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obesity lung

Diane Lefaudeux, Bertrand De Meulder, Matthew J Loza, Nancy Peffer, Anthony Rowe, Frédéric Baribaud, Aruna T Bansal, Rene Lutter, Ana R Sousa, Julie Corfield, Ioannis Pandis, Per S Bakke, Massimo Caruso, Pascal Chanez, Sven-Erik Dahlén, Louise J Fleming, Stephen J Fowler, Ildiko Horvath, Norbert Krug, Paolo Montuschi, Marek Sanak, Thomas Sandstrom, Dominic E Shaw, Florian Singer, Peter J Sterk, Graham Roberts, Ian M Adcock, Ratko Djukanovic, Charles Auffray, Kian F Chung
BACKGROUND: Asthma is a heterogeneous disease in which there is a differential response to asthma treatments. This heterogeneity needs to be evaluated so that a personalised management approach can be provided. OBJECTIVES: We stratified patients with moderate-to-severe asthma based on clinico-physiological parameters and performed an -omics analysis of sputum. METHODS: Partition-around-medoid clustering was applied to a training set of 266 asthma participants from the European U-BIOPRED adult cohort using 8 pre-specified clinic-physiological variables...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Bryan J Mathis, Taixing Cui
There has been a continued interest in translational research focused on both natural products and manipulation of functional groups on these compounds to create novel derivatives with higher desired activities. Oleanolic acid, a component of traditional Chinese medicine used in hepatitis therapy, was modified by chemical processes to form 2-cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO). This modification increased anti-inflammatory activity significantly and additional functional groups on the CDDO backbone have shown promise in treating conditions ranging from kidney disease to obesity to diabetes...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Britton Trabert, Ronald C Eldridge, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Meredith S Shiels, Troy J Kemp, Chantal Guillemette, Patricia Hartge, Mark E Sherman, Louise A Brinton, Amanda Black, Anil K Chaturvedi, Allan Hildesheim, Sonja I Berndt, Mahboobeh Safaeian, Ligia Pinto, Nicolas Wentzensen
Inflammation is proposed to increase risk of developing endometrial cancer, but few prospective epidemiologic studies have investigated the relationship between circulating inflammation markers and endometrial cancer risk. In a nested case-control study within the PLCO Screening Trial we measured serum levels of 64 inflammation-related biomarkers in 284 incident endometrial cancer cases and 284 matched controls. Using multivariable logistic regression inflammation markers were evaluated individually and combined into a cross-validated inflammation score...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Laszlo Kunos, Zsofia Lazar, Fruzsina Martinovszky, Adam D Tarnoki, David L Tarnoki, Daniel Kovacs, Bianka Forgo, Peter Horvath, Gyorgy Losonczy, Andras Bikov
PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a prevalent disorder, characterised by collapse of the upper airways during sleep. The impact of sleep-disordered breathing on pulmonary function indices is however currently not well described. The aim of the study was to evaluate diurnal change in lung function indices in a cohort of patients with OSA and relate pulmonary function changes to disease severity. METHODS: 42 patients with OSA and 73 healthy control subjects participated in the study...
October 21, 2016: Lung
Joanne Avraam, Rosie Bourke, John A Trinder, Christian L Nicholas, Danny Brazzale, Fergal J O'Donoghue, Peter D Rochford, Amy S Jordan
Respiratory magnetometers are increasingly being used in sleep studies to measure changes in end expiratory lung volume (EELV), including in obese obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. Despite this, the accuracy of magnetometers has not been confirmed in obese patients, nor compared between genders. Thus, we compared spirometer-measured and magnetometer-estimated lung volume and tidal volume changes during voluntary end-expiratory lung volume changes of 1.5L, 1L, and 0.5L above, and 0.5L below, functional respiratory capacity (FRC) in supine normal weight (BMI<25kg/m(2)) and healthy obese (BMI>30kg/m(2)) men and women...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Y Liang, J Wang, C Chang, T Amannisa, Y C Sun, B He, W Z Yao
Objective: To analysis the correlative factors that probably affect serum leptin levels in asthmatic patients. Methods: Seventy-eight patients with asthma and 29 health controls who were admitted into outpatient clinic of Peking University Third Hospital from April 2014 to December 2015 were consecutively enrolled in our study prospectively. Serum leptin level was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sex, body mass index (BMI), onset age of asthma, allergen detection test, induced sputum cell count and classification, lung function test and asthma control level were recorded...
September 27, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Scott P Kelly, Barry I Graubard, Gabriella Andreotti, Naji Younes, Sean D Cleary, Michael B Cook
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that obesity in adulthood is associated with increased risk of "clinically significant" prostate cancer. However, studies of body mass index (BMI) across the adult life course and prostate cancer risks remain limited. METHODS: In a prospective cohort of 69 873 men in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, we examined associations of prediagnostic BMI across the adult life course with risk of incident prostate cancer and fatal prostate cancer (prostate cancer-specific mortality)...
March 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Hao-Wei Teng, Man-Hsin Hung, Li-Ju Chen, Mao-Ju Chang, Feng-Shu Hsieh, Ming-Hsien Tsai, Jui-Wen Huang, Chih-Lung Lin, Hsiang-Wen Tseng, Zong-Keng Kuo, Jeng-Kai Jiang, Shung-Haur Yang, Chung-Wai Shiau, Kuen-Feng Chen
Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is known to promote the pathogenesis of diabetes and obesity by negatively regulating insulin and leptin pathways, but its role associated with colon carcinogenesis is still under debate. In this study, we demonstrated the oncogenic role of PTP1B in promoting colon carcinogenesis and predicting worse clinical outcomes in CRC patients. By co-immunoprecipitation, we showed that PITX1 was a novel substrate of PTP1B. Through direct dephosphorylation at Y160, Y175 and Y179, PTP1B destabilized PITX1, which resulted in downregulation of the PITX1/p120RasGAP axis...
October 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
Dennis Wang, Nhu-An Pham, Jiefei Tong, Shingo Sakashita, Ghassan Allo, Lucia Kim, Naoki Yanagawa, Vibha Raghavan, Yuhong Wei, Christine To, Quang M Trinh, Maud H W Starmans, Michelle A Chan-Seng-Yue, Dianne Chadwick, Lei Li, Chang-Qi Zhu, Ni Liu, Ming Li, Sharon Lee, Vladimir Ignatchenko, Dan Strumpf, Paul Taylor, Nadeem Moghal, Geoffrey Liu, Paul C Boutros, Thomas Kislinger, Melania Pintilie, Igor Jurisica, Frances A Shepherd, John D McPherson, Lakshmi Muthuswamy, Michael F Moran, Ming-Sound Tsao
Availability of lung cancer models that closely mimic human tumors remains a significant gap in cancer research, as tumor cell lines and mouse models may not recapitulate the spectrum of lung cancer heterogeneity seen in patients. We aimed to establish a patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDX) resource from surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Fresh tumor tissue from surgical resection was implanted and grown in the subcutaneous pocket of non-obese severe combined immune deficient (NOD SCID) gamma mice...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Patricia D Freitas, Palmira G Ferreira, Aline G Silva, Rafael Stelmach, Regina M Carvalho-Pinto, Frederico L A Fernandes, Marcio C Mancini, Maria N Sato, Milton A Martins, Celso R F Carvalho
RATIONALE: Clinical control is difficult to achieve in obese patients with asthma. Bariatric surgery has been recommended for weight-loss and to improve asthma control; however, the benefits of nonsurgical interventions have been poorly investigated. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of exercise training in a weight-loss program on asthma control, quality of life, inflammatory biomarkers and lung function. METHODS: Fifty-five obese patients with asthma were randomly assigned to either a weight-loss program + exercise (WL+E group, n=28) or a weight-loss program + sham (WL+S group, n=27) group, where the weight-loss program included nutrition (caloric restriction) and psychological therapies...
July 19, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Berne Eriksson, Helena Backman, Apostolos Bossios, Anders Bjerg, Linnea Hedman, Anne Lindberg, Eva Rönmark, Bo Lundbäck
Low body mass index (BMI) and malnutrition in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with a poor prognosis. The prevalence of underweight, as well as overweight, in severity grades of COPD is sparsely investigated in studies of the general population and the associated patterns of risk factors are not well established. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between severity grades of airflow limitation in COPD, and both underweight and obesity when corrected for possible confounding factors...
July 2016: ERJ Open Research
Keisuke Fujii, Kyle McMillan, Maryam Bostani, Christopher Cagnon, Michael McNitt-Gray
OBJECTIVE: The U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) recently approved the use of low-dose CT for lung cancer screening and described volumetric CT dose index (CTDIvol) requirements. These were based on the National Lung Screening Trial, which used only fixed-tube-current techniques. The aim of this study was to evaluate dose index data from a lung cancer screening program using automatic exposure control (AEC) techniques to ensure compliance with requirements and to correlate dose index values with patient size...
October 11, 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
L John Hoffer, Line Robitaille, Nelda Swinton, Jason Agulnik, Victor Cohen, David Small, Carmela Pepe, Shaun Eintracht
BACKGROUND: Most patients attending cancer clinics have hypovitaminosis D. Correcting or preventing this abnormal condition could mitigate the emotional and physical complications of their disease, but clinical trials of vitamin D therapy in this setting are hindered by the unavailability of safe, effective and practical loading dose regimens. METHODS: In this single arm open-label pharmacokinetic trial, outpatients with advanced lung cancer consumed 20,000 IU vitamin D daily with the largest meal of the day for 14 days followed by 10,000 IU per day for a further 7 days...
October 6, 2016: Nutrition Journal
Hoang Kim Tu Trinh, Ga-Young Ban, Ji-Ho Lee, Hae-Sim Park
Elderly asthma (EA) is regarded as a distinct phenotype of asthma and is associated with age-related changes in airway structure and alterations in lung function and immune responses. EA is difficult to diagnose because of aging and co-morbidities, and overlaps with fixed airway obstructive disease. Novel modalities to differentiate between EA and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are necessary. A multifaceted approach, including clinical history, smoking habits, atopy, and measurement of lung function, is mandatory to differentiate asthma from COPD...
October 6, 2016: Drugs & Aging
Pengcheng Xie, Zhanfang Li, Zhongyi Tian
OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary dysfunction after laparoscopic surgery is commonly seen in the high-risk group of obese patients. To reduce or avoid this complication caused by an improper combination of mechanical ventilation parameters, we conducted the following trial of 3 factors with 3 levels of mechanical ventilation, aimed to obtain the low airway pressure with good ventilator effects. METHODS: Patients were randomly allocated as a sample of cases according to the "30≤weight/height(2)<40" obesity index...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Kuan-Chieh Fang, Yuan-Lung Cheng, Chien-Wei Su, Yuan-Jen Wang, Keng-Hsin Lan, Teh-Ia Huo, Yi-Hsiang Huang, Chi-Jen Chu, Chung-Chi Lin, Ming-Chih Hou, Han-Chieh Lin, Fa-Yauh Lee, Jaw-Ching Wu, Shou-Dong Lee
BACKGROUND: Platelet count (PC) and fatty liver are both associated with metabolic syndrome (MS), obesity, and type 2 diabetes. While PC increases in obesity and type 2 diabetes, the severity of hepatic fibrosis caused by fatty liver reduces PC. We aimed to investigate the correlation of PC and MS in patients with and without fatty liver. METHODS: We enrolled consecutive patients who received health check-ups at Taipei Veterans General Hospital from 2002 to 2009...
September 26, 2016: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
Guo Zhi, Wang Xin, Wang Ying, Xing Guohong, Liu Shuying
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether an "obesity paradox" exists in the respiratory system, especially in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and acute lung injury (ALI). Previous studies have postulated a causal relation between obesity and ARDS/ALI but have lacked power to form a definitive conclusion. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationships between obesity, ARDS/ALIrisk, and mortality. METHODS: A systematic search current to April 2016 was performed in Pubmed, EMBASE, Medline, Cochrane databases to find relevant studies...
2016: PloS One
Ana Paula Limongi Richardelli Veloso, Karla Garcez Cusmanich
Background: Obesity can affect the thorax, diaphragm, and alterations in respiratory function even if the lungs are within normality. The respiratory compliance is very reduced by the increase in fat mass. Aim: To evaluate the effect of the physical therapeutic respiratory exercises on the thoracoabdominal mobility of obese individuals in pre-bariatric surgery. Methods: Cross-sectional and descriptive study, which used the cirtometry (axillary, xiphoid and abdominal) to evaluate the mobility of 74 individuals, 27 men and 47 women, in pre-bariatric surgery, assisted by the team EMAD, after eight weeks of physiotherapy, following a protocol of exercises, reevaluating and compared the measures pre and post intervention...
2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
Mandeep Singh, Nitesh Gupta, Raj Kumar
INTRODUCTION: The study aimed to compare the effect of obesity with and without metabolic syndrome on asthma severity, quality of life, sleep quality, sleep disordered breathing and inflammatory markers as compared to non-obese asthma patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 60 asthma patients recruited for the study were divided equally into non-obese (NOA), obese without metabolic syndrome (OANMS) and obese with metabolic syndrome (OAMS) groups. Study cohorts were assessed for severity of asthma, quality of life and quality of sleep using questionnaires and inflammatory markers (FENO, hs-CRP, IL-5, IL-6 and leptin)...
2016: Pneumonologia i Alergologia Polska
A J Hayes, T W C Lung, A Bauman, K Howard
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Modelling is increasingly being used to predict the epidemiology of obesity progression and its consequences. The aims of this study were: a) to present and validate a model for prediction of obesity among Australian adults and b) to use the model to project the prevalence of obesity and severe obesity by 2025. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Individual level simulation combined with survey estimation techniques to model changing population BMI distribution over time...
September 27, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
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