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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921117/mcp1-triggers-monocyte-dysfunctions-during-abnormal-osteogenic-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-ankylosing-spondylitis
#1
Zhongyu Xie, Peng Wang, Jinteng Li, Yuxi Li, Shan Wang, Xiaohua Wu, Suhe Sun, Shuizhong Cen, Hongjun Su, Wen Deng, Zhenhua Liu, Yi Ouyang, Yanfeng Wu, Huiyong Shen
: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by pathological osteogenesis and inflammation. However, the pathogenesis of AS and the pathological relationship between osteogenesis and inflammation in this disease remain largely unknown. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells capable of osteogenic differentiation and immunoregulation. Recently, we demonstrated that MSCs from AS patients (ASMSCs) have a greater potential for osteogenic differentiation than MSCs from healthy donors (HDMSCs), which therefore seems to be a component of pathological osteogenesis in AS...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920253/bmp-induces-osteoblast-differentiation-through-both-smad4-and-mtorc1-signaling
#2
Courtney M Karner, Seung-Yon Lee, Fanxin Long
The bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) family of secreted molecules has been extensively studied in the context of osteoblast differentiation. However, the intracellular signaling cascades mediating the osteoblastogenic function of Bmp have not been fully elucidated. By profiling mRNA expression in the bone marrow mesenchymal progenitor cell line ST2 cells, we discover that BMP2 induces not only genes commonly associated with ossification and mineralization, but also genes important for general protein synthesis...
December 5, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920208/genetic-modification-of-er-hoxb8-osteoclast-precursors-using-crispr-cas9-as-a-novel-way-to-allow-studies-on-osteoclast-biology
#3
Irene Di Ceglie, Guus G H van den Akker, Giuliana Ascone, Bas Ten Harkel, Hans Häcker, Fons A J van de Loo, Marije I Koenders, Peter M van der Kraan, Teun J de Vries, Thomas Vogl, Johannes Roth, Peter L E M van Lent
Osteoclasts are cells specialized in bone resorption. Currently, studies on murine osteoclasts are primarily performed on bone marrow-derived cells with the use of many animals and limited cells available. ER-Hoxb8 cells are conditionally immortalized monocyte/macrophage murine progenitor cells, recently described to be able to differentiate toward functional osteoclasts. Here, we produced an ER-Hoxb8 clonal cell line from C57BL/6 bone marrow cells that strongly resembles phenotype and function of the conventional bone marrow-derived osteoclasts...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920144/methyl-cpg-binding-protein-mbd1-regulates-neuronal-lineage-commitment-through-maintaining-adult-neural-stem-cell-identity
#4
Emily M Jobe, Yu Gao, Brian E Eisinger, Janessa K Mladucky, Charles C Giuliani, Laurel E Kelnhofer, Xinyu Zhao
: MBD1 belongs to a family of methyl-CpG binding proteins that are epigenetic "readers", linking DNA methylation to transcriptional regulation. MBD1 is expressed in neural stem cells residing in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus (aNSCs), and MBD1 deficiency leads to reduced neuronal differentiation, impaired neurogenesis, learning deficits, and autism-like behaviors in mice; however the precise function of MBD1 in aNSCs remains unexplored. Here, we show that MBD1 is important for maintaining the integrity and stemness of NSCs, which is critical for their ability to generate neurons...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920086/a-role-for-mitotic-bookmarking-of-sox2-in-pluripotency-and-differentiation
#5
Cédric Deluz, Elias T Friman, Daniel Strebinger, Alexander Benke, Mahé Raccaud, Andrea Callegari, Marion Leleu, Suliana Manley, David M Suter
Mitotic bookmarking transcription factors remain bound to chromosomes during mitosis and were proposed to regulate phenotypic maintenance of stem and progenitor cells at the mitosis-to-G1 (M-G1) transition. However, mitotic bookmarking remains largely unexplored in most stem cell types, and its functional relevance for cell fate decisions remains unclear. Here we screened for mitotic chromosome binding within the pluripotency network of embryonic stem (ES) cells and show that SOX2 and OCT4 remain bound to mitotic chromatin through their respective DNA-binding domains...
December 5, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919572/non-fucosylated-cb-cd34-cells-represent-a-good-target-for-enforced-fucosylation-to-improve-engraftment-following-cord-blood-transplantation
#6
Simon N Robinson, Michael W Thomas, Paul J Simmons, Junjun Lu, Hong Yang, Jeannie A Javni, Elizabeth J Shpall, Patrick A Zweidler-Mckay
BACKGROUND AIMS: Despite ethnic diversity and ready availability of cryopreserved, human leukocyte antigen-typed cord blood (CB), delayed engraftment remains a significant hurdle to successful CB transplantation. Suboptimal homing of CB hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) to the hematopoietic microenvironment (HM) is thought to be responsible and due to low levels of HSPC fucosylation. Fucosylation (decoration with sialyl-Lewis(X)) may improve HSPC homing to HM by increasing the strength of HSPC/E-selectin interactions, where E-selectin is constitutively expressed by HM microvasculature...
December 2, 2016: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919341/human-epidermal-stem-cells-role-in-adverse-skin-reactions-and-carcinogenesis-from-radiation
#7
Michèle T Martin, Adeline Vulin, Jolyon H Hendry
In human skin, keratinopoiesis is based on a functional hierarchy among keratinocytes, with rare slow-cycling stem cells responsible for the long-term maintenance of the tissue through their self-renewal potential, and more differentiated daughter progenitor cells actively cycling to permit epidermal renewal and turn-over every month. Skin is a radio-responsive tissue, developing all types of radiation damage and pathologies, including early tissue reactions such as dysplasia and denudation in epidermis, and later fibrosis in the dermis and acanthosis in epidermis, with the TGF-beta 1 pathway as a known master switch...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918914/transformation-of-jaw-muscle-satellite-cells-to-cardiomyocytes
#8
Randall S Daughters, Susan A Keirstead, Jonathan M W Slack
In the embryo a population of progenitor cells known as the second heart field forms not just parts of the heart but also the jaw muscles of the head. Here we show that it is possible to take skeletal muscle satellite cells from jaw muscles of the adult mouse and to direct their differentiation to become heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes). This is done by exposing the cells to extracellular factors similar to those which heart progenitors would experience during normal embryonic development. By contrast, cardiac differentiation does not occur at all from satellite cells isolated from trunk and limb muscles, which originate from the somites of the embryo...
December 2, 2016: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918563/dickkopf-1-promotes-hematopoietic-regeneration-via-direct-and-niche-mediated-mechanisms
#9
Heather A Himburg, Phuong L Doan, Mamle Quarmyne, Xiao Yan, Joshua Sasine, Liman Zhao, Grace V Hancock, Jenny Kan, Katherine A Pohl, Evelyn Tran, Nelson J Chao, Jeffrey R Harris, John P Chute
The role of osteolineage cells in regulating hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) regeneration following myelosuppression is not well understood. Here we show that deletion of the pro-apoptotic genes Bak and Bax in osterix (Osx, also known as Sp7 transcription factor 7)-expressing cells in mice promotes HSC regeneration and hematopoietic radioprotection following total body irradiation. These mice showed increased bone marrow (BM) levels of the protein dickkopf-1 (Dkk1), which was produced in Osx-expressing BM cells...
December 5, 2016: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918534/multiethnic-genome-wide-meta-analysis-of-ectopic-fat-depots-identifies-loci-associated-with-adipocyte-development-and-differentiation
#10
Audrey Y Chu, Xuan Deng, Virginia A Fisher, Alexander Drong, Yang Zhang, Mary F Feitosa, Ching-Ti Liu, Olivia Weeks, Audrey C Choh, Qing Duan, Thomas D Dyer, John D Eicher, Xiuqing Guo, Nancy L Heard-Costa, Tim Kacprowski, Jack W Kent, Leslie A Lange, Xinggang Liu, Kurt Lohman, Lingyi Lu, Anubha Mahajan, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Ankita Parihar, Juan M Peralta, Albert V Smith, Yi Zhang, Georg Homuth, Ahmed H Kissebah, Joel Kullberg, René Laqua, Lenore J Launer, Matthias Nauck, Michael Olivier, Patricia A Peyser, James G Terry, Mary K Wojczynski, Jie Yao, Lawrence F Bielak, John Blangero, Ingrid B Borecki, Donald W Bowden, John Jeffrey Carr, Stefan A Czerwinski, Jingzhong Ding, Nele Friedrich, Vilmunder Gudnason, Tamara B Harris, Erik Ingelsson, Andrew D Johnson, Sharon L R Kardia, Carl D Langefeld, Lars Lind, Yongmei Liu, Braxton D Mitchell, Andrew P Morris, Thomas H Mosley, Jerome I Rotter, Alan R Shuldiner, Bradford Towne, Henry Völzke, Henri Wallaschofski, James G Wilson, Matthew Allison, Cecilia M Lindgren, Wolfram Goessling, L Adrienne Cupples, Matthew L Steinhauser, Caroline S Fox
Variation in body fat distribution contributes to the metabolic sequelae of obesity. The genetic determinants of body fat distribution are poorly understood. The goal of this study was to gain new insights into the underlying genetics of body fat distribution by conducting sample-size-weighted fixed-effects genome-wide association meta-analyses in up to 9,594 women and 8,738 men of European, African, Hispanic and Chinese ancestry, with and without sex stratification, for six traits associated with ectopic fat (hereinafter referred to as ectopic-fat traits)...
December 5, 2016: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918111/imatinib-accelerates-progenitor-cell-mediated-liver-regeneration-in-choline-deficient-ethionine-supplemented-diet-fed-mice
#11
András Rókusz, Edina Bugyik, Vanessza Szabó, Armanda Szücs, Sándor Paku, Péter Nagy, Katalin Dezső
Severe chronic hepatic injury can induce complex reparative processes. Ductular reaction and the appearance of small hepatocytes are standard components of this response, which is thought to have both adverse (e.g. fibrosis, carcinogenesis) and beneficial (regeneration) consequences. This complex tissue reaction is regulated by orchestrated cytokine action. We have investigated the influence of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib on a regenerative process. Ductular reaction was induced in mice by the widely used choline-deficient ethionine-supplemented diet (CDE)...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918106/cannabidiol-activates-neuronal-precursor-genes-in-human-gingival-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#12
Thangavelu Soundara Rajan, Sabrina Giacoppo, Domenico Scionti, Francesca Diomede, Gianpaolo Grassi, Federica Pollastro, Adriano Piattelli, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon, Oriana Trubiani
In the last years, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from oral tissues have received considerable interest in regenerative medicine since they can be obtained with minimal invasive procedure and exhibit immunomodulatory properties. This study was aimed to investigate whether in vitro pre-treatment of MSCs obtained from human gingiva (hGMSCs) with Cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabinoid component produced by the plant Cannabis sativa, may promote human gingiva derived MSCs to differentiate towards neuronal precursor cells...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917009/induced-expression-of-cancer-stem-cell-markers-aldh1a3-and-sox-2-in-hierarchical-reconstitution-of-apoptosis-resistant-human-breast-cancer-cells
#13
Karin Kashii-Magaribuchi, Rie Takeuchi, Yuko Haisa, Akemi Sakamoto, Aimi Itoh, Yuki Izawa, Miyuki Isa, Mayu Fukuzawa, Motonobu Murakami, Rei Takahashi
We established an experimental system that can induce p53-dependent apoptosis by doxycycline treatment to analyze characteristics of the apoptosis-resistant cancer cell subpopulation in the human breast cancer cell line HCC1937. Expression patterns of the stem cell markers, ALDH1A3 and Sox-2, the luminal differentiation marker, GATA3 and the proliferation index marker, Ki-67 were analyzed using immunostaining and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). After doxycycline treatment, the number of viable cells was gradually decreased over seven days in a time-dependent manner due to p53-induced apoptosis; however, the number of smaller-sized ALDH1A3(+) cells assessed by immunostaining increased sharply after 1 day of doxycycline treatment, suggesting their apoptosis-resistant nature...
November 1, 2016: Acta Histochemica et Cytochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916609/recent-perspectives-of-stem-cells-use-in-cardiac-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Shuang Chen, Rongrong Sun, Xianchi Li, Min Liu, Yi Zeng, Peiying Zhang
Stem cells and progenitor cells have unique abilities for self-renewal. These cells have differentiation capacity to develop as various types of cells, including cardiac cells. Since atherosclerosis is considered disease of endothelial dysfunction, regenerative cell-based therapy is an effective approach to ameliorate atherosclerotic pathogenesis. Recent studies are now focused on the effective targeting of stem cells at the site of interest. Echogenic liposomes approach has a good potential for efficient delivery of drugs and have ability to reduce atheroma progression...
December 1, 2016: Hellenic Journal of Cardiology: HJC, Hellēnikē Kardiologikē Epitheōrēsē
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916592/new-developments-in-cardiac-regeneration
#15
REVIEW
Thi Yen Loan Le, Sujitha Thavapalachandran, Eddy Kizana, James Jh Chong
Numerous pharmacological and device therapies have improved adverse cardiac remodelling and mortality in heart failure. However, none are able to regenerate damaged cardiac tissue. Stem cell based therapies using multipotent (adult) stem cells and pluripotent stem cells are new approaches that could potentially achieve the elusive goal of true cardiac regeneration. Over the past two decades, various stem cell based approaches have been shown to improve left ventricular function in pre-clinical animal models...
November 19, 2016: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916538/myofibroblasts-derived-from-hepatic-progenitor-cells-create-the-tumor-microenvironment
#16
Sayaka Sekiya, Shizuka Miura, Kanae Matsuda-Ito, Atsushi Suzuki
Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) appear in response to several types of chronic injury in the human and rodent liver that often develop into liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and primary liver cancers. However, the contribution of HPCs to the pathogenesis and progression of such liver diseases remains controversial. HPCs are generally defined as cells that can differentiate into hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. In this study, however, we found that HPCs isolated from the chronically injured liver can also give rise to myofibroblasts as a third type of descendant...
November 26, 2016: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916527/dynamic-mrna-transport-and-local-translation-in-radial-glial-progenitors-of-the-developing-brain
#17
Louis-Jan Pilaz, Ashley L Lennox, Jeremy P Rouanet, Debra L Silver
In the developing brain, neurons are produced from neural stem cells termed radial glia [1, 2]. Radial glial progenitors span the neuroepithelium, extending long basal processes to form endfeet hundreds of micrometers away from the soma. Basal structures influence neuronal migration, tissue integrity, and proliferation [3-7]. Yet, despite the significance of these distal structures, their cell biology remains poorly characterized, impeding our understanding of how basal processes and endfeet influence neurogenesis...
November 30, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915981/molecular-cellular-and-pharmaceutical-aspects-of-autologous-grafts-for-peri-implant-hard-and-soft-tissue-defects
#18
Jiayu Lu, Yongming Hao, Wei Zhao, Chengqi Lv, Derong Zou
The lack of supporting hard and soft tissues always prevents the rehabilitation with dental implants. Among various hard and soft tissue augmentation procedures, autologous grafts have been considered to be the gold standard. Autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from bone marrow, dental tissue and adipose tissue have been described as promising alternatives for bone regeneration in the field of dental implantation. Mucosal cells, gingival fibroblasts and dental progenitor cells (DPS) can enhance peri-implant soft tissue augmentation and regenerate periodontal tissues around dental implants...
December 1, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915217/human-cells-involved-in-atherosclerosis-have-a-sex
#19
REVIEW
Flavia Franconi, Giuseppe Rosano, Stefania Basili, Andrea Montella, Ilaria Campesi
The influence of sex has been largely described in cardiovascular diseases. Atherosclerosis is a complex process that involves many cell types such as vessel cells, immune cells and endothelial progenitor cells; however, many, if not all, studies do not report the sex of the cells. This review focuses on sex differences in human cells involved in the atherosclerotic process, emphasizing the role of sex hormones. Furthermore, we report sex differences and issues related to the processes that determine the fate of the cells such as apoptotic and autophagic mechanisms...
November 9, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915086/metabolism-and-neurogenesis
#20
REVIEW
Marlen Knobloch, Sebastian Jessberger
The generation of neurons in the developing and adult mammalian brain by neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) depends on a tight control of NSPC activity and neuronal differentiation that is regulated by a plethora of intrinsic and extrinsic molecular cues. Besides well-studied morphogenic signaling pathways and transcriptional codes that govern the distinct developmental steps from the dividing NSPC to a functional neuron, a critical role of cellular metabolism to determine the functional properties of NSPCs and newborn neurons has been recently identified...
December 1, 2016: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
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