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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441528/phosphorylation-of-neurog3-links-endocrine-differentiation-to-the-cell-cycle-in-pancreatic-progenitors
#1
Nicole A J Krentz, Dennis van Hoof, Zhongmei Li, Akie Watanabe, Mei Tang, Cuilan Nian, Michael S German, Francis C Lynn
During pancreatic development, proliferating pancreatic progenitors activate the proendocrine transcription factor neurogenin 3 (NEUROG3), exit the cell cycle, and differentiate into islet cells. The mechanisms that direct robust NEUROG3 expression within a subset of progenitor cells control the size of the endocrine population. Here we demonstrate that NEUROG3 is phosphorylated within the nucleus on serine 183, which catalyzes its hyperphosphorylation and proteosomal degradation. During progression through the progenitor cell cycle, NEUROG3 phosphorylation is driven by the actions of cyclin-dependent kinases 2 and 4/6 at G1/S cell-cycle checkpoint...
April 24, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441409/a-hypomorphic-piga-gene-mutation-causes-severe-defects-in-neuron-development-and-susceptibility-to-complement-mediated-toxicity-in-a-human-ipsc-model
#2
Xuan Yuan, Zhe Li, Andrea C Baines, Eleni Gavriilaki, Zhaohui Ye, Zhexing Wen, Evan M Braunstein, Leslie G Biesecker, Linzhao Cheng, Xinzhong Dong, Robert A Brodsky
Mutations in genes involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor biosynthesis underlie a group of congenital syndromes characterized by severe neurodevelopmental defects. GPI anchored proteins have diverse roles in cell adhesion, signaling, metabolism and complement regulation. Over 30 enzymes are required for GPI anchor biosynthesis and PIGA is involved in the first step of this process. A hypomorphic mutation in the X-linked PIGA gene (c.1234C>T) causes multiple congenital anomalies hypotonia seizure syndrome 2 (MCAHS2), indicating that even partial reduction of GPI anchored proteins dramatically impairs central nervous system development, but the mechanism is unclear...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441086/hematopoietic-to-mesenchymal-transition-of-adipose-tissue-macrophages-is-regulated-by-integrin-%C3%AE-1-and-fabricated-fibrin-matrices
#3
Kathleen M Gavin, Susan M Majka, Wendy M Kohrt, Heidi L Miller, Timothy M Sullivan, Dwight J Klemm
Some bona fide adult adipocytes arise de novo from a bone marrow-derived myeloid lineage. These studies further demonstrate that adipose tissue stroma contains a resident population of myeloid cells capable of adipocyte and multilineage mesenchymal differentiation. These resident myeloid cells lack hematopoietic markers and express mesenchymal and progenitor cell markers. Because bone marrow mesenchymal progenitor cells have not been shown to enter the circulation, we hypothesized that myeloid cells acquire mesenchymal differentiation capacity in adipose tissue...
April 3, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441076/a-novel-neuroprotective-small-molecule-for-glial-cell-derived-neurotrophic-factor-induction-and-photoreceptor-rescue
#4
Petr Baranov, Hong Lin, Kathryn McCabe, David Gale, Shenshen Cai, Burke Lieppman, Dwight Morrow, Phoebe Lei, Justin Liao, Michael Young
PURPOSE: Degenerative diseases of the retina, such as retinitis pigmentosa and age-related macular degeneration, are characterized by the irreversible loss of photoreceptors. Several growth factors, including glial cell derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), have been shown to rescue retinal neurons. An alternative strategy to direct GDNF administration is its induction in host retina by small molecules. Here we studied the ability of a novel small molecule GSK812 to induce GDNF in vitro/in vivo and rescue photoreceptors...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440805/cell-transplantation-therapy-for-spinal-cord-injury
#5
REVIEW
Peggy Assinck, Greg J Duncan, Brett J Hilton, Jason R Plemel, Wolfram Tetzlaff
Spinal cord injury can lead to severe motor, sensory and autonomic dysfunction. Currently, there is no effective treatment for the injured spinal cord. The transplantation of Schwann cells, neural stem cells or progenitor cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, oligodendrocyte precursor cells and mesenchymal stem cells has been investigated as potential therapies for spinal cord injury. However, little is known about the mechanisms through which these individual cell types promote repair and functional improvements...
April 25, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440546/stem-cell-dynamics-in-muscle-regeneration-insights-from-live-imaging-in-different-animal-models
#6
REVIEW
Dhanushika Ratnayake, Peter D Currie
In recent years, live imaging has been adopted to study stem cells in their native environment at cellular resolution. In the skeletal muscle field, this has led to visualising the initial events of muscle repair in mouse, and the entire regenerative response in zebrafish. Here, we review recent discoveries in this field obtained from live imaging studies. Tracking of tissue resident stem cells, the satellite cells, following injury has captured the morphogenetic dynamics of stem/progenitor cells as they facilitate repair...
April 25, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440414/thymosin-%C3%AE-4-promotes-the-survival-and-angiogenesis-of-transplanted-endothelial-progenitor-cells-in-the-infarcted-myocardium
#7
Zhe Quan, Qiang-Li Wang, Pei Zhou, Guo-Dong Wang, Yu-Zhen Tan, Hai-Jie Wang
The survival of transplanted stem cells in ischemic tissue is poor. In the present study, the effects of thymosin β4 (Tβ4) on the survival and angiogenesis of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and improvement in cardiac functions after transplantation of Tβ4-treated EPCs in the infarcted myocardium were investigated. EPCs were isolated from bone marrow of adult male rats and incubated in Endothelial Basal Medium-2. Then the cells were treated with Tβ4 at different concentrations (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 µM), and cells incubated with DMEM were set as controls...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440315/tet2-loss-leads-to-hypermutagenicity-in-haematopoietic-stem-progenitor-cells
#8
Feng Pan, Thomas S Wingo, Zhigang Zhao, Rui Gao, Hideki Makishima, Guangbo Qu, Li Lin, Miao Yu, Janice R Ortega, Jiapeng Wang, Aziz Nazha, Li Chen, Bing Yao, Can Liu, Shi Chen, Ophelia Weeks, Hongyu Ni, Brittany Lynn Phillips, Suming Huang, Jianlong Wang, Chuan He, Guo-Min Li, Tomas Radivoyevitch, Iannis Aifantis, Jaroslaw P Maciejewski, Feng-Chun Yang, Peng Jin, Mingjiang Xu
TET2 is a dioxygenase that catalyses multiple steps of 5-methylcytosine oxidation. Although TET2 mutations frequently occur in various types of haematological malignancies, the mechanism by which they increase risk for these cancers remains poorly understood. Here we show that Tet2(-/-) mice develop spontaneous myeloid, T- and B-cell malignancies after long latencies. Exome sequencing of Tet2(-/-) tumours reveals accumulation of numerous mutations, including Apc, Nf1, Flt3, Cbl, Notch1 and Mll2, which are recurrently deleted/mutated in human haematological malignancies...
April 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440309/glypican-2-levels-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-predict-the-status-of-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#9
S Lugert, T Kremer, R Jagasia, A Herrmann, S Aigner, C Giachino, I Mendez-David, A M Gardier, J P Carralot, H Meistermann, A Augustin, M D Saxe, J Lamerz, G Duran-Pacheco, A Ducret, V Taylor, D J David, C Czech
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a remarkable form of brain plasticity through which new neurons are generated throughout life. Despite its important roles in cognition and emotion and its modulation in various preclinical disease models, the functional importance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in human health has not been revealed because of a lack of tools for monitoring adult neurogenesis in vivo. Therefore, we performed an unbiased proteomics screen to identify novel proteins expressed during neuronal differentiation using a human neural stem cell model, and we identified the proteoglycan Glypican-2 (Gpc2) as a putative secreted marker of immature neurons...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440078/synthetic-route-development-for-the-laboratory-preparation-of-eupalinilide-e
#10
Trevor C Johnson, Matthew R Chin, Dionicio Siegel
Following the discovery that the guaianolide natural product eupalinilide E promotes the expansion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells; the development of a synthetic route to provide laboratory access to the natural product became a priority. Exploration of multiple synthetic routes yielded an approach that has permitted a scalable synthesis of the natural product. Two routes that failed to access eupalinilide E were triaged either as a result of providing an incorrect diastereomer or due to lack of synthetic efficiency...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439878/dissecting-and-modelling-the-emergent-murine-tec-compartment-during-ontogeny
#11
Fabian Brunk, Chloé Michel, Tim Holland-Letz, Alla Slynko, Annette Kopp-Schneider, Bruno Kyewski, Sheena Pinto
The origin of the thymic epithelium, i.e. the cortical (cTEC) and medullary (mTEC) epithelial cells, from bipotent stem cells through TEC progenitors and lineage-specific progeny still remains poorly understood. We sought to obtain an unbiased view of the incipient emergence of TEC subsets by following embryonic TEC development based on co-expression of EpCAM, CD80 and MHC class II (MHCII) on non-hematopoietic (CD45(-) ) thymic stromal cells in wild-type BL6 mice. Using a combination of ex vivo analysis, Re-aggregate Thymic Organ Culture (RTOC) reconstitution assays and mathematical modelling, we traced emergent lineage commitment in murine embryonic TECs...
April 25, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439102/mecp2-regulated-mirnas-control-early-human-neurogenesis-through-differential-effects-on-erk-and-akt-signaling
#12
N Mellios, D A Feldman, S D Sheridan, J P K Ip, S Kwok, S K Amoah, B Rosen, B A Rodriguez, B Crawford, R Swaminathan, S Chou, Y Li, M Ziats, C Ernst, R Jaenisch, S J Haggarty, M Sur
Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked, neurodevelopmental disorder caused primarily by mutations in the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene, which encodes a multifunctional epigenetic regulator with known links to a wide spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders. Although postnatal functions of MeCP2 have been thoroughly investigated, its role in prenatal brain development remains poorly understood. Given the well-established importance of microRNAs (miRNAs) in neurogenesis, we employed isogenic human RTT patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) and MeCP2 short hairpin RNA knockdown approaches to identify novel MeCP2-regulated miRNAs enriched during early human neuronal development...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438991/differentiation-of-v2a-interneurons-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#13
Jessica C Butts, Dylan A McCreedy, Jorge Alexis Martinez-Vargas, Frederico N Mendoza-Camacho, Tracy A Hookway, Casey A Gifford, Praveen Taneja, Linda Noble-Haeusslein, Todd C McDevitt
The spinal cord consists of multiple neuronal cell types that are critical to motor control and arise from distinct progenitor domains in the developing neural tube. Excitatory V2a interneurons in particular are an integral component of central pattern generators that control respiration and locomotion; however, the lack of a robust source of human V2a interneurons limits the ability to molecularly profile these cells and examine their therapeutic potential to treat spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, we report the directed differentiation of CHX10(+) V2a interneurons from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs)...
April 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438857/reduced-competitive-repopulation-capacity-of-multipotential-hematopoietic-stem-cells-in-the-bone-marrow-of-friend-virus-infected-fv2-resistant-mice
#14
Michael W Epperly, Xichen Zhang, Renee Fisher, Wen Hou, Darcy Franicola, Donna Shields, Michael Quickel, Pamela Hankey-Giblin, Hong Wang, Joel S Greenberger
BACKGROUND/AIM: The polycythemia form of Friend leukemia virus (FVP) causes splenomegaly and lethal erythroleukemia in Fv-2(s)-susceptible mouse strains. We sought to determine whether the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) pool was expanded in Fv-2(r)-resistant mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The 120-day bone marrow transplantation competitive repopulation assay was used to determine whether FVP-infected Fv-2(r) C57BL/6 mice demonstrated expansion of the HSC pool compared to the pool of committed hematopoietic progenitor cells in the same marrow assayed in vitro...
May 2017: In Vivo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438836/a-wnt-notch-pax7-signaling-network-supports-tissue-integrity-in-tongue-development
#15
Xiao-Jing Zhu, Xueyan Yuan, Min Wang, Yukun Fang, Yudong Liu, Xiaoyun Zhang, Xueqin Yang, Yan Li, Jianying Li, Feixue Li, Zhong-Min Dai, Mengsheng Qiu, Ze Zhang, Zunyi Zhang
The tongue is one of the major structures involved in human food intake and speech. Tongue malformations such as aglossia, microglossia, and ankyloglossia are congenital birth defects, greatly affecting individuals' quality of life. However, the molecular basis of the tissue-tissue interactions that ensure tissue morphogenesis to form a functional tongue remains largely unknown. Here we show that ShhCre-mediated epithelial deletion of Wntless (Wls), the key regulator for intracellular Wnt trafficking, leads to lingual hypoplasia in mice...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438606/cell-origin-volume-and-arrangement-are-drivers-of-articular-cartilage-formation-morphogenesis-and-response-to-injury-in-mouse-limbs
#16
Rebekah S Decker, Hyo-Bin Um, Nathaniel A Dyment, Naiga Cottingham, Yu Usami, Motomi Enomoto-Iwamoto, Mark S Kronenberg, Peter Maye, David W Rowe, Eiki Koyama, Maurizio Pacifici
Limb synovial joints are composed of distinct tissues, but it is unclear which progenitors produce those tissues and how articular cartilage acquires its functional postnatal organization characterized by chondrocyte columns, zone-specific cell volumes and anisotropic matrix. Using novel Gdf5(CreERT2) (Gdf5-CE), Prg4-CE and Dkk3-CE mice mated to R26-Confetti or single-color reporters, we found that knee joint progenitors produced small non-migratory progenies and distinct local tissues over prenatal and postnatal time...
April 21, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438527/the-baf-brg1-brm-associated-factor-chromatin-remodeling-complex-exhibits-ethanol-sensitivity-in-fetal-neural-progenitor-cells-and-regulates-transcription-at-the-mir-9-2-encoding-gene-locus
#17
Sasha G Burrowes, Nihal A Salem, Alexander M Tseng, Sridevi Balaraman, Marisa R Pinson, Cadianna Garcia, Rajesh C Miranda
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are a leading cause of intellectual disability worldwide. Previous studies have shown that developmental ethanol exposure results in loss of microRNAs (miRNAs), including miR-9, and loss of these miRNAs, in turn, mediates some of ethanol's teratogenic effects in the developing brain. We previously found that ethanol increased methylation at the miR-9-2 encoding gene locus in mouse fetal neural stem cells (NSC), advancing a mechanism for epigenetic silencing of this locus and consequently, miR-9 loss in NSCs...
April 7, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438336/distinct-cis-acting-regions-control-six6-expression-during-eye-field-and-optic-cup-stages-of-eye-formation
#18
Kelley L Ledford, Reyna I Martinez-De Luna, Matthew A Theisen, Karisa D Rawlins, Andrea S Viczian, Michael E Zuber
The eye field transcription factor, Six6, is essential for both the early (specification and proliferative growth) phase of eye formation, as well as for normal retinal progenitor cell differentiation. While genomic regions driving six6 optic cup expression have been described, the sequences controlling eye field and optic vesicle expression are unknown. Two evolutionary conserved regions 5' and a third 3' to the six6 coding region were identified, and together they faithfully replicate the endogenous X. laevis six6 expression pattern...
April 21, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438190/very-small-embryonic-like-stem-cells-vsels-in-adult-mouse-uterine-perimetrium-and-myometrium
#19
Deepa Bhartiya, Kreema James
We have earlier reported the presence of very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) in adult mouse uterus along with slightly bigger progenitors termed endometrial stem cells (EnSCs) and their regulation by ovarian hormones thus demonstrating a crucial role played by them during proliferation, differentiation and remodeling of the endometrium. Present study is a brief communication wherein we have examined the effect of higher dose of estrogen (E, 2 μg/day), progesterone (P, 1 mg/day) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, 5 IU/day for 5 days) specifically on the myometrium and perimetrium surrounding the endometrium in bilaterally ovariectomized mice...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437084/affinity-binding-of-emr2-expressing-cells-by-surface-grafted-chondroitin-sulfate-b
#20
Anouck L S Burzava, Marek Jasieniak, Michaelia P Cockshell, Claudine S Bonder, Frances J Harding, Hans Joerg Griesser, Nicolas H Voelcker
The propensity of glycosaminoglycans to mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions opens the door to capture cells, including circulating blood cells, onto biomaterial substrates. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) -B is of particular interest, since it interacts with the receptor (EGF)-like module-containing mucin-like hormone receptor-like 2 precursor (EMR2) displayed on the surface of leukocytes and endothelial progenitor cells. Herein, CS-B and its isomer CS-A were covalently immobilized onto heptylamine plasma polymer films via three different binding chemistries to develop platform technology for the capture of EMR2 expressing cells onto solid carriers...
April 24, 2017: Biomacromolecules
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