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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087665/nkg2d-promotes-b1a-cell-development-and-protection-against-bacterial-infection
#1
Maja Lenartić, Vedrana Jelenčić, Biljana Zafirova, Mateja Ožanič, Valentina Marečić, Slaven Jurković, Veronika Sexl, Marina Šantić, Felix M Wensveen, Bojan Polić
NKG2D is a potent activating receptor that is expressed on cytotoxic immune cells such as CD8 T and NK cells, where it promotes cytotoxicity after binding stress ligands on infected or transformed cells. On NK cell precursors NKG2D modulates proliferation and maturation. Previously, we observed that NKG2D deficiency affects peripheral B cell numbers. In this study, we show that NKG2D regulates B1a cell development and function. We find that mice deficient for NKG2D have a strong reduction of B1a cell numbers...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087638/intrinsic-properties-of-limb-bud-cells-can-be-differentially-reset
#2
Patricia Saiz-Lopez, Kavitha Chinnaiya, Matthew Towers, Maria A Ros
An intrinsic timing mechanism specifies the positional values of the zeugopod (i.e. radius/ulna) and then autopod (i.e. wrist/digits) segments during limb development. Here we have addressed if this timing mechanism ensures that patterning events occur only once by grafting GFP-expressing autopod progenitor cells to the earlier host signaling environment of zeugopod progenitor cells. We show that early and late autopod progenitors fated for the wrist and phalanges, respectively, both contribute to the entire host autopod indicating that the autopod positional value is irreversibly determined as revealed by Hoxa13 expression...
January 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087635/rb-controls-growth-survival-and-neuronal-migration-in-human-cerebral-organoids
#3
Takeshi Matsui, Vanesa Nieto-Estévez, Sergii Kyrychenko, Jay W Schneider, Jenny Hsieh
Retinoblastoma (RB) is a tumor suppressor gene which regulates cell cycle entry to S phase via E2F transcription factors. Using knockout (KO) mice, it has been described that Rb plays a role in cell migration and differentiation in developing and adult brain as well as apoptosis. In addition, the RB family is required for the self-renewal and survival of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs). However, little is known about the role of this gene in human brain development. Here, we investigated the role of RB in cerebral organoids from human ESCs deficient for RB...
January 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087628/id4-levels-dictate-the-stem-cell-state-in-mouse-spermatogonia
#4
Aileen R Helsel, Qi-En Yang, Melissa J Oatley, Tessa Lord, Fred Sablitzky, Jon M Oatley
Spermatogenesis is a classic model of cycling cell lineages that depend on a balance between stem cell self-renewal for continuity and formation of progenitors as the initial step in production of differentiated cells. However, the mechanisms guiding the continuum of spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) to progenitor spermatogonial transition and precise identifiers of subtypes in the process are undefined. Here we used an Id4-eGfp reporter mouse to discover that EGFP intensity is predictive of the subsets with the ID4-EGFP(Bright) population being mostly, if not purely, SSCs while the ID4-EGFP(Dim) population is in transition to the progenitor state...
January 13, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087539/quantitative-stability-of-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cell-clonal-output-in-transplanted-rhesus-macaques
#5
Samson J Koelle, Diego A Espinoza, Chuanfeng Wu, Jason Xu, Rong Lu, Brian Li, Robert E Donahue, Cynthia E Dunbar
Autologous transplantation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells lentivirally labeled with unique oligonucleotide barcodes flanked by sequencing primer targets enables quantitative assessment of the self-renewal and differentiation patterns of these cells in a myeloablative rhesus macaque model. Compared with other approaches to clonal tracking, this approach is highly quantitative and reproducible. We documented very stable multipotent long-term hematopoietic clonal output of monocytes, granulocytes, B cells and T cells from a polyclonal pool of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in four macaques followed for up to 49 months post-transplantation...
January 13, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087538/bcap-inhibits-proliferation-and-differentiation-of-myeloid-progenitors-in-the-steady-state-and-during-demand-situations
#6
Jeffrey M Duggan, Matthew B Buechler, Rebecca M Olson, Tobias M Hohl, Jessica A Hamerman
B cell adaptor for PI3-kinase (BCAP) is a signaling adaptor expressed in mature hematopoietic cells including monocytes and neutrophils. Here we investigated the role of BCAP in the homeostasis and development of these myeloid lineages. BCAP(-/-) mice had more bone marrow (BM) monocytes than WT mice, and in mixed WT:BCAP(-/-) BM chimeras, monocytes and neutrophils skewed towards BCAP(-/-) origin, showing a competitive advantage for BCAP(-/-) myeloid cells. BCAP was expressed in bone marrow hematopoietic progenitors, including LSK (Lineage(-)Sca1(+)cKit(+)), CMP (Common Myeloid Progenitor) and GMP (Granulocyte/Macrophage Progenitor) cells...
January 13, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087459/wnt-signaling-balances-specification-of-the-cardiac-and-pharyngeal-muscle-fields
#7
Amrita Mandal, Andrew Holowiecki, Yuntao Charlie Song, Joshua S Waxman
Canonical Wnt/β-catenin (Wnt) signaling plays multiple conserved roles during fate specification of cardiac progenitors in developing vertebrate embryos. Although lineage analysis in ascidians and mice has indicated there is a close relationship between the cardiac second heart field (SHF) and pharyngeal muscle (PM) progenitors, the signals underlying directional fate decisions of the cells within the cardio-pharyngeal muscle field in vertebrates are not yet understood. Here, we examined the temporal requirements of Wnt signaling in cardiac and PM development...
January 10, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086885/harnessing-the-early-post-injury-inflammatory-responses-for-cardiac-regeneration
#8
REVIEW
Bill Cheng, H C Chen, I W Chou, Tony W H Tang, Patrick C H Hsieh
Cardiac inflammation is considered by many as the main driving force in prolonging the pathological condition in the heart after myocardial infarction. Immediately after cardiac ischemic injury, neutrophils are the first innate immune cells recruited to the ischemic myocardium within the first 24 h. Once they have infiltrated the injured myocardium, neutrophils would then secret proteases that promote cardiac remodeling and chemokines that enhance the recruitment of monocytes from the spleen, in which the recruitment peaks at 72 h after myocardial infarction...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086221/radioprotective-effects-of-keratinocyte-growth-factor-1-against-irradiation-induced-salivary-gland-hypofunction
#9
Jeong-Seok Choi, Hyun-Soo Shin, Hye-Young An, Young-Mo Kim, Jae-Yol Lim
Irradiation can cause salivary gland hypofunction, with hyposalivation producing discomfort, health risks, and reducing function in daily life. Despite increasing translational research interest in radioprotection, there are no satisfactory treatments available. Keratinocyte growth factor-1 stimulates proliferation of salivary epithelial cells or salivary stem/progenitor cells. However, the exact mechanism of its radioprotection against radiation-induced salivary hypofunction is not fully elucidated. Our results reveal that the radioprotective effects of keratinocyte growth factor-1 involved alleviation of growth inhibition and anti-apoptotic cell death of human parotid epithelial cells...
January 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086219/gadd45a-deficiency-accelerates-bcr-abl-driven-chronic-myelogenous-leukemia
#10
Kaushiki Mukherjee, Xiaojin Sha, Andrew Magimaidas, Silvia Maifrede, Tomasz Skorski, Ravi Bhatia, Barbara Hoffman, Dan A Liebermann
The Gadd45a stress sensor gene is a member in the Gadd45 family of genes that includes Gadd45b & Gadd45g. To investigate the effect of GADD45A in the development of CML, syngeneic wild type lethally irradiated mice were reconstituted with either wild type or Gadd45a null myeloid progenitors transduced with a retroviral vector expressing the 210-kD BCR-ABL fusion oncoprotein. Loss of Gadd45a was observed to accelerate BCR-ABL driven CML resulting in the development of a more aggressive disease, a significantly shortened median mice survival time, and increased BCR-ABL expressing leukemic stem/progenitor cells (GFP+Lin- cKit+Sca+)...
January 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085694/bioengineering-human-lung-grafts-on-porcine-matrix
#11
Haiyang Zhou, Kentaro Kitano, Xi Ren, Taufiek Konrad Rajab, Min Wu, Sarah E Gilpin, Tong Wu, Lauren Baugh, Lauren D Black, Douglas J Mathisen, Harald C Ott
OBJECTIVE: Bioengineering of viable, functional, and implantable human lung grafts on porcine matrix. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Implantable bioartificial organ grafts could revolutionize transplant surgery. To date, several milestones toward that goal have been achieved in rodent models. To make bioengineered organ grafts clinically relevant, scaling to human cells and graft size are the next steps. METHODS: We seeded porcine decellularized lung scaffolds with human airway epithelial progenitor cells derived from rejected donor lungs, and banked human umbilical vein endothelial cells...
January 12, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085512/tfii-i-and-ap2%C3%AE-co-occupy-the-promoters-of-key-regulatory-genes-associated-with-craniofacial-development
#12
Paige Miranda, Badam Enkhmandakh, Dashzeveg Bayarsaihan
OBJECTIVES:   The aim of this study is to define the candidate target genes for TFII-I and AP2α regulation in neural crest progenitor cells. DESIGN:   The GTF2I and GTF2IRD1 genes encoding the TFII-I family of transcription factors are prime candidates for the Williams-Beuren syndrome, a complex multisystem disorder characterized by craniofacial, skeletal, and neurocognitive deficiencies. AP2α, a product of the TFAP2A gene, is a master regulator of neural crest cell lineage...
January 13, 2017: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28085215/interactions-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-cardiovascular-progenitor-cells-with-immobilized-extracellular-matrix-proteins
#13
Jizhen Lu, Katrin Kaestle, Jijun Huang, Qiao Liu, Peng Zhang, Ling Gao, James Gardiner, Helmut Thissen, Huang-Tian Yang
Human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiovascular progenitor cells (hESC-CVPCs) hold great promise for cell-based therapies of heart diseases. However, little is known about their niche microenvironment and in particular the required extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Here we screened combinations of surface-immobilized ECM proteins to identify substrates that support the attachment and survival of hESC-CVPCs. Covalent immobilization of ECM proteins laminin (Lm), fibronectin (Fn), collagen I (CI), collagen III (CIII), and collagen IV (CIV) in multiple combinations and concentrations was achieved by reductive amination on transparent acetaldehyde plasma polymer (AAPP) interlayer coatings...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084835/induction-of-p53-suppresses-chronic-myeloid-leukemia
#14
Luke F Peterson, Miao-Chia Lo, Yihong Liu, Diane Gianolla, Emilija Mitrikeska, Nicholas J Donato, Craig N Johnson, Shaomeng Wang, Jessica Mercer, Moshe Talpaz
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is characterized by the chromosomal translocation 9;22, known as the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph), which produces the BCR-ABL fusion tyrosine kinase. Although well-managed by BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), treatment fails to eliminate Ph + primitive progenitors, and cessation of therapy frequently results in relapse. The p53 protein is an important regulator of cell cycle and apoptosis. The small molecules MI-219 target the interaction between p53 and its negative regulator HDM2, leading to its stabilization and activation...
January 13, 2017: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084309/a-label-retaining-but-unipotent-cell-population-resides-in-biliary-compartment-of-mammalian-liver
#15
Janeli Viil, Mariliis Klaas, Kadri Valter, Denis Belitškin, Sten Ilmjärv, Viljar Jaks
Cells with slow proliferation kinetics that retain the nuclear label over long time periods-the label-retaining cells (LRCs)-represent multipotent stem cells in a number of adult tissues. Since the identity of liver LRCs (LLRCs) had remained elusive we utilized a genetic approach to reveal LLRCs in normal non-injured livers and characterized their regenerative properties in vivo and in culture. We found that LLRCs were located in biliary vessels and participated in the regeneration of biliary but not hepatocyte injury...
January 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28084196/age-associated-differences-in-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells-of-mice
#16
Samanta Gasco
Establishing the appropriate yet minimal number of control mice for experiments is a critical step in experimental design. Thisdecision is particularly important regarding the study of the hematopoietic system over time, given various age-associated changes in murine hematopoietic cell populations. Here we used flow cytometry to serially monitor the frequencies of hematopoietic stem cells, common lymphoid progenitor cells, and common myeloid progenitor cells and RT-PCR assays to study the levels of Ly6a(Sca1), Slamf1, Ikzf1, and Cebpa-4 genes that control the hematopoietic process-in wildtype male and female mice with a B6SJL genetic background...
January 12, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083784/understanding-parkinson-s-disease-through-the-use-of-cell-reprogramming
#17
REVIEW
Rebecca Playne, Bronwen Connor
Recent progress in the field of somatic cell reprogramming offers exciting new possibilities for the study and treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Reprogramming technology offers the ability to untangle the diverse contributing risk factors for PD, such as ageing, genetics and environmental toxins. In order to gain novel insights into such a complex disease, cell-based models of PD should represent, as closely as possible, aged human dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. However, the generation of high yields of functionally mature, authentic ventral midbrain dopamine (vmDA) neurons has not been easy to achieve...
January 12, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082728/correction-infiltrating-mast-cells-enhance-prostate-cancer-invasion-via-altering-lncrna-hotair-prc2-androgen-receptor-ar-mmp9-signals-and-increased-stem-progenitor-cell-population
#18
Lei Li, Qiang Dang, Hongjun Xie, Zhao Yang, Dalin He, Liang Liang, Wenbing Song, Shuyuan Yeh, Chawnshang Chang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082680/structural-determinants-of-the-gain-of-function-phenotype-of-human-leukemia-associated-mutant-cbl-oncogene
#19
Scott A Nadeau, Wei An, Bhopal C Mohapatra, Insha Mushtaq, Timothy A Bielecki, Haitao Luan, Neha Zutshi, Gulzar Ahmad, Matthew D Storck, Masashi Sanada, Seishi Ogawa, Vimla Band, Hamid Band
Mutations of the tyrosine kinase-directed ubiquitin ligase CBL cause myeloid leukemias, but the molecular determinants of the dominant leukemogenic activity of mutant CBL oncogenes are unclear. Here, we first define a gain of function attribute of the most common leukemia-associated CBL mutant, Y371H, by demonstrating its ability to increase proliferation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) derived from CBL-null and CBL/CBL-B-null mice. Next, we express second-site point/deletion mutants of CBL-Y371H in CBL/CBL-B-null HSPCs or cytokine-dependent human leukemic cell line TF-1 to show that individual or combined Y->F mutations of established phosphotyrosine residues (Y700, Y731 and Y774) had little impact on the activity of CBL-Y371H mutant in HSPCs, and the triple Y->F mutant was only modestly impaired in TF-1 cells...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28082608/the-conservation-of-the-germline-multipotency-program-from-sponges-to-vertebrates-a-stepping-stone-to-understanding-the-somatic-and-germline-origins
#20
Laura Fierro-Constaín, Quentin Schenkelaars, Eve Gazave, Anne Haguenauer, Caroline Rocher, Alexander Ereskovsky, Carole Borchiellini, Emmanuelle Renard
The germline definition in metazoans was first based on few bilaterian models. As a result, gene function interpretations were often based on phenotypes observed in those models and led to the definition of a set of genes, considered as specific of the germline, named the "germline core". However, some of these genes were shown to also be involved in somatic stem cells, thus leading to the notion of germline multipotency program (GMP). Because Porifera and Ctenophora are currently the best candidates to be the sister-group to all other animals, the comparative analysis of gene contents and functions between these phyla, Cnidaria and Bilateria is expected to provide clues on early animal evolution and on the links between somatic and germ lineages...
January 12, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
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