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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822061/co-ultramicronized-palmitoylethanolamide-luteolin-facilitates-the-development-of-differentiating-and-undifferentiated-rat-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells
#1
Stephen D Skaper, Massimo Barbierato, Laura Facci, Mila Borri, Gabriella Contarini, Morena Zusso, Pietro Giusti
Oligodendrocytes, the myelin-producing cells of the central nervous system (CNS), have limited capability to bring about repair in chronic CNS neuroinflammatory demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS). MS lesions are characterized by a compromised pool of undifferentiated oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) unable to mature into myelin-producing oligodendrocytes. An attractive strategy may be to replace lost OLs and/or promote their maturation. N-palmitoylethanolamine (PEA) is an endogenous fatty acid amide signaling molecule with anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective actions...
August 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821904/developmentally-regulated-signaling-pathways-in-glioma-invasion
#2
REVIEW
Shwetal Mehta, Costanza Lo Cascio
Malignant gliomas are the most common, infiltrative, and lethal primary brain tumors affecting the adult population. The grim prognosis for this disease is due to a combination of the presence of highly invasive tumor cells that escape surgical resection and the presence of a population of therapy-resistant cancer stem cells found within these tumors. Several studies suggest that glioma cells have cleverly hijacked the normal developmental program of neural progenitor cells, including their transcriptional programs, to enhance gliomagenesis...
August 18, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821816/an-expandable-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-purkinje-neuron-progenitor-population-that-exhibits-in-vivo-maturation-in-the-adult-mouse-cerebellum
#3
Gustavo A Higuera, Grazia Iaffaldano, Meiwand Bedar, Guy Shpak, Robin Broersen, Shashini T Munshi, Catherine Dupont, Joost Gribnau, Femke M S de Vrij, Steven A Kushner, Chris I De Zeeuw
The directed differentiation of patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells into cell-type specific neurons has inspired the development of therapeutic discovery for neurodegenerative diseases. Many forms of ataxia result from degeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells, but thus far it has not been possible to efficiently generate Purkinje neuron (PN) progenitors from human or mouse pluripotent stem cells, let alone to develop a methodology for in vivo transplantation in the adult cerebellum. Here, we present a protocol to obtain an expandable population of cerebellar neuron progenitors from mouse embryonic stem cells...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821543/airway-basal-cell-heterogeneity-and-lung-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#4
EDITORIAL
Robert E Hynds, Sam M Janes
Basal cells are stem/progenitor cells that maintain airway homeostasis, enact repair following epithelial injury, and are a candidate cell-of-origin for lung squamous cell carcinoma. Heterogeneity of basal cells is recognized in terms of gene expression and differentiation capacity. In this Issue, Pagano and colleagues isolate a subset of immortalized basal cells that are characterized by high motility, suggesting that they might also be heterogeneous in their biophysical properties. Motility-selected cells displayed an increased ability to colonize the lung in vivo The possible implications of these findings are discussed in terms of basal cell heterogeneity, epithelial cell migration, and modeling of metastasis that occurs early in cancer evolution...
August 18, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821477/tgf-%C3%AE-induced-intracellular-pai-1-is-responsible-for-retaining-hematopoietic-stem-cells-in-the-niche
#5
Takashi Yahata, Abd Aziz Ibrahim, Yukari Muguruma, Mesut Eren, Alexander M Shaffer, Nobuo Watanabe, Satoko Kaneko, Tetsuo Nakabayashi, Takashi Dan, Noriaki Hirayama, Douglas E Vaughan, Toshio Miyata, Kiyoshi Ando
Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) reside in the supportive stromal niche in bone marrow (BM); when needed, however, they are rapidly mobilized into the circulation, suggesting that HSPCs are intrinsically highly motile but are usually stayed in the niche. We questioned what determines the motility of HSPCs. Here we show that transforming growth factor (TGF)-β-induced intracellular plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 activation is responsible for keeping HSPCs in the BM niche. We found that the expression of PAI-1, a downstream target of TGF-β-signaling, was selectively augmented in niche-residing HSPCs...
August 18, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821432/effect-of-micro-strain-stress-on-proliferation-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells-in-vitro-by-the-mapk-erk1-2-signaling-pathway
#6
Bin Zhao, Zhihu Zhao, Xiaolei Sun, Yang Zhang, Yue Guo, Peng Tian, Jianxiong Ma, Xinlong Ma
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of micro strain stress on the proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells in vitro by the MAPK-ERK1/2 signaling pathway. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study, we report the effect of micro strain stress on proliferation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in vitro by loading different types of micro strain stress on EPCs. We also explore the possible mechanisms of this phenomenon. RESULTS: The results of flow cytometry show that appropriate micro strain stress can promote EPC proliferation...
August 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820907/positive-regulatory-interactions-between-yap-and-hedgehog-signalling-in-skin-homeostasis-and-bcc-development-in-mouse-skin-in-vivo
#7
Bassem Akladios, Veronica Mendoza Reinoso, Jason E Cain, Taopeng Wang, Duncan L Lambie, D Neil Watkins, Annemiek Beverdam
Skin is a highly plastic tissue that undergoes tissue turnover throughout life, but also in response to injury. YAP and Hedgehog signalling play a central role in the control of epidermal stem/progenitor cells in the skin during embryonic development, in postnatal tissue homeostasis and in skin carcinogenesis. However, the genetic contexts in which they act to control tissue homeostasis remain mostly unresolved. We provide compelling evidence that epidermal YAP and Hedgehog/GLI2 signalling undergo positive regulatory interactions in the control of normal epidermal homeostasis and in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) development, which in the large majority of cases is caused by aberrant Hedgehog signalling activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820341/cell-cycle-dynamics-and-complement-expression-distinguishes-mature-hematopoietic-subsets-arising-from-hemogenic-endothelium
#8
Joan P Zape, Carlos O Lizama, Kelly M Cautivo-Reyes, Ann C Zovein
The emergence of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from hemogenic endothelium results in the formation of sizeable HSPC clusters attached to the vascular wall. We evaluate the cell cycle and proliferation of HSPCs involved in cluster formation, as well as the molecular signatures from their initial appearance to the point when cluster cells are capable of adult engraftment (definitive HSCs). We uncover a non-clonal origin of HSPC clusters with differing cell cycle, migration, and cell signaling attributes...
August 18, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819889/visualization-of-57-fe-labeled-heme-isotopic-fine-structure-and-localization-of-regions-of-erythroblast-maturation-in-mouse-spleen-by-maldi-fticr-ms-imaging
#9
Makoto Kihara, Yukari Matsuo-Tezuka, Mariko Noguchi-Sasaki, Keigo Yorozu, Mitsue Kurasawa, Yasushi Shimonaka, Michinori Hirata
Epoetin beta pegol (continuous erythropoiesis receptor activator; C.E.R.A.), or methoxy-polyethylene glycol-modified epoetin beta, is a long-acting erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA) that effectively maintains hemoglobin levels. It promotes proliferation of erythroid progenitor cells in hematopoietic organs and leads to increased reticulocyte and hemoglobin levels. However, the detailed erythropoietic effects of various ESAs on their target organs have yet to be clarified, and new approaches are needed to analyze tissue iron localization with structural information...
August 17, 2017: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819363/combined-analysis-of-endothelial-hematopoietic-and-mesenchymal-stem-cell-compartments-shows-simultaneous-but-independent-effects-of-age-and-heart-disease
#10
Carine Ghem, Lucinara Dadda Dias, Roberto Tofani Sant'Anna, Renato A K Kalil, Melissa Markoski, Nance Beyer Nardi
Clinical trials using stem cell therapy for heart diseases have not reproduced the initial positive results obtained with animal models. This might be explained by a decreased regenerative capacity of stem cells collected from the patients. This work aimed at the simultaneous investigation of endothelial stem/progenitor cells (EPCs), mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs), and hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs) in sternal bone marrow samples of patients with ischemic or valvular heart disease, using flow cytometry and colony assays...
2017: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819278/interleukin-4-induces-apoptosis-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia-cells-in-a-stat6-dependent-manner
#11
P Peña-Martínez, M Eriksson, R Ramakrishnan, M Chapellier, C Högberg, C Orsmark-Pietras, J Richter, A Andersson, T Fioretos, M Järås
Cytokines provide signals that regulate immature normal and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells in the bone marrow microenvironment. We here identify interleukin 4 (IL4) as a selective inhibitor of AML cell growth and survival in a cytokine screen using fluorescently labeled AML cells. RNA-sequencing of the AML cells revealed an IL4-induced upregulation of Stat6 target genes and enrichment of apoptosis-related gene expression signatures. Consistent with these findings, we found that IL4 stimulation of AML cells induced Stat6 phosphorylation and that disruption of Stat6 using CRISPR/Cas9-genetic engineering rendered cells partially resistant to IL4-induced apoptosis...
August 18, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819169/cd206-m2-like-macrophages-regulate-systemic-glucose-metabolism-by-inhibiting-proliferation-of-adipocyte-progenitors
#12
Allah Nawaz, Aminuddin Aminuddin, Tomonobu Kado, Akiko Takikawa, Seiji Yamamoto, Koichi Tsuneyama, Yoshiko Igarashi, Masashi Ikutani, Yasuhiro Nishida, Yoshinori Nagai, Kiyoshi Takatsu, Johji Imura, Masakiyo Sasahara, Yukiko Okazaki, Kohjiro Ueki, Tadashi Okamura, Kumpei Tokuyama, Akira Ando, Michihiro Matsumoto, Hisashi Mori, Takashi Nakagawa, Norihiko Kobayashi, Kumiko Saeki, Isao Usui, Shiho Fujisaka, Kazuyuki Tobe
Adipose tissue resident macrophages have important roles in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and regulate insulin sensitivity for example by secreting pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory cytokines. Here, we show that M2-like macrophages in adipose tissue regulate systemic glucose homeostasis by inhibiting adipocyte progenitor proliferation via the CD206/TGFβ signaling pathway. We show that adipose tissue CD206(+) cells are primarily M2-like macrophages, and ablation of CD206(+) M2-like macrophages improves systemic insulin sensitivity, which was associated with an increased number of smaller adipocytes...
August 18, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818454/the-anti-tumor-effect-of-intravesical-administration-of-normal-urothelial-cells-on-bladder-cancer
#13
Chi-Ping Huang, Chi-Cheng Chen, Chih-Rong Shyr
BACKGROUND AIMS: Urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) is the second most common cancer of the genitourinary tract and for advanced forms of the disease it has a high mortality rate. There are no approved new molecularly targeted agents or chemotherapeutics for advanced UBC beyond cisplatin-based chemotherapy except the recently approved anti-programmed death ligand 1 (anti-PD-1/PD-L1) antibody. With complex genetic and epigenetic alterations in tumors, despite several druggable targets identified, to cure UBC is still a challenging unmet medical need...
August 14, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817977/a-short-and-efficient-transduction-protocol-of-mouse-hematopoietic-stem-cells-with-lentiviral-vectors
#14
Maria Fernandez-Garcia, Cristina Mesa-Nuñez, Elena Almarza, Juan Bueren, Rosa Yañez
Transduction of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) with therapeutic lentiviral vectors (LVs) constitutes a new therapeutic option for the treatment of different monogenic diseases affecting the lympho-hematopoietic system. The development of detailed preclinical studies of gene therapy in animal disease models constitutes an essential step in expanding the application of gene therapy in a wide variety of inherited and acquired diseases. Here we describe an efficient protocol to transduce HSPCs from wild-type and Fanconi anemia mice with either gene marking or therapeutic LVs...
August 17, 2017: Human Gene Therapy Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817802/molecular-memory-of-morphologies-by-septins-during-neuron-generation-allows-early-polarity-inheritance
#15
Leila Boubakar, Julien Falk, Hugo Ducuing, Karine Thoinet, Florie Reynaud, Edmund Derrington, Valérie Castellani
Transmission of polarity established early during cell lineage history is emerging as a key process guiding cell differentiation. Highly polarized neurons provide a fascinating model to study inheritance of polarity over cell generations and across morphological transitions. Neural crest cells (NCCs) migrate to the dorsal root ganglia to generate neurons directly or after cell divisions in situ. Using live imaging of vertebrate embryo slices, we found that bipolar NCC progenitors lose their polarity, retracting their processes to round for division, but generate neurons with bipolar morphology by emitting processes from the same locations as the progenitor...
August 16, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817722/nicotinamide-alone-accelerates-the-conversion-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-into-mature-neuronal-populations
#16
Síle M Griffin, Mark R Pickard, Rowan P Orme, Clive P Hawkins, Adrian C Williams, Rosemary A Fricker
INTRODUCTION: Vitamin B3 has been shown to play an important role during embryogenesis. Specifically, there is growing evidence that nicotinamide, the biologically active form of vitamin B3, plays a critical role as a morphogen in the differentiation of stem cells to mature cell phenotypes, including those of the central nervous system (CNS). Detailed knowledge of the action of small molecules during neuronal differentiation is not only critical for uncovering mechanisms underlying lineage-specification, but also to establish more effective differentiation protocols to obtain clinically relevant cells for regenerative therapies for neurodegenerative conditions such as Huntington's disease (HD)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817660/cited4-is-related-to-cardiogenic-induction-and-maintenance-of-proliferation-capacity-of-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-during-in-vitro-cardiogenesis
#17
Junichiro Miake, Tomomi Notsu, Katsumi Higaki, Kyoko Hidaka, Takayuki Morisaki, Kazuhiro Yamamoto, Ichiro Hisatome
Cardiac progenitor cells have a limited proliferative capacity. The CREB-binding protein/p300-interacting transactivator, with the Glu/Asp-rich carboxy-terminal domain (Cited) gene family, regulates gene transcription. Increased expression of the Cited4 gene in an adult mouse is associated with exercise-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and proliferation. However, the expression patterns and functional roles of the Cited4 gene during cardiogenesis are largely unknown. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the expression patterns and functional roles of the Cited4 gene during in vitro cardiogenesis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817455/jak-kinase-3-signaling-in-microgliogenesis-from-the-spinal-nestin-progenitors-in-both-development-and-response-to-injury
#18
Sumit Barua, Jee-In Chung, A Young Kim, Soo-Yeon Lee, Soo Hwan Lee, Eun Joo Baik
During spinal cord development, endogenous progenitors expressing nestin can migrate into the target and differentiate into neurons and other glial cells. Microglial cells can also be derived from nestin progenitor cells, even in the adult brain. Knockdown of Jak kinase 3 (Jak3) signaling can increase neurogenesis with longer neurite outgrowth in cortical progenitor cells. This study investigated the effect of Jak3 signaling on differentiation from nestin progenitor cells using E13.5 spinal progenitor cell cultures...
August 16, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816640/exosomal-microrna-communication-between-tissues-during-organogenesis
#19
Toru Hayashi, Matthew P Hoffman
Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions are required to coordinate cell proliferation, patterning, and functional differentiation of multiple cell types in a developing organ. This exquisite coordination is dependent on various secreted molecules that provide developmental signals to mediate these tissue interactions. Recently, it was reported that mature mesenchymal-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) in the fetal mouse salivary gland are loaded into exosomes, and transported to the epithelium where they influence progenitor cell proliferation...
August 17, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816507/arthroscopic-harvest-of-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-the-infrapatellar-fat-pad
#20
Jason L Dragoo, Wenteh Chang
BACKGROUND: The successful isolation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) from the arthroscopically harvested infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) would provide orthopaedic surgeons with an autologous solution for regenerative procedures. PURPOSE: To demonstrate the quantity and viability of the mesenchymal stem cell population arthroscopically harvested from the IFP as well as the surrounding synovium. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
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