbeaud, Giuliana Amaddeo, Eric Letouzé, Jean-Frédéric Blanc, Christophe Laurent, Yacine Hajji, Daniel Azoulay, Paulette Bioulac-Sage, Jean-Charles Nault, Jessica Zucman-Rossi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Our increasing understanding of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) biology holds promise for personalized care, however its translation into clinical practice requires a precise knowledge of its relationship to tumour phenotype. METHODS: We aimed at investigating molecular-phenotypic correlations in a large series of HCC. To this purpose, 343 surgically resected HCC were investigated by pathological review, immunohistochemistry, gene expression profiling and sequencing...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532625/v-d-j-recombination-exploits-dna-damage-responses-to-promote-immunity
#18
REVIEW
Rahul Arya, Craig H Bassing
It has been recognized for 40 years that the variable (diversity) joining [V(D)J] recombination-mediated assembly of diverse B and T lymphocyte antigen receptor (AgR) genes is not only essential for adaptive immunity, but also a risk for autoimmunity and lymphoid malignancies. Over the past few years, several studies have revealed that recombination-activating gene (RAG) endonuclease-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) transcend hazardous intermediates during antigen receptor gene assembly. RAG cleavage within the genomes of lymphocyte progenitors and immature lymphocytes regulates the expression of ubiquitous and lymphocyte-specific gene transcripts to control the differentiation and function of both adaptive and innate immune cell lineages...
May 19, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532226/novel-biological-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-diabetic-foot-ulcers
#19
Jennifer Adeghate, Syed Nurulain, Kornélia Tekes, Erzsébet Fehér, Huba Kalász, Ernest Adeghate
The number of people with diabetes mellitus (DM) is estimated to exceed 640 million by the year 2040. Diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) is a debilitating illness that affects more than 2% of DM patients. DFU is caused by DM-induced neural and vascular lesions leading to a reduced sensation and microcirculation. The increase in the prevalence of DFU has prompted researchers to find new therapies for the management of DFU. Areas covered: This review presents the current status of novel biological therapies used in the treatment of DFU...
May 22, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531804/protective-effect-and-mechanism-of-lycopene-on-endothelial-progenitor-cells-epcs-from-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-rats
#20
Yao-Chi Zeng, Li-Sheng Peng, Liyuan Zou, Shu-Fen Huang, Yi Xie, Gui-Ping Mu, Xue-Hui Zeng, Xi-Lin Zhou, Ya-Chi Zeng
Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), widely existing in bone marrow and peripheral blood, are involved in the repair of injured vascular endothelium and angiogenesis which are important to diabetic mellitus (DM) patients with vascular complications. The number and the function of EPCs are related to the advanced glycation end products (AGEs) generated in DM patients. Lycopene (Lyc) is an identified natural antioxidant that protects EPCs under the microenvironment of AGEs from damage. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear...
May 19, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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