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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232628/epithelial-plasticity-in-the-mammary-gland
#1
REVIEW
Lindsey Seldin, Armelle Le Guelte, Ian G Macara
Many epithelial tissues rely on multipotent stem cells for the proper development and maintenance of their diverse cell lineages. Nevertheless, the identification of multipotent stem cell populations within the mammary gland has been a point of contention over the past decade. In this review, we provide a critical overview of the various lineage-tracing studies performed to address this issue and conclude that although multipotent stem cells exist in the embryonic mammary placode, the postnatal mammary gland instead contains distinct unipotent progenitor populations that contribute to stage-specific development and homeostasis...
December 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232383/low-doses-of-oxygen-ion-irradiation-cause-long-term-damage-to-bone-marrow-hematopoietic-progenitor-and-stem-cells-in-mice
#2
Yingying Wang, Jianhui Chang, Xin Li, Rupak Pathak, Vijayalakshmi Sridharan, Tamako Jones, Xiao Wen Mao, Gregory Nelson, Marjan Boerma, Martin Hauer-Jensen, Daohong Zhou, Lijian Shao
During deep space missions, astronauts will be exposed to low doses of charged particle irradiation. The long-term health effects of these exposures are largely unknown. We previously showed that low doses of oxygen ion (16O) irradiation induced acute damage to the hematopoietic system, including hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells in a mouse model. However, the chronic effects of low dose 16O irradiation remain undefined. In the current study, we investigated the long-term effects of low dose 16O irradiation on the mouse hematopoietic system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232382/charting-the-transcriptional-landscape-of-cells-of-renin-lineage-following-podocyte-depletion
#3
Aaron D McClelland, Julia Lichtnekert, Diana G Eng, Jeffrey W Pippin, Kenneth W Gross, Sina A Gharib, Stuart J Shankland
Renin producing cells of the juxtaglomerulus, herein called cells of renin lineage (CoRL), have garnered recent interest for their propensity to act as a progenitor source for various kidney cell types including podocytes. Despite recent advances, the process of transdifferentiation of CoRL to podocytes is poorly understood. In this study, we employed a transgenic reporter mouse line which permanently labels CoRL with ZsGreen fluorescent protein, allowing for isolation by fluorescence-activated cell sorting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232311/lithium-colchicine-a-potential-strategy-to-reduce-pro-inflammatory-effects-of-lithium-treatment
#4
John J Mooney, Roscoe O Brady
PURPOSE: Rosenblat and McIntyre (Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2015;132: 180-191) propose that immune disorders are important mediators between bipolar disorders and medical comorbidities. Rosenblat et al (Bipolar Disord. 2016;18:89-101) present a meta-analysis showing that adjunctive anti-inflammatory agents could evoke moderate antidepressant responses in bipolar disorders. We propose using the anti-inflammatory drug colchicine to improve the long-term safety and efficacy of lithium treatment for bipolar disorders...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232209/recent-progress-in-understanding-hiv-reservoirs
#5
Hsiao-Hsuan Kuo, Mathias Lichterfeld
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Reservoirs of HIV-1-infected cells persist long-term despite highly effective antiretroviral suppression therapy and represent the main barrier against a cure for HIV-1. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the complexity and diversity of viral reservoir cells. RECENT FINDINGS: Latently infected memory CD4 T cells are the predominant cell compartment responsible for viral persistence, but some studies suggest that myeloid cells, and possibly hematopoietic progenitors, can also serve as long-term viral reservoirs...
December 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230807/a-comparative-study-of-the-neural-stem-cell-niche-in-the-adult-hypothalamus-of-human-mouse-rat-and-grey-mouse-lemur-microcebus-murinus
#6
Giuliana Pellegrino, Claire Trubert, Jérémy Terrien, Fabien Pifferi, Danièle Leroy, Anne Loyens, Martine Migaud, Marc Baroncini, Claude-Alain Maurage, Christian Fontaine, Vincent Prévot, Ariane Sharif
The adult brain contains niches of neural stem cells that continuously add new neurons to selected circuits throughout life. Two niches have been extensively studied in various mammalian species including humans, the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Recently, studies conducted mainly in rodents have identified a third neurogenic niche in the adult hypothalamus. In order to evaluate whether a neural stem cell niche also exists in the adult hypothalamus in humans, we performed multiple immunofluorescence labeling to assess the expression of a panel of neural stem/progenitor cell (NPC) markers (Sox2, nestin, vimentin, GLAST, GFAP) in the human hypothalamus and compared them with the mouse, rat and a non-human primate species, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus)...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230389/cyclic-tensile-strain-can-play-a-role-in-directing-both-intramembranous-and-endochondral-ossification-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#7
Simon F Carroll, Conor T Buckley, Daniel J Kelly
Successfully regenerating damaged or diseased bone and other joint tissues will require a detailed understanding of how joint specific environmental cues regulate the fate of progenitor cells that are recruited or delivered to the site of injury. The goal of this study was to explore the role of cyclic tensile strain (CTS) in regulating the initiation of mesenchymal stem cell/multipotent stromal cell (MSC) differentiation, and specifically their progression along the endochondral pathway. To this end, we first explored the influence of CTS on the differentiation of MSCs in the absence of any specific growth factor, and secondly, we examined the influence of the long-term application of this mechanical stimulus on markers of endochondral ossification in MSCs maintained in chondrogenic culture conditions...
2017: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230102/specific-deletion-of-%C3%AE-catenin-in-col2-expressing-cells-leads-to-defects-in-epiphyseal-bone
#8
Tingyu Wang, Jun Li, Guang-Qian Zhou, Peter Ma, Yue Zhao, Baoli Wang, Di Chen
The role of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling in postnatal bone growth has not been fully defined. In the present studies, we generated β-catenin conditional knockout (KO) mice and deleted β-catenin in Col2-expressing chondrocytes and mesenchymal progenitor cells. Findings from analyzing the β-cateninCol2CreER KO mice revealed severe bone destruction and bone loss phenotype in epiphyseal bone, probably due to the increase in osteoclast formation and the accumulation of adipocytes in this area. In addition, we also found bone destruction and bone loss phenotype in vertebral bone in β-cateninCol2CreER KO mice...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230053/stress-induced-unfolded-protein-response-contributes-to-zika-virus-associated-microcephaly
#9
Ivan Gladwyn-Ng, Lluís Cordón-Barris, Christian Alfano, Catherine Creppe, Thérèse Couderc, Giovanni Morelli, Nicolas Thelen, Michelle America, Bettina Bessières, Férechté Encha-Razavi, Maryse Bonnière, Ikuo K Suzuki, Marie Flamand, Pierre Vanderhaeghen, Marc Thiry, Marc Lecuit, Laurent Nguyen
Accumulating evidence support a causal link between Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during gestation and congenital microcephaly. However, the mechanism of ZIKV-associated microcephaly remains unclear. We combined analyses of ZIKV-infected human fetuses, cultured human neural stem cells and mouse embryos to understand how ZIKV induces microcephaly. We show that ZIKV triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress and unfolded protein response in the cerebral cortex of infected postmortem human fetuses as well as in cultured human neural stem cells...
December 11, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230039/gli1-identifies-osteogenic-progenitors-for-bone-formation-and-fracture-repair
#10
Yu Shi, Guangxu He, Wen-Chih Lee, Jennifer A McKenzie, Matthew J Silva, Fanxin Long
Bone formation in mammals requires continuous production of osteoblasts throughout life. A common molecular marker for all osteogenic mesenchymal progenitors has not been identified. Here, by lineage-tracing experiments in fetal or postnatal mice, we discover that Gli1+ cells progressively produce osteoblasts in all skeletal sites. Most notably, in postnatal growing mice, the Gli1+ cells residing immediately beneath the growth plate, termed here "metaphyseal mesenchymal progenitors" (MMPs), are essential for cancellous bone formation...
December 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230016/adhesion-forces-and-cortical-tension-couple-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation-to-drive-epidermal-stratification
#11
Yekaterina A Miroshnikova, Huy Q Le, David Schneider, Torsten Thalheim, Matthias Rübsam, Nadine Bremicker, Julien Polleux, Nadine Kamprad, Marco Tarantola, Irène Wang, Martial Balland, Carien M Niessen, Joerg Galle, Sara A Wickström
To establish and maintain organ structure and function, tissues need to balance stem cell proliferation and differentiation rates and coordinate cell fate with position. By quantifying and modelling tissue stress and deformation in the mammalian epidermis, we find that this balance is coordinated through local mechanical forces generated by cell division and delamination. Proliferation within the basal stem/progenitor layer, which displays features of a jammed, solid-like state, leads to crowding, thereby locally distorting cell shape and stress distribution...
December 11, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229923/eml1-loss-impairs-apical-progenitor-spindle-length-and-soma-shape-in-the-developing-cerebral-cortex
#12
Sara Bizzotto, Ana Uzquiano, Florent Dingli, Dmitry Ershov, Anne Houllier, Guillaume Arras, Mark Richards, Damarys Loew, Nicolas Minc, Alexandre Croquelois, Anne Houdusse, Fiona Francis
The ventricular zone (VZ) of the developing cerebral cortex is a pseudostratified epithelium that contains progenitors undergoing precisely regulated divisions at its most apical side, the ventricular lining (VL). Mitotic perturbations can contribute to pathological mechanisms leading to cortical malformations. The HeCo mutant mouse exhibits subcortical band heterotopia (SBH), likely to be initiated by progenitor delamination from the VZ early during corticogenesis. The causes for this are however, currently unknown...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229905/single-cell-rna-sequencing-uncovers-transcriptional-states-and-fate-decisions-in-haematopoiesis
#13
Emmanouil I Athanasiadis, Jan G Botthof, Helena Andres, Lauren Ferreira, Pietro Lio, Ana Cvejic
The success of marker-based approaches for dissecting haematopoiesis in mouse and human is reliant on the presence of well-defined cell surface markers specific for diverse progenitor populations. An inherent problem with this approach is that the presence of specific cell surface markers does not directly reflect the transcriptional state of a cell. Here, we used a marker-free approach to computationally reconstruct the blood lineage tree in zebrafish and order cells along their differentiation trajectory, based on their global transcriptional differences...
December 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229886/criticality-in-cell-differentiation
#14
Indrani Bose, Mainak Pal
Cell differentiation is an important process in living organisms. Differentiation is mostly based on binary decisions with the progenitor cells choosing between two specific lineages. The differentiation dynamics have both deterministic and stochastic components. Several theoretical studies suggest that cell differentiation is a bifurcation phenomenon, well-known in dynamical systems theory. The bifurcation point has the character of a critical point with the system dynamics exhibiting specific features in its vicinity...
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229852/regulatory-networks-specifying-cortical-interneurons-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells-reveal-roles-for-chd2-in-interneuron-development
#15
Kesavan Meganathan, Emily M A Lewis, Paul Gontarz, Shaopeng Liu, Edouard G Stanley, Andrew G Elefanty, James E Huettner, Bo Zhang, Kristen L Kroll
Cortical interneurons (cINs) modulate excitatory neuronal activity by providing local inhibition. During fetal development, several cIN subtypes derive from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE), a transient ventral telencephalic structure. While altered cIN development contributes to neurodevelopmental disorders, the inaccessibility of human fetal brain tissue during development has hampered efforts to define molecular networks controlling this process. Here, we modified protocols for directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells, obtaining efficient, accelerated production of MGE-like progenitors and MGE-derived cIN subtypes with the expected electrophysiological properties...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229683/mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-endothelial-progenitor-cell-migration-vascularization-and-bone-repair-in-tissue-engineered-constructs-via-activating-cxcr2-src-pkl-vav2-rac1
#16
Zhilin Li, Aijun Yang, Xiaolong Yin, Shiwu Dong, Fei Luo, Ce Dou, Xu Lan, Zhao Xie, Tianyong Hou, Jianzhong Xu, Junchao Xing
Tissue-engineered constructs (TECs) hold great promise for treating large bone defects. Incorporated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can facilitate the vascularization of TECs. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanism remains ambiguous. Here we analyzed the roles of C-X-C chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) and its downstream signal pathways in MSC-induced endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) migration. Transwell assays and immunofluorescence staining were performed for cell migration analysis in vitro and in vivo, respectively...
December 11, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229597/nkx2-2as-suppression-contributes-to-the-pathogenesis-of-sonic-hedgehog-medulloblastoma
#17
Yimeng Zhang, Ting Wang, Shan Wang, Yanlu Xiong, Rui Zhang, Xiang Zhang, Jing Zhao, An-Gang Yang, Lei Wang, Lintao Jia
Aberrant Hedgehog signaling and excessive activation of the Gli family of transcriptional activators are key drivers of medulloblastoma (MB), the most common human pediatric brain malignancy. MB originates mainly from cerebellar granule neuron progenitors (CGNP), but the mechanisms underlying CGNP transformation remain largely obscure. In this study, we found that suppression of the non-coding RNA Nkx2-2as promotes Sonic Hedgehog (Shh)-potentiated MB development. Nkx2-2as functioned as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) against miR-103 and miR-107, sequestering them and thereby de-repressing their tumor suppressive targets BTG2 and LATS1 and impeding cell division and migration...
December 11, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229583/integrative-genomic-analysis-of-coincident-cancer-foci-implicates-ctnnb1-and-pten-alterations-in-ductal-prostate-cancer
#18
Marc Gillard, Justin Lack, Andrea Pontier, Divya Gandla, David Hatcher, Adam G Sowalsky, Jose Rodriguez-Nieves, Donald Vander Griend, Gladell Paner, David VanderWeele
BACKGROUND: Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate is an aggressive subtype, with high rates of biochemical recurrence and overall poor prognosis. It is frequently found coincident with conventional acinar adenocarcinoma. The genomic features driving evolution to its ductal histology and the biology associated with its poor prognosis remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: To characterize genomic features distinguishing ductal adenocarcinoma from coincident acinar adenocarcinoma foci from the same patient...
December 8, 2017: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228732/hoxa9-and-hoxa10-induce-cml-myeloid-blast-crisis-development-through-activation-of-myb-expression
#19
Vijay Negi, Bandana A Vishwakarma, Su Chu, Kevin Oakley, Yufen Han, Ravi Bhatia, Yang Du
Mechanisms underlying the progression of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) from chronic phase to myeloid blast crisis are poorly understood. Our previous studies have suggested that overexpression of SETBP1 can drive this progression by conferring unlimited self-renewal capability to granulocyte macrophage progenitors (GMPs). Here we show that overexpression of Hoxa9 or Hoxa10, both transcriptional targets of Setbp1, is also sufficient to induce self-renewal of primary myeloid progenitors, causing their immortalization in culture...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228630/transplantation-of-ips-cell-derived-neural-progenitors-overexpressing-sdf-1%C3%AE-increases-regeneration-and-functional-recovery-after-ischemic-stroke
#20
Monica Chau, Todd C Deveau, Mingke Song, Zheng Z Wei, Xiaohuan Gu, Shan Ping Yu, Ling Wei
Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of human death and disability while clinical treatments are limited. The adult brain possesses endogenous regenerative activities that may benefit tissue repair after stroke. Trophic factors such as stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha (SDF-1α) are upregulated in the ischemic brain, which promote endogenous regeneration. The regenerative response, however, is normally insufficient. Transplantation of exogenous cells has been explored as regenerative therapies. One promising cell type for transplantation is induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells which are cells genetically reprogrammed from adult somatic cells...
November 14, 2017: Oncotarget
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