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Progenitor cell

M Adawi, N Pastukh, G Saaida, R Sirchan, A Watad, A Blum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 21, 2018: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Shunsuke Kawamura, Toshiaki Ohteki
Monocytes are a widely conserved cell population in vertebrates with important roles in both inflammation and homeostasis. Under both settings, monocytes continuously arise from hematopoietic progenitors in the bone marrow and, on demand, migrate into tissues through the bloodstream. Monocytes are classified into three subsets - classical, intermediate and non-classical - based on their cell-surface expression of CD14 and CD16 in humans and Ly6C, CX3CR1 and CCR2 in mice. In tissues, monocytes differentiate further into monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells to mediate innate and adaptive immune responses and maintain tissue homeostasis...
September 21, 2018: International Immunology
Amélie Slembrouck-Brec, Céline Nanteau, José-Alain Sahel, Olivier Goureau, Sacha Reichman
The production of specialized cells from pluripotent stem cells provides a powerful tool to develop new approaches for regenerative medicine. The use of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is particularly attractive for neurodegenerative disease studies, including retinal dystrophies, where iPSC-derived retinal cell models mark a major step forward to understand and fight blindness. In this paper, we describe a simple and scalable protocol to generate, mature, and cryopreserve retinal organoids. Based on medium changing, the main advantage of this method is to avoid multiple and time-consuming steps commonly required in a guided differentiation of iPSCs...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ling-Bing Meng, Kun Chen, Yuan-Meng Zhang, Tao Gong
Objective: Endothelial cells (ECs) are important metabolic and endocrinal organs which play a significant role in regulating vascular function. Vascular ECs, located between the blood and vascular tissues, can not only complete the metabolism of blood and interstitial fluid but also synthesize and secrete a variety of biologically active substances to maintain vascular tension and keep a normal flow of blood and long-term patency. Therefore, this article presents a systematic review of common injuries and healing mechanisms for the vascular endothelium...
October 5, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
Vahid Siavashi, Seyed Mahdi Nassiri, Reza Rahbarghazi, Zahra Mohseni, Ali Mohammad Sharifi
Angiogenesis is a regulated process involving the proliferation, migration, and remodeling of different cell types particularly mature endothelial and their progenitor cells, nominated as endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Tie2/Tek is a tyrosine kinase receptor expressed by endothelial cells that induces signal transduction pathways involved in endothelial biology. To address the potential importance of the various tyrosine residues of Tie2 in EPC development, we generated a series of Tie2 tyrosine mutated (Y1106F, Y1100F, and Y1111F) EPCs and then assess the biological features of these cells...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Caecilia H C Sukowati, Riccardo Patti, Devis Pascut, Rusdina B Ladju, Paola Tarchi, Nunzia Zanotta, Manola Comar, Claudio Tiribelli, Lory S Crocè
Introduction: Chronic inflammatory response is one of major contributors in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Inflammatory molecules, such as cytokines and growth factors in the circulation, can be useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of the patients. The stem cell growth factor beta (SCGF β ), a newly found protein, is a secreted sulfated glycoprotein and it functions as a growth factor for primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells. The level of SCGF β had been reported to be elevated in several cancer types...
2018: BioMed Research International
Viola Volpato, James Smith, Cynthia Sandor, Janina S Ried, Anna Baud, Adam Handel, Sarah E Newey, Frank Wessely, Moustafa Attar, Emma Whiteley, Satyan Chintawar, An Verheyen, Thomas Barta, Majlinda Lako, Lyle Armstrong, Caroline Muschet, Anna Artati, Carlo Cusulin, Klaus Christensen, Christoph Patsch, Eshita Sharma, Jerome Nicod, Philip Brownjohn, Victoria Stubbs, Wendy E Heywood, Paul Gissen, Roberta De Filippis, Katharina Janssen, Peter Reinhardt, Jerzy Adamski, Ines Royaux, Pieter J Peeters, Georg C Terstappen, Martin Graf, Frederick J Livesey, Colin J Akerman, Kevin Mills, Rory Bowden, George Nicholson, Caleb Webber, M Zameel Cader, Viktor Lakics
Reproducibility in molecular and cellular studies is fundamental to scientific discovery. To establish the reproducibility of a well-defined long-term neuronal differentiation protocol, we repeated the cellular and molecular comparison of the same two iPSC lines across five distinct laboratories. Despite uncovering acceptable variability within individual laboratories, we detect poor cross-site reproducibility of the differential gene expression signature between these two lines. Factor analysis identifies the laboratory as the largest source of variation along with several variation-inflating confounders such as passaging effects and progenitor storage...
September 6, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
Ignazia Tusa, Giulia Cheloni, Martina Poteti, Antonella Gozzini, Ngoc Ho DeSouza, Yi Shan, Xianming Deng, Nathanael S Gray, Shaoguang Li, Elisabetta Rovida, Persio Dello Sbarba
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKi) are effective against chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but their inefficacy on leukemia stem cells (LSCs) may lead to relapse. To identify new druggable targets alternative to BCR/ABL, we investigated the role of the MEK5/ERK5 pathway in LSC maintenance in low oxygen, a feature of bone marrow stem cell niches. We found that MEK5/ERK5 pathway inhibition reduced the growth of CML patient-derived cells and cell lines in vitro and the number of leukemic cells in vivo. Treatment in vitro of primary CML cells with MEK5/ERK5 inhibitors, but not TKi, strikingly reduced culture repopulation ability (CRA), serial colony formation ability, long-term culture-initiating cells (LTC-ICs), and CD26-expressing cells...
September 5, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
Yongchun Zhang, Ying Yang, Ming Jiang, Sarah Xuelian Huang, Wanwei Zhang, Denise Al Alam, Soula Danopoulos, Munemasa Mori, Ya-Wen Chen, Revathi Balasubramanian, Susana M Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Carlos Serra, Monika Bialecka, Eugene Kim, Sijie Lin, Ana Luisa Rodrigues Toste de Carvalho, Paul N Riccio, Wellington V Cardoso, Xin Zhang, Hans-Willem Snoeck, Jianwen Que
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) could provide a powerful system to model development of the human esophagus, whose distinct tissue organization compared to rodent esophagus suggests that developmental mechanisms may not be conserved between species. We therefore established an efficient protocol for generating esophageal progenitor cells (EPCs) from human PSCs. We found that inhibition of TGF-ß and BMP signaling is required for sequential specification of EPCs, which can be further purified using cell-surface markers...
September 13, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
Stephen L Trisno, Katherine E D Philo, Kyle W McCracken, Emily M Catá, Sonya Ruiz-Torres, Scott A Rankin, Lu Han, Talia Nasr, Praneet Chaturvedi, Marc E Rothenberg, Mohammad A Mandegar, Susanne I Wells, Aaron M Zorn, James M Wells
Tracheal and esophageal disorders are prevalent in humans and difficult to accurately model in mice. We therefore established a three-dimensional organoid model of esophageal development through directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. Sequential manipulation of bone morphogenic protein (BMP), Wnt, and RA signaling pathways was required to pattern definitive endoderm into foregut, anterior foregut (AFG), and dorsal AFG spheroids. Dorsal AFG spheroids grown in a 3D matrix formed human esophageal organoids (HEOs), and HEO cells could be transitioned into two-dimensional cultures and grown as esophageal organotypic rafts...
September 14, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
Shuang Liu
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent stem cells that display the capacity to generate the tissue in which they reside. MSC have been used as progenitor cells to engineer cartilage implants that can be used to repair chondral and osteochondral lesions, or as trophic producers of bioactive factors to initiate endogenous regenerative activities in the arthritic joint. Targeted gene therapy might further enhance the capacity of MSC for chondrogenesis. By using a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein genomic manipulation technique, target-gene-modified MSC would be a promising therapeutic option for regeneration of diseased joints in the treatment of RA...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Joy N Jones Buie, Yue Zhou, Andrew J Goodwin, James A Cook, John Vournakis, Marina Demcheva, Ann-Marie Broome, Suraj Dixit, Perry V Halushka, Hongkuan Fan
Sepsis is an acute inflammatory syndrome in response to infection. In some cases, excessive inflammation from sepsis results in endothelial dysfunction and subsequent increased vascular permeability leading to organ failure. We previously showed that treatment with endothelial progenitor cells, which highly express microRNA-126 (miR-126), improved survival in mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) sepsis. miRNAs are important regulators of gene expression and cell function, play a major role in endothelial homeostasis, and may represent an emerging therapeutic modality...
September 23, 2018: Inflammation
Siegmund Lang, Markus Loibl, Marietta Herrmann
BACKGROUND: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) refers to an enriched platelet suspension in plasma. In addition to the clinical application of PRP in the context of various orthopedic diseases and beyond, PRP and platelet lysate (PL) have been in focus in the field of tissue engineering. In this review, we discuss the application of PRP as a cell culture supplement and as part of tissue engineering strategies, particularly emphasizing current hurdles and ambiguities regarding the efficacy of PRP in these approaches...
September 21, 2018: European Surgical Research. Europäische Chirurgische Forschung. Recherches Chirurgicales Européennes
Stuart Hay, Kyle Ferchen, Kashish Chetal, H Leighton Grimes, Nathan Salomonis
The Human Cell Atlas (HCA) is expected to facilitate the creation of reference cell profiles, marker genes and gene regulatory networks that will provide a deeper understanding of healthy and disease cell types from clinical biospecimens. The hematopoietic system includes dozens of distinct transcriptionally-coherent cell types, including intermediate transitional populations, which have not been previously described at a molecular level. Using the first data release from the HCA bone marrow tissue project, we resolved common, rare and potential transitional cell populations from over 100,000 hematopoietic cells, spanning 35 transcriptionally coherent groups across eight healthy donors using emerging new computational approaches...
September 20, 2018: Experimental Hematology
Gábor Wittmann, Ronald M Lechan
We recently reported that the number of hypothalamic tanycytes expressing pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc) is highly variable among brains of adult rats. While its cause and significance remain unknown, identifying other variably expressed genes in tanycytes may help understand this curious phenomenon. In this in situ hybridization study, we report that the Prss56 gene, which encodes a trypsin-like serine protease and is expressed in neural stem/progenitor cells, shows a similarly variable mRNA expression in tanycytes of adult rats and correlates inversely with tanycyte Pomc mRNA...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Kazuhide S Okuda, Sungmin Baek, Benjamin M Hogan
The accessibility and optical transparency of the zebrafish embryo offers a unique platform for live-imaging of developmental lymphangiogenesis. Transgenic lines labelling lymphatic progenitors and vessels enable researchers to visualize cellular processes and ask how they contribute to lymphatic development in genetic models. Furthermore, validated immunofluorescence staining for key signaling and cell fate markers (phosphorylated Erk and Prox1) allow single cell resolution studies of lymphatic differentiation...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Olivia Farrelly, Paola Kuri, Panteleimon Rompolas
Studies characterizing stem cell lineages in different organs aim to understand which cells particular progenitors can give rise to and how this process is controlled. Because the skin contains several resident stem cell populations and undergoes constant turnover, it is an ideal tissue in which to study this phenomenon. Furthermore, with the advent of two-photon microscopy techniques in combination with genetic tools for cell labeling, this question can be studied non-invasively by using live imaging. In this chapter, we describe an experimental approach that takes this technique one step further...
September 22, 2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
A Docampo-Seara, G N Santos-Durán, E Candal, Miguel Ángel Rodríguez Díaz
Radial glial cells (RGCs) are the first cell populations of glial nature to appear during brain ontogeny. They act as primary progenitor (stem) cells as well as a scaffold for neuronal migration. The proliferative capacity of these cells, both in development and in adulthood, has been subject of interest during past decades. In contrast with mammals where RGCs are restricted to specific ventricular areas in the adult brain, RGCs are the predominant glial element in fishes. However, developmental studies on the RGCs of cartilaginous fishes are scant...
September 21, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Laura J A Hardwick, Roberta Azzarelli, Anna Philpott
Embryogenesis requires an exquisite regulation of cell proliferation, cell cycle withdrawal and differentiation into a massively diverse range of cells at the correct time and place. Stem cells also remain to varying extents in different adult tissues, acting in tissue homeostasis and repair. Therefore, regulated proliferation and subsequent differentiation of stem and progenitor cells remains pivotal throughout life. Recent advances have characterised the cell cycle dynamics, epigenetics, transcriptome and proteome accompanying the transition from proliferation to differentiation, revealing multiple bidirectional interactions between the cell cycle machinery and factors driving differentiation...
September 20, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
Xiaoli Wang, Cing Siang Hu, Bruce Petersen, Jiajing Qiu, Fei Ye, Jane Houldsworth, Kevin Eng, Fei Huang, Ronald Hoffman
Clinical trials of imetelstat therapy have indicated that this telomerase inhibitor might have disease-modifying effects in a subset of patients with myelofibrosis (MF). The mechanism by which imetelstat induces such clinical responses has not been clearly elucidated. Using in vitro hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) assays and in vivo hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) assays, we examined the effects of imetelstat on primary normal and MF HSCs/HPCs. Treatment of CD34+ cells with imetelstat reduced the numbers of MF but not cord blood HPCs (colony-forming unit-granulocyte/macrophage, burst-forming unit-erythroid, and colony-forming unit-granulocyte/erythroid/macrophage/megakaryocyte) as well as MF but not normal CD34+ ALDH+ cells irrespective of the patient's mutational status...
September 25, 2018: Blood Advances
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