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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454302/aerobic-exercise-inhibits-obesity-induced-respiratory-phenotype
#1
Jefferson Comin Jonco Aquino-Junior, BreAnne MacKenzie, Ana Roberta Almeida-Oliveira, Ana Carolina Martins, Manoel Carneiro Oliveira-Junior, Auriléa Aparecida Britto, Fernanda Magalhaes Arantes-Costa, Nilsa Regina Damaceno-Rodrigues, Elia Garcia Caldini, Ana Paula Ligeiro de Oliveira, Dioze Guadagnini, Luiz Osorio Leiria, Djalma Rabelo Ricardo, Mario Jose Abdalla Saad, Rodolfo Paula Vieira
PURPOSE: Obesity results in decreased lung function and increased inflammation. Moderate aerobic exercise (AE) reduced lung inflammation and remodeling in a variety of respiratory disease models. Therefore, this study investigated whether AE can attenuate a diet-induced obesity respiratory phenotype; including airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR), remodeling and inflammation. METHODS: Sixty C57Bl/6 male mice were distributed into four groups: control lean (CL), exercise lean (EL), obese (O) and obese exercise (OE) groups (2 sets of 7 and 8 mice per group; n = 15)...
February 14, 2018: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449326/fatty-acid-synthase-mediates-egfr-palmitoylation-in-egfr-mutated-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#2
Azhar Ali, Elena Levantini, Jun Ting Teo, Julian Goggi, John G Clohessy, Chan Shuo Wu, Leilei Chen, Henry Yang, Indira Krishnan, Olivier Kocher, Junyan Zhang, Ross A Soo, Kishore Bhakoo, Tan Min Chin, Daniel G Tenen
Metabolic reprogramming is widely known as a hallmark of cancer cells to allow adaptation of cells to sustain survival signals. In this report, we describe a novel oncogenic signaling pathway exclusively acting in mutated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with acquired tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance. Mutated EGFR mediates TKI resistance through regulation of the fatty acid synthase (FASN), which produces 16-C saturated fatty acid palmitate. Our work shows that the persistent signaling by mutated EGFR in TKI-resistant tumor cells relies on EGFR palmitoylation and can be targeted by Orlistat, an FDA-approved anti-obesity drug...
February 15, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446981/diet-pattern-and-respiratory-morbidity-in-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study
#3
Emily P Brigham, Lyn M Steffen, Stephanie J London, Danielle Boyce, Gregory B Diette, Nadia N Hansel, Jessica Rice, Meredith C McCormack
RATIONALE: Dietary intake is a potential risk factor for respiratory morbidity in adult populations. Few studies capture the effect of diet patterns, representative of combination of nutrients consumed, on respiratory morbidity in combination with objective measures of lung function. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate patterns of dietary intake in relation to respiratory morbidity and objective measures of lung function in a U.S. POPULATION: <AbstractText Label="METHODS" NlmCategory="METHODS">The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study enrolled 15,792 participants from four U...
February 15, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445341/celastrol-alleviates-airway-hyperresponsiveness-and-inhibits-th17-responses-in-obese-asthmatic-mice
#4
Zeyu Zeng, Xixi Lin, Rongying Zheng, Hui Zhang, Weixi Zhang
Severe airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is a clinical feature of asthma, which has been associated with obesity and has shown a poor response to standard asthma treatments such as glucocorticoids. Numerous studies have shown that Interleukin (IL)-17 producing CD4 + T cells (Th17 cells), which could be inhibited by celastrol, is essential in mediating steroid-resistant AHR. The following study investigates the impact of celastrol and its mechanism on the regulation of AHR in murine model of obesity and asthma...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432712/expiratory-flow-limitation-during-mechanical-ventilation
#5
REVIEW
Detajin Junhasavasdikul, Irene Telias, Domenico Luca Grieco, Lu Chen, Cinta Millan Gutierrez, Thomas Piraino, Laurent Brochard
Expiratory flow limitation (EFL) is present when the flow cannot rise despite an increase of the expiratory driving pressure. The mechanisms of EFL are debated but are thought to be related to the collapsibility of small airways. In mechanically ventilated patients, EFL can exist during tidal ventilation, representing an extreme situation where lung volume cannot decrease whatever the expiratory driving forces. It is a key factor for the generation of auto- or intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (auto-PEEP or PEEPi) and requires specific management such as positioning and adjustment of external PEEP...
February 9, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428438/no-obesity-paradox-in-pediatric-patients-with-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#6
Chesney D Castleberry, John L Jefferies, Ling Shi, James D Wilkinson, Jeffrey A Towbin, Ryan W Harrison, Joseph W Rossano, Elfriede Pahl, Teresa M Lee, Linda J Addonizio, Melanie D Everitt, Justin Godown, Joseph Mahgerefteh, Paolo Rusconi, Charles E Canter, Steven D Colan, Paul F Kantor, Hiedy Razoky, Steven E Lipshultz, Tracie L Miller
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the role of nutrition in pediatric dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). BACKGROUND: In adults with DCM, malnutrition is associated with mortality, whereas obesity is associated with survival. METHODS: The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry was used to identify patients with DCM and categorized by anthropometric measurements: malnourished (MN) (body mass index [BMI] <5% for ≥2 years or weight-for-length <5% for <2 years), obesity (BMI >95% for age ≥2 years or weight-for-length >95% for <2 years), or normal bodyweight (NB)...
February 1, 2018: JACC. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425818/dna-methylation-of-the-klf14-gene-region-on-whole-blood-provide-prediction-for-the-chronic-inflammation-at-the-adipose-tissue
#7
Chihiro Iwaya, Hidetoshi Kitajima, Ken Yamamoto, Yasutaka Maeda, Noriyuki Sonoda, Hiroki Shibata, Toyoshi Inoguchi
Krüppel-Like Factor 14 (KLF14) gene, which appears to be a master regulator of gene expression on the adipose tissue and have previously been associated with BMI and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) by large GWAS studies. In order to find predictive biomarkers for the development of T2D, it is necessary to take into account changes in the epigenome affected by environmental factors. This study focused on aging and obesity, which are T2D risk factor, and examines epigenetic changes and inflammatory changes. Thus we investigated DNA methylation change at Klf14 promoter region of different organs using mice for comparing aging and weight...
February 6, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422824/the-relationship-between-body-mass-index-and-increased-airway-reactivity-based-on-methacholine-challenge-test-results
#8
Maryam Haddadzadeh Shoshtari, Hossein Tahmasbian Malayeri, Hadi Shahrad Bejestani
Introduction: According to the reports of the United States National Bureau of Statistics regarding the prevalence of obesity among adults and children and also asthma outbreak, the relationship between asthma and obesity in developed countries is taken into consideration. Aim: Relationship between body mass index and increased airway reactivity based on methacholine challenge test results. Material and methods: It was a retrospective cross-sectional study done on 256 patients who were referred to the lung clinic of the Imam Khomeini Hospital of Ahvaz with symptoms of hypersensitivity of the airways...
December 2017: Postȩpy Dermatologii i Alergologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420086/a-review-of-obesity-and-asthma-across-the-life-span
#9
Faiza Khalid, Fernando Holguin
OBJECTIVE: This literature review aims to compare obese-asthmatic adults and children, and to characterize differences and similarities between the two subgroups from epidemiological, demographical, phenotypical, and physiological perspectives. METHODS: Literature search was conducted using Pubmed database with "obesity," "asthma," "epidemiology," "cluster analysis," "demography," "mechanics," and ''FeNO'' as search terms. METHODS: Articles investigating epidemiological, demographic, phenotypical variation, and mechanical aspects of breathing specifically in obese asthmatics were identified...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417293/enhancing-evaluation-of-sarcopenia-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc-by-assessing-skeletal-muscle-index-smi-at-the-first-lumbar-l1-level-on-routine-chest-computed-tomography-ct
#10
Alejandro Recio-Boiles, Jose N Galeas, Bernard Goldwasser, Karla Sanchez, Louise M W Man, Ryan D Gentzler, Jane Gildersleeve, Patricia J Hollen, Richard J Gralla
PURPOSE: Ongoing cancer cachexia trials evaluate sarcopenia by skeletal muscle index (SMI) at the L3 vertebrae level, commonly used as a standard. Routine chest CT institutional protocols widely differ in including L3. We investigated whether SMI at L1 assessment, rather than L3, would be reliable and more practicable for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: NSCLC patients with routine CT chest had SMI measurements performed at L1 using Slice-O-Matic software...
February 7, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414651/high-fat-diet-induces-airway-hyperresponsiveness-partly-through-activating-cd38-signaling-pathway
#11
Lei Chong, Weixi Zhang, Gang Yu, Hailin Zhang, Lili Zhu, Haiyan Li, Youyou Shao, Changchong Li
CD38 is a plasma membrane bound multifunctional enzyme. It can be activated by inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-13, inducing calcium responses to agonist in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC). Previous studies have found that high-fat-diet (HFD) induced obesity exhibited innate airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). This study aimed to detect the effect of CD38 signaling pathway on the AHR of overweight/obese mice. The HFD-fed mice exhibited a significantly higher baseline airway resistance (Rn), and the increasing rates of Rn responded to increasing doses of methacholine compared with the LFD-fed mice...
February 1, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414638/obesity-surgery-and-risk-of-colorectal-and-other-obesity-related-cancers-an-english-population-based-cohort-study
#12
Ariadni Aravani, Amy Downing, James D Thomas, Jesper Lagergren, Eva J A Morris, Mark A Hull
BACKGROUND: The association between obesity surgery (OS) and cancer risk remains unclear. We investigated this association across the English National Health Service. A population-based Swedish study has previously suggested that OS may increase the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: A retrospective observational study of individuals who underwent OS (surgery cohort) or diagnosed with obesity, but had no OS (no-surgery cohort) (1997-2013) were identified using Hospital Episode Statistics...
February 1, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414191/a-glance-at-the-therapeutic-potential-of-irisin-against-diseases-involving-inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-an-introductory-review
#13
REVIEW
Hassan Askari, Sulail Fatima Rajani, Mansour Poorebrahim, Hamed Haghi-Aminjan, Ehsan Raeis-Abdollahi, Mohammad Abdollahi
Irisin is a hormone-like molecule mainly released by skeletal muscles in response to exercise. Irisin induces browning of the white adipose tissue and has been shown to regulate glucose and lipid homeostasis. Keeping its energy expenditure and metabolic properties in view, numerous studies have focused on its therapeutic potential for the treatment of metabolic disorders like obesity and type 2 diabetes. Recently, the anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative properties of irisin have received a great deal of attention of the scientific society...
January 29, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412816/tissue-expression-of-dpp-iv-in-obesity-diabetes-and-modulatory-effects-on-peptide-regulation-of-insulin-secretion
#14
Aine M McKillop, Claire L Stevenson, Brian M Moran, Yasser H A Abdel-Wahab, Peter R Flatt
Dipeptidyl peptidase type 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors represent an important class of glucose-lowering drug for type 2 diabetes. DPP-4 enzyme activity has been observed to be significantly altered in type 2 diabetes. Here, the role of DPP-4 was examined in a high fat fed (HFF) mouse model of insulin resistance. HFF mice had an increased bodyweight (p < .01), were hyperglycaemic (p < .01) and hyperinsulinaemic (p < .05). Compared to normal diet, HFF mice exhibited increased plasma DPP-4 activity (p < .01)...
February 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409496/gold-nanoparticles-improve-metabolic-profile-of-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#15
Hui Chen, Jane P M Ng, Yi Tan, Kristine McGrath, David P Bishop, Brian Oliver, Yik Lung Chan, Michael B Cortie, Bruce K Milthorpe, Stella M Valenzuela
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a high risk for multiple metabolic disorders due to excessive influx of energy, glucose and lipid, often from a western based diet. Low-grade inflammation plays a key role in the progression of such metabolic disorders. The anti-inflammatory property of gold compounds has been used in treating rheumatoid arthritis in the clinic. Previously we found that pure gold nanoparticles (AuNPs, 21 nm) also possess anti-inflammatory effects on the retroperitoneal fat tissue following intraperitoneal injection, by downregulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408186/physical-activity-correlates-in-people-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-findings-from-six-low-and-middle-income-countries
#16
D Vancampfort, E Lara, B Stubbs, N Swinnen, M Probst, A Koyanagi
OBJECTIVES: Despite promising research showing that physical activity (PA) might improve cognitive functioning in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), people with MCI are less physically active compared with the general population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess PA correlates among community-dwelling older people with MCI in six low- and middle-income countries. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data from the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health were analysed...
February 1, 2018: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399756/cardiovascular-risk-assessment-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-and-lung-function-parameters
#17
Maciej Polak, Agnieszka Doryńska, Krystyna Szafraniec, Andrzej Pająk
BACKGROUND: Decreased lung function is related to higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality. However, little is known about the relationship between the risk factors of CVD and pulmonary function. AIM: To assess the relationship between the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, the total CVD risk and pulmonary function. METHODS: The analysis included 4,104 men and women in the age range of 45-69 years, participants of the Polish part of the HAPIEE Project (Health,Alcohol andPsychosocial factorsInEasternEurope), who provided valid measurements of 1s forced expiratory volume (FEV₁) and forced vital capacity (FVC) using Micro-Medical Microplus spirometer...
February 5, 2018: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398139/cardiomyocyte-specific-deletion-of-gsk-3%C3%AE-leads-to-cardiac-dysfunction-in-a-diet-induced-obesity-model
#18
Manisha Gupte, Samvruta Tumuluru, Jennifer Y Sui, Anand Prakash Singh, Prachi Umbarkar, Shan S Parikh, Firdos Ahmad, Qinkun Zhang, Thomas Force, Hind Lal
BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: Obesity, an independent risk factor for the development of myocardial diseases is a growing healthcare problem worldwide. It's well established that GSK-3β is critical to cardiac pathophysiology. However, the role cardiomyocyte (CM) GSK-3β in diet-induced cardiac dysfunction is unknown. METHODS: CM-specific GSK-3β knockout (CM-GSK-3β-KO) and littermate controls (WT) mice were fed either a control diet (CD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 55weeks...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387406/lung-cancer-patients-with-synchronous-colon-cancer
#19
Koich Kurishima, Kunihiko Miyazaki, Hiroko Watanabe, Toshihiro Shiozawa, Hiroichi Ishikawa, Hiroaki Satoh, Nobuyuki Hizawa
Lung and colon cancers are two of the most common malignancies, which, in some cases, may develop synchronously. In the present study, the treatment and outcome of patients with synchronous lung and colon cancers were reviewed. During a 76-month study period, from April 2009 up to July 2016, 17 (0.54%) of 3,102 patients with lung cancer were diagnosed with colon cancer within 1 month. Heavy smoking and obesity were not specific factors in these patients. A total of 9 patients succumbed to lung cancer during the study period...
January 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382799/body-mass-index-status-and-peripheral-airway-obstruction-in-school-age-children-a-population-based-cohort-study
#20
Sandra Ekström, Jenny Hallberg, Inger Kull, Jennifer L P Protudjer, Per Thunqvist, Matteo Bottai, Per Magnus Gustafsson, Anna Bergström, Erik Melén
BACKGROUND: Few large prospective studies have investigated the impact of body mass index (BMI) on lung function during childhood. METHODS: Using data collected between 2002 and 2013, we analysed associations between BMI status and lung function (assessed by spirometry) from 8 to 16 years, as well as cross-sectional associations with small airway function (impulse oscillometry) at 16 years in the BAMSE cohort (n=2889). At 16 years, cross-sectional associations with local and systemic inflammation were investigated by analysing FENO, blood eosinophils and neutrophils...
January 29, 2018: Thorax
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